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Functions

Constant Function:

Rule: y = c

c = constant number

y

NOT A FUNCTION:

y

Linear Function:

Rule: y = ax

Partial Variation

Rule: y = ax + b

37

Mathematics 334 Designed by Peter Nield Notes by Katherine Daignault

Westwood High School Grade 9 Student

X: independent variable

Y: dependent variable

“y depends on x”

a: rate of change/slope

b: “y” intersect/initial value

STEPS:

1. Find independent & dependent variable.

2. Make a table of values (don’t forget to label).

3. Fill in the table with numbers.

4. Plot the coordinates on the graph (label the graph).

5. Find the rule.

EX. 1:

You make $10.00 an hour. Find the relation between paycheck

and the number of hours you have worked.

y: paycheck

Paycheck

x 1 2 3 4 5 6

Y 10 20 30 40 50 60

Y: paycheck

60

40

20

2 4 6

x: number of hours

Direct Variation

y = ax

y = 10 x

38

Mathematics 334 Designed by Peter Nield Notes by Katherine Daignault

Westwood High School Grade 9 Student

EX. 2:

$8.00 an hour, $15.00 for coming to work.

x: number of hours

y: paycheck

Paycheck

x 0 1 2 3

y $15.00 $23.00 $31.00 $39.00

y: paycheck

40

30

20

10

2 4 6

x: number of hours worked

Partial Variation

y = ax + b

y = 8 x + 15

EX. 3:

You have $150.00 in your pocket. You lose $10.00 every time

you don’t clean your room. Find a relation.

y: money in your pocket

Money in pocket

x 0 1 2

y $150.00 $140.00 $130.00

y: money in pocket

150

140

130

120

1 2 3

x: number of times you don’t clean your room.

39

Mathematics 334 Designed by Peter Nield Notes by Katherine Daignault

Westwood High School Grade 9 Student

Partial Variation (decreasing)

y = ax + b

y = −10 x + 150

y = ax + b

0 = −10 x + 150

− 150 − 10 x

=

− 10 − 10

15 = x

You will have no money left when you don’t clean your room

15 times.

y = ax + b

a is +

Partial Variation (decreasing)

y = ax + b

a is −

Partial Variation (increasing)

y = ax + b

b is −

a: rate of change

40

Mathematics 334 Designed by Peter Nield Notes by Katherine Daignault

Westwood High School Grade 9 Student

change in y rise y 2 − y1

= = =

change in x run x 2 − x1

y 2 − y1 7 − 3 4

a= = =

x 2 − x1 5 − 2 3

EX. 2:

(0, 3)

(-4, 0)

y = ax + b

b=s

y − y1 0−3 −3 3

a= 2 = = =

x 2 − x1 − 4 − 0 − 4 4

3

y= x+3

4

EX. 3:

(0, 5)

(3, 2)

−3

Rule: a = = −1

3

y = −x + 5

41

Mathematics 334 Designed by Peter Nield Notes by Katherine Daignault

Westwood High School Grade 9 Student

EX. 4:

In 1990 – 1995, the cost of a shampoo set changed from

$17.00 to $25.00. Find the rule.

x: number of years

y: cost of shampoo set

y − y1 25 − 17 8

a= 2 = =

x 2 − x1 1995 − 1990 5

Standard Form: y = ax + b

x y

Symmetric Form: + = 1

a b

General Form (NO FRACTIONS!!!): Ax + By + C = 0

EX. 1:

Change to general form and to symmetric form.

y = 2x + 4

standard form to general form

0 = − y + 2x + 4

42

Mathematics 334 Designed by Peter Nield Notes by Katherine Daignault

Westwood High School Grade 9 Student

y − 2x 4

=

4 4 general form to symmetric form

y x

+ =1

4 −2

EX. 2:

Get rid of the fraction in general form.

x

+ y+2=0

2

2x

+ 2y + 4 = 0

2

x + 2y + 4 = 0

EX. 3:

Get rid of the fractions in general form.

x y

+ +3= 0

3 2

⎛x y ⎞

6⎜ + + 3 = 0 ⎟

⎝3 2 ⎠

2 x + 3 y + 18 = 0

EX. 4:

Change to symmetric form.

x + 2y + 4 = 0

x + 2y − 4

=

−4 −4

x y

+ =1

−4 −2

43

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