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# TRANVERSE SHEAR

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## Shear in Straight Members

The Shear Formula
Shear Stresses in Beams
Shear Flow in Built-up Members

## Shear in Straight Members

ave

VB

= f(

V = dA = ( ave ) A
V
ave = dA =
A

My
I

V
)
A

max

1
MB +V

max

A
VB = V
VA= V

1
Shear Stress 3D

+M
MB

MA = MB +Vd
1
Shear Stress 2D

## The Shear Stress Formula: Assumptions

Linear elastic
Plane section remains plane

## Boards not bonded together

Before deformation

## Boards bonded together

After deformation

## The Shear Stress Formula

w
F1

F2
x

M1

M2

A'

M+M

dA '

t
x

y'

NA

V+V

A'

M+M

dA '
y'

t
x

V+V

A'

V
M

NA

'

dA '

M+M
t

y'

NA

V+V

A'

dF
M

'

dA '

dF
M+M
t

y'

NA

x
+ F = 0:
x

dA ' dA + ( t x ) = 0

A'

My
A ' I dA

My
A ' I dA

(M + M ) y
dA + ( t x ) = 0
A '
I

My
A ' I dA

x 0;

A'

(M ) y
A ' I dA + ( t x ) = 0 (1)

1
t (x)

(M )
( M ) y
dA
=
A ' I
It ( x )

V
( dM )
=
It ( dx )

ydA
A'

y ' A' = Q

ydA

A'

VQ
It

## Shear Stress in Beam

Rectangular Cross Section
A'

h/2
V

y'
NA

h/2
b

I =(

=
NA

max

VQ
It

1
) bh 3
12

V ( y ' A')
It

V ( y ' A')
1
( ) bh 3 b
12

## = max at the neutral axis, y = 0:

h
A' = b( )
2

h/2
V

h
y'= ( )
4

NA

h
h/2

b
I =(

max
b
Shear-stress distribution

max

1
) bh 3
12

VQ maz
V ( y ' A')
=
It
It

h
h
V ( )( b )
4
2
=
1
( ) bh 3 b
12

max

= 1 .5

V
A

=(

12 V
)
8 bh

Wide-Flange Beam
flange

web

flange

tw

neck
max

NA

flange

neck

T- Beam
b

flange
web

flange
tw

NA

neck
max

Example 1a
The beam shown is made of wood, determine the shear stress in the beam
at point P and compute the maximum shear stress in the beam. Plot the
shear-stress distribution acting over the beams cross-sectional area.

20 kN
40 kNm

250 mm

5 kN/m
50 mm

P
300 mm

4m

6m

10

20 kN

Maximum Stress
40 kNm

25 kN

4m

V(kN) 25

5 kN/m

25 kN

6m
25

x (m)
-25

250 mm

V = 25 kN

50 mm
P

125 mm

NA

P = 278 kPa
max= 500 kPa

150 mm
1
( 0 . 25 )( 0 . 3) 3
12
= 562 . 5 10 6 m 4

I =

P =

VQ ( 25 kN)[( 0 . 125 m )( 0 . 05 m 0 . 25 m )]
= 278 kPa
=
It
(562 . 5 10 6 m 4 )( 0 . 25 m )

max

25 10 3 N
V
= 500 kPa
= 1.5 = 1.5
( 0 . 25 m 0 . 30 m )
A

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Example 1b
The simply supported beam has the cross-sectional area shown. Determine
the shear flow in the beam at point P.

20 kN
40 kNm

250 mm

5 kN/m
50 mm

P
300 mm

4m

6m

12

20 kN

Maximum Stress
40 kNm

5 kN/m

50 mm

250 mm
P

1m

25 kN

4m

V(kN) 25

1
( 0 . 25 )( 0 . 3) 3
12
= 562 . 5 10 6 m 4

I =

60

M(kNm)

25 kN

6m
25

300 mm

x (m)
-25

62.5

35
x (m)

-40

35 10 ( 0 . 15 )
= 9 . 333 MPa
6
562 . 5 10
3

6.222 MPa

100 m

35 kNm

L 150 mm R

1m

My
I

60 kNm

60 10 3 ( 0 . 15 )
= 16 MPa
562 . 5 10 6
10.67 MPa
100 m
NA

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250 mm

9.333 MPa
50 mm 6.222 MPa
35 kNm
L
100 mm
100 m

16 MPa
10.67 MPa
60 kNm
150 m R
100 m
NA

150 mm
1m
FL
FL = 97 . 19 kN

FR
Fs

FR = 166.7 kN

- Force FL on area AL

- Force FR on area AR

FL = dA

FR = dA

AL

AR

= ( ave ) AL

= ( ave ) AR

=[
](0.25 0.05)
2

## (16 + 10.67) 106

=[
](0.25 0.05)
2

FL = 97 . 19 kN

FR = 166 . 7 kN

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250 mm
P

9.333 MPa
50 mm 6.222 MPa
35 kNm
100 mm
100 m
150 mm

16 MPa
10.67 MPa
60 kNm
100 m
NA

1
1
L

R
1m

FL = 97.19 kN

FR = 166.7 kN
Fs = 166.7 - 97.19 = 69.48 kN

FL = 97.19 kN

6.22 MPa
0.28 MPa

FR = 166.7 kN

= Fs/As

1m

0.25 m

6.22 MPa
0.28 MPa

Fs
69 . 48 10 3 N
=
=
As
( 0 . 25 m )(1 m )
= 278 kPa

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Example 2
A steel wide-flange beam has the dimensions shown. Plot the shear-stress
distribution acting over the beams cross-sectional area.
250 mm

600 N

200 N/m

B
20 mm

2m

20 mm
150 mm
150 mm
20 mm

2m

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Section property

Internal Shear
600 N

400 N

200 N/m

600 N

2m

2m

250 mm

B
NA

20 mm

V (N)
400

600 N

-200

NA

150 mm
20 mm

I = ( I + Ad 2 )

B
B

20 mm
150 mm

-600

B
max = C

2
= ( I + Ad 2 )web + 2 ( I + Ad )flang

= [(1/12)(20)(3003 ) + 0] +
2[(1/12)(250)(203) + (20x250)(1602)]
= 301.3x106 mm4

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250 mm

20 mm

I = 301.3x106 mm4
20 mm
150 mm

NA

150 mm
20 mm

## Shear stress in beam: =

NA

600 N

B= 6 . 37 kPa
B = 79 . 7 kPa
max = 102 kPa

VQ
It

0.25 m
0.02 m

B
B

B' =
0.16 m

( 600 N)[( 0 . 16 m )( 0 . 25 m 0 . 02 m )]
( 301 . 3 10 6 m 4 ) (0.25 m)

= 6 . 37 kPa

20

B =

= 79 . 7 kPa

0.25 m
0.02 m
0.15 m NA

0.075 m 0.16 m

( 600 N)[( 0 . 16 m )( 0 . 25 m 0 . 02 m )]
( 301 . 3 10 6 m 4 ) (0.02 m)

= 1.025x10-3 m3

0.02 m

max

## ( 600 N)(1 . 025 10 3 m 3 )

= 102 kPa
=
( 301 . 3 10 6 m 4 )( 0 . 02 m )

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Example 3
The beam show is made from two boards. Plot the shear-stress distribution acting
over the beams cross-sectional area.

100 mm
600 N

200 N/m

20 mm
100 mm

C
B
2m

2m
20 mm

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Section property
600 N

200 N/m

400 N

y'

20 mm

100 mm

NA

600 N

2m

2m

100 mm

20 mm

V (N)
400

400
+
-200

NA

-600

neck

V = 600 N

yA
A
(50)(100 20) + (110)(100 20)
=
2(100 20)

y =

neck
max

= 80 mm

y ' = 120 80 = 40 mm

I = ( I + Ad 2 )
= [(1/12)(20)(1003 ) +(20x100)(80-50)2]
+ [(1/12)(100)(203) + (100x20)(40-10)2]
= 5.333x106 mm4 = 5.333x10-6 m4

20

100 mm
20 mm
80 mm

V = 600 N
NA

100 mm

20 mm
I = 5.333x10-6 m4
VQ
Shear stress in beam: =
It
0.10 m
0.03 m

' neck =

0.02 m
NA
0.02 m

neck = 67 . 5 kPa
neck = 338 kPa
max = 360 kPa

( 600 N)[( 0 . 03 m )( 0 . 10 m 0 . 02 m )]
(5 . 333 10 6 m 4 )( 0 . 10 m )

= 67 . 5 kPa

neck =

( 600 N)[( 0 . 03 m )( 0 . 10 m 0 . 02 m )]
( 5 . 333 10 6 m 4 )( 0 . 02 m )
= 338 kPa

0.08 m

0.04 m
0.02 m

NA

max =

( 600 N)[( 0 . 04 m )( 0 . 08 m 0 . 02 m )]
( 5 . 333 10 6 )( 0 . 02 m )
= 360 kPa

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t
F

dx

dF =

dF
F + dF

q =

dM
I

ydA

A'

dF
dx

V
dM
=
Idx

q =

VQ
= t
I

ydA
A'

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A'
y'

NA

## (c) The shear flow is resisted at three surfaces.

A'

NA

A'
y'

y'

NA

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Example 4
The beam show is made from two boards. Determine the maximum shear in nail
if diameter of nail is 3 mm and spacing is 200 mm.

100 mm
600 N

200 N/m

20 mm
100 mm

C
B
2m

2m
20 mm

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Section property
600 N

200 N/m

400 N

y'

20 mm

100 mm

NA

600 N

2m

2m

100 mm

20 mm

V (N)
400

400
+
-200

NA

-600

neck

V = 600 N

yA
A
(50)(100 20) + (110)(100 20)
=
2(100 20)

y =

neck
max

= 80 mm

y ' = 120 80 = 40 mm

I = ( I + Ad 2 )
= [(1/12)(20)(1003 ) +(20x100)(80-50)2]
+ [(1/12)(100)(203) + (100x20)(40-10)2]
= 5.333x106 mm4 = 5.333x10-6 m4

25

100 mm
20 mm

V = 600 N
NA

0.02 m
NA

0.03 m

100 mm

80 mm

0.02 m

20 mm
I = 5.333x10-6 m4
Shear stress in beam at neck: =
neck =

0.10 m

VQ
It

( 600 N)[( 0 . 03 m )( 0 . 10 m 0 . 02 m )]
= 0 . 3375 MPa
6
4
( 5 . 333 10 m )( 0 . 02 m )

d = 3 mm
s = 200 mm

= 1350 N

## neck = 0.3375 MPa

200 mm

20 mm
20 mm

nail =
=

( Fs ) nail
Anail

1350 N
= 191 MPa
( / 4 )( 0 . 003 m ) 2

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Example 5
A box beam is to be constructed from four boards nailed together as shown.
If each nail can support a shear force of 200 N, determine the maximum spacing
s of nails at B and at C so that the beam will support the vertical force of 300 N.
300 N

s
C
30 mm
B

100 mm
30 mm

30 mm

30 mm
100 mm

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C
30 mm
B

100 mm
30 mm

30 mm

30 mm
100 mm

Section property
I =(

1
1
bh 3)out ( bh 3)in
12
12

= (1/12)(0.16)(0.163) - (1/12)(0.1)(0.13)
= 46.28x10-6 m4

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C
300 N

65 mm

30 mm
B B

100 mm
30 mm

s
V (N)

30 mm

30 mm
100 mm

300
I = 46.28x10-6 m4

x
Maximum spacing s of nails at B

B =

## VQB Vy ' A' (300)(0.065)(0.16 0.03)

=
=
= 33.71 kPa
(46.28 10 6 )(2)(0.03)
It
It

(Ashear)nail
s
Top view

## 200 = 33.71(103 ) s (0.03)

s = 0.198 m
0.03 m

Use sB = 200 mm

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C
300 N

C
30 mm

65 mm

100 mm
30 mm

s
V (N)

30 mm

30 mm
100 mm

300
x

I = 46.28x10-6 m4

B =

## VQC Vy ' A' (300)(0.065)(0.10 0.03)

=
=
= 21.07 kPa
6
(46.28 10 )(2)(0.03)
It
It
Fnail = B A

= 21070 Pa

## 200 = 21.07(103 ) s(0.03)

0.03 m

s = 0.316 m
Use sB = 300 mm

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Example 6
Nails are used in a beam that can be constructed either as in Case I or as in Case
II. If the nails are spaced at 200 mm, determine the shear force in the nail for each
case so this type of failure will not occur.
300 N

15 mm
30 mm

Case I

100 mm
15 mm

s = 200 mm

90 mm
300 N

15 mm
30 mm

Case II

100 mm
15 mm

s = 200 mm
30 mm@90 mm

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15 mm
30 mm

15 mm
30 mm

100 mm

100 mm

15 mm

15 mm

90 mm
30 mm@90 mm

## Section property for both case

15 mm
100 mm
15 mm

I =(

1
1
bh 3)out 2 ( bh 3)in
12
12

= (1/12)(0.09)(0.133) - 2(1/12)(0.03)(0.13)
= 11.48x10-6 m4

90 mm

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Case I
15 mm

57.5 mm
NA

100 mm
15 mm

V (N)

s = 200 mm

I = 11.48x10-6 m4
30 mm@90 mm

300
x
The largest vertical shear for case I

0.2 m

## VQ 300 [ 0 . 0575 ( 0 . 09 0 . 015 )]

=
= 67 . 62 kPa
6
It
(11 . 48 10 )( 0 . 03 )

Fnail = A = ( 67 . 62 10 3 )( 0 . 03 0 . 2 ) = 406 N

0.03 m

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Case II
15 mm

57.5 mm
NA

100 mm
15 mm

s = 200 mm

V (N)

I = 11.48x10-6 m4
30 mm@90 mm

300
x
The largest vertical shear for case II

s = 0.2 m

## VQ 300 [0 . 0575 2 ( 0 . 03 0 . 015 )]

=
= 45 . 08 kPa
6
It
(11 . 48 10 ) 2 ( 0 . 015 )

= 45.08 kPa

0.015 m

0.03 m

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