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TRANVERSE SHEAR

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Shear in Straight Members


The Shear Formula
Shear Stresses in Beams
Shear Flow in Built-up Members

Shear in Straight Members


ave

VB

= f(

V = dA = ( ave ) A
V
ave = dA =
A

My
I

V
)
A

max

1
MB +V

max

A
VB = V
VA= V

1
Shear Stress 3D

+M
MB

MA = MB +Vd
1
Shear Stress 2D

The Shear Stress Formula: Assumptions

Linear elastic
Plane section remains plane

Boards not bonded together

Before deformation

Boards bonded together


After deformation

The Shear Stress Formula


w
F1

F2
x

M1

M2

A'

M+M

dA '

t
x

y'

NA

V+V

A'

M+M

dA '
y'

t
x

V+V

A'

V
M

NA

'

dA '

M+M
t

y'

NA

V+V

A'

dF
M

'

dA '

dF
M+M
t

y'

NA

x
+ F = 0:
x

dA ' dA + ( t x ) = 0

A'

My
A ' I dA

My
A ' I dA

(M + M ) y
dA + ( t x ) = 0
A '
I

My
A ' I dA

x 0;

A'

(M ) y
A ' I dA + ( t x ) = 0 (1)

1
t (x)

(M )
( M ) y
dA
=
A ' I
It ( x )

V
( dM )
=
It ( dx )

ydA
A'

y ' A' = Q

ydA

A'

VQ
It

Shear Stress in Beam


Rectangular Cross Section
A'

h/2
V

y'
NA

h/2
b

I =(

=
NA

max

VQ
It

1
) bh 3
12

V ( y ' A')
It

V ( y ' A')
1
( ) bh 3 b
12

= max at the neutral axis, y = 0:


h
A' = b( )
2

h/2
V

h
y'= ( )
4

NA

h
h/2

b
I =(

max
b
Shear-stress distribution

max

1
) bh 3
12

VQ maz
V ( y ' A')
=
It
It

h
h
V ( )( b )
4
2
=
1
( ) bh 3 b
12

max

= 1 .5

V
A

=(

12 V
)
8 bh

Wide-Flange Beam
flange

web

flange

tw

neck
max

NA

flange

neck

T- Beam
b

flange
web

flange
tw

NA

neck
max

Example 1a
The beam shown is made of wood, determine the shear stress in the beam
at point P and compute the maximum shear stress in the beam. Plot the
shear-stress distribution acting over the beams cross-sectional area.

20 kN
40 kNm

250 mm

5 kN/m
50 mm

P
300 mm

4m

6m

10

20 kN

Maximum Stress
40 kNm

25 kN

4m

V(kN) 25

5 kN/m

25 kN

6m
25

x (m)
-25

250 mm

V = 25 kN

50 mm
P

125 mm

NA

P = 278 kPa
max= 500 kPa

150 mm
1
( 0 . 25 )( 0 . 3) 3
12
= 562 . 5 10 6 m 4

I =

P =

VQ ( 25 kN)[( 0 . 125 m )( 0 . 05 m 0 . 25 m )]
= 278 kPa
=
It
(562 . 5 10 6 m 4 )( 0 . 25 m )

max

25 10 3 N
V
= 500 kPa
= 1.5 = 1.5
( 0 . 25 m 0 . 30 m )
A

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Example 1b
The simply supported beam has the cross-sectional area shown. Determine
the shear flow in the beam at point P.

20 kN
40 kNm

250 mm

5 kN/m
50 mm

P
300 mm

4m

6m

12

20 kN

Maximum Stress
40 kNm

5 kN/m

50 mm

250 mm
P

1m

25 kN

4m

V(kN) 25

1
( 0 . 25 )( 0 . 3) 3
12
= 562 . 5 10 6 m 4

I =

60

M(kNm)

25 kN

6m
25

300 mm

x (m)
-25

62.5

35
x (m)

-40

35 10 ( 0 . 15 )
= 9 . 333 MPa
6
562 . 5 10
3

6.222 MPa

100 m

35 kNm

L 150 mm R

1m

My
I

60 kNm

60 10 3 ( 0 . 15 )
= 16 MPa
562 . 5 10 6
10.67 MPa
100 m
NA

13

250 mm

9.333 MPa
50 mm 6.222 MPa
35 kNm
L
100 mm
100 m

16 MPa
10.67 MPa
60 kNm
150 m R
100 m
NA

150 mm
1m
FL
FL = 97 . 19 kN

FR
Fs

FR = 166.7 kN

- Force FL on area AL

- Force FR on area AR

FL = dA

FR = dA

AL

AR

= ( ave ) AL

= ( ave ) AR

(9.33 + 6.22) 106


=[
](0.25 0.05)
2

(16 + 10.67) 106


=[
](0.25 0.05)
2

FL = 97 . 19 kN

FR = 166 . 7 kN

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250 mm
P

9.333 MPa
50 mm 6.222 MPa
35 kNm
100 mm
100 m
150 mm

16 MPa
10.67 MPa
60 kNm
100 m
NA

1
1
L

R
1m

FL = 97.19 kN

FR = 166.7 kN
Fs = 166.7 - 97.19 = 69.48 kN

FL = 97.19 kN

6.22 MPa
0.28 MPa

FR = 166.7 kN

= Fs/As

1m

0.25 m

6.22 MPa
0.28 MPa

Fs
69 . 48 10 3 N
=
=
As
( 0 . 25 m )(1 m )
= 278 kPa

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Example 2
A steel wide-flange beam has the dimensions shown. Plot the shear-stress
distribution acting over the beams cross-sectional area.
250 mm

600 N

200 N/m

B
20 mm

2m

20 mm
150 mm
150 mm
20 mm

2m

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Section property

Internal Shear
600 N

400 N

200 N/m

600 N

2m

2m

250 mm

B
NA

20 mm

V (N)
400

600 N

-200

NA

150 mm
20 mm

I = ( I + Ad 2 )

B
B

20 mm
150 mm

-600

B
max = C

2
= ( I + Ad 2 )web + 2 ( I + Ad )flang

= [(1/12)(20)(3003 ) + 0] +
2[(1/12)(250)(203) + (20x250)(1602)]
= 301.3x106 mm4

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250 mm

20 mm

I = 301.3x106 mm4
20 mm
150 mm

NA

150 mm
20 mm

Shear stress in beam: =

NA

600 N

B= 6 . 37 kPa
B = 79 . 7 kPa
max = 102 kPa

VQ
It

0.25 m
0.02 m

B
B

B' =
0.16 m

( 600 N)[( 0 . 16 m )( 0 . 25 m 0 . 02 m )]
( 301 . 3 10 6 m 4 ) (0.25 m)

= 6 . 37 kPa

20

B =

= 79 . 7 kPa

0.25 m
0.02 m
0.15 m NA

0.075 m 0.16 m

( 600 N)[( 0 . 16 m )( 0 . 25 m 0 . 02 m )]
( 301 . 3 10 6 m 4 ) (0.02 m)

Qmax = [ (0.16)(0.25x0.02) + (0.075)(0.02x0.15)]


= 1.025x10-3 m3

0.02 m

max

( 600 N)(1 . 025 10 3 m 3 )


= 102 kPa
=
( 301 . 3 10 6 m 4 )( 0 . 02 m )

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Example 3
The beam show is made from two boards. Plot the shear-stress distribution acting
over the beams cross-sectional area.

100 mm
600 N

200 N/m

20 mm
100 mm

C
B
2m

2m
20 mm

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Internal loads

Section property
600 N

200 N/m

400 N

y'

20 mm

100 mm

NA

600 N

2m

2m

100 mm

20 mm

V (N)
400

400
+
-200

NA

-600

neck

V = 600 N

yA
A
(50)(100 20) + (110)(100 20)
=
2(100 20)

y =

neck
max

= 80 mm

y ' = 120 80 = 40 mm

I = ( I + Ad 2 )
= [(1/12)(20)(1003 ) +(20x100)(80-50)2]
+ [(1/12)(100)(203) + (100x20)(40-10)2]
= 5.333x106 mm4 = 5.333x10-6 m4

20

100 mm
20 mm
80 mm

V = 600 N
NA

100 mm

20 mm
I = 5.333x10-6 m4
VQ
Shear stress in beam: =
It
0.10 m
0.03 m

' neck =

0.02 m
NA
0.02 m

neck = 67 . 5 kPa
neck = 338 kPa
max = 360 kPa

( 600 N)[( 0 . 03 m )( 0 . 10 m 0 . 02 m )]
(5 . 333 10 6 m 4 )( 0 . 10 m )

= 67 . 5 kPa

neck =

( 600 N)[( 0 . 03 m )( 0 . 10 m 0 . 02 m )]
( 5 . 333 10 6 m 4 )( 0 . 02 m )
= 338 kPa

0.08 m

0.04 m
0.02 m

NA

max =

( 600 N)[( 0 . 04 m )( 0 . 08 m 0 . 02 m )]
( 5 . 333 10 6 )( 0 . 02 m )
= 360 kPa

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Shear Flow (q) in Built-Up Members

t
F

dx

dF =

dF
F + dF

q =

dM
I

ydA

A'

dF
dx

V
dM
=
Idx

q =

VQ
= t
I

ydA
A'

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(a) The shear flow is resisted at one surfaces.


A'
y'

NA

(b) The shear flow is resisted at two surfaces.

(c) The shear flow is resisted at three surfaces.

A'

NA

A'
y'

y'

NA

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Example 4
The beam show is made from two boards. Determine the maximum shear in nail
if diameter of nail is 3 mm and spacing is 200 mm.

100 mm
600 N

200 N/m

20 mm
100 mm

C
B
2m

2m
20 mm

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Internal loads

Section property
600 N

200 N/m

400 N

y'

20 mm

100 mm

NA

600 N

2m

2m

100 mm

20 mm

V (N)
400

400
+
-200

NA

-600

neck

V = 600 N

yA
A
(50)(100 20) + (110)(100 20)
=
2(100 20)

y =

neck
max

= 80 mm

y ' = 120 80 = 40 mm

I = ( I + Ad 2 )
= [(1/12)(20)(1003 ) +(20x100)(80-50)2]
+ [(1/12)(100)(203) + (100x20)(40-10)2]
= 5.333x106 mm4 = 5.333x10-6 m4

25

100 mm
20 mm

V = 600 N
NA

0.02 m
NA

0.03 m

100 mm

80 mm

0.02 m

20 mm
I = 5.333x10-6 m4
Shear stress in beam at neck: =
neck =

0.10 m

VQ
It

( 600 N)[( 0 . 03 m )( 0 . 10 m 0 . 02 m )]
= 0 . 3375 MPa
6
4
( 5 . 333 10 m )( 0 . 02 m )

(Fs)nail = ( @ C (neck) )(Ashear)

d = 3 mm
s = 200 mm

= (0.3375 MPa)(0.02 m x0.2 m)


= 1350 N

neck = 0.3375 MPa


200 mm

20 mm
20 mm

nail =
=

( Fs ) nail
Anail

1350 N
= 191 MPa
( / 4 )( 0 . 003 m ) 2

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Example 5
A box beam is to be constructed from four boards nailed together as shown.
If each nail can support a shear force of 200 N, determine the maximum spacing
s of nails at B and at C so that the beam will support the vertical force of 300 N.
300 N

s
C
30 mm
B

100 mm
30 mm

30 mm

30 mm
100 mm

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C
30 mm
B

100 mm
30 mm

30 mm

30 mm
100 mm

Section property
I =(

1
1
bh 3)out ( bh 3)in
12
12

= (1/12)(0.16)(0.163) - (1/12)(0.1)(0.13)
= 46.28x10-6 m4

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C
300 N

65 mm

30 mm
B B

100 mm
30 mm

s
V (N)

30 mm

30 mm
100 mm

300
I = 46.28x10-6 m4

x
Maximum spacing s of nails at B

B =

VQB Vy ' A' (300)(0.065)(0.16 0.03)


=
=
= 33.71 kPa
(46.28 10 6 )(2)(0.03)
It
It

Fnail = B ( Ashear ) nail

(Ashear)nail
s
Top view

200 = 33.71(103 ) s (0.03)

s = 0.198 m
0.03 m

Use sB = 200 mm

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C
300 N

C
30 mm

65 mm

100 mm
30 mm

s
V (N)

30 mm

30 mm
100 mm

300
x

I = 46.28x10-6 m4

Maximum spacing s of nails at C

B =

VQC Vy ' A' (300)(0.065)(0.10 0.03)


=
=
= 21.07 kPa
6
(46.28 10 )(2)(0.03)
It
It
Fnail = B A

= 21070 Pa

200 = 21.07(103 ) s(0.03)

0.03 m

s = 0.316 m
Use sB = 300 mm

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Example 6
Nails are used in a beam that can be constructed either as in Case I or as in Case
II. If the nails are spaced at 200 mm, determine the shear force in the nail for each
case so this type of failure will not occur.
300 N

15 mm
30 mm

Case I

100 mm
15 mm

s = 200 mm

90 mm
300 N

15 mm
30 mm

Case II

100 mm
15 mm

s = 200 mm
30 mm@90 mm

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15 mm
30 mm

15 mm
30 mm

100 mm

100 mm

15 mm

15 mm

90 mm
30 mm@90 mm

Section property for both case


15 mm
100 mm
15 mm

I =(

1
1
bh 3)out 2 ( bh 3)in
12
12

= (1/12)(0.09)(0.133) - 2(1/12)(0.03)(0.13)
= 11.48x10-6 m4

90 mm

32

Case I
15 mm

57.5 mm
NA

100 mm
15 mm

V (N)

s = 200 mm

I = 11.48x10-6 m4
30 mm@90 mm

300
x
The largest vertical shear for case I

neck = 67.62 kPa


0.2 m

VQ 300 [ 0 . 0575 ( 0 . 09 0 . 015 )]


=
= 67 . 62 kPa
6
It
(11 . 48 10 )( 0 . 03 )

Fnail = A = ( 67 . 62 10 3 )( 0 . 03 0 . 2 ) = 406 N

0.03 m

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Case II
15 mm

57.5 mm
NA

100 mm
15 mm

s = 200 mm

V (N)

I = 11.48x10-6 m4
30 mm@90 mm

300
x
The largest vertical shear for case II

s = 0.2 m

VQ 300 [0 . 0575 2 ( 0 . 03 0 . 015 )]


=
= 45 . 08 kPa
6
It
(11 . 48 10 ) 2 ( 0 . 015 )

= 45.08 kPa

0.015 m

Fnail = A = ( 45 . 08 10 3 )( 0 . 015 0 . 2) = 135 N

0.03 m

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