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The Shear Formula

Shear Stresses in Beams

Shear Flow in Built-up Members

ave

VB

= f(

V = dA = ( ave ) A

V

ave = dA =

A

My

I

V

)

A

max

1

MB +V

max

A

VB = V

VA= V

1

Shear Stress 3D

+M

MB

MA = MB +Vd

1

Shear Stress 2D

Linear elastic

Plane section remains plane

Before deformation

After deformation

w

F1

F2

x

M1

M2

A'

M+M

dA '

t

x

y'

NA

V+V

A'

M+M

dA '

y'

t

x

V+V

A'

V

M

NA

'

dA '

M+M

t

y'

NA

V+V

A'

dF

M

'

dA '

dF

M+M

t

y'

NA

x

+ F = 0:

x

dA ' dA + ( t x ) = 0

A'

My

A ' I dA

My

A ' I dA

(M + M ) y

dA + ( t x ) = 0

A '

I

My

A ' I dA

x 0;

A'

(M ) y

A ' I dA + ( t x ) = 0 (1)

1

t (x)

(M )

( M ) y

dA

=

A ' I

It ( x )

V

( dM )

=

It ( dx )

ydA

A'

y ' A' = Q

ydA

A'

VQ

It

Rectangular Cross Section

A'

h/2

V

y'

NA

h/2

b

I =(

=

NA

max

VQ

It

1

) bh 3

12

V ( y ' A')

It

V ( y ' A')

1

( ) bh 3 b

12

h

A' = b( )

2

h/2

V

h

y'= ( )

4

NA

h

h/2

b

I =(

max

b

Shear-stress distribution

max

1

) bh 3

12

VQ maz

V ( y ' A')

=

It

It

h

h

V ( )( b )

4

2

=

1

( ) bh 3 b

12

max

= 1 .5

V

A

=(

12 V

)

8 bh

Wide-Flange Beam

flange

web

flange

tw

neck

max

NA

flange

neck

T- Beam

b

flange

web

flange

tw

NA

neck

max

Example 1a

The beam shown is made of wood, determine the shear stress in the beam

at point P and compute the maximum shear stress in the beam. Plot the

shear-stress distribution acting over the beams cross-sectional area.

20 kN

40 kNm

250 mm

5 kN/m

50 mm

P

300 mm

4m

6m

10

20 kN

Maximum Stress

40 kNm

25 kN

4m

V(kN) 25

5 kN/m

25 kN

6m

25

x (m)

-25

250 mm

V = 25 kN

50 mm

P

125 mm

NA

P = 278 kPa

max= 500 kPa

150 mm

1

( 0 . 25 )( 0 . 3) 3

12

= 562 . 5 10 6 m 4

I =

P =

VQ ( 25 kN)[( 0 . 125 m )( 0 . 05 m 0 . 25 m )]

= 278 kPa

=

It

(562 . 5 10 6 m 4 )( 0 . 25 m )

max

25 10 3 N

V

= 500 kPa

= 1.5 = 1.5

( 0 . 25 m 0 . 30 m )

A

11

Example 1b

The simply supported beam has the cross-sectional area shown. Determine

the shear flow in the beam at point P.

20 kN

40 kNm

250 mm

5 kN/m

50 mm

P

300 mm

4m

6m

12

20 kN

Maximum Stress

40 kNm

5 kN/m

50 mm

250 mm

P

1m

25 kN

4m

V(kN) 25

1

( 0 . 25 )( 0 . 3) 3

12

= 562 . 5 10 6 m 4

I =

60

M(kNm)

25 kN

6m

25

300 mm

x (m)

-25

62.5

35

x (m)

-40

35 10 ( 0 . 15 )

= 9 . 333 MPa

6

562 . 5 10

3

6.222 MPa

100 m

35 kNm

L 150 mm R

1m

My

I

60 kNm

60 10 3 ( 0 . 15 )

= 16 MPa

562 . 5 10 6

10.67 MPa

100 m

NA

13

250 mm

9.333 MPa

50 mm 6.222 MPa

35 kNm

L

100 mm

100 m

16 MPa

10.67 MPa

60 kNm

150 m R

100 m

NA

150 mm

1m

FL

FL = 97 . 19 kN

FR

Fs

FR = 166.7 kN

- Force FL on area AL

- Force FR on area AR

FL = dA

FR = dA

AL

AR

= ( ave ) AL

= ( ave ) AR

=[

](0.25 0.05)

2

=[

](0.25 0.05)

2

FL = 97 . 19 kN

FR = 166 . 7 kN

14

250 mm

P

9.333 MPa

50 mm 6.222 MPa

35 kNm

100 mm

100 m

150 mm

16 MPa

10.67 MPa

60 kNm

100 m

NA

1

1

L

R

1m

FL = 97.19 kN

FR = 166.7 kN

Fs = 166.7 - 97.19 = 69.48 kN

FL = 97.19 kN

6.22 MPa

0.28 MPa

FR = 166.7 kN

= Fs/As

1m

0.25 m

6.22 MPa

0.28 MPa

Fs

69 . 48 10 3 N

=

=

As

( 0 . 25 m )(1 m )

= 278 kPa

15

Example 2

A steel wide-flange beam has the dimensions shown. Plot the shear-stress

distribution acting over the beams cross-sectional area.

250 mm

600 N

200 N/m

B

20 mm

2m

20 mm

150 mm

150 mm

20 mm

2m

16

Section property

Internal Shear

600 N

400 N

200 N/m

600 N

2m

2m

250 mm

B

NA

20 mm

V (N)

400

600 N

-200

NA

150 mm

20 mm

I = ( I + Ad 2 )

B

B

20 mm

150 mm

-600

B

max = C

2

= ( I + Ad 2 )web + 2 ( I + Ad )flang

= [(1/12)(20)(3003 ) + 0] +

2[(1/12)(250)(203) + (20x250)(1602)]

= 301.3x106 mm4

17

250 mm

20 mm

I = 301.3x106 mm4

20 mm

150 mm

NA

150 mm

20 mm

NA

600 N

B= 6 . 37 kPa

B = 79 . 7 kPa

max = 102 kPa

VQ

It

0.25 m

0.02 m

B

B

B' =

0.16 m

( 600 N)[( 0 . 16 m )( 0 . 25 m 0 . 02 m )]

( 301 . 3 10 6 m 4 ) (0.25 m)

= 6 . 37 kPa

20

B =

= 79 . 7 kPa

0.25 m

0.02 m

0.15 m NA

0.075 m 0.16 m

( 600 N)[( 0 . 16 m )( 0 . 25 m 0 . 02 m )]

( 301 . 3 10 6 m 4 ) (0.02 m)

= 1.025x10-3 m3

0.02 m

max

= 102 kPa

=

( 301 . 3 10 6 m 4 )( 0 . 02 m )

18

Example 3

The beam show is made from two boards. Plot the shear-stress distribution acting

over the beams cross-sectional area.

100 mm

600 N

200 N/m

20 mm

100 mm

C

B

2m

2m

20 mm

19

Internal loads

Section property

600 N

200 N/m

400 N

y'

20 mm

100 mm

NA

600 N

2m

2m

100 mm

20 mm

V (N)

400

400

+

-200

NA

-600

neck

V = 600 N

yA

A

(50)(100 20) + (110)(100 20)

=

2(100 20)

y =

neck

max

= 80 mm

y ' = 120 80 = 40 mm

I = ( I + Ad 2 )

= [(1/12)(20)(1003 ) +(20x100)(80-50)2]

+ [(1/12)(100)(203) + (100x20)(40-10)2]

= 5.333x106 mm4 = 5.333x10-6 m4

20

100 mm

20 mm

80 mm

V = 600 N

NA

100 mm

20 mm

I = 5.333x10-6 m4

VQ

Shear stress in beam: =

It

0.10 m

0.03 m

' neck =

0.02 m

NA

0.02 m

neck = 67 . 5 kPa

neck = 338 kPa

max = 360 kPa

( 600 N)[( 0 . 03 m )( 0 . 10 m 0 . 02 m )]

(5 . 333 10 6 m 4 )( 0 . 10 m )

= 67 . 5 kPa

neck =

( 600 N)[( 0 . 03 m )( 0 . 10 m 0 . 02 m )]

( 5 . 333 10 6 m 4 )( 0 . 02 m )

= 338 kPa

0.08 m

0.04 m

0.02 m

NA

max =

( 600 N)[( 0 . 04 m )( 0 . 08 m 0 . 02 m )]

( 5 . 333 10 6 )( 0 . 02 m )

= 360 kPa

21

t

F

dx

dF =

dF

F + dF

q =

dM

I

ydA

A'

dF

dx

V

dM

=

Idx

q =

VQ

= t

I

ydA

A'

22

A'

y'

NA

A'

NA

A'

y'

y'

NA

23

Example 4

The beam show is made from two boards. Determine the maximum shear in nail

if diameter of nail is 3 mm and spacing is 200 mm.

100 mm

600 N

200 N/m

20 mm

100 mm

C

B

2m

2m

20 mm

24

Internal loads

Section property

600 N

200 N/m

400 N

y'

20 mm

100 mm

NA

600 N

2m

2m

100 mm

20 mm

V (N)

400

400

+

-200

NA

-600

neck

V = 600 N

yA

A

(50)(100 20) + (110)(100 20)

=

2(100 20)

y =

neck

max

= 80 mm

y ' = 120 80 = 40 mm

I = ( I + Ad 2 )

= [(1/12)(20)(1003 ) +(20x100)(80-50)2]

+ [(1/12)(100)(203) + (100x20)(40-10)2]

= 5.333x106 mm4 = 5.333x10-6 m4

25

100 mm

20 mm

V = 600 N

NA

0.02 m

NA

0.03 m

100 mm

80 mm

0.02 m

20 mm

I = 5.333x10-6 m4

Shear stress in beam at neck: =

neck =

0.10 m

VQ

It

( 600 N)[( 0 . 03 m )( 0 . 10 m 0 . 02 m )]

= 0 . 3375 MPa

6

4

( 5 . 333 10 m )( 0 . 02 m )

d = 3 mm

s = 200 mm

= 1350 N

200 mm

20 mm

20 mm

nail =

=

( Fs ) nail

Anail

1350 N

= 191 MPa

( / 4 )( 0 . 003 m ) 2

26

Example 5

A box beam is to be constructed from four boards nailed together as shown.

If each nail can support a shear force of 200 N, determine the maximum spacing

s of nails at B and at C so that the beam will support the vertical force of 300 N.

300 N

s

C

30 mm

B

100 mm

30 mm

30 mm

30 mm

100 mm

27

C

30 mm

B

100 mm

30 mm

30 mm

30 mm

100 mm

Section property

I =(

1

1

bh 3)out ( bh 3)in

12

12

= (1/12)(0.16)(0.163) - (1/12)(0.1)(0.13)

= 46.28x10-6 m4

28

C

300 N

65 mm

30 mm

B B

100 mm

30 mm

s

V (N)

30 mm

30 mm

100 mm

300

I = 46.28x10-6 m4

x

Maximum spacing s of nails at B

B =

=

=

= 33.71 kPa

(46.28 10 6 )(2)(0.03)

It

It

(Ashear)nail

s

Top view

s = 0.198 m

0.03 m

Use sB = 200 mm

29

C

300 N

C

30 mm

65 mm

100 mm

30 mm

s

V (N)

30 mm

30 mm

100 mm

300

x

I = 46.28x10-6 m4

B =

=

=

= 21.07 kPa

6

(46.28 10 )(2)(0.03)

It

It

Fnail = B A

= 21070 Pa

0.03 m

s = 0.316 m

Use sB = 300 mm

30

Example 6

Nails are used in a beam that can be constructed either as in Case I or as in Case

II. If the nails are spaced at 200 mm, determine the shear force in the nail for each

case so this type of failure will not occur.

300 N

15 mm

30 mm

Case I

100 mm

15 mm

s = 200 mm

90 mm

300 N

15 mm

30 mm

Case II

100 mm

15 mm

s = 200 mm

30 mm@90 mm

31

15 mm

30 mm

15 mm

30 mm

100 mm

100 mm

15 mm

15 mm

90 mm

30 mm@90 mm

15 mm

100 mm

15 mm

I =(

1

1

bh 3)out 2 ( bh 3)in

12

12

= (1/12)(0.09)(0.133) - 2(1/12)(0.03)(0.13)

= 11.48x10-6 m4

90 mm

32

Case I

15 mm

57.5 mm

NA

100 mm

15 mm

V (N)

s = 200 mm

I = 11.48x10-6 m4

30 mm@90 mm

300

x

The largest vertical shear for case I

0.2 m

=

= 67 . 62 kPa

6

It

(11 . 48 10 )( 0 . 03 )

Fnail = A = ( 67 . 62 10 3 )( 0 . 03 0 . 2 ) = 406 N

0.03 m

33

Case II

15 mm

57.5 mm

NA

100 mm

15 mm

s = 200 mm

V (N)

I = 11.48x10-6 m4

30 mm@90 mm

300

x

The largest vertical shear for case II

s = 0.2 m

=

= 45 . 08 kPa

6

It

(11 . 48 10 ) 2 ( 0 . 015 )

= 45.08 kPa

0.015 m

0.03 m

34

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