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The κ-Dirac oscillator in (2 + 1) dimensions
Fabiano M. Andrade
1, ∗
and Edilberto O. Silva
2, †
1
Departamento de Matem´ atica e Estat´ıstica, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil
2
Departamento de F´ısica, Universidade Federal do Maranh˜ ao,
Campus Universit´ ario do Bacanga, 65085-580 S˜ao Lu´ıs-MA, Brazil
(Dated: June 16, 2014)
In this Letter, the Dirac oscillator in (2 + 1) dimensions in the quantum deformed framework
generated by the κ-Poincar´e-Hopf algebra is considered. The problem is formulated using the κ-
deformed Dirac equation. The resulting theory reveals that the energies and wave functions of the
oscillator are modified by the deformation parameter.
I. INTRODUCTION
The Dirac oscillator, established in 1989 by Moshinsky
and Szczepaniak [1, 2], is considered a natural framework
to access the relativistic quantum properties of quantum
harmonic oscillator-like systems. This model has inspired
a great deal of investigations in recent years. These stud-
ies have allowed the exploration of new models in theo-
retical and experimental physics. In the context of re-
cent investigations, the interest in this issue appears, for
example, in quantum optics [3, 4], deformed Kempf al-
gebra [5], graphene physics [6], noncommutative space
[7–9], quantum phase transition [10, 11] and topological
defects [12, 13]. Among several recent contributions on
the Dirac oscillator, we refer to its first experimental ver-
ification [14]. For a more detailed approach of the Dirac
oscillator see Refs. [15–21].
It is well known that the dynamics of the Dirac oscilla-
tor is governed by the Dirac equation with the nonmini-
mal prescription
p → p −imωβr, (1)
where p is the momentum operator, m is the mass, ω the
frequency of the oscillator and r is the position vector.
In the same context, another usual framework where one
can study the dynamics of the Dirac oscillator is that
in connection with the theory of quantum deformations.
These quantum deformations are realized based on the
κ-Poincar´e-Hopf algebra [22–25] and has direct implica-
tions on the quantum dynamics of relativistic and nonrel-
ativistic quantum systems. The deformation parameter
κ appearing in the theory is usually interpreted as being
the Planck mass m
P
[26]. Some important contributions
on κ-deformation have been studied in Refs. [27–40].
The physical properties of κ-deformed relativistic
quantum systems can be accessed by solving the κ-
deformed Dirac equation [41, 42]. Recently, some stud-
ies involving κ-deformation have also been reported with
great interest. Some theoretical contributions in this con-
text can be found, for example, in Refs. [43–47]. The

fmandrade@uepg.br

edilbertoo@gmail.com
Dirac oscillator in (3 +1) dimensions has been discussed
in connection with the theory of quantum deformations
in Ref. [48]. However, it is well known that a Dirac oscil-
lator in (2+1) dimensions exhibits a dynamics completely
different from that in (3+1) dimensions. In this context,
the main goal of this Letter is study the dynamics of the
Dirac oscillator in (2 + 1) dimensions in the quantum
deformed framework generated by the κ-Poincar´e-Hopf
algebra.
This Letter is organized as follow. In Section II, we
revise the Dirac oscillator in (2 + 1) dimensions and de-
termine the energy levels and wave function. In Section
III, the Dirac oscillator in (2+1) dimensions in the frame-
work of the quantum deformation is discussed. A brief
conclusion is outlined in Section IV.
II. DIRAC OSCILLATOR IN (2 + 1)
DIMENSIONS
In this section, we briefly discuss the usual Dirac oscil-
lator in (2 +1) dimensions for later comparison with the
deformed one. One begins by writing the Dirac equation
in (2 + 1) dimensions
(βγ · p + βm) ψ = Eψ, (2)
where p = (p
x
, p
y
) and ψ is a two-component spinor. The
2D Dirac oscillator is obtained throught the nonmininal
prescription in Eq. (1) where r = (x, y) is the position
vector. Thus, the relevant equation is
H
0
ψ = [βγ · (p − imωβr) + βm] ψ = Eψ, (3)
and the Dirac matrices obey the following anticommuta-
tion relations and the square identity:

i
, α
j
} = 0, i = j

i
, β} = 0,
α
2
i
= β
2
= I. (4)
The γ matrices are conveniently chosen as
βγ
x
= σ
x
, βγ
y
= sσ
y
, β = σ
z
, (5)
where s is twice the spin value, with s = +1 for spin
“up” and s = −1 for spin “down”, and σ
i
are the Pauli
2
n
0 1 2 3 4 5
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
l
E
n
e
r
g
y

a
u

FIG. 1. (Color online) The positive energy spectrum, Eq.
(8), for the Dirac oscillator in (2 +1) dimensions for different
values of n and l with m = ω = 1 and s = 1. Notice that
levels with quantum numbers n ±q have the same energy as
levels with l ±q, with q an integer.
matrices. By squaring Eq. (3), one obtains
_
p
2
+ m
2
ω
2
r
2
−2mω(σ
3
+ sL
3
)
¸
ψ = (E
2
−m
2
)ψ. (6)
If one adopts the following decomposition
ψ =
_
ψ
1
ψ
2
_
=
_
f(r) e
ilφ
ig(r) e
i(l+s)φ
_
, (7)
for the spinor, from Eq. (6), it is possible to obtain the
energy spectrum [21]:
E = ±
_
m
2
+ 2mω (2n +|l| −sl), (8)
and unnormalized wave functions
f(ρ) = ρ
(|l|+1)/2
e
−ρ/2
M (−n, 1 +|l|, ρ) . (9)
Here, n = 0, 1, 2, . . ., l = 0, ±1, ±2, . . ., ρ = mωr
2
and
M(z) is the confluent hypergeometric function of the first
kind [49]. It should be noted that the spectrum is spin
dependent, and for sl > 0 the energy eigenvalues are
independent of l as depicted in the Fig. 1.
III. κ-DIRAC OSCILLATOR IN (2 + 1)
DIMENSIONS
In this section, we address the Dirac oscillator in (2+1)
dimensions in the framework of κ-Poincar´e-Hopf algebra.
We begin with the κ-Dirac equation in (2+1) dimensions
[41, 42, 46]
_
γ
0
P
0
−γ
i
P
i
+
ε
2
_
γ
0
(P
2
0
−P
i
P
i
) −mP
0
¸
_
ψ = mψ,
(10)
with i = 1, 2. Identifying P
0
= H = E and P
i
= π
i
=
p
i
−imωβr
i
, we have
Hψ =
_
H
0

ε
2
(H
2
−π
i
π
i
−mβH)
_
ψ = Eψ, (11)
By iterating Eq. (11), we have up to O(ε) (ε
2
≈ 0)
Hψ =
_
H
0

ε
2
(H
2
0
−π
i
π
i
−mβH
0
)
_
ψ = Eψ, (12)
with H
0
given in Eq. (3). By using the same representa-
tion of the previous section for the γ matrices, Eq. (12)
assumes the form
_
1 +

2
σ
z
_

x
π
x
+ sσ
y
π
y
+ mσ
z
)ψ =
_
E + ε
_
m
2
ω
2
r
2
−mωsL
z
+ imωσ
z
(r · p)
¸_
ψ. (13)
Equation (13), in polar coordinates (r, φ), reads
e
isσzφ
_
1 +

2
σ
z
__
σ
x

r
+ σ
y
_
s
r

φ
−imωr
__
ψ =
i
_
E −mσ
z
+ ε
_
m
2
ω
2
r
2
+ imωs∂
φ
+ mωσ
z
r∂
r

ψ.
(14)
Our task now is solve Eq. (14). As the deformation
does not break the angular symmetry, then we can use a
similar ansatz as for the usual (undeformed) case
ψ =
_
f
ε
(r) e
ilφ
ig
ε
(r) e
i(l+s)φ
_
, (15)
but now with the radial part labeled by the deformation
parameter. So, by using the ansatz (15) into Eq. (14),
we find a set of two coupled radial differential equations
of first order
_
1 +

2
_
_
d
dr
+
s(l + s)
r
−mωr
_
g
ε
(r) = (E−m)f
ε
(r)
+ ε
_
m
2
ω
2
r
2
−mωsl + mωr
d
dr
_
f
ε
(r), (16a)
_
1 −

2
_
_
d
dr

sl
r
+ mωr
_
f
ε
(r) = −(E + m)g
ε
(r)
−ε
_
m
2
ω
2
r
2
−mωs(l + s) −mωρ
d
dr
_
g
ε
(r). (16b)
The above system of equations can be decoupled yielding
a single second order differential equation for f
ε
(r),
−f
′′
ε
(r) −
_
1
r
+ 2m
2
εωr
_
f

ε
(r)
+
_
l
2
r
2
+ (1 −2Eε) m
2
ω
2
r
2
−k
2
ε
_
f
ε
(r) = 0, (17)
where
k
2
ε
= E
2
− m
2
+ 2mω [(sl + 1)(1 −εE) + mε] . (18)
3

0
10
4
10
3
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
6.4
6.6
6.8
7.0
7.2
7.4
7.6
7.8
l
E
n
e
r
g
y

a
u

FIG. 2. (Color online) The deformed energy levels, Eq. (23),
for the κ-Dirac oscillator in (2 + 1) dimensions for n = 10,
s = 1 and for different values of l. We use units such as
m = ω = 1.
A similar equation for g
ε
there exists. The regular solu-
tion for Eq. (17) is
f
ε
(ρ) = (λ
ε
ρ)
(|l|−1)/2
e
−(mε+λε)ρ/2
M (d
ε
, 1 +|l|, λ
ε
ρ) ,
(19)
where
λ
ε
= 1 −Eε, (20)
and
d
ε
=
1 +|l|
2
+
2m
2
ωε − k
2
ε
4γλ
ε
. (21)
The deformed spectrum are obtained by establishing
as convergence criterion the condition d
ε
= −n. In this
manner, the deformed energy spectrum is given by
E
2
−m
2
= 2mω(2n +|l| −sl)λ
ε
. (22)
Thus, solving Eq. (22) for E, the deformed energy levels
are explicitly given by
E = ±
_
m
2
+ 2mω(2n +|l| −sl) −mεω(2n +|l| −sl),
(23)
and its unnormalized wave functions are of the form
f
ε
(ρ) = (λ
ε
ρ)
(|l|−1)/2
e
−(mε+λε)ρ/2
M (−n, 1 +|l|, λ
ε
ρ) .
(24)
In deriving our results we have neglected terms of O(ε
2
).
We can observe that the particle and antiparticle ener-
gies are different, as a consequence of charge conjugation
symmetry breaking caused by the deformation parameter
[48]. Notice that, ε = 0, exactly conducts to the results
for the energy levels and wave functions of the previous
section for the usual Dirac oscillator, revealing the con-
sistency of the description here developed. It is worth-
while to note that the infinity degeneracy present in the
usual two-dimensional Dirac oscillator is preserved by the
deformation, but affecting the separation of the energy
levels. The distance between the adjacent energy levels
decreases as the deformation parameter increases. In Fig.
2 is depicted the undeformed and deformed energy levels
for some values of the deformation parameter for n = 10.
In Ref. [43], we have determined a upper bound for the
deformation parameter. Taking into account this upper
bound, the product mε should be smaller than 0.00116.
In this manner, using units such as m = 1, we must con-
sider values for the deformation smaller than 0.00116.
IV. CONCLUSIONS
In this letter, we have considered the dynamics of Dirac
oscillator in the context of κ-Poincar´e-Hopf algebra in
(2 + 1) dimensions. Using the fact that the deformation
does not break the angular symmetry, we have derived
the κ-deformed radial differential equation whose solu-
tion has led to the deformed energy spectrum and wave
functions. We verify that the energy spectrum and wave
functions are modified by the presence of the deformation
parameter ε. Using values for the deformation parameter
lower than the upper bound 0.00116, we have examined
the dependence of the energy of the oscillator with the
deformation. The deformation parameter modifies the
energy spectrum and wave functions the Dirac oscilla-
tor, preserving the infinity degeneracy, but affecting the
distance between the adjacent energy levels. Finally, the
case ε, exactly conducts for the results for the usual Dirac
oscillator in (2 + 1) dimensions.
V. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported by the Funda¸c˜ ao Arauc´aria
(Grant No. 205/2013), and the Conselho Nacional de
Desenvolvimento Cient´ıfico e Tecnol´ogico (Grants No.
482015/2013-6 (Universal), No. 306068/2013-3 (PQ))
and FAPEMA (Grant No. 00845/13).
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