You are on page 1of 56

Petrologa

gnea
Presentaciones Modificadas
de John Winter
PETROLOGA GNEA


Prof. Teora: MSc. Julin A. Lpez I.
Prof. Prctica: Candidato a MSc. Julieta Pineda.

Primer Semestre 2012


Escuela de Geologa - UIS
Igneous
Petrology
The Earths Interior
Crust:
Oceanic crust
Thin: 10 km
Relatively uniform stratigraphy
= ophiolite suite:
Sediments
pillow basalt
sheeted dikes
more massive gabbro
ultramafic (mantle)
Continental Crust
Thicker: 20-90 km average ~35 km
Highly variable composition
Average ~ granodiorite
The Earths Interior
Mantle:
Peridotite (ultramafic)
Upper to 410 km (olivine spinel)
Low Velocity Layer 60-220 km
Transition Zone as velocity increases ~ rapidly
660 spinel perovskite-type
Si
IV
Si
VI

Lower Mantle has more gradual
velocity increase
Figure 1-2. Major subdivisions of the Earth.
Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous
and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
The Earths Interior
Core:
Fe-Ni metallic alloy
Outer Core is liquid
No S-waves
Inner Core is solid
Figure 1-2. Major subdivisions of the Earth.
Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous
and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.
Figure 1-3. Variation in P and S wave velocities with depth. Compositional subdivisions of the Earth are on the left,
rheological subdivisions on the right. After Kearey and Vine (1990), Global Tectonics. Blackwell Scientific. Oxford.
Figure 1-5. Relative atomic abundances of the seven most common elements that comprise 97% of the Earth's mass. An
Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, by John Winter , Prentice Hall.
The Pressure Gradient
P increases = gh
Nearly linear through
mantle
~ 30 MPa/km
1 GPa at base of ave crust
Core: incr. more rapidly
since alloy more dense
Figure 1-8. Pressure variation with depth. From Dziewonski and
Anderson (1981). Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 25, 297-356. Elsevier
Science.
Heat Sources
in the Earth
1. Heat from the early accretion and
differentiation of the Earth
still slowly reaching surface
Heat Sources
in the Earth
1. Heat from the early accretion and
differentiation of the Earth
still slowly reaching surface
2. Heat released by the radioactive
breakdown of unstable nuclides
Heat Transfer
1. Radiation
2. Conduction
3. Convection
The Geothermal Gradient
Figure 1-11(new). Estimates of oceanic (blue
curves) and continental shield (red curves)
geotherms to a depth of 300 km. The
thickness of mature (> 100Ma) oceanic
lithosphere is hatched and that of continental
shield lithosphere is yellow. Data from Green
and Falloon ((1998), Green & Ringwood
(1963), Jaupart and Mareschal (1999),
McKenzie et al. (2005 and personal
communication), Ringwood (1966), Rudnick
and Nyblade (1999), Turcotte and Schubert
(2002).
The
Geothermal
Gradient
Pattern of global heat flux variations compiled from
observations at over 20,000 sites and modeled on a
spherical harmonic expansion to degree 12. From Pollack,
Hurter and Johnson. (1993) Rev. Geophys. 31, 267-280.
Cross-section of the mantle based on a seismic tomography model. Arrows
represent plate motions and large-scale mantle flow and subduction zones
represented by dipping line segments. EPR =- East pacific Rise, MAR = Mid-
Atlantic Ridge, CBR = Carlsberg Ridge. Plates: EA = Eurasian, IN = Indian, PA =
Pacific, NA = North American, SA = South American, AF = African, CO = Cocos.
From Li and Romanowicz (1996). J. Geophys. Research, 101, 22,245-72.
Figure 1-9. Estimated ranges of
oceanic and continental steady-
state geotherms to a depth of
100 km using upper and lower
limits based on heat flows
measured near the surface.
After Sclater et al. (1980),
Earth. Rev. Geophys. Space
Sci., 18, 269-311.
Plate Tectonic - Igneous Genesis
1. Mid-ocean Ridges
2. Intracontinental Rifts
3. Island Arcs
4. Active Continental
Margins
5. Back-arc Basins
6. Ocean Island Basalts
7. Miscellaneous Intra-
Continental Activity
kimberlites, carbonatites,
anorthosites...
Fundamental Concepts in Igneous
Petrology (Chapter 1)
Ash-Rich Strombolian Activity, Stromboli Volcano, Italy
Image source: www.photovolcanica.com
1. How do we know we are dealing
with igneous rocs k ?
A. Observational criteria (general)
i. Field Criteria
cross-cut the
country rocks
and truncate
structures
image source: Barb Dutrow,
2005
1. How do we know we are dealing
with igneous rocs k ?
A. Observational criteria (general)
i. Field Criteria Contact effects: chilled margins
or contact metamorphic effects
(above) Salsbury Crags , Teschenite Sill
(Edinburgh)
(right) Huttons step contact Image source: Barb Dutrow and Darrell Henry (2002)
metamorphism of sandstone.
1. How do we know we are dealing
with igneous rocs k ?
A. Observational criteria (general)
i. Field Criteria
Geological forms
directly observed
as igneous
events:
cinder cones,
stratovolcanoes,
flows, etc.
Ash-Rich Strombolian Activity, Stromboli Volcano,
Italy
Image source: www.photovolcanica.com

1. How do we know we are dealing
with igneous rocs k ?
A. Observational criteria (general)
ii. Textural Criteria
Macroscopic/
microscopic
development of
interlocking texture.
first-crystallizing minerals
are most euhedral and later
minerals are less euhedral
Gabbro - Rustenberg layered suite,Bushveld
Complex:
Image source:
http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/geolsci/dlr/bvthin.
html
(paragenetic sequence)
1. How do we know we are dealing
with igneous rocs k ?
A. Observational criteria (general)
ii. Textural Criteria
glassy textures
Osidian from a flow
Image source: Hamblin and Christiansen (2001)
Ash grain from
pyroclastic
eruption:
e.g. Mt. St. Helens
1. How do we know we are dealing
with igneous rocs k ?
A. Observational criteria (general)
ii. Textural Criteria
random orientation of
crystals
except where there is crystal
settling or magmatic flow
Granite (above) and Gabbro (right)
Image source: Darrell Henry, 2007
1. How do we know we are dealing
with igneous rocs k ?
A. Observational criteria (general)
ii. Textural Criteria development of pyroclastic
deposits (explosive eruptive materials)

rapidly cooled/partly sedimentary
Rapidly- cooled fragments
of rock and ash extruded as
a hot volcanic ash deposit -
welded tuff


Image source: Hamblin and
Christiansen (2001)
2. What does a igneous petrologist try
to assess:
generaton i of mets l [how many ?]
source of melting [where?]
material that is melted [what?]
processes that modify melts during
crystallization, etc.? [how changed?]
3. How does a petrologist assess this?
A. Experience at looking at rocks and
interpreting textures
Tokachi Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan (2006) Walter Maresch (Ruhr Univ.), Barb
Dutrow
(LSU) and Dan Dunkley (Univ. Tokyo). Image source: Darrell Henry
3. How does a petrologist assess this?
B. Experimental data to simulate the
conditions at depth
Piston cylinder apparatus and experimental assembly from Ruhr Univ.. Image
source: Barb
Dutrow, 1987
3. How does a petrologist assess this?
C. Theoretical models to extend experimental
data to other conditions i.e. thermodynamics

Theoretical melting models to relate decompression melting and the types of
melts to rocks.

Image source: Ed Stolper (CalTech).
3. How does a petrologist assess this?
D. Knowledge of the interior of the Earth
direct samples of the mantle
Mantle xenolith in alkali basalt.
Image source: Barb Dutrow, 2006
Seiad Ultramafic Complex, northern
California. Image source: Darrell Henry, 1973
3. How does a petrologist assess this?
D. Knowledge of interior of the Earth
indirect samples - meteorites

Meteorites - arrested early
stages of development of
solar nebula with no
subsequent alteration or
differentiation
clues to the development
of the planets
Meteor Crater, Arizona. The explosive impact of a meteorite.

Image source: Press and Siever, 2001
3. How does a petrologist assess this?
D. Knowledge of interior of the Earth
indirect samples - meteorites

Irons (Fe-Ni alloy) - planetary
cores?
5% of falls
[Iron meteorite MALTAHOHE, Namibia Image
source:http://www.meteoriteman.com/]
Stony-irons (Metal and silicate
minerals) - partial differentiation
1% of falls
[Stony-iron meteorite palllasite, Dora, New
Mexico.
Image source: Smithsonian Institution]

3. How does a petrologist assess this?
D. Knowledge of interior of the Earth
indirect samples - meteorites

Stones (Achondrites)
differentiated also SNC ground

8% of falls
Stones (Carbonaceous chondrite)
primitive undifferentiated
86% of falls
[Chondrite Allende meteorite: Chihuahua,
Mexico.
Image source: http://www.meteoriteman.com/]

[Achondrite Martian meteorite, Nakhla, Egypt,

Image source: http://www.meteoriteman.com

4. What do we think we know about
Earths interior?
A. The Earth is layered
Earth has layered
structure:
crust (oceanic and
continental)
mantle
core (inner and outer)
image source: Press and Siever,
2001
4. What do we think we know about

Earths interior?
A. The Earth is layered
Internal structure is
largely established by
variations in P- and S-
seismic waves.
The Mohorovicic (Moho)
discontinuity at interface
of crust and upper
mantle is compositional
discontinuity.
image source: Winter
(2001)
4. What do we think we know about

Earths interior?
A. The Earth is layered
Low velocity zones in upper
mantle is zone of 1-10%
melting
forms the asthenosphere
serves as interface of
lithospheric plates and
mesophere.
image source: Winter
(2001)
4. What do we think we know about

Earths interior?
A. The Earth is layered
Damping of S waves in the
outer core signals presence
of liquid outer core.
Sharp increase in S- and P-
wave velocities indicate
solid metallic inner core.
image source: Winter
(2001)
4. What do we think we know about

Earths interior?
A. The Earth is layered
Continental crust Vs. ocean crust
Thicker: 25-60 km vs. 0-10 km
Older: some >4 Ga vs. <160 Ma.
Si-richer: 52-75% SiO
2
vs. 50-52% SiO
2
.
Crust/upper mantle are coupled
as lithospheric plate to depths of
initial low velocity zones.
image source: Press and Siever
(2001)
4. What do we think we know about

Earths interior?
A. The Earth is layered
Within mantle there are
additional discontinuities that
mark polymorphic transitions of
olivine:
410 km olivine converts to
spinel- type structures
660 km there is a transition to
a perovskite-type structure.
image source: Press and Siever
(2001)
4. What do we think we know about

Earths interior?
A. The Earth is layered
New player: Post-perovskite -
high-pressure phase of MgSiO
3

P and T stability at lowermost
Earth's mantle.
Post-perovskite" derives from

name of stable phase of MgSiO
3
throughout most of Earth's
mantle, i.e. perovskite.
image source: Press and Siever
(2001)
5. Hypothesis for origin of Earth?
A. Early differentiation (first few 10s of
millions of years?)
image source: Press and Siever (2001)
Differentiation process
likely results from
heating due to
combinations of
gravitational collapse
accretion of
planetismals
Sinking of iron to form
core
radioactive decay
5. Hypothesis for origin of Earth?
B. Resulting heterogeneous Earth composition
Differentiation
produced chemical
zonation in the Earth
Defines nature of rock
types that will develop.
image source: Press and Siever
(2001)
6. P-T-depth relation in the Earth?
Relationship between
depth and pressure
a function of weight of
the overlying column of
material.
image source: Winter (2001)
5. P-T-depth relation in the Earth?
In systems that flow
(ductile), P is equal in all
directions i.e. lithostatic
P = gh
= density
g = acceleration of
gravity
h = height of rock
column
Image source: Winter (2001)
5. P-T-depth relation in the Earth?
with composition e.g.
crust ~ 2.8 g/cm
3
and
Near surface, rocks
behave brittly
can accommodate small
amount of differential P
(a few kbars) before
fracturing.
mantle ~ 3.3 g/cm
3
.
density changes primarily
Image source: Winter (2001)
5. P-depth-T relation in the Earth?
Variation of T with
depth is geothermal
gradient.
Related to factors
including cooling
initiated in the early
Earth and radioactive
decay.
Estimated ranges of oceanic and
continental steady-state geotherms to a
image source: Winter (2001)
depth of 100 km using upper and lower
limits based on heat flows measured
near the surface.
5. P-depth-T relation in the Earth?
Heat is transferred by:
radiation to space
(minor)
conduction (thermal
vibration)
convection (density
differences
associated with T)
advection (transfer of
heat with rocks)

Image source: Winter (2001)
7. Where are magmas from? where
it is hot enough igneous genesis.
Plate tectonics
1. Mid-ocean Ridges
2. Intracontinental Rifts
3. Island Arcs
4. Active Continental
Margins
5. Back-arc Basins
6. Ocean Island Basalts
7. Miscellaneous Intra-
Continental Activity
kimberlites, carbonatites,
anorthosites...
Classification of Igneous Rocks
Figure 2-1a. Method #1 for plotting a point with the components: 70% X, 20% Y, and 10% Z on
triangular diagrams. An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, John Winter, Prentice Hall.
Classification of Igneous Rocks
Figure 2-1b. Method #2 for plotting a point with the components: 70% X, 20% Y, and 10% Z on triangular
diagrams. An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, John Winter, Prentice Hall.
Classification
of Igneous
Rocks
Figure 2-2. A classification of the phaneritic igneous
rocks. a. Phaneritic rocks with more than 10% (quartz +
feldspar + feldspathoids). After IUGS.
The rock must contain a total of
at least 10% of the minerals below.
Renormalize to 100%
(a)
Quartz-rich
Granitoid
90 90
60 60
20 20
Alkali Fs.
Quartz Syenite
Quartz
Syenite
Quartz
Monzonite
Quartz
Monzodiorite
Syenite Monzonite Monzodiorite
(Foid)-bearing
Syenite
5
10 35 65
(Foid)-bearing
Monzonite
(Foid)-bearing
Monzodiorite
90
Alkali Fs.
Syenite
(Foid)-bearing
Alkali Fs. Syenite
10
(Foid)
Monzosyenite
(Foid)
Monzodiorite
Qtz. Diorite/
Qtz. Gabbro
5
10
Diorite/Gabbro/
Anorthosite
(Foid)-bearing
Diorite/Gabbro
60
(Foid)olites
Quartzolite
Granite
Grano-
diorite
Q
A
P
F
60
Classification of Igneous Rocks
Figure 2-2. A classification of the phaneritic
igneous rocks. b. Gabbroic rocks. c. Ultramafic
rocks. After IUGS.
Plagioclase
Olivine
Pyroxene
G
a
b
b
r
o
T
r
o
c
t
o
l
i
t
e
Olivine
gabbro
Plagioclase-bearing ultramafic rocks
90
(b)
Anorthosite
Olivine
Clinopyroxene
Orthopyroxene
Lherzolite
Websterite
Orthopyroxenite
Clinopyroxenite
Olivine Websterite
Peridotites
Pyroxenites
90
40
10
10
Dunite
(c)
Classification of
Igneous Rocks
Figure 2-3. A classification and nomenclature
of volcanic rocks. After IUGS.
(foid)-bearing
Trachyte
(foid)-bearing
Latite
(foid)-bearing
Andesite/Basalt
(Foid)ites
10
60
60
35 65
10
20
20
60
60
F
A P
Q
Rhyolite Dacite
Trachyte Latite Andesite/Basalt
Phonolite Tephrite
Classification of Igneous Rocks
Figure 2-4. A chemical classification of volcanics based on total alkalis vs. silica. After Le Bas et al.
(1986) J. Petrol., 27, 745-750. Oxford University Press.
Classification of Igneous Rocks
Figure 2-5. Classification of the pyroclastic rocks. a. Based on type of material. After Pettijohn
(1975) Sedimentary Rocks, Harper & Row, and Schmid (1981) Geology, 9, 40-43. b. Based on the
size of the material. After Fisher (1966) Earth Sci. Rev., 1, 287-298.