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The κDirac oscillator in (2 + 1) dimensions
Fabiano M. Andrade
1, ∗
and Edilberto O. Silva
2, †
1
Departamento de Matem´ atica e Estat´ıstica, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030900 Ponta GrossaPR, Brazil
2
Departamento de F´ısica, Universidade Federal do Maranh˜ ao,
Campus Universit´ ario do Bacanga, 65085580 S˜ao Lu´ısMA, Brazil
(Dated: June 16, 2014)
In this Letter, the Dirac oscillator in (2 + 1) dimensions in the quantum deformed framework
generated by the κPoincar´eHopf algebra is considered. The problem is formulated using the κ
deformed Dirac equation. The resulting theory reveals that the energies and wave functions of the
oscillator are modiﬁed by the deformation parameter.
I. INTRODUCTION
The Dirac oscillator, established in 1989 by Moshinsky
and Szczepaniak [1, 2], is considered a natural framework
to access the relativistic quantum properties of quantum
harmonic oscillatorlike systems. This model has inspired
a great deal of investigations in recent years. These stud
ies have allowed the exploration of new models in theo
retical and experimental physics. In the context of re
cent investigations, the interest in this issue appears, for
example, in quantum optics [3, 4], deformed Kempf al
gebra [5], graphene physics [6], noncommutative space
[7–9], quantum phase transition [10, 11] and topological
defects [12, 13]. Among several recent contributions on
the Dirac oscillator, we refer to its ﬁrst experimental ver
iﬁcation [14]. For a more detailed approach of the Dirac
oscillator see Refs. [15–21].
It is well known that the dynamics of the Dirac oscilla
tor is governed by the Dirac equation with the nonmini
mal prescription
p → p −imωβr, (1)
where p is the momentum operator, m is the mass, ω the
frequency of the oscillator and r is the position vector.
In the same context, another usual framework where one
can study the dynamics of the Dirac oscillator is that
in connection with the theory of quantum deformations.
These quantum deformations are realized based on the
κPoincar´eHopf algebra [22–25] and has direct implica
tions on the quantum dynamics of relativistic and nonrel
ativistic quantum systems. The deformation parameter
κ appearing in the theory is usually interpreted as being
the Planck mass m
P
[26]. Some important contributions
on κdeformation have been studied in Refs. [27–40].
The physical properties of κdeformed relativistic
quantum systems can be accessed by solving the κ
deformed Dirac equation [41, 42]. Recently, some stud
ies involving κdeformation have also been reported with
great interest. Some theoretical contributions in this con
text can be found, for example, in Refs. [43–47]. The
∗
fmandrade@uepg.br
†
edilbertoo@gmail.com
Dirac oscillator in (3 +1) dimensions has been discussed
in connection with the theory of quantum deformations
in Ref. [48]. However, it is well known that a Dirac oscil
lator in (2+1) dimensions exhibits a dynamics completely
diﬀerent from that in (3+1) dimensions. In this context,
the main goal of this Letter is study the dynamics of the
Dirac oscillator in (2 + 1) dimensions in the quantum
deformed framework generated by the κPoincar´eHopf
algebra.
This Letter is organized as follow. In Section II, we
revise the Dirac oscillator in (2 + 1) dimensions and de
termine the energy levels and wave function. In Section
III, the Dirac oscillator in (2+1) dimensions in the frame
work of the quantum deformation is discussed. A brief
conclusion is outlined in Section IV.
II. DIRAC OSCILLATOR IN (2 + 1)
DIMENSIONS
In this section, we brieﬂy discuss the usual Dirac oscil
lator in (2 +1) dimensions for later comparison with the
deformed one. One begins by writing the Dirac equation
in (2 + 1) dimensions
(βγ · p + βm) ψ = Eψ, (2)
where p = (p
x
, p
y
) and ψ is a twocomponent spinor. The
2D Dirac oscillator is obtained throught the nonmininal
prescription in Eq. (1) where r = (x, y) is the position
vector. Thus, the relevant equation is
H
0
ψ = [βγ · (p − imωβr) + βm] ψ = Eψ, (3)
and the Dirac matrices obey the following anticommuta
tion relations and the square identity:
{α
i
, α
j
} = 0, i = j
{α
i
, β} = 0,
α
2
i
= β
2
= I. (4)
The γ matrices are conveniently chosen as
βγ
x
= σ
x
, βγ
y
= sσ
y
, β = σ
z
, (5)
where s is twice the spin value, with s = +1 for spin
“up” and s = −1 for spin “down”, and σ
i
are the Pauli
2
n
0 1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
l
E
n
e
r
g
y
a
u
FIG. 1. (Color online) The positive energy spectrum, Eq.
(8), for the Dirac oscillator in (2 +1) dimensions for diﬀerent
values of n and l with m = ω = 1 and s = 1. Notice that
levels with quantum numbers n ±q have the same energy as
levels with l ±q, with q an integer.
matrices. By squaring Eq. (3), one obtains
_
p
2
+ m
2
ω
2
r
2
−2mω(σ
3
+ sL
3
)
¸
ψ = (E
2
−m
2
)ψ. (6)
If one adopts the following decomposition
ψ =
_
ψ
1
ψ
2
_
=
_
f(r) e
ilφ
ig(r) e
i(l+s)φ
_
, (7)
for the spinor, from Eq. (6), it is possible to obtain the
energy spectrum [21]:
E = ±
_
m
2
+ 2mω (2n +l −sl), (8)
and unnormalized wave functions
f(ρ) = ρ
(l+1)/2
e
−ρ/2
M (−n, 1 +l, ρ) . (9)
Here, n = 0, 1, 2, . . ., l = 0, ±1, ±2, . . ., ρ = mωr
2
and
M(z) is the conﬂuent hypergeometric function of the ﬁrst
kind [49]. It should be noted that the spectrum is spin
dependent, and for sl > 0 the energy eigenvalues are
independent of l as depicted in the Fig. 1.
III. κDIRAC OSCILLATOR IN (2 + 1)
DIMENSIONS
In this section, we address the Dirac oscillator in (2+1)
dimensions in the framework of κPoincar´eHopf algebra.
We begin with the κDirac equation in (2+1) dimensions
[41, 42, 46]
_
γ
0
P
0
−γ
i
P
i
+
ε
2
_
γ
0
(P
2
0
−P
i
P
i
) −mP
0
¸
_
ψ = mψ,
(10)
with i = 1, 2. Identifying P
0
= H = E and P
i
= π
i
=
p
i
−imωβr
i
, we have
Hψ =
_
H
0
−
ε
2
(H
2
−π
i
π
i
−mβH)
_
ψ = Eψ, (11)
By iterating Eq. (11), we have up to O(ε) (ε
2
≈ 0)
Hψ =
_
H
0
−
ε
2
(H
2
0
−π
i
π
i
−mβH
0
)
_
ψ = Eψ, (12)
with H
0
given in Eq. (3). By using the same representa
tion of the previous section for the γ matrices, Eq. (12)
assumes the form
_
1 +
mε
2
σ
z
_
(σ
x
π
x
+ sσ
y
π
y
+ mσ
z
)ψ =
_
E + ε
_
m
2
ω
2
r
2
−mωsL
z
+ imωσ
z
(r · p)
¸_
ψ. (13)
Equation (13), in polar coordinates (r, φ), reads
e
isσzφ
_
1 +
mε
2
σ
z
__
σ
x
∂
r
+ σ
y
_
s
r
∂
φ
−imωr
__
ψ =
i
_
E −mσ
z
+ ε
_
m
2
ω
2
r
2
+ imωs∂
φ
+ mωσ
z
r∂
r
_¸
ψ.
(14)
Our task now is solve Eq. (14). As the deformation
does not break the angular symmetry, then we can use a
similar ansatz as for the usual (undeformed) case
ψ =
_
f
ε
(r) e
ilφ
ig
ε
(r) e
i(l+s)φ
_
, (15)
but now with the radial part labeled by the deformation
parameter. So, by using the ansatz (15) into Eq. (14),
we ﬁnd a set of two coupled radial diﬀerential equations
of ﬁrst order
_
1 +
mε
2
_
_
d
dr
+
s(l + s)
r
−mωr
_
g
ε
(r) = (E−m)f
ε
(r)
+ ε
_
m
2
ω
2
r
2
−mωsl + mωr
d
dr
_
f
ε
(r), (16a)
_
1 −
mε
2
_
_
d
dr
−
sl
r
+ mωr
_
f
ε
(r) = −(E + m)g
ε
(r)
−ε
_
m
2
ω
2
r
2
−mωs(l + s) −mωρ
d
dr
_
g
ε
(r). (16b)
The above system of equations can be decoupled yielding
a single second order diﬀerential equation for f
ε
(r),
−f
′′
ε
(r) −
_
1
r
+ 2m
2
εωr
_
f
′
ε
(r)
+
_
l
2
r
2
+ (1 −2Eε) m
2
ω
2
r
2
−k
2
ε
_
f
ε
(r) = 0, (17)
where
k
2
ε
= E
2
− m
2
+ 2mω [(sl + 1)(1 −εE) + mε] . (18)
3
0
10
4
10
3
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
6.4
6.6
6.8
7.0
7.2
7.4
7.6
7.8
l
E
n
e
r
g
y
a
u
FIG. 2. (Color online) The deformed energy levels, Eq. (23),
for the κDirac oscillator in (2 + 1) dimensions for n = 10,
s = 1 and for diﬀerent values of l. We use units such as
m = ω = 1.
A similar equation for g
ε
there exists. The regular solu
tion for Eq. (17) is
f
ε
(ρ) = (λ
ε
ρ)
(l−1)/2
e
−(mε+λε)ρ/2
M (d
ε
, 1 +l, λ
ε
ρ) ,
(19)
where
λ
ε
= 1 −Eε, (20)
and
d
ε
=
1 +l
2
+
2m
2
ωε − k
2
ε
4γλ
ε
. (21)
The deformed spectrum are obtained by establishing
as convergence criterion the condition d
ε
= −n. In this
manner, the deformed energy spectrum is given by
E
2
−m
2
= 2mω(2n +l −sl)λ
ε
. (22)
Thus, solving Eq. (22) for E, the deformed energy levels
are explicitly given by
E = ±
_
m
2
+ 2mω(2n +l −sl) −mεω(2n +l −sl),
(23)
and its unnormalized wave functions are of the form
f
ε
(ρ) = (λ
ε
ρ)
(l−1)/2
e
−(mε+λε)ρ/2
M (−n, 1 +l, λ
ε
ρ) .
(24)
In deriving our results we have neglected terms of O(ε
2
).
We can observe that the particle and antiparticle ener
gies are diﬀerent, as a consequence of charge conjugation
symmetry breaking caused by the deformation parameter
[48]. Notice that, ε = 0, exactly conducts to the results
for the energy levels and wave functions of the previous
section for the usual Dirac oscillator, revealing the con
sistency of the description here developed. It is worth
while to note that the inﬁnity degeneracy present in the
usual twodimensional Dirac oscillator is preserved by the
deformation, but aﬀecting the separation of the energy
levels. The distance between the adjacent energy levels
decreases as the deformation parameter increases. In Fig.
2 is depicted the undeformed and deformed energy levels
for some values of the deformation parameter for n = 10.
In Ref. [43], we have determined a upper bound for the
deformation parameter. Taking into account this upper
bound, the product mε should be smaller than 0.00116.
In this manner, using units such as m = 1, we must con
sider values for the deformation smaller than 0.00116.
IV. CONCLUSIONS
In this letter, we have considered the dynamics of Dirac
oscillator in the context of κPoincar´eHopf algebra in
(2 + 1) dimensions. Using the fact that the deformation
does not break the angular symmetry, we have derived
the κdeformed radial diﬀerential equation whose solu
tion has led to the deformed energy spectrum and wave
functions. We verify that the energy spectrum and wave
functions are modiﬁed by the presence of the deformation
parameter ε. Using values for the deformation parameter
lower than the upper bound 0.00116, we have examined
the dependence of the energy of the oscillator with the
deformation. The deformation parameter modiﬁes the
energy spectrum and wave functions the Dirac oscilla
tor, preserving the inﬁnity degeneracy, but aﬀecting the
distance between the adjacent energy levels. Finally, the
case ε, exactly conducts for the results for the usual Dirac
oscillator in (2 + 1) dimensions.
V. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported by the Funda¸c˜ ao Arauc´aria
(Grant No. 205/2013), and the Conselho Nacional de
Desenvolvimento Cient´ıﬁco e Tecnol´ogico (Grants No.
482015/20136 (Universal), No. 306068/20133 (PQ))
and FAPEMA (Grant No. 00845/13).
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