Technical Paper 102

Issue/Rev. 0.0 (2/89) Bulletin TP0A011
High-Capacity Liquid
Measurement Systems
The Most Trusted Name In Measurement
Introduction
Since the late 1960’s there has been a trend by many oil
companies and contract engineering companies toward
purchasing complete pre-tested metering and control
systems as opposed to purchasing individual measure-
ment equipment. This trend has come about because of
their desire to work with a single supplier who has ex-
pertise in flow measurement and control and can pro-
vide a complete, pre-tested system, rather than working
directly with 50 to 100 individual component vendors.
A typical pre-packaged, pre-tested, high-capacity flow
control and measurement system is shown in Figure 1.
This system includes positive displacement flow meters,
strainers, flow control valves, block and bleed shut-off
valves, bidirectional meter provers, and remote instru-
ment console; all pre-assembled on skid frames with
electrical conduit, electrohydraulic power supply, sam-
pler system, pipe, fittings, and manifolding. This particu-
lar system is designed to measure and control the flow
of crude oil loading tankers from a single buoy mooring
point.
Meter Type
High-capacity measurement systems may incorporate
either positive displacement or turbine-type flow meters.
The positive displacement meter has been used exten-
sively for worldwide custody transfer of crude oil and
refined petroleum products for over thirty years.
In the late 1950’s, turbine meters began to be success-
fully used in the measurement of petroleum distillates.
Their success has been extended in recent years to
high-capacity crude oil measurement applications where
viscosities are relatively low and temperatures are rela-
tively stable between meter provings. Turbine meters
offer higher flow rates, reduced size, weight, and/or cost
savings as compared to large positive displacement
meters.
In determining if a turbine meter system can be used for
a given application, there are many variables to con-
sider; the most important being product viscosity. Figure
2 is a rough general guideline illustrating the viscosity
limitations of turbine meters. Note that the viscosity
range increases with meter size. Of course, there are
several other factors to be considered in choosing a tur-
bine meter system, such as product temperature (and,
thus, viscosity) variations, flow range accuracy required,
etc. For a more complete discussion of this subject, see
Acknowledgment.
Figure 1
Figure 2
Issue/Rev. 0.0 (2/89) Page 2 • TP0A011
Pre-Packaged System Advantages
The advantages of purchasing a complete pre-packaged
metering system in lieu of individual components, is sum-
marized as follows:
Single Source Responsibility
If problems develop in a complete system, the purchaser
has only one party to contact for assistance. However, if
individual components are purchased, the purchaser most
likely will need the services of several vendors to deter-
mine and correct any problems that develop.
Field Construction
A system is shipped either as a single unit or as several
sub units (see Figure 3). Therefore, upon arrival at job
site, field erection work is considerably minimized. In
many cases, it is necessary to connect only the inlet and
outlet piping and reconnect the wiring between the me-
tering system and the remote console to make the com-
plete system operational.
Commissioning
Before shipment is made, a system is completely tested.
The purchaser is therefore assured that once the sys-
tem is at the job site, all components will be properly
installed and all major problems have been eliminated.
The system manufacturers have available at their plant
site immediate assistance from the sub-vendors for any
problems that develop in manufacturing or testing. How-
ever, with individual component purchase where the job
site, in many cases, is thousands of miles away from the
many vendors, any help required is very costly and time
consuming. It is not uncommon with individual compo-
nent purchases for the commissioning to last six months
or longer, while most pre-packaged metering systems
are commissioned within a few weeks.
Equipment Compatibility
When individual component procurement is the method
selected, designing, engineering, purchasing, and assem-
bling of a meter station frequently takes place at different
locations, separated by miles or even oceans. Because
of this separation, it is very easy for errors to take place
in sizing, accessories, model numbers, descriptions, and
functions. These errors are minimized by the system
manufacturer because of the experience gained in sup-
plying many similar systems. The system manufacturer’s
customer is protected from these errors by the single
source responsibility offered by the system manufac-
turer.
Cost
Total cost of the purchased metering system is substan-
tially less than component purchase and assembly. This
is determined by analyzing the following areas:
Engineering
The system price includes all engineering, documen-
tation, and material requisition.
Purchasing
There is less purchasing cost involved in evaluating,
purchasing, and expediting a complete system;
whereas, with individual component purchase where
the number of component vendors is numerous, these
costs can be quite high.
Fabrication
A metering system can often be fabricated indoors
where weather has no effect; however, in field fabri-
cation, all types of weather conditions do exist caus-
ing delays and additional costs.
Labor costs are less in the United States indoors than
labor cost at job site, especially when compared to
offshore fabrication.
The system manufacturer’s plant, tools, and trained
labor force was developed and trained strictly for sys-
tem manufacture. At the job site, the construction
crew often has never seen a metering station, and
further, they must make do with the tools and equip-
ment on hand.
Figure 3
Issue/Rev. 0.0 (2/89) TP0A011 • Page 3
Shipping Costs
The costs involved in shipping a complete system
are less than the cost of individual component pur-
chase. In purchasing individual components, there
are high costs involved with the many Bills of Lading,
export documentation, and freight forwarders involved
(see Figure 4).
Operating Costs
The costs involved in power consumption and pump
size, if pressure loss is not kept at a minimum, can be
very expensive. The system manufacturers, with their
developed knowledge of pressure loss problem ar-
eas, are able to size meters, valves, and piping for
minimum pressure loss. Many times, special piping
entrances and exits are designed that require special
tooling and welding machines to keep the pressure
loss to a minimum.
Real Estate Cost
The cost of real estate at job site, and in particular,
offshore, can be of extreme importance. The system
manufacturer for many reasons has become an ex-
pert in the art of arranging equipment in a very com-
pact configuration for pre-packaged metering systems.
The system manufacturer, however, is very conscious
of the need to inspect and maintain all components of
the system so he ensures that there are adequate
accessible areas and entrances to equipment. This
compact arrangement also gives an additional sav-
ings in lower shipping costs.
Relocation
If, after a period of time, the original application of a
metering station no longer exists, a complete metering
system can be shipped to a new location much more
conveniently. With individual components, although some
items may be reused, many items are unsalvageable or
too costly to salvage.
Design Expertise and Experience
Although there are many reasons which justify the pur-
chase of a complete metering system, this is one of the
most important. A system manufacturer gains extremely
valuable design knowledge of metering applications due
to constant exposure to many varied and complex mea-
surement system problems. Through solution of these
problems, he has built up a vast knowledge of informa-
tion which can be an advantage to the purchaser. Expe-
rience has shown that the systems manufacturer can
invariably offer design inputs which will provide a more
up-to-date, less costly, and better performing metering
system (See Appendix for Comparative Study.) Also,
since the system manufacturer is producing metering
systems on a daily basis, his work force is experienced
in producing this type of equipment with maximum effi-
ciency. Due to the experience gained in designing, pro-
curing, and fabricating this type of equipment, the result-
ant manhours to produce a given system are normally
much less than would be required if the system is fabri-
cated onsite.
Conclusion
With the many advantages which are gained in purchas-
ing a complete metering system in lieu of individual
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Issue/Rev. 0.0 (2/89) Page 4 • TP0A011
component purchasing, it is very apparent that the trend
started in the late 1960’s of purchasing complete meter-
ing stations will continue and grow. Presented in Figure
5 is an economic comparison between a typical meter-
ing system purchase and individual component purchase.
Figure 6 illustrates real, but somewhat subjective, addi-
tional economic advantages received when purchasing
a complete pretested metering system.
Appendix
Comparative Study of Different Size Meters Incorporated
into a Typical Pre-packaged Measurement System.
Customer-Supplied Data
Flow Rate 189,000 barrels per hour, receiving and
delivering through two separate berths
at a maximum flow of 94,500 bph
Product Crude oil at 150 SSU viscosity at flow
temperature of 75°F
Linearity Over 8:1 flow range, +0.15%
Pressure Maximum 255 psig
Location Offshore (note space at premium)
Pressure Loss Maximum of 36 psi from inlet to outlet
of metering system including the meter
prover
System Manufacturer Design Calculations
Meter Data
Comparison Summary
It is very apparent from the above calculations, that the
20" turbine system is least desirable. The only advan-
tage the 20" system has over the other systems is pres-
sure drop; in all the other areas of evaluation, it rates
last. The 18" system rates last in pressure drop and
second in all other areas. The pricing between the 16"
and 18" systems is very close. However, without a
standby meter and with one meter run shut down for
service, the 18" meter system cannot handle the maxi-
mum system flow rate. Both the 16" and 20" systems
have the intermittent range to handle this condition. If
we take into consideration the space requirements of
the 18" system, especially in regards to ocean freight,
then the difference between the 16" and 18" systems
becomes greater. Therefore, we conclude the 16" sys-
tem is more desirable for the mentioned conditions. The
pressure drop, where the 16" system rated second, is
8.6 psi more than the 20" system, but well within the
customer’s specification range.
A standby meter run has many advantages in a com-
plete system. The meters can be proven with the prover
at the operating conditions. However, if a meter run is
down in a system without a standby, the other meter
runs may have the intermittent range to cover for this
meter, but the prover does not. A system with a standby
meter will last in service longer because the meters are
performing at their most desirable ranges. Therefore, a
standby meter incorporated into the 16" system would
offer the very best design for the system conditions.
The completed pre-packaged measurement system, with
nine 16" turbine meter runs (four per berth plus one
standby) is shown in Figure 7.
Acknowledgment
“Turbine Meters for Liquid Measurement” by P. D. Baker,
1975 Proceedings of the Fiftieth International School of
Hydrocarbon Measurement.
Figure 7
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in effect. Otherwise, the manufacturer assumes no responsibility for the use of specifications which may have been changed and are no longer in effect.
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