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Behaviour of Photovoltaic Systems

During Grid Disturbances


A Project Report
Submitted in Partial Fullment of
Requirement for the Degree of
Master of Engineering
in
Electrical Engineering
By
Vijayakumar S.
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Science
Bangalore - 560 012
India
June 2012
Acknowledgements
I am grateful to Dr. U.J. Shenoy, for oering me this exciting project. I sincerely thank him
for his patience, motivation and lectures.
I would like to thank Prof. G. Narayanan for his courses and the challenging assignments
right from Electronics Circuits lab to PWM course.
I thank Prof.Udaya kumar, Prof.M.K.Gunasekaran, Prof.L.Umanand and Dr.Vinod John
for their exceptional lectures.
I specially thank Arun Karuppaswamy, Senthilkumar(Sun Edison Ltd), Amit Kumar and
Sachin Srivastava (ABB) for their suggestions and help during the project. I also thank all
my classmates and friends for their kind co-operation and help that makes me IISc a homely
experience
I thank Mr. H.N.Purushothama, Mr. K.Jagannath Kini, Mr D.M.Channegowda at the
department oce for their good and kind administrative activities.
I also admire the help of Mr.C.S.Kore, DGM-Larsen & Toubro Ltd, for granting me a
study leave in this great organization.
I also thank Indian Institute of Science for giving me this opportunity to pursue my higher
education in this mighty institution. I sincerely thank hostel and administrative section for
their kind help during my tenure in IISc.
i
Abstract
Use of Renewable energy is highly motivated around the world due to various environmental
issues. Many countries planning for modest addition of green energy to their grid, both on
transmission and distribution level. These Distributed generations improves power system
reliability and power quality, but it leads to a problem related to power system stability
and security. So addition of these distribution resources in the existing network open up
new challenges in power system protection due to its unpredictable nature and multi feed
capability.
This project deals with the transient behaviour of grid connected photovoltaic sys-
tem(PV) under various grid and climatic conditions. A study is carried out with detailed
modelling of the system considering both dynamic and steady state responses. Impact of
various PV system dynamic elements, during abnormal conditions was analysed. PV system
along with distribution systems are modelled by using MATLAB/Simulink, such that faster
simulation and better response is obtained.
Overall System is divided into nonlinear photovoltaic system and linear distribution sys-
tem. To improve the simulation performance, non linear Photovoltaic system is modelled in
detail, but distribution system is modelled as a state space equation. Analysis carried out
by using photovoltaic plant with a capacity of (2 500kW) 1MW interfaced with the 33kV
distribution system.
Overall, the project work involves, modelling of full PV system (includes modelling of
photovoltaic panel, controllers, MPPT, PLL), distribution network and system interface. By
using the PV system model, behaviour of photovoltaic system during abnormal conditions,
such as loss of grid (unintentional island), system fault, disturbances in the grid voltage (at
PCC), frequency and irradiance are studied and documented.
ii
Contents
Acknowledgements i
Abstract ii
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii
Nomenclature xi
1 PV Generation - Current Scenario 1
1.1 Global PV Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 PV Installation in India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Solar Mission JNNSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4 Photovoltaic System Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4.1 PV System Grid interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.5 Project Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.5.1 Activities in the Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.6 Organization of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2 PV Panel Modelling 7
2.1 PV Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 Important Terms in PV Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.1 Irradiance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2.2 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2.3 NOCT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
iii
iv Contents
2.2.4 Standard Test Conditions(STC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2.5 Open Circuit Voltage V
oc
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2.6 Short Circuit Current I
sc
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2.7 Maximum Power Point MPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2.8 Maximum Power Voltage and Current (V
m
&I
m
) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2.9 Fill Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2.10 Temperature Co-ecient
v
&
i
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3 Manufacturer Data Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.4 PV Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.4.1 Single Diode Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.4.1.1 Series Resistance R
s
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.4.1.2 Shunt Resistance R
sh
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.2 Double Diode Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.3 Sandstrom Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4.4 A.J. Anderson Translation equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.4.5 Bleasser Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.4.6 Michigan University Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.4.6.1 Calculation of b (t variable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.5 PV Model Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.6 PV System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.6.1 Selection of PV Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.6.2 Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.6.3 Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3 PV System Control 26
3.1 Synchronous Reference Frame Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.1.1 Synchronous Frame Transformation for Three Phase Balanced System 27
3.1.2 Synchronous Frame Transformation for Three Phase Unbalanced System 28
3.2 Phase Locked Loops (PLL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.3 Current Reference Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.4 Filter Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.5 Current Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.5.1 Current Equations in d-q Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Contents v
3.5.2 Current Controller Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.5.3 PV System Current Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.6 DC bus Capacitor Voltage Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.6.1 Voltage Controller Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.6.2 Dynamic Simulation of DC bus Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.7 Simulation of PV System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4 Distribution System 44
4.1 Important terms in Distribution System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.2 System Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.3 Distribution System Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4.3.1 Modelling of Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4.3.2 Innite Grid Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.3.3 Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.3.4 Distribution Line Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.4 Distribution System Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5 System Simulation Method 50
5.1 Issues in System Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5.2 Methods to Improve Simulation Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.3 System Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
5.4 Simulation of Line faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.5 Simulation of Loss of Grid (Islanding) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6 Impact of DG on Area EPS 56
6.1 Tripping Parameters for Distribution System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
6.1.1 Thumb Rule for Islanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
7 Simulation Results 58
7.1 Case 1: Normal Operation of Full PV System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
7.2 Case 2: Change in Irradiance from 1000W/m
2
to 500W/m
2
. . . . . . . . . . 60
7.2.1 MPPT =0.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.2.2 MPPT=0.01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.3 Case 3: Grid Voltage Disturbance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
vi Contents
7.3.1 Grid Voltage Variation from 1pu to 0.85pu at t=0.25s . . . . . . . . . 63
7.3.2 Grid Voltage Variation from 1pu to 1.1pu at t=0.25s . . . . . . . . . 66
7.4 Case 3 : Change in Grid Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.5 Case 4: Three Phase Fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.5.1 Three Phase Fault in Line-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.5.2 Three Phase Fault at Line-1 with Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.6 Case-5: Loss of Grid - Islanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.6.1 Loss of Grid, Load1 = 750kW, Q
f
= 1.7 Load2 = 70kW at t = 0.25s 72
7.6.2 Loss of Grid, Load1 = 500kW, Q
f
= 1.7 Load2 = 70kW at t = 0.25s 74
7.6.3 Loss of Grid, Load 1 = 1300kW, Q
f
= 1.7 Load 2 = 70kW at t =
0.25s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.6.4 Loss of Grid, Load1 = 900kW, Q
f
= 1.7 Load2 = 70kW at t = 0.25s 75
7.6.5 Summary of Voltage & Current Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
7.7 Case 6: Study of Nuisance Trip for Fault Ride Through Enabled PV System 77
8 Conclusions 80
A MATLAB Simulation 83
A.1 Over all system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
A.2 Distribution Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
A.3 Distribution System - Phase a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
A.4 PV System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
References 87
List of Tables
4.1 Line Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6.1 System response to abnormal voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
7.1 Voltage at PCC & PV System (500kW) Output Current . . . . . . . . . . . 76
vii
List of Figures
1.1 Schematic diagram PV system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1 PV Operating Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2 V-I & P-V Characteristics of Sanyo 215W PV Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3 Concept of Air Mass Spectrum[7] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.4 Solar Light Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.5 Manufacturer Data Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.6 Single Diode Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.7 Double Diode Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.8 PV Panel Model implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.9 PV Panel Model in MATLAB/SIMULINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.10 PV System Single line diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.11 Structure of PV Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.12 Flowchart of P&O MPPT Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1 Frame Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.2 Sequence Component of Unbalanced System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.3 Sequence Component for L-G Fault at Phase C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.4 Sequence component for L-G fault at phase C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.5 Simplied structure of SRF PLL with lter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.6 Performance of PLL during fault at t=0.5s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.7 Inverter - Filter - Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.8 Current controller block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.9 Current Controller Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.10 Overall Current Controller Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
viii
List of Figures ix
3.11 Calculation of PV System Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.12 Voltage Controller Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.13 Voltage Controller Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.14 Voltage Controller with Power Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.15 Simulation of PV system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.1 DG interconnection Terms IEEE std. 1547 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.2 Single Line Schematic Diagram of the Photovoltaic System Interfaced with
Distribution Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
5.1 System Implementation in MATLAB/SIMULINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.2 Simulation of Line Fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.3 Simulation of Loss of Grid(Islanding) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.1 PV System Response for MPPT perturbation =0.1, E = 1000W/m
2
, T = 25
o
C 59
7.2 Distribution system Line Currents i
g1
, i
g2
, i
g3
, & i
s1
for MPPT=0.1, E =
1000W/m
2
, T = 25
o
C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
7.3 Grid Voltage at PCC, Phase a Current & Voltage at PCC & i
ga1
, i
ga2
for
MPPT=0.1, E = 1000W/m
2
, T = 25
o
C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.4 (a)Change in Irradance, (b) Three Phase Output Current of the PV System
MPPT=0.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7.5 PV System Response for Irradiance Change (1000W/m
2
to 500W/m
2
) MPPT=0.1 61
7.6 (a) Transient Portion of PV Current , Power & System Output Current
MPPT=0.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.7 (a) Transient Portion of PV Current ,Voltage, Power & System Output Cur-
rent MPPT=0.01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.8 Transient Response of the PV system for Grid Voltage Variation 1pu to 0.85pu 64
7.9 Grid Voltage (varying from 1pu to 0.85pu)at PCC and PV System Current . 64
7.10 Transient Portion of PV system Elements for Grid Voltage Variation of 1pu
to 0.85pu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.11 PV Voltage Transient for Dierent MPPT Perturbation during Grid Voltage
Variation of 1pu to 0.85pu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.12 Transient Response of the PV system for Grid Voltage Variation 1pu to 1.1pu 66
7.13 Grid Voltage (varying from 1pu to 1.1pu)at PCC and PV System Current . 67
x List of Figures
7.14 PLL Dynamics for Grid Frequency Variation from 50Hz to 45Hz . . . . . . . 67
7.15 Single Line Schematic of Distribution System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.16 Transient Response of the PV system During Three Phase Fault at Line -1 . 68
7.17 Distribution System Line Currents During Fault at Line1 . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.18 PV System Fault Current & Grid Voltage at PCC During Fault at Line-1 . . 69
7.19 Transient Portion of PV System Current & DC Bus Voltage During fault at
Line-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.20 PV System Fault Current & Grid Voltage at PCC During Fault at Line-1
with Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.21 Transient Response of the PV system During Loss of Grid . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.22 Distribution System Line Currents During Loss of Grid . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.23 Grid Voltage at PCC & PV System Current During Loss of Grid . . . . . . . 73
7.24 Grid Voltage Vector & Grid Frequency During Loss of Grid . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.25 Grid Voltage at PCC & PV System Current During Loss of Grid for Load-
1=500kW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.26 Grid Voltage at PCC & PV System Current During Loss of Grid for Load-
1=1300kW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.27 Grid Voltage at PCC & PV System Current During Loss of Grid for Load-
1=900kW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
7.28 Grid Voltage Vector & Grid Frequency During Loss of Grid with Dierent
Connected Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
7.29 Transient Response of the PV system During Fault at Middle of Line-3 . . . 78
7.30 Distribution System Line Currents During Fault at Middle of Line-3 . . . . 78
7.31 Grid Voltage at PCC & PV System Current During Fault at Middle of Line-3 79
A.1 Over all System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
A.2 Distribution Network Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
A.3 Distribution System - Phase a implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
A.4 PV system Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Nomenclature
Symbols : Denitions
V
dc
: Voltage of the dc bus
MPP : Maximum power point
PLL : Phase locked loops
PV : Photo voltaic
I
sc
: Short circuit current
V
oc
: Open circuit voltage
tau
v
: Voltage temperature co-ecient
tau
i
: Current temperature co-ecient
I
m
: Maximum power current
V
m
: Maximum power voltage
I
ph
: Photon Current
I
o
: Diode reverse saturation current
V
T
: Diode thermal voltage
K : Boltzmann Constant
I
pv
: Photovoltaic cell current
V
pv
: Photovoltaic cell voltage
P
pv
: Power generated by Photovoltaic arrays
n : Ideality factor
E : Solar irradiance
: Shadowing factor
L
f
: Filter inductor
C
f
: Filter Capacitor
i
sg
: Current injected into innite grid
xi
xii Nomenclature
i
sa
: PV system phase a output current
v
i
: Inverter output voltage
v
g
: Innite grid voltage
N
s
: Number of PV panel connected in series to form a PV string
N
p
: Number PV string connected in parallel
V
o
m : Zero sequence peak voltage
V
1
m : Positive sequence peak voltage
V
1
m : Negative sequence peak voltage
I
dcap
: d-axis component of the current require to regulate the DC bus voltage
T
s
: Sensor time constant
K
s
: Sensor gain
T
f
: Filter time constant
T
d
: Inverter time constant
V
sd
: d-axis component of grid space voltage vector at PCC
V
sq
: d-axis component of grid space voltage vector at PCC
: Grid frequency in rad/s
v
ia
, v
ib
&v
ic
: Three phase output voltage of the inverter
v
sa
, v
sb
&v
sc
: Three phase grid voltage at PCC(Bus-1)
v
ga
, v
gb
&v
gc
: Three phase substation(innite grid) voltage
v
1La
, v
1Lb
&v
1Lc
: Three phase voltage at Bus-2
v
2La
, v
2Lb
&v
2Lc
: Three phase voltage at Bus-3
Chapter 1
PV Generation - Current Scenario
Increasing fear about global warming leads to better international awareness in renewable
energy sources. Many agreements have been signed by countries (i.e Kyoto, Copenhagen
and Durban) to reduce the global warming. IPCC reports on climate change (i.e arctic
snow melting) warned the global community on carbon foot print. Many countries agreed to
decrease their carbon foot print. In Copenhagen[1], India has made a commitment to reduce
its emissions per unit of GDP 20% to 25% below 2005 levels by 2020. Studies shows that
38% of carbon is coming out from electricity generation.
Since GDP growth is linearly related with electricity production, each year India has
to increase the generation by 10% (current installation of 190 GW). Currently India is the
third biggest consumer of coal and its growing decit and increasing export tax in coal
rich countries (i.e., Indonesia) leads to shut down of many thermal stations. Also 1unit of
electricity produces 1kg of carbon, it is dicult to go forward with coal based thermal plant.
There is another statistics[2] says that, if Indian car owning capability (1% now) increase to
25% (1 in 4), then India have to import 20 times more than current oil import, it is not at
all feasible. So hybrid or e-car will be the only option. This leads to increased dependency
of electricity in the future year. Mean time India is trying to improve its per capita energy
consumption at least to 1000 units/annum.
Indian government is looking forward on renewable energy sources, especially in solar.
But disadvantage with solar energy is its cost, because it is more expensive than other
conventional and renewable energy sources (Rs. 10/unit for solar thermal, Rs. 10/unit for
solar PV, Rs.10.49 for diesel, and Rs.2.50 for coal and Rs.4.20 for wind). Due to increment
in the oil price, solar PV generation cost went below conventional diesel and gas based plant
(by considering cumulative unit cost). During last year, cost of the PV was decreased from
1
2 Chapter 1. PV Generation - Current Scenario
40 to 50%, due to increased capacity of panel and other auxiliary equipments production,
further cost reduction in the generations are expected in the near future.
1.1 Global PV Installation
Installation of solar PV has been growing rapidly world wide. Installation of PV generations
(Maximum Peak at STC) is increased from[4] 7.5GW at 2007 to 70GW at the end of 2011.
Many countries in the world trying for modest addition of the PV generation. Out of the
total installation, Europe itself accounts for around 52GW PV generation, German leading
is with 27GW of PV installation, followed by USA, Japan, Spain and China. Many large
scale PV plant installations are in progress (E.g 550MW Topaz Plant and 500MW Blythe
Solar Plant both in California etc). Greece plans to add 10000MW before 2015 and
Israel looking for major addition of PV generation.
Studies show that world-wide installation of PV generation will reach above 1.8TW
(which is approximately equal to present power installation of whole India). As of now
Golmud solar park (200MW) is the biggest individual solar plant in the world, but largest
solar park is Charanka Solar Park (214MW) Gujarat India, installation in this park expected
to increase upto to 500MW
1.2 PV Installation in India
India is one of the high solar insolation receiving country around 4 7unit/m
2
with 250-330
solar days, where western Rajasthan receive high irradiation and north east on the lower
side. So the high solar irradiance with higher population density makes India as a perfect
choice for solar PV. Demo project constructed by MNRE around India shows that, country
has highest capacity utilization factor[3] (CUF around 15%-19% ) only after US Mojave
desert. Gujarat and Rajasthan found to be a better choice due to its land availability (14.4
million acre in Gujarat, 51 million acre in Rajasthan) and high solar radiation. Around 5
acre is required for 1MW generation. Solar can supply power to entire country. Studies
shows that Indias available non conventional energy potential -solar energy accounting to 40
%. So India cannot avoid solar for its future progress.
PV generations in India is experiencing more than 100% growth over last two years, In
November 2011 India had 146MW PV installation, but as on MAY 2012 India has 979.4MW
1.3. Solar Mission JNNSM 3
installed PV generation. Gujarat is leading the race with 654MW PV installation, Rajasthan
has around 200MW installed PV generation. Gujarat government is planning for very high
PV installation. Patan district (in Gujarat) have highest PV installation in Asia. Charanka
Solar Park (in Gujarat)is the biggest PV plant in Asia with planned capacity of 500MW,
in this 214MW which is already installed. RIL 40MW thin lm (500000 Panels) solar plant
and Adani 40MW plant are the largest individual PV plants in India. Gujarat government
proposed multi purpose Narmada Canal PV plant, which is rst of its kind in the world.
Already 1MW PV plant is installed on the Narmada canal.
1.3 Solar Mission JNNSM
Indian government (MNRE) proposed a big project called Jawaharlal Nehru national solar
mission (JNNSM) at a cost of 19bn US$. To generate 20000 MW of grid connected solar
energy before 2022, 1000 MW before 2013, and additional 3000 MW before 2017, using solar
photovoltaic and solar thermal technique. It is planned to add power in 33 KV line and
above (which will be purchased by NVVN), also to add generation in 11 kV line (roof top
PV) with the subsidy by MNRE Rs. 12 for solar PV and Rs.10 for solar thermal (excluding
utility PPA).
1.4 Photovoltaic System Overview
PV cell converts light energy into electrical energy. Many PV cells connected in series will
form PV cell string to achieve high voltage, and many strings are connected in parallel to
increase the current capability will form a PV module or PV panel. PV cells generate DC
voltage and this DC voltage is converted into AC by using power electronics inverter. PV
output is proportional to the light energy (irradiance). So there is a need for storage battery,
to ensure supply during less sun irradiance (in night) hours. But this leads to a high cost
and environmental pollution because of chemical substance in the battery. Also batteries
have less life time. So grid connected PV systems as shown in the Fig.1.1 have been very
popular, PV system will inject all its power to the electrical grid, so PV system is fully
utilized. Grid integration is must for MW size PV plants. Proper scheduling between PV
and other conventional power plant can ensure full uninterruptible power supply.
4 Chapter 1. PV Generation - Current Scenario
1.4.1 PV System Grid interface
As shown in the Fig.1.1 .The main building blocks of the grid connected PV system are
PV panel arrays, a Voltage Source inverter(VSI), MPPT, PLL, Filter & Transformer. PV
panel and its characteristic are explained in chapter 3. Dierent control strategies are used
to control & interface PV system to the grid. Popular control strategies are
PV
module
I
pv
MPPT
V
pv
V
pv
Contollers
VSI
Inverter
Filter
Grid
a
b
c
v
sc v
sa
v
sb
PLL
v
dref
I
dref
V
sd
angle
frequency
Transformer
n
Figure 1.1: Schematic diagram PV system
Synchronous reference frame control (SRF)
Stationary reference frame control
Based on the control parameter, many interface control algorithms are proposed in the
literatures. Important interface control techniques[5] are
Constant P-Q control
P-V control
Constant Current control
The studies carried out in the project uses the constant current control interface, due to its
simplicity in UPF based power injection to the grid.
1.5 Project Work
Main aim of the project is to study the behaviour of the grid connected PV system during
various grid disturbances such as three phase fault, voltage variation, frequency variation,
sudden change in the irradiance and loss of grid (Islanding).
1.6. Organization of the Thesis 5
1.5.1 Activities in the Project
To carry out the proposed study, requires modelling of both power system and power elec-
tronic elements. List of project tasks are,
Modelling of PV panel using only manufacturer data sheet
Implementation of MPPT
Controller & PLL Design
Modelling of PV system Interface
Distribution system study and parameter selection
MATLAB/SIMULINK implementation of full system (including Distribution system)
Exploring faster and user friendly simulation method
Using the PV system model, studying the system behaviour for various grid distur-
bances
1.6 Organization of the Thesis
Chapter 2 discusses about implementation of manufacturer data sheet based photo-
voltaic panel model, selection of PV panel, implementation of MPPT and specication
of PV system. Also important terms used in PV system are explained.
Chapter 3 discusses about PLL design with moving average lter, current and voltage
controller design, implementation of (UPF)constant current based interface, DC bus
capacitor dynamic simulation, simulation of full PV system.
Chapter 4 discusses about overview of distribution system, parameter selection of given
distribution system and dynamic equations of distribution system
Chapter 5, discusses about, issues in the system simulation, solution to the problem
and exploring the option of faster & user friendly simulation method.
Chapter 6, discusses about IEEE 1547 protection data and overview of impact of
distribution system on grid.
6 Chapter 1. PV Generation - Current Scenario
In Chapter 7, Simulation results for various grid disturbances are documented
Chapter 8, concludes the project
View of system simulation blocks are given in the Appendix.
Chapter 2
PV Panel Modelling
Photovoltaics is the direct conversion[6] of light into electricity at the atomic level. Some
materials exhibit a property known as the photoelectric eect that causes them to absorb
photons of light and release electrons. When these free electrons are captured, an electric
current results that can be used as electricity.
The photoelectric eect was rst noted by a French physicist, Edmund Bequerel, in
1839, who found that certain materials would produce small amounts of electric current
when exposed to light. In 1905, Albert Einstein described the nature of light and the
photoelectric eect on which photovoltaic technology is based, for which he later won a
Nobel prize in physics. The rst photovoltaic module was built by Bell Laboratories in 1954.
It was billed as a solar battery and it was mostly just a curiosity as it was too expensive
to gain widespread use. In the 1960s, the space industry began to make the rst serious
use of the technology to provide power aboard spacecraft. Through the space programs,
the technology was advanced, its reliability was established, and the cost began to decline.
During the energy crisis in the 1970s, photovoltaic technology gained recognition as a source
of power for non-space applications
2.1 PV Principle
Solar cells are made out of a semiconductor material. Since light is the collection of small
packets called quanta, and it is a electromagnetic wave. Light Energy contains many photons,
which move in dierent frequencies, each frequency in the lights spectrum, contains a specic
energy E = h. When PV material is exposed to light, some photons are reected on the
PV panel surface, remaining photons are absorbed by the PV material, depending on the on
7
8 Chapter 2. PV Panel Modelling
material property, the absorbed photon, which have energy greater than band gap energy of
the semiconductor material (for Si energy gap is 1.12eV) generate free charge carriers in the
semiconductor bulk. Due to band bending in p-n junction semiconductor, electrons try to
move to lower energy level (n region) and holes try to move higher energy level (p region),
so it creates a potential dierence between p & n region. From the above we can say that
voltage across the cell is dependent on the energy gap. Due to the generated voltage (across
p-n junction) there will be current circulating inside the cell (diode forward bias) called dark
current (since it is not directly related to irradiance). Fig.2.1 shows the operating region of
PV p-n junction semiconductor devices.
Figure 2.1: PV Operating Region
From the Fig.2.1 it can be observed that PV Cell has a non-linear V-I characteristics.Also
it is depends on irradiance, Temperature and other climatic condition as shown in the Fig.2.2.
2.2 Important Terms in PV Panel
PV output voltage and current depends on temperature and irradiance. Power generated
by PV panel is proportional to irradiance. Also there are other important parameters which
are considered for the design of PV panel are explained in this section
2.2. Important Terms in PV Panel 9
Figure 2.2: V-I & P-V Characteristics of Sanyo 215W PV Panel
2.2.1 Irradiance
The radiation of the sun reaching the earth is distributed over a range of wavelengths from
300 nm to 4 micron approximately, which is partly reected by the atmosphere and partly
transmitted to the earths surface. Photovoltaic applications used for space, such as satellites
or spacecraft, have sun radiation availability dierent from that of PV applications at the
earths surface. The radiation outside the atmosphere is distributed along the dierent
wavelengths in a similar fashion to the radiation of a black body at temperature 5762K
following Plancks law, whereas at the surface of the earth, the atmosphere (e.g. ozone layer
which lter UV light) selectively absorbs the radiation at certain wavelengths. It is common
practice to distinguish two dierent sun spectral distributions
Air Mass Spectrum- AM0
Spectrum outside the earths atmosphere on a plane is perpendicular to the sun at the
mean earth-sun distance. The power density outside the earths atmosphere is 1367
W/m
2
and this is known as the solar constant
Air Mass Spectrum - AM1.5
Air mass refers to the relative path length of the direct solar beam through the atmo-
sphere. The path of the light through the atmosphere is shortest when the sun is at
its zenith(perpendicular to the earths surface), the path length is 1.0 (AM 1.0) and
this gives rise to the AM1 spectrum. Obviously, the sun is not always at the zenith.
10 Chapter 2. PV Panel Modelling
When the angle of the sun from zenith increases, the air mass increases so that at an
angle of 48.2
o
the air mass is 1.5(refer F.ig2.3). This has been adopted as the standard
sunlight spectrum for terrestrial arrays(refer Fig.2.4) for actual spectrum.
Figure 2.3: Concept of Air Mass Spectrum[7]
Figure 2.4: Solar Light Spectrum
Important terminology to express magnitude of solar light:
Spectral irradiance I

Power received by a unit surface area in a wavelength dierential d, the units are
W/m
2
m
2.2. Important Terms in PV Panel 11
Irradiance
The integral of the spectral irradiance extended to all wavelengths of interest and
the units are W/m
2
Radiation/Insolation
The time integral of the irradiance extended over a given period of time, therefore
radiation units are units of energy is given in kWh/m
2
day, or simply electrical units
per day.
2.2.2 Temperature
PV output will change with respect to temperature[8], because band gap, carrier concentra-
tion are dependent on temperature. For maximum power output of the module, it is needed
to lower operating temperatures but increase the irradiance. The typical temperature coef-
cient of power is 0.5%/
o
C for mono or polycrystalline silicon cells. The cell temperature
of open rack modules (e.g. a-Si), however, is governed by several external factors such as
ambient temperature, irradiance level, wind speed, wind direction, and tilt angle of the mod-
ule in the array. Temperature considered is actually the PV cell temperature and not its
temperature of the rack or atmospheric temperature. As per standard PV cell outputs, are
given in cell temperature of 25
o
.
2.2.3 NOCT
Nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) is the cell temperature, when open circuited
panel subjected to a irradiance of 800W/m
2
, ambient temperature of 20
o
C and wind speed
of 1m/s at a module tilt angle 45
o
. This will give the idea of cell temperature rise in the PV
panel. Nominal value of NOCT will be around 43
o
50
o
C. this information is available in
the manufacturing data sheet.
NOCT temperature given in data sheet will be useful to nd approximate PV panel
temperature using known ambient temperature [2]
T
c
=
(T
NOCT
T
a
) E
800
(2.1)
12 Chapter 2. PV Panel Modelling
2.2.4 Standard Test Conditions(STC)
The STC (also known as SRC Standard Reporting Conditions) is dened with nominal cell
temperature 25
o
C, nominal irradiance level 1000W/m
2
at spectral distribution of Air Mass
1.5 solar spectral content. Many of the important parameter given in the data sheet is based
on this condition.
2.2.5 Open Circuit Voltage V
oc
Voltage across the PV panel, when it is open circuited (I
PV
= 0). This voltage will change
with respect to irradiance and temperature. V
oc
will increase with respect to irradiance,
decrease with respect to temperature(-ve coecient
v
). This is the important parameter of
PV panel, which is used to calculate maximum PV voltage and important for system design.
Both V
oc
and
v
are given in the manufacturer data sheet at STC. All points lie in the x-axis
as shown in Fig.2.2 are open circuit voltages with respect to dierent irradiance.
2.2.6 Short Circuit Current I
sc
Current supplied by PV Panel when its terminals are shorted. This current will change
with respect to irradiance and temperature. I
sc
will proportionally increase with respect to
irradiance, logarithmically increase with respect to temperature(+ve coecient
i
). This is
the important parameter of PV panel and is used to calculate maximum fault current, it is
also important for system design. Both I
sc
and
i
are given in the manufacturer data sheet
at STC.All points lie in the y-axis as shown in Fig.2.2 are short circuit currents with respect
to dierent irradiance.
2.2.7 Maximum Power Point MPP
As shown in the Fig.2.2 PV voltage and currents are non linearly related, so at a particular
voltage, PV panel supplies maximum power, that in-turn changes with respect to climatic
conditions (e.g. irradiance, Temperature, . . . etc.). The point(voltage, current) in Fig.2.2at
which PV panel supplies maximum power is called maximum power point (MPP). So to oper-
ate PV at MPP requires separate controller called MPPT (maximum power point tracker).
MPPT will play an important role in PV system dynamics. Maximum power at STC is
considered as a power rating of the PV panel.
2.3. Manufacturer Data Sheet 13
2.2.8 Maximum Power Voltage and Current (V
m
&I
m
)
Voltage and current of the PV panel, when it is operating in maximum power point are
called maximum power voltage and current. Values of V
m
&I
m
are given in the data sheet at
STC.
2.2.9 Fill Factor
Every cell has a life expectancy. As time progresses, the quality of cell goes down. Hence, it is
essential to check the quality[9], periodically so that it can be discarded once the quality falls
below certain level. The quality of the cell called Fill Factor (FF) which can be calculated
as
FillFactor =
I
m
V
m
V
oc
I
sc
(2.2)
Ideally, the Fill Factor should be 1 or 100%. However, the actual value of FF is about 0.8
or 80%. A good panel has ll factor in the range of 0.7 to 0.8. For a bad panel it may be as
low as 0.4.
2.2.10 Temperature Co-ecient
v
&
i
Temperature co-ecient (
v
V/
o
C &
i
A/
o
C) given in the PV panel data sheet is used to
quantify change in the PV panel voltage and current with respect to temperature. This is
very important to model a PV panel.
2.3 Manufacturer Data Sheet
To model the practical PV panel, its required to use only the data given in the manufacturer
data sheet. Refer Fig.2.5 for the sample manufacturer data sheet. Clear understanding of
the data given in the data sheet is must for modelling of the PV panel. All the quantities
are already explained above.
2.4 PV Modelling
PV panel modelling is very important for dynamic analysis of PV system. Many models are
proposed in the literature.
14 Chapter 2. PV Panel Modelling
SANYO North America
Energy System Solutions Division
550 S. Winchester Blvd., Suite 510
San Jose, CA 95128, U.S.A.
www.sanyo.com/solar
solar@sec.sanyo.com
SANYO North America. All Rights Reserved. 1/6/2010
(OHFWULFDO6SHFLFDWLRQV
Model HIT Power 215A or HIT-N215A01
Rated Power (Pmax)
1
215 W
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Short Circuit Current (Isc) 5.61 A
7HPSHUDWXUH&RHIFLHQW3PD[ -0.336%/ C
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NOCT 114.8F (46C)
CEC PTC Rating 199.6 W
&HOO(IFLHQF\ 19.3%
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Figure 2.5: Manufacturer Data Sheet
2.4. PV Modelling 15
2.4.1 Single Diode Model
Photovoltaic cell is made of simple p-n junction semiconductor[8]. But instead of external
voltage excitation, light (photons) is used to excite the electrons and holes.and the voltage
across the cell is depends on the energy gap. Due to the voltage across p-n junction, which
forward biases the junction, there will be current circulating inside the cell called dark current
(independent of irradiance). Hence PV is modelled as a current source parallel with a diode
as shown in Fig.2.6 and it is represented as single diode model.
ph
I
o
R
sh
R
s
I
pv
V
pv
Figure 2.6: Single Diode Model
I
pv
= I
ph
I
o
_
e

V +I
pv
R
S
V
T

1
_

_
V +I
pv
R
S
R
Sh
_
(2.3)
V
T
=
nKT
q
by neglecting R
s
and R
sh
I
pv
= I
SC
I
O
_
e
V
V
T
1
_
(2.4)
When I
pv
= 0 then V
oc
= V
T
ln
_
1 +
I
SC
I
O
_
(2.5)
When V
pv
= 0 then I
sc
= I
ph
From the Eq.2.5, open circuit voltage is logarithmically related with irradiance (PV panel
photon current)
2.4.1.1 Series Resistance R
s
The series resistive losses are present in practical solar cells. In fact, the current generated in
the solar cell bulk travels towards the contacts through resistive semiconductor material, both
in the base region( normally P type-not heavily doped) and in the narrow emitter region(N
type), which are normally heavily doped. Besides these two components, the resistance of the
16 Chapter 2. PV Panel Modelling
metal grid, contacts and current collecting bus also contribute to the total series resistive
losses. It is common practice to assume that these series losses can be represented by a
lumped resistor R
s
which is dependent on temperature is called the series resistance of the
solar cell.
2.4.1.2 Shunt Resistance R
sh
A number of shunt resistive losses are identied, such as localized shorts at the emitter layer
or perimeter shunts along cell borders are among the most common. This is represented
generally by a lumped resistor, R
sh
, in parallel with the intrinsic device.
2.4.2 Double Diode Model
In the above model, eect of non ohmic losses, due to recombination in the space charge
region of the solar cell is not considered. This is relevant at low voltage bias and can be
represented in an equivalent circuit by a second diode term with a saturation current I
02
,
which is dierent from the saturation current (I
0
) of the ideal solar cell diode, and given
ideality diode factor dierent from 1, normally diode with ideality factor 2 is used for this
purpose.
In practice, only few devices exhibit a totally ideal I(V) characteristic with ideality coef-
cient equal to unity, so it is common practice to also add a parameter n to account for non
idealities in the dark current diode and the single diode model can be modied to take this
eect into account.
ph
I
01
R
sh
R
s
I
pv
V
pv
I
02
Figure 2.7: Double Diode Model
I
pv
= I
ph
I
01
_
e

V
pv
+I
pv
R
s
nV
T

1
_
I
02
_
e

V
pv
+I
pv
R
s
2V
T

1
_

_
V
pv
+I
pv
R
s
R
sh
_
(2.6)
2.4. PV Modelling 17
In Fig.2.7, rst diode(I
0
)with ideality factor n accounts for dark current (independent of
irradiance) and second diode with a ideality factor of 2 accounts for non ohmic shunt losses
in the solar cell.
The above models have some disadvantages,
Many parameters (R
s
, R
sh
, I
01
, I
02
, I
ph
, V
T
) are not available, because it is depended on
property of the material. Also there are not given by manufacturer.
Semiconductor equations are derived from ve carrier transport dierential equations,
which assume uniform doping and crystalline material. But this is not true in the case
with practical module and thin lm PV (which have p-i-n junction). So there is a
need to model PV Cell that uses only the information given by the manufacturer data
sheet. Also it must take care of change due to climatic condition (normally irradiance,
Temperature and wind speed). Translation equations are proposed to translate voltage
and current from one condition to another condition.
forth coming models will use only the data given in the data sheet as shown in the
Fig.2.5.
2.4.3 Sandstrom Equation
In the past, there is a need for translating PV current and voltage from one environmen-
tal condition to another environmental condition[10]. First accepted translation equation is
proposed by an IEEE paper by J. D. Sandstrom of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)
published in 1967. The paper presents some very good correlative results between experi-
mental measurements and the resultant analytical predictions over a cell temperature range
from 20
o
C to 130
o
C, and over an irradiance range of 500W/m to 3000W/m. The equations
were widely used and standardized as IEC 891 model[11] correction procedure 1.
I
sc
= I
sc1
_
E
2
E
1
1
_
+
i
(T
2
T
1
) (2.7)
I
2
= I
1
+ I
sc
(2.8)
V
2
= V
1

v
(T
2
T
1
) I
sc
R
s
k(T
2
T
1
)I
2
(2.9)
P
2
= V
2
I
2
the above equations Eq. 2.15 & Eq. 2.16 are used to translate PV current and voltage from
one (I
1
& V
1
) irradiance, tempertaure (E
1
& T
1
normally in STC) to an another (I
2
& V
2
)
18 Chapter 2. PV Panel Modelling
irradance and temperature (E
2
& T
2
)
2.4.4 A.J. Anderson Translation equation
The above equations Eq.2.15 and Eq.2.16 suggest that the temperature eect on current
is independent of irradiance, if
i
assumed as a constant temperature co-ecient. The
irradiance eect on voltage (V
oc
) as in Eq. 2.16 is accounted for by the term I
sc
R
s
,
but by experiment, it is found (by Anderson[10]) that variation in voltage due to change
in irradiance found very little eect on PV voltage. So for dierent R
S
values Sandstrom
voltage equation found incorrect. Corrected Sandstrom equations proposed by Anderson are
given as below;
I
SC2
=
I
SC1
[1 + (T
1
T
2
)] [E
1
/E
2
]
(2.10)
V
OC2
=
V
OC1
[1 + (T
1
T
2
)]
_
1 + ln
E
1
E
2
_ (2.11)
I
2
= I
1
_
I
SC2
I
SC1
_
(2.12)
V
2
= V
1
_
V
OC2
V
OC1
_
(2.13)
P
2
= I
2
V
2
Where & are neutered temperature co-ecients for avoiding the error due to scaling
=
I
sc2
I
sc1
I
sc2
(T
2
T
1
)
& =
V
oc2
V
oc1
V
oc2
(T
2
T
1
)
the above equations would result in I
scl
translating to I
sc2
along the line R = 0 ohms,and
V
oc1
would translate to V
oc2
along the line R = . The I-V point pairs in between would
similarly translate along lines of constant resistance with values of R =
V
1
I
1
and value of
ca be found by using experiment data, otherwise =
kT
q
. The above equations can be used
to nd all PV parameters by using manufacturer data in STC, but it is not providing the
relation between PV voltage and current.
2.4.5 Bleasser Equations
It is also a corrected form of Sandstrom equation, In current equation[12] eect of irradiance
during temperature change is included. Also, instead of transforming short circuit current
2.4. PV Modelling 19
I
sc
as in Eq.2.14, actual current (PV current for the present load)is transformed directly.
Voltage equation is mostly same as Sandstrom equation. This equation is standardized by
IEC 891[11] as a correction procedure 2.
I
sc
= I
sc1
_
E
2
E
1
1
_
+
i
(T
2
T
1
) (2.14)
I
2
= I
1
+ I
sc
(2.15)
V
2
= V
1

v
(T
2
T
1
) I
sc
R
s
k(T
2
T
1
)I
2
(2.16)
P
2
= V
2
I
2
The above equations also does not providing the relation between PV voltage and current. So
there is a need for an appropriate model which uses only the data given in the manufacturer
data sheet, and it has to provide the V-I characteristic equation.
2.4.6 Michigan University Model
This model[13] is based on single diode model where R
sh
is neglected, and material property
parameters are assumed as variable and its value found by using known parameter, which is
given in the data sheet.
I
pv
(V
pv
) = I
max

i
I
max

i
e

V
pv
b(+1)(V
max
+
v
)

1
b

(2.17)
=
E
2
E
1N
I
max
=
I
SC
1 exp
(1/b)
= 1
V
min
V
max
+
v

i
= 1 +
TCi
100
(T
2
T
1
N)

v
= TCV (T
2
T
1N
)
PowerP
pv
= V
pv
I
pv
(2.18)
V
min
is the open-circuit voltage rating of the solar panel array for an eective intensity of
light less than 20% over the solar panels, T
1N
refers to a STC temperature T
1N
= 20
o
C,
E
1N
refers to a STC temperature, T
1N
= 1000W/m
2
, V
max
is open circuit voltage at STC.
TCi & TCV refers to the temperature co-ecient of panel given in the data sheet. Fit
variable b can be found by using available information in the data sheet.
20 Chapter 2. PV Panel Modelling
2.4.6.1 Calculation of b (t variable)
Maximum PV power can be calculated[14] by Eq.2.18, V
m
& I
m
is the PV current and
voltage at maximum power point, this information is given in the data sheet for STC. At
the maximum Power
dP
pv
dV
pv
= 0 differentiate Eq.2.18
0 = 1
_
V
m
b ( + 1 ) (V
max
+
v
)
_
exp
(
V
m
b(+1)(V
max
+
v
)

1
b
)
(2.19)
Using a guess value b = 0.09 calculate V
m
(1000W/m
2
, 25
o
C) by solving Eq.2.19. Equation
Eq.2.17 and Eq.2.18 are used to calculate I
m
(1000W/m
2
, 25
o
C) and P
m
(1000W/m
2
, 25
o
C).
These calculated values have to be compared with values from a module data sheet. Now the
guess value of t parameter b can adjusted iteratively to minimise the error of P
m
(1000W/m
2
, 25
o
C)
at STC. Fit variable b for SANYO 215A panel is calculated as b=0.079.
2.5 PV Model Implementation
MATLAB/Simulink is used to implement PV model. Both Anderson equation and Michigan
university models are implemented in the single block as shown in the Fig2.9. Here all the
required data sheet parameters, environmental (E & T), design datas are fed into to the
model as shown in Fig.2.8, by using given parameters. PV panel model calculates current
I
pv
based on the PV panel voltage V
pv
as per the Eq.2.17. Implemented model is simulated
Figure 2.8: PV Panel Model implementation
2.6. PV System Design 21
for dierent environmental conditions and results are matching with the given manufacturer
data sheet curve(refer Fig.2.2 for data sheet curve and Fig.2.5 for simulated results).
Figure 2.9: PV Panel Model in MATLAB/SIMULINK
2.6 PV System Design
Two PV plant with the capacity of 1MW (2 500kW) is modelled for the analysis as shown
in the Fig.2.10. Here SANYO 215A (215W) PV panel as in Fig.2.5 is used for simulation.
Many panels connected in series and parallel as shown in the Fig.2.11 for achieving high
voltage and power.
22 Chapter 2. PV Panel Modelling
2.6.1 Selection of PV Arrays
Number of panels required are selected based on the calculation given below; From the
PV
module
C
Inverter L
f
Filter
PV System
C
f
415V
PV
module
C
Inverter L
f
Filter
PV System
C
f
415V
415V
Grid
33kV
3ph
3ph
3ph
500kW
500kW
Figure 2.10: PV System Single line diagram
Fig.2.10 the expression for inverter output voltage is given as
v
i
= L
f
di
s
dt
+v
grid
(2.20)
If v
gird
= V
gm
sin(t)
For UPF i
s
= I
sm
sin(t)
So v
i
= L
f
I
sm
cos(t) +V
m
sin(t) (2.21)
v
i
= jX
L
i
s
+v
grid
(2.22)
Required inverter voltage is decided by grid voltage and voltage across inductor as in Eq.2.22.
Also inverter voltage is depends on DC bus voltage (PV Voltage) and method of switching.
maximum inverter voltage possible for Sine Triangle PWM is V
i
= V
pv
/2. Maximum inverter
output voltage required is calculated by assuming inductor voltage of 0.1pu, when rated
current ow through the inductor, and 10% increase in grid voltage is considered
Required max V
imax
= 0.1V
grid
+ 1.1 V
grid
(2.23)
V
pvmin
= 2V
imax
(2.24)
It is required to connect many PV panels in series to achieve the voltage requirement of
the inverter (as referred in Eq.2.23). To supply maximum possible power to the grid at all
2.6. PV System Design 23
environmental condition, minimum PV voltage (less irradiance and high temperature) must
be equal to two times of maximum required inverter voltage(as given in Eq.2.24).
For PCC line voltage of 415V, minimum of 20 SANYO 215A panels (N
s
= 20) have to
be connected in series as shown in the Fig.2.11, So maximum possible voltage is equal to
N
s
V
oc
= 51.3 20 = 1026V and minimum PV voltage is equal to Ns V
min
= 820V .
PV
module
PV
module
PV
module
PV
module
PV
module
PV
module
PV
module
PV
module
PV
module
C
Ns
2
1
1 2
Np
PV
module
C
500kW
Figure 2.11: Structure of PV Array
To achieve the required power rating (normally represented in STC), many PV string
must be connected in parallel as given in Eq.2.25, which are called as PV arrays.
N
p
=
P
pv
N
s
V
m
V
m
is at STC (2.25)
For 500kW PV system N
p
= 117 PV string must be connected in parallel. So 500kW PV
system need 2340 SANYO 215A panels. Actual rating of PV system is equal to 504.18kW.
P
pv
= (N
s
N
p
) P
panel
2.6.2 Inverter
Since, main focus is on studying transient response for large signal disturbances, so harmonics
generated by the inverter is not of much interest. So average model of inverter is sucient
for the analysis, but simulation carried out for both systems with and without inverter shows
no signicant dierence found.
Inverter Design Details
Two level three phase inverter with the rating of 500kW
24 Chapter 2. PV Panel Modelling
Sine triangle PWM with a switching frequency equal to 5kHz
LC lter is used
Inverter is modelled as a rst order system with the time constant equal to the half of
switching time (bandwidth is equal to twice that of switching frequency)
Constant current mode control is used to inject UPF power to the grid
Voltage controller is used to regulate the DC bus voltage.
2.6.3 Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
As observed fro the earlier studies we seen earlier due to the non linear property of PV panel,
at a particular operating point (V
pv
, I
pv
) PV generate maximum power is called maximum
power point, Hence it required to have an reliable technique to track the maximum power
point irrespective of the environmental conditions. A MPPT system is therefore always
implemented to optimize the eciency of the photovoltaic energy conversion. This tracking
system adjusts the inverter voltage reference signal as shown in the Fig.2.12 and hence, the
dc voltage at the output of the solar array.
Many MPPT techniques are proposed[15] in the literature, most popular being incremen-
tal conductance method and P&O (Perturbation & Observation method). P&O method is
used due to its simplicity and easy implementation. the P&O method works by perturbing
V
pv
and observing the impact of this change on the output power of the PV array as shown
in the Fig2.12.
At each cycle, V
pv
and I
pv
are measured to calculate P(k) . This value of P(k) is
compared to the value P(k 1) calculated at the previous cycle. If the output power has
increased, V
pv
is adjusted further in the same direction as in the previous cycle. If the
output power has decreased, V
pv
is perturbed in the opposite direction as in the previous
cycle. is thus perturbed at every MPPT cycle. When the maximum power point is reached,
oscillates around the optimal value . This causes a power loss that increases with the step
size of the perturbation. If this step width is large, the MPPT algorithm responds quickly
to sudden changes in operating conditions. On the other hand, if the step size is small
the losses under stable or slowly changing conditions will be lower but the system will not
respond quickly to rapid changes in temperature or irradiance. There is always trade o
2.6. PV System Design 25
Figure 2.12: Flowchart of P&O MPPT Algorithm
between speed and steady state loss. Here 0.1V perturbation with the time 2ms is used
to accelerate the simulation speed. MPPT tracking range is set between 700 to 1026 V.
Experiments demonstrated that the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) dictates the
dynamic behavior of the PV generator
Chapter 3
PV System Control
Synchronizing the PV system to the grid needs information about certain grid parameters,
these informations are obtained from PLL. Here synchronous reference frame (d&q axis)
based control, where three phase quantity is translated into a rotating space vector, which
is used to control the power ow. In this study, grid voltage vector is aligned towards d-
axis. So aligning of current vector to the grid d axis ensures a unity power factor operation.
Separate controllers are used to control active (I
d
) , reactive (I
q
) power, and separate voltage
controller is used to control the DC bus voltage. PLL is used to track the gird frequency
and voltage.
3.1 Synchronous Reference Frame Strategy
Synchronous reference frame (SRF) strategy is a popular method used in the generation of
the current reference and constant current control interface uses this SRF based. The syn-
chronous reference frame strategy uses co-ordinate transformations to generate the current
reference. It employs the well known Clarkes Transformation and Parks Transformation for
this purpose. uses the primitive machine model, where balanced current ow in the in-
duction machine (R-Y-B) static three phase winding (R-B-Y) result into rotating ux space
vector. Synchronous reference is given as reference to the controller and the controller output
is obtained, reverse transformations are employed to transform the quantities back to the
actual three-phase system.
26
3.1. Synchronous Reference Frame Strategy 27
3.1.1 Synchronous Frame Transformation for Three Phase Bal-
anced System
v
a
= V
m
sin(t ) (3.1)
v
b
= V
m
sin(t 120) (3.2)
v
c
= V
m
sin(t + 120) (3.3)
Three phase balanced system can be easily represented by two variables(phase quantities).
Since third being found by using (v
a
+v
b
+v
c
= 0), it is possible to transform the three phase
balanced system (a, b, c) to a stationary two phase system ( ) as shown in Fig.3.1 By
a
b
c
d
q
V
s
a-b-c to
- -
to d-q
Figure 3.1: Frame Transformation
using orthogonal decomposition of vector,
_
v

_
=
_
1
1
2

1
2
0

3
2

3
2
_
_

_
v
a
v
b
v
c
_

_
(3.4)
for balanced system, where v
a
+v
b
+v
c
= 0
v

=
3
2
v
a
(3.5)
v

3
2
(v
b
v
c
) (3.6)
v

and v

vary sinusoidally with respect to time, this stationary reference frame can be
translated[16] to synchronously rotating reference frame by using Parks Transformation.
Space vector

V = v

+ jv

, rotating in a synchronous speed (same like ux vector of


28 Chapter 3. PV System Control
the induction machine). Park transformation as shown in the Fig.3.1, used to transform
stationary (v

) frame of reference to rotating synchronous frame of reference(d q).


_
V
d
V
q
_
=
_
cos sin
sin cos
__
v

_
(3.7)
In general transforming(mapping) the data from one Cartesian co-ordinate to another co-
ordinate system, with angle between the co-ordinate is , then;
V
d
+ jV
q
= (v

+jv

)e
j
(3.8)
By aligning the d-axis on the space vector,
V
d
=
3
2
V
m
(3.9)
V
q
= 0
3.1.2 Synchronous Frame Transformation for Three Phase Unbal-
anced System
Since frequent faults in the systems are unbalanced in nature (e.g. L-G), it is required
to understand the eect of unbalance in the (v
d
&v
q
). In general unbalanced three phase
quantities can be represented as shown in the Fig.3.2, by three balanced vectors namely
positive, negative and zero sequence component.
2
0
1
V
a
V
b
V
c
V
ao
, V
bo
, V
co
V
a1
V
b1
V
c2
V
a2
V
b2
V
c1
Figure 3.2: Sequence Component of Unbalanced System
v
a
= V
0m
sin(t +
0
) + V
1m
sin(t +
1
) + V
2m
sin(t +
2
) (3.10)
v
b
= V
0m
sin(t +
0
) + V
1m
sin(t +
1
120) + V
2m
sin(t +
2
+ 120) (3.11)
v
c
= V
0m
sin(t +
0
) + V
1m
sin(t +
1
+ 120) + V
2m
sin(t +
2
120) (3.12)
3.1. Synchronous Reference Frame Strategy 29
After substituting Eq.3.10, 3.11 & 3.12 in Eq.3.4, zero sequence component will cancel out
each other and only positive and negative sequence component will be present.
v

=
3
2
(V
1m
sin(t +
1
) + V
2m
sin(t +
2
)) (3.13)
v

3
2
(V
1m
(sin(t +
1
120) sin(t +
1
+ 120))) +

3
2
(V
2m
(sin(t +
2
+ 120) sin(t +
2
120))) (3.14)
By substituting Eq.3.13, 3.14 in Eq.3.7, assuming d axis is aligned towards positive sequence
voltage.
= t

2
+
1
(3.15)
V
d
=
3
2
(V
1m
V
2m
cos(2t +
1
+
2
)) (3.16)
V
q
=
3
2
(V
2m
sin(2t +
1
+
2
)) (3.17)
From the above equations, due to the unbalance in the three phase quantity, d axis component
of the three phase quantity will have eect of second harmonics negative sequence component.
This is because negative sequence space vector will move in opposite direction with respect
to positive sequence vector as shown in the Fig.3.3. For bolted L-G fault on C-phase,
(V
c
= 0 V
a
= 239V (rms phase voltage), and V
b
= 239V (rms phase voltage)). The
sequence components are shown in the Fig.3.3, equivalent d & q axis components are shown
in the Fig.3.4.
250
500
30
210
60
240
90
270
120
300
150
330
180 0
100
200
30
210
60
240
90
270
120
300
150
330
180 0
25
50
30
210
60
240
90
270
120
300
150
330
180 0
Unbalanced System Sequence Components d- q -0 Components
V
a
V
b
V
c
=0
V
a1
V
a0
V
a2
V
0
V
d
V
q
Figure 3.3: Sequence Component for L-G Fault at Phase C
30 Chapter 3. PV System Control
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
200
100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
time s
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

V
V
d
V
q
Figure 3.4: Sequence component for L-G fault at phase C
3.2 Phase Locked Loops (PLL)
To supply unity power factor current and to maintain synchronism with the grid, PV sys-
tem needs grid angle,voltage and frequency, Synchronous reference frame PLL with moving
average lter[17] is implemented as shown in the Fig.3.5. Moving average lter is used
to eliminate 2
nd
harmonic negative sequence component as in Eq.3.16. Dynamics of PLL
have signicant role in transient behaviour of PV system. Because important parameters
(V
sd
, V
sq
, sinj(), cos(), ) are obtained from PLL, which have signicant inuence in
the modulation index. The parameter of the controller chosen using symmetrical optimum
Figure 3.5: Simplied structure of SRF PLL with lter
method[18]. value of k
p
= 0.5 and T = 0.08. Performance of PLL shown in the Fig3.6. in
this case L-G fault is created at time t=0.25s.
3.3. Current Reference Generation 31
Figure 3.6: Performance of PLL during fault at t=0.5s
3.3 Current Reference Generation
All the power generated by the PV must be inject to the grid, at the same DC bus voltage
have to maintained constant. Power injected by the inverter to the gird in d-q domain is
given as,
S =
3
2
V
m
I
m
=
2
3
(V
d
+jV
q
)(I
d
jI
q
)
=
2
3
(V
d
I
d
+ V
q
I
q
+j(V
q
I
d
V
d
I
q
))
So active power is P =
2
3
(V
d
I
d
+ V
q
I
q
)
V
q
= 0 space vector aligned towards daxis
P =
2
3
(V
d
I
d
) (3.18)
Power Generated by PV P
pv
= V
pv
I
pv
(3.19)
Equating Eq.3.18 and Eq.3.19, current reference set by the PV system is
I
d
=
3V
pv
I
pv
2V
d
(3.20)
I
dref
= I
d
I
dcap
(3.21)
I
dref
is the current reference to the current controller, I
dcap
- Current required by the capacitor
to maintain constant voltage. To protect and increase the life time of the inverter, current
32 Chapter 3. PV System Control
reference is limited to its rated current or 1.5 to 2 times of the rated current. In this study
current reference is limited to 1.5 times of the rated current.
3.4 Filter Design
LC lter is used to lter out the harmonics as specied by standard IEEE 1527, for grid
connected application. For LC lter, value of the inductor is selected as same like L lter.
value of C must be chosen[19], such that resonant frequency of the lter is higher than the
bandwidth of the closed current loop. Normally maximum inductor voltage is limited to
0.1pu of the rated voltage. Maximum possible inductor can selected as shown below,
V
L
f
= 0.1 V
sph
V
sph
=
415

3
= 239.6V
L
f
I
s
= 239.6V where I
srms
= 701A for 500kW PV Plant
L
f
= 0.1088mH
C
f
= 470F
Resonant Frequency F
s
=
1
2

LC
F
s
= 545.57Hz (3.22)
For ease of simulation, lter capacitance is considered in distribution system side (33kV)
along with shunt capacitance of the system, so transformation of capacitance from one
voltage level to another voltage done by using energy balance.
1
2
C
f1
V
s1
2
=
1
2
C
f2
V
s2
2
HereV
s1
= 415V ;
V
(
s2) = 33kV
C
1f
= 470F
So C
2f
= 470
_
415
33000
_
2
C
2f
= 0.0743F (3.23)
Inductor is designed using area product method and its resistance R
f
= 1.02m
3.5. Current Controller 33
3.5 Current Controller
Controls the current injected to the grid and convert the current reference I
dref
(as in
Eq.3.21), I
qref
(equal to zero for UPF) into required inverter voltage by controlling the mod-
ulation index. Decoupled Id & Iq are used to simplify the MIMO[16] system into two SISO
system. From the Fig.3.7,
R
f
L
f
V
sa V
ia
i
sa
R
f
L
f
V
sb V
ib
i
sb
Inverter
side
R
f
L
f
V
sc V
ic
PCC
(Grid)
i
sc
Figure 3.7: Inverter - Filter - Grid
v
ia
= L
f
di
sa
dt
+ i
sa
R
f
+v
sa
(3.24)
v
ib
= L
f
di
sb
dt
+i
sb
R
f
+v
sb
(3.25)
v
ic
= L
f
di
sc
dt
+i
sc
R
f
+ v
sc
(3.26)
if v
sa
= V
sm
sin(t)
for UPF i
sa
= I
sm
sin(t)
So v
ia
= L
f
I
sm
cos(t) +V
sm
sin(t) (3.27)
Current injected to the grid (at PCC) i
sa
can be controlled by controlling the inverter voltage
v
ia
as given in the Eq.3.27. Inverter voltage can be controlled by switching the inverter in a
dierent modulating signal.
3.5.1 Current Equations in d-q Domain
Here synchronous reference frame based constant current control interface is used to connect
the PV system to the grid. All current equations must be transferred to d-q domain. For
balanced system, current injected to the distribution system (at PCC) is given by,
i
sa
= I
sm
sin(t) (3.28)
i
sb
= I
sm
sin(t 120) (3.29)
i
sc
= I
sm
sin(t + 120) (3.30)
34 Chapter 3. PV System Control
Multiplying
3
2
Eq.3.24 as per Eq.3.5
v
i
= L
f
di
s
dt
+i
s
R
f
+v
s
(3.31)
Multiplying

3
2
(Eq.3.25 - Eq.3.26) as per Eq.3.6
v
i
= L
f
di
s
dt
+i
s
R
f
+ v
s
(3.32)
So space vector

I
s
= i
s
+ji
s
and

V
s
= v
s
+ jv
s
from Eq.3.31 & Eq.3.32

V
i
= L
f
d

I
s
dt
+

I
s
R
f
+

V
s
(3.33)
As we know
+ j = (d + jq)e

where = t

2
(3.34)
(Eq.3.31 +j Eq.3.32)e

V
id
= L
f
dI
sd
dt
+I
sd
R
f
L
f
I
sq
+V
sd
(3.35)
V
iq
= L
f
dI
sq
dt
+ I
sq
R
f
+L
f
I
sd
+V
sq
(3.36)
Since space vector

V
s
is aligned with d-axis, so

V
s
= V
sd
& V
sq
= 0. From the above equations
Eq.3.35 & Eq.3.36,d-axis and q-axis components are coupled to each other, so its an MIMO
control, to convert this into SISO, feed forward term(as given in Eq.3.37), this will eliminate
the decoupling term as given in the equation.
V

id
= V
id
+L
f
I
sq
+

|V
s
| (3.37)
V

id
= V
iq
L
f
I
sd
(3.38)
By substituting Eq.3.37 into Eq.3.35 and Eq.3.38 into Eq.3.36
L
f
_
dI
sd
dt
dI
sq
dt
_
=
_
R 0
0 R
__
I
d
I
q
_
+
_
V

sd
V

sq
_
(3.39)
From the Eq.3.39, it is possible to control I
sd
& I
sq
independently. Input to the controller is
current error (I
derror
& I
qerror
) and output of the controller is voltage (V

id
& V

iq
).
3.5. Current Controller 35
Figure 3.8: Current controller block diagram
3.5.2 Current Controller Design
PI controller is used for control, parameter of the controller is selected based on[20]. Here
lter inductor acts as a plant (where T
f
=
L
f
R
f
), and sampling time (T
s
/2) is taken as a
sensor time constant, is shown in Fig.3.8. Zero of the PI controller is used to remove the
pole of the plant where T
c
= T
f
.
T
c
=
L
R
= 0.1057s
After eliminating system pole, the closed loop transfer function[21](same for both d and q
current controller) is equal to
V

id
(s)
I
sd
(s)
=
KG
T

T
f
R
f
(1 + sT
s
)
s
2
+
s
T

+
GKK
s
R
f
T

T
f
T

= T
d
+ T
s
= T
switching

n
=

GKK
s
T

T
f
R
f
2
n
=
1
T

if = 0.707
So K =
T
f
R
f
2GT

K
s
(3.40)
Here T
f
= 0.1057s R
f
= 1.02m G = 1 T

= 0.0002, K
s
= 0.0001 and by substituting in
Eq.3.40
Calculated value Controller gain K = 0.272, Fig3.9 shows the response of the controller.
The Fig.3.10 shows the overall current controller with added decoupling terms.
36 Chapter 3. PV System Control
40
30
20
10
0
10
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
135
90
45
0
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

(
d
B
)
Bode Plot for Current Loop
Magnitude Plot
Phase Plot
Frequency (rad/s)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
x 10
3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
time (s)
Impulse Response of Current Loop
Figure 3.9: Current Controller Response
3.5.3 PV System Current Calculation
Grid voltage at PCC is sensed and as per Fig.3.10 current controller sets the inverter output
voltage, so PV system current is given by,
i
san
(s) =
(v
ian
v
san
)
sL
f
+R
f
n phase quantity
where v
ian
=
1
3
(v
ab
v
ca
) (3.41)
The above Eq.3.41 valid only if system is balanced, but unbalance is very common during
fault. Also transformer is Y ad there is no neutral terminal available to measure grid
phase voltages at PCC. So current must be derived using only line voltages, by applying
KVL in the below circuit.
3.5. Current Controller 37
Figure 3.10: Overall Current Controller Block Diagram
As shown in the Fig.3.11. Voltage across the lter (inductor with its resistance) can be
R
f
L
f
V
ica
i
sa
V
iab
R
f
L
f
V
sab
i
sb
V
ica
L
f
PCC
(Grid)
Inverter
side
R
f i
sc
Figure 3.11: Calculation of PV System Current
obtained by using the Eq.3.42
_

_
V
L
fa
V
L
fb
V
L
fc
_

_
=
_

_
0.6667 0.3333 0.3333
0.3333 0.3333 0.3333
0.3333 0.6667 0.3333
_

_
_

_
x
1
x
2
0
_

_
(3.42)
38 Chapter 3. PV System Control
Where
x
1
= v
iab
v
sab
x
2
= v
ibc
v
sbc
i
san
(s) =
V
L
fa
sL
f
+R
f
i
sbn
(s) =
V
L
fb
sL
f
+R
f
i
scn
(s) =
V
L
fc
sL
f
+R
f
3.6 DC bus Capacitor Voltage Controller
PV is directly connected across DC bus capacitor, So Voltage across capacitor must be
maintain constant to harvest maximum power from the PV, also to reduce output ripple
and to ensure balanced inverter output. Voltage is controlled by controlling the output
current as given in the Eq.3.43.
I
cap
= I
pv
S
a
I
sa
+S
b
I
sb
+ S
c
I
sc
(3.43)
From the above equation, by controlling the current injected to the gird, DC bus capacitor
voltage can be controlled. PI voltage controller is used to regulate the dc bus voltage. This
controller converts voltage error to current required by the capacitor as shown in the Fig.3.12
Voltage PI controller gives d-axis current I
dcap
, which must be injected to the capacitor (to
Figure 3.12: Voltage Controller Block Diagram
regulate the voltage at the MPP level). This current is given as input to the current controller
3.6. DC bus Capacitor Voltage Controller 39
and converted into I
dc
(actual current through capacitor) and given to the plant.
I
dc
= K
2
I
dcap
where K
2
=
_
2
3
V
r
ms(L
L
)
V
dc
3.6.1 Voltage Controller Design
From the Fig.3.12, system have two poles at origin, also open loop must maintain -20dB
gain zero crossing for achieving better phase margin. Symmetrical optimum method is
used to design the controller, in this method, PI controller zero is selected such that, gain
zero crossing(at (
c
)) of the open loop transfer function placed symmetrically between PI
controller zero (1/T
v
) and open loop system dominant pole (1/T

). Current controller is
simplied as a rst order system as shown in the Fig.3.12.
Open loop transfer function is given by
V
dc
(s)
V
dcref
(s)
=
K
e
(1 + sT
v
)
S
2
T
v
(1 + sT

)
whereT

= 2T

+ T
s
K
e
= K
s
K
2
K
v
K
ct
open loop phase margin is equal to
Phase margin = tan
1
a tan
1
_
1
a
_
if a = 2
Phase margin = 36.87
o

c
=
1
aT

T
v
=
a

c
(3.44)
K
v
=

c
C
K
ct
K
2
K
s
(3.45)
Here K
s
= 1 ,
c
= 1000rad/s C = 10mF & K
ct
= 1
so K
v
=
10
K
2
T
v
= 0.002s
Voltage reference is generated by the MPPT, MPPT will always perturbate the capacitor
voltage reference (of the controller) to track the maximum power. in this current control
40 Chapter 3. PV System Control
interface, current loop act as a inner loop, voltage loop act as a outer loop and MPPT act
as a outer loop for voltage controller.
So Voltage controller must be slower than current controller and MPPT perturbation time
must be set slower than the voltage controller.
80
60
40
20
0
20
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
180
135
90
45
0
45
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

i
n

(
d
B
)
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
Frequency (rad/s)
Phase Plot
Magnitude Plot
Bode Plot for Current Loop
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
x 10
3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Impulse Response of Current Loop
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
time (s)
Figure 3.13: Voltage Controller Response
3.6.2 Dynamic Simulation of DC bus Capacitor
Since full simulation is done by mathematical equations using Simulink blocks, all the possible
voltage variation must be modelled. It is found that, capacitor voltage will vary due to
Change in PV maximum power point I
pv
& V
pv
Output Current (i
sa
, i
sb
, I
sc
)
Change in Maximum power point, taken into account by the voltage controller as shown in
the Fig.3.12 and later modelled either by injecting the capacitor current[22] or using power
balance in the voltage controller block diagram as shown in the g.3.14. Since average
3.7. Simulation of PV System 41
inverter model is used for simulation, so power balance is sucient to account for PV system
output current variations Here only active power balance is considered, since reactive power
Figure 3.14: Voltage Controller with Power Balance
wont aect capacitor voltage signicantly. Eect of active power balance on the capacitor
voltage is given by Eq.3.46
P
cap
= V
pv
I
pv
V
sd
I
sd
+ V
sq
I
sq
V
D
=
V
pv
I
pv
V
sd
I
sd
+V
sq
I
sq
V
pv
sC
(3.46)
by using the above equations, dynamics of the capacitor is successfully implemented, response
found satisfactory
3.7 Simulation of PV System
PV system is simulated by considering all the its dynamic elements, which already discussed
in the previous sections. PV system have nonlinear elements as shown below
C
dV
pv
dt
= I
pv
(S
a
i
sa
+ S
b
i
sb
+S
c
I
sc
) (3.47)
from the above Eq.3.47, I
pv
is non linear function of V
pv
. PV system have set of non linear
dynamics equations, solving those equations using small signal analysis is not valid for large
disturbances like faults. So all PV system elements are fully modelled by using its charac-
teristic equations in MATLAB/SIMULINK as shown in the Fig.3.15.
Working of the PV System model is given below
PV panel supplies the current (I
pv
) based on the DC bus capacitor voltage (V
dc
= V
pv
)
42 Chapter 3. PV System Control
MPPT senses I
pv
&V
pv
, and set the voltage reference for the voltage controller. MPPT
always perturbate the DC bus voltage towards maximum power point.
Based on the power generated (V
p
v I
pv
) by the PV panel, synchronous current ref-
erence (I
dpv
) is generated and fed to the current controller to inject all possible PV
power to the grid.
Voltage controller try to regulate the DC bus voltage as dictated by the MPPT and
generate the capacitor synchronous current reference (must be injected to the capaci-
tor) to regulate the voltage. It fails during power imbalance (e.g. fault)
Capacitor current reference is subtracted (I
dpv
I
dcap
) from the PV current reference
and given to the current controller as the reference current (I
dref
).
Current controller sets the inverter pole voltages based on the current reference and
control the power ow to the grid, for maintaining UPF I
sq
= 0.
Based on the grid voltage (at PCC) space vector magnitude (V
sd
& V
sq
) with its angle
(), current controller sets the inverter voltage space vector (V
id
& V
iq
) with certain
angle to control the current. So based on the grid voltage, PV system supplies the
current.
PLL is used to track the grid voltage space vector and its angle, this is given as an
input to the current controllers, so all transformation is carried out based on the grid
space vector angle.
Forcing current space vector lie on the gird voltage vector assures UPF operation. PLL
gives voltage, phase and frequency information of the grid. So it is act as an important
role in synchronization.
Frame Transformation is used to convert all the synchronous quantity to a actual
three phase quantity (d-q to a-b-c). by using inverter pole voltages (set by the current
controller) and the grid voltages, PV output currents are computed and injected to
the grid at PCC.
PV system injects current to the grid based on the available PV power and grid voltage.
3.7. Simulation of PV System 43
Figure 3.15: Simulation of PV system
Chapter 4
Distribution System
Large PV plants( MW size) supplies power to either 33kV or 66kV, roof top PV plants are
design to supply in 415V secondary distribution system. Some medium range PV plants(of
few hundred kW) will supply power to 11kV primary circuits.
4.1 Important terms in Distribution System
As per IEEE 1547 standard (as shown in the Fig.4.1)
Electrical Power System (EPS) - Facilities that deliver electric power to a load
Area EPS-An EPS that serves Local EPSs
Local EPS - An EPS contained entirely within a single premises or group of premises
Distributed Resources (DR) Sources of electric power that are not directly connected
to a bulk power transmission system. DR includes both generators and energy storage
technologies
Distributed Generation - Electric generation facilities connected to an Area EPS through
a PCC, a subset of DR
Island - A condition in which a portion of an Area EPS is energized solely by one or
more Local EPSs through the associated PCCs while that portion of the Area EPS is
electrically separated from the rest of the Area EPS
Point of Common Coupling (PCC) -The point where a Local EPS is connected to an
Area EPS
44
4.2. System Study 45
Figure 4.1: DG interconnection Terms IEEE std. 1547
4.2 System Study
Two photovoltaic system (2 500kW) with the aggregate capacity of 1MW is connected to
the grid(as shown in the Fig.4.2).
Distribution system under consideration contains[23]
33kV four bus distribution system is supplied by grid substation (Area EPS) and PV
system
Local load connected between PV system and the substation.
Three distribution lines, connecting PV to local load (Line 1), local load to substation
(Line 2) and substation to substation local load (Line 3)
Loads have its own reactive power compensation using static capacitors.
Only R-L load is considered
Filter Capacitor of the PV system is transformed to 33kV (from 415V) and considered
as a shunt capacitor for Bus 1
Y n transformer, primary LV (415V ) on PV system side and grounded Y HV (33kV )
on grid side.
Substation model as an innite grid using its short circuit MVA
46 Chapter 4. Distribution System
R
g1
L
g1
R
1L
L
1L
R
g2
R
g3
L
g3
C
1L
Load1
C
2L
Grid
L
2L
R
2L
Load2
C
s
R
s
L
s
Transformer
PV
module
C
Inverter R
f L
f
Filter
PV System
Distribution System
415V
C
f
33 kV
Line1
Line2 Line3
Bus 1
Bus 2
Bus 3
Bus 4
3ph
1MW
V
sg
V
f
V
1L
V
2L
V
2L
L
g2
Figure 4.2: Single Line Schematic Diagram of the Photovoltaic System Interfaced with
Distribution Network
Substation along with load-2 act as an Area EPS, PV system with its local Load-1 act as a
Local EPS, and bus-1 is considered as PCC.
4.3 Distribution System Parameters
Lumped parameters are used to model[24] the distribution system, simple radial 4 bus dis-
tribution system is considered
4.3.1 Modelling of Load
Simple RL load with a capacitor reactive power compensation is modelled, as per the stan-
dard for islanding simulation, capacitor must be chosen such that resonance will happen at
rated frequency (50Hz).
R
L
=
V
2
P
load
Quality factor Q
f
= 1.7
L
L
=
V
2
Q
f
P
l
oad
C
L
=
Q
f
P
load
V
2
= 2f where f = 50Hz
here Line V oltage V = 33kV
4.3. Distribution System Parameters 47
4.3.2 Innite Grid Model
Here substation is modelled as an innite grid by using its short circuit MVA (SMVA) at
Bus-3
SMV A = 500MW
V = 33kV
if
R
s
Z
s
= 0.15
Z
s
=
V
2
SMV A
= 2.178
R
s
= 0.15 Z
s
= 0.3267
L
s
=
_
(Z
2
s
R
2
s
)

= 6.86mH
C
s
= 1F
4.3.3 Transformer
Transformer ( Y n) is modelled by using its leakage reactance and the resistance, all
parameters are translated with respect to high voltage secondary. Leakage reactance are
calculated using its short circuit test voltage (V
sc
), inverter grade transformer is designed for
relatively high leakage reactance, so V
sc
= 8%.
P
rated
= 1.25MW
%V
sc
= 8%
Efficiency = 99.8%
HV side Current I
rated
=
P
rated
V
rated
= 21.87A
V oltage drop V
L
=
%V
sc
V
rated

3
= 1.524kV
Z =
V
L
I
rated
= 69.7
R =
(1 )P
rated
3I
2
rated
= 1.74
L =
V
L

= 0.222H
So Transformer
X
R
= 40 (4.1)
48 Chapter 4. Distribution System
4.3.4 Distribution Line Model
The system under consideration have three distribution lines, conductor area of the transmis-
sion line is chosen based on short circuit MVA and its continuous current carrying capability.
Resistivity () of the line is considered as 1.25 times of the given copper resistivity(at20
o
).
X
t
= 0.4/km (for 33kV Line)
L =
X
t
l

R =
1.25l
A
c
l-length of the conductor, Ac-Area of the cross section of the conductor
Line No Length(km) Inductance L(mH) Resistance ()
Line 1 4 5.1 1.2
Line 2 5 6.4 1.6
Line 3 7 8.9 4.9
Table 4.1: Line Parameter
4.4 Distribution System Simulation
Distribution system as shown in the Fig.4.2 (excluding PV system) is have only linear ele-
ments, so for the better simulation performance, full system is model as a state space equation
and state variable block of MATLAB/SIMULINK is used to implement the system. Loads
are modelled separately not included in the state space.
State variable matrix for the distribution system
x = Ax +Bu (4.2)
y = Cx +Du
4.4. Distribution System Simulation 49
Where
State V ariable x =
_

_
v
f
v
1L
v
s
v
2L
i
g1
i
g2
i
g3
i
s
_

_
State Space A =
_

_
0 0 0 0
1
C
f
0 0 0
0 0 0 0
1
C
1L
1
C
1L
0 0
0 0 0 0 0
1
C
s
1
C
s
1
C
s
0 0 0 0 0 0
1
C
2L
0
1
L
g1
1
L
g1
0 0
R
g1
L
g1
0 0 0
0
1
L
g2
1
L
g2
0 0
R
g2
L
g1
0 0
0 0
1
L
g3
1
L
g3
0 0
R
g3
L
g3
0
0 0
1
L
s
0 0 0 0
R
s
L
s
_

_
Input Matrix B =
_

_
1
C
f
0 0 0
0
1
C
1L
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0
1
C
2L
0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
1
L
s
_

_
Input V ector u =
_

_
I
sa
I
1L
I
2L
v
sg
_

_
Required state variables can be taken as the output, so based on the analysis & state variable
of interest, C & D matrix can be formulated.
Chapter 5
System Simulation Method
PV system with distributed network is simulated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment,
since the model have many subsystem and dynamic elements, simulation takes much time to
simulate the system. PV system simulation shown in the literatures[25] are using PSCAD
and other packages with its inbuilt blocks, so always validity of the results are questioned.
So there is a need for reducing the simulation time.
5.1 Issues in System Simulation
Distribution voltage at PCC (bus 1) takes much time to reach steady state, because
during initial time, distribution system act as an voltage source connected to an R-L-C
circuit
Due to oscillation in the distribution system, PV system, which sense the PCC voltage
takes much time to reach steady state
PLL have to reach the steady state before PV system starts its operation, since MAT-
LAB try to execute all the blocks simultaneously, so PV system oscillates for long
time
MPPT must start with the better voltage otherwise, due to MPPT dynamics, system
will take much time to track the maximum power point.
Less DC bus capacitor initial voltage results in an oscillations in the current & voltage
controller, this leads to an injection of high current to the system and slower the process
of reaching steady state.
50
5.2. Methods to Improve Simulation Performance 51
Both voltage & current controllers have saturation blocks to limit the maximum current
(rate of change in the current), since during initial condition many system parameters
are oscillating, limitation of the controller results in, inability of the controller to speed
up the settling process.
Since switching frequency set to 5kHz and sampling time to 0.1ms, xed point MAT-
LAB simulation time must kept very low to record the dynamics, this leads to very
high simulation time, most often Computer/hardware failed to simulate the model.
Power balance added in the voltage loop leads to an initial DC bus voltage oscillation,
any change in the DC bus voltage leads to the change in the present MPPT voltage,
this makes system to stabilize at slower rate, since MPPT is relatively slower than the
other dynamic elements in the system
There is a need to reduce the initial settling time of the system, because many disturbances
must be simulated, while system is in the stable condition. Methods employed to reduce
settling time of the system must not aect the performance (dynamics) of the system.
5.2 Methods to Improve Simulation Performance
The above problems are overcome by using the below method
Making the MPPT voltage constant (near to MPP voltage) for few ms, this will avoid
the dynamics due to MPPT
Disabling the saturation block of the current and voltage controller for few ms will
speed up the controller action.
I
q
controller limiter block which decides the reactive power must be disabled during
the initial operation
Power balance feedback is disabled for rst few ms, to allow MPPT to track the
maximum power point.
All elements are modelled in mathematical equation, without using inbuilt MATLAB
power system blocks, this leads to an improved simulation time and performance.
52 Chapter 5. System Simulation Method
5.3 System Simulation
Simulation method must satisfy the below requirement
Simulation must take less time
It must be scalable to any distribution network
User friendly
Must adopt standard input format
Here System is divided into two parts
Non Linear PV system
Linear Distribution System
Distribution Line
Load
Non-linear PV system is fully modelled as shown in the Fig.3.15 and linear distribution
system is modelled by using state space(Eq.4.2) equation, which explained in the last chapter.
From the Fig.5.1
PV system inject current based on the voltage at PCC, so output equation matrix
(Y = Cx+Du) C must formed such that bus 1 voltage (V
f
) must be one of the output
of state space and it gives the voltage information to the PV system.
PV system is injecting current to the distribution system, so PV system current
(i
sa
, i
sb
, i
sc
) must be added as the input to the state matrix (B & u) as shown in
the eq.4.2.
based on the load bus voltage (V
1L
& V
2L
), load will inject the current (I
1L
&I
2L
)) to
the distribution system, so load voltages V
1L
& V
2L
dened as output in the distribu-
tion system state space, and load current (i
1L
& i
2L
must be dened as input to the
distribution system state space.
5.4. Simulation of Line faults 53
Figure 5.1: System Implementation in MATLAB/SIMULINK
In proposed method can be scalable to any distribution network, this can be done by chang-
ing only the state space parameters (A, B, C&D), general program can be written in the
MATLAB, which provides the standard input to the simulation. Input le must provide all
important data/informations(e.g. controller, distribution system Panel....etc) to the simu-
lation. Changing the parameter is quite easy in this kind of simulation. Since full system
is implemented in simple MATLAB/SIMULINK blocks, simulation is quite faster. So the
above simulation requirements are all achieved by using this proposed method as shown in
the Fig.5.1.
5.4 Simulation of Line faults
For creating faults at any part of distribution line during simulation, need modication in the
above state space, since MATLAB wont allow changes in the state space parameter during
simulation. Fault is simulated by adding a small ctitious capacitor in the network. From
54 Chapter 5. System Simulation Method
Figure 5.2: Simulation of Line Fault
the Fig.5.2, current state variable of the faulted line is split into two state variable based on
the fault point. If fault happen in the line-2 then state variable i
g2
is split into i
g21
& i
g22
,
another state variable v
t
also included into the system, during fault v
t
made equal to zero
as shown in the g.5.2
5.5 Simulation of Loss of Grid (Islanding)
For simulating loss of grid, either Line-1 or Line-2 have to be open circuited, since islanding
studies have to be carried out for dierent local loads, so loss of line-2 is simulated. Simulation
5.5. Simulation of Loss of Grid (Islanding) 55
of line outage need modication in the above state space, which is dierent from fault
simulation. This is done by taking the line (of interest)state variable (i
g2
) outside the state
space equation and implemented by using transfer function. Input to the Line-2 transfer
function is the both end bus voltages (V
1L
&V
s
) (bus-2 and bus 3). Based on this voltages
line transfer function injects current (i
g2
) to the distribution state space. So modied state
space equation will have one state variable less than steady state matrix and will have one
additional input (i
g2
) as shown in the Fig.5.3. Loss of line is simulated by forcing the current
i
g2
= 0.
Figure 5.3: Simulation of Loss of Grid(Islanding)
Chapter 6
Impact of DG on Area EPS
Standard IEEE 1547 deals with the performance requirements of the grid connected distribu-
tion system (upto 10MW, 60Hz) interface. 29 important issues (both technical & managerial)
are discussed in this standard. impacts are fully depend on the amount of DG/DR added to
the Area EPS. Issues can be widely broadly classied into
Power Quality
DC current, Harmonics, Flicker etc
Management
Process, Agreement, Liability etc
Safety
Desensitization of Protection Device, Islanding
Damage to Area EPS & Customer Equipment
Overvoltage (Voltage Regulator), Shunt Capacitance switch, Circuit breaker, Fre-
quency control, Network Protector, Reclosing etc
Reliability
Fuse, breaker Co-ordination, Time to repair etc
Stability
Fault, Voltage stability, Frequent Trip of DG etc
56
6.1. Tripping Parameters for Distribution System 57
6.1 Tripping Parameters for Distribution System
During abnormal conditions in the grid (e.g Voltage and Frequency variation at PCC) Pho-
tovoltaic system must cease to energize the grid within a pre determined time as given in
Table.6.1 by the standard IEEE 1547. This information is very important for stability and
co-ordination study.
Voltage Range(% of base Voltage) Clearing Time(s)
V<50 0.16
50V<88 2
110<V<120 1
V 120 0.16
Table 6.1: System response to abnormal voltages
6.1.1 Thumb Rule for Islanding
Aggregate capacity of DG, which is less then one third of total minimum load of EPS
then ordinary islanding detection techniques is sucient
Simple protection (Voltage) sucient for DG with capacity is less than 50% of the
total load in local EPS minimum annual integrated electrical demand for a 15 minute
time period
Impact of DG is less, when it account only 15% of annual peak load(simple impact
study is sucient)
Less chance of interference (Reliability), if DG not contribute more than 10% of max-
imum fault current
Circuit Breaker is safe, if fault current (DG +Area EPS) < 85-90% short circuit rating
DG rating less than 30kW than simple study is sucient
Chapter 7
Simulation Results
PV system model is simulated for dierent grid disturbances and eect of each PV system
dynamic element on a particular disturbances are analysed. Important dynamic elements in
the PV systems are
MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker)
Voltage Controller (with DC bus capacitor)
Phase Locked Loops (PLL)
Current Controller (with ltet inductor)
7.1 Case 1: Normal Operation of Full PV System
PV System is operated at the irradiance of 1000W/m
2
, &T
call
= 25
o
, frequency of 50Hz and
grid Voltage of 1pu at PCC. Performance of the PV system model found satisfactory and
matches with the actual data.
58
7.1. Case 1: Normal Operation of Full PV System 59
Figure 7.1: PV System Response for MPPT perturbation =0.1, E = 1000W/m
2
, T = 25
o
C
Figure 7.2: Distribution system Line Currents i
g1
, i
g2
, i
g3
, & i
s1
for MPPT=0.1, E =
1000W/m
2
, T = 25
o
C
60 Chapter 7. Simulation Results
Figure 7.3: Grid Voltage at PCC, Phase a Current & Voltage at PCC & i
ga1
, i
ga2
for
MPPT=0.1, E = 1000W/m
2
, T = 25
o
C
7.2 Case 2: Change in Irradiance from 1000W/m
2
to
500W/m
2
Irradiance E is changed from 1000W/m
2
to 500W/m
2
at time t=0.25s. Since MPPT is the
important dynamic element for environmental change. Simulation is done for two dierent
MPPT perturbation (0.1 & 0.01). Study is carried out on PV system with the capacity of
500kW.
7.2.1 MPPT =0.1
The below gure shown the response of dierent PV elements for irradiance change
Concluding remarks
As per Fig.7.4, PLL dont have any eect on dynamics of the PV system during climatic
disturbances
MPPT, current and voltage controller is acts as an important role in system dynamics.
Here bandwidth of the current control loop is around 2500rad/s, and voltage controller
7.2. Case 2: Change in Irradiance from 1000W/m
2
to 500W/m
2
61
Figure 7.4: (a)Change in Irradance, (b) Three Phase Output Current of the PV System
MPPT=0.1
Figure 7.5: PV System Response for Irradiance Change (1000W/m
2
to 500W/m
2
)
MPPT=0.1
is around 1100rad/s. so system will need minimum of 0.4ms to settle.
There will be the slight dip in the capacitor voltage due to the pre disturbance(t=0.25s)
62 Chapter 7. Simulation Results
Figure 7.6: (a) Transient Portion of PV Current , Power & System Output Current
MPPT=0.1
current injected to the system (which is higher than the PV current), after that voltage
controller dynamics will be dictated by MPPT as shown in Fig.7.4.
Eect of this disturbance in the grid is very less, since grid is stronger and local load
also less than PV system, so no signicant change found in grid voltages.
To study the eect of MPPT , perturbation is changed from 0.1 to 0.01.
7.2.2 MPPT=0.01
In this case, it is found that maximum power is tracked after 2.45s as shown in the Fig.7.7,
so MPPT took much time to respond, since PV system rating is less (500kW) no much eect
is felt in the grid side, but high power PV will aects the performance of the weak grid.
7.3. Case 3: Grid Voltage Disturbance 63
Figure 7.7: (a) Transient Portion of PV Current ,Voltage, Power & System Output Current
MPPT=0.01
7.3 Case 3: Grid Voltage Disturbance
Response of photovoltaic plant for variation in the grid voltages at PCC is analysed by using
MPPT perturbation=0.1
7.3.1 Grid Voltage Variation from 1pu to 0.85pu at t=0.25s
Simulation is done for irradiance=1000W/m
2
and T
cell
= 25
o
Concluding Remarks
MPPT have very less inuence on the grid voltage disturbances as shown in the
Fig.7.11. This is only true when voltage controller is employed to control the DC
bus voltage
PLL act as an important role in system dynamics, since PLL is the element which
informs the PV system about the grid voltage vector. Based on the voltage vector PV
injects power to the grid. So PLL act as an important role in PV system dynamics for
grid voltage variation as shown in the Fig.7.8
Voltage and current controller also have inuence in the dynamics.
64 Chapter 7. Simulation Results
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
499
500
501
502
503
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
590
600
610
620
time (s)
P
V

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

I
p
v
(
A
)
time (s)
P
V

P
o
w
e
r

P
p
v
(
k
W
)
(a) PV Power during Voltage dip from 1pu to 0.85pu
(a) PV Current

P
V

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

V
p
v
(
V
)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
810
820
830
840
time (s)
P
L
L

-

V
s
d
(
V
)

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
0
500
1000
time (s)
(c) PV Voltage
(c) PLL Output V
sd
Figure 7.8: Transient Response of the PV system for Grid Voltage Variation 1pu to 0.85pu
Figure 7.9: Grid Voltage (varying from 1pu to 0.85pu)at PCC and PV System Current
7.3. Case 3: Grid Voltage Disturbance 65
Figure 7.10: Transient Portion of PV system Elements for Grid Voltage Variation of 1pu to
0.85pu
Figure 7.11: PV Voltage Transient for Dierent MPPT Perturbation during Grid Voltage
Variation of 1pu to 0.85pu
66 Chapter 7. Simulation Results
To inject the all PV power to the grid, PV system output current will increases with
decrease in grid voltage at PCC
7.3.2 Grid Voltage Variation from 1pu to 1.1pu at t=0.25s
Simulation is done for irradiance=800W/m
2
and T
cell
= 25
o
to inject the all PV power to the grid, PV system output current will decrease with increase
Figure 7.12: Transient Response of the PV system for Grid Voltage Variation 1pu to 1.1pu
in grid voltage at PCC, other remarks are as same like previous one.
7.4 Case 3 : Change in Grid Frequency
Change in grid frequency from 50 to 45Hz at time t=0.25s is simulated under climatic
conditions E = 1000W/m
2
& T
cell
= 25
o
.
It observed that only PLL and current controllers have considerable eect on dynamics
behaviour of the system. PV system able to track frequency within a half cycle as shown
in the Fig.7.14
MPPT & voltage controller will have very Less impact
7.5. Case 4: Three Phase Fault 67
Figure 7.13: Grid Voltage (varying from 1pu to 1.1pu)at PCC and PV System Current
Figure 7.14: PLL Dynamics for Grid Frequency Variation from 50Hz to 45Hz
7.5 Case 4: Three Phase Fault
Three phase bolted fault is created in the dierent lines in the distribution network as shown
in the Fig.7.15 at time t=0.25s.
68 Chapter 7. Simulation Results
Simulation is carried out for dierent controllers and MPPT perturbation
R
g1
L
g1
R
1L
L
1L
R
g2
R
g3
L
g3
C
1L
Load1
C
2L
Grid
L
2L
R
2L
Load2
C
s
R
s
L
s
Transformer
Distribution System
C
f
33 kV
Line1 Line2 Line3
Bus 1
Bus 2
Bus 3
Bus 4
V
sg
V
f
V
1L
V
sg
V
2L
L
g2
i
sa
PV system
Current
injection
Line4
i
g1
i
g2
i
g3
i
sg
i
1L
i
2L
PCC
Figure 7.15: Single Line Schematic of Distribution System
7.5.1 Three Phase Fault in Line-1
Three phase fault is created on the transformer high voltage secondary terminal, under the
climatic condition of E = 1000W/m
2
and T
cell
= 25
o
.
Figure 7.16: Transient Response of the PV system During Three Phase Fault at Line -1
7.5. Case 4: Three Phase Fault 69
Figure 7.17: Distribution System Line Currents During Fault at Line1
Figure 7.18: PV System Fault Current & Grid Voltage at PCC During Fault at Line-1
70 Chapter 7. Simulation Results
Figure 7.19: Transient Portion of PV System Current & DC Bus Voltage During fault at
Line-1
Concluding Remarks
To protect power electronic components and system , PV system output current is
limited to 1.5pu as shown in Fig.7.18.
Fault requires reactive power, but PV generate active power. This active power must
be dumped inside the capacitor which in-turn rise the capacitor voltage
Increased capacitor voltage leads to less PV current I
pv
and power P
pv
(refer the PV
Cell characteristic).
Grid Supplies high current to the fault as shown in the Fig.7.17
PV system supplies 1.5pu fault current, which is around 1% of total fault current
During fault, DC bus voltage is decided by power ow and MPPT has less control
over DC bus capacitor voltage. So MPPT wont aect dynamics of the system during
bolted fault condition.
At the instant of fault, response of the PV depends on controller design, PWM tech-
nique and DC bus capacitor.
7.6. Case-5: Loss of Grid - Islanding 71
7.5.2 Three Phase Fault at Line-1 with Inverter
The above fault simulation is done by considering average inverter model. Simulation also
tried with ideal inverter (refer Fig.7.20). Both the cases results are matching. Fault is
created in the Line-1 at time t=0.3s.
Figure 7.20: PV System Fault Current & Grid Voltage at PCC During Fault at Line-1 with
Inverter
7.6 Case-5: Loss of Grid - Islanding
Loss of grid is simulated by forcing current i
sg
= 0 at time t=0.25s under irradiance E =
1000W/m
2
) & T
cell
= 25
o
. When grid is lost, PV system operates in isolation which normally
called as islanding. Islandng conditions are not acceptable by standard due to various safety
and quality issues. Lots of islanding detection methods are proposed, which normally sense
voltage, frequency or rate of change in frequency(ROCOF) and rate of change in voltage
angle. Simulation is done for dierent Load-1 (refer Fig.7.15) values, with a quality factor
of 1.7. Island must be detected and PV system must be disconnected within 2s.
72 Chapter 7. Simulation Results
7.6.1 Loss of Grid, Load1 = 750kW, Q
f
= 1.7 Load2 = 70kW at t =
0.25s
Grid loss simulated at time t=0.25s
Figure 7.21: Transient Response of the PV system During Loss of Grid
Figure 7.22: Distribution System Line Currents During Loss of Grid
7.6. Case-5: Loss of Grid - Islanding 73
Figure 7.23: Grid Voltage at PCC & PV System Current During Loss of Grid
Figure 7.24: Grid Voltage Vector & Grid Frequency During Loss of Grid
Concluding remarks
After disconnection of the grid, Power generated by the PV is much higher than the
74 Chapter 7. Simulation Results
connected load. Since PV controllers try to ensure constant power injection. This
active power mismatch leads to increment in the PCC voltage, in this case voltage
increased to 1.02pu, so simple passive voltage detection anti-islanding method failed
to detect the island.
Since some of the reactive power(VAR) is supplied by the gird, loss of grid results in
loss of reactive power source. This active power mismatch leads to decrement in the
frequency. In this case frequency is decreased from 1pu to 0.85pu. so simple passive
frequency & ROCOF detection anti-islanding method can detect the island.
Frequency of the system settles in the resonant frequency of the load(including distri-
bution line) to ensure UPF operation.
PLL, current and voltage controllers act as an important role in the transient response.
7.6.2 Loss of Grid, Load1 = 500kW, Q
f
= 1.7 Load2 = 70kW at t =
0.25s
Fig.7.25 & Fig.7.28 shows the performance of the system during Loss of grid with Load-
1=500kW. Since active power mismatch is high, so even simple passive voltage based anti-
islanding method detects the island(refer Table.7.1)
Figure 7.25: Grid Voltage at PCC & PV System Current During Loss of Grid for Load-
1=500kW
7.6. Case-5: Loss of Grid - Islanding 75
7.6.3 Loss of Grid, Load1 = 1300kW, Q
f
= 1.7 Load2 = 70kW at t =
0.25s
Fig.7.26 & Fig.7.28 shows the performance of the system during Loss of grid with Load-
1=1300kW. Since connected load is higher than the PV capacity. This active power mismatch
leads to decrement in the PCC voltage. In this case voltage decreased to 0.82pu. Power
mismatch is high, so even simple passive voltage based anti-islanding method detects the
island(refer Table.7.1).
Figure 7.26: Grid Voltage at PCC & PV System Current During Loss of Grid for Load-
1=1300kW
7.6.4 Loss of Grid, Load1 = 900kW, Q
f
= 1.7 Load2 = 70kW at t =
0.25s
Fig.7.27 & Fig.7.28 shows the performance of the system during Loss of grid with Load-
1=900kW. Since connected load is slightly dierent from the PV capacity. Power mismatch
is low, so simple passive voltage based anti-islanding method failed to detects the island(refer
Table.7.1).
76 Chapter 7. Simulation Results
Figure 7.27: Grid Voltage at PCC & PV System Current During Loss of Grid for Load-
1=900kW
7.6.5 Summary of Voltage & Current Data
For all the cases Load2 = 70kW, quality factor (Q
f
) = 1.7 , irradiance E = 1000W/m
2
and
T
cell
= 25
o
maintained constant. With grid connected to the PV system(before disturbance)
peak voltage (V
PCC
) = 340.2V , Peak PV system output current(for 500kW) I
sa
= 979A,
grid voltage vector V
sd
= 510V and grid frequency = 314rad/s. The quantities mention
in the table.7.1 is measured at time t=0.6s (after loss of the grid)..
Load-1 (kW) Peak V
PCC
(V ) Peak I
sa
(A) Ang. Frequency ( rad/s) Voltage Vector V
sd
(V )
500 404 829 241 595
750 347 965 266 519
900 326 1033 275 486
1300 282 1183 291 423
Table 7.1: Voltage at PCC & PV System (500kW) Output Current
7.7. Case 6: Study of Nuisance Trip for Fault Ride Through Enabled PV System 77
Figure 7.28: Grid Voltage Vector & Grid Frequency During Loss of Grid with Dierent
Connected Load
7.7 Case 6: Study of Nuisance Trip for Fault Ride
Through Enabled PV System
In the distribution network as shown in the Fig.7.15, fault in Line-3 cannot trip the PV
system. For the high penetrated PV system, loss of PV supply leads to power system
instability. Many governments agencies are insisting on mandatory fault ride through capable
PV system to save the overall power system. So stringent studies have to be carried out for
high penetrated PV plants.
From the Fig.7.31, post fault voltage at the PCC is 205Vpeak, which around 60% of the
rated voltage, but as per the IEEE Std.1547 as shown in the table.6.1. For voltages(at PCC)
between 50% to 88% , PV have to cease the energization within 2s. If fault rectied within
2s, PV system will regains its normal state. Otherwise PV system will get disconnected from
the network, this leads to loss of generation and power system instability. So while planning
the PV system, detailed analysis have to be done on fault ride through and its eect on
system stability.
78 Chapter 7. Simulation Results
Figure 7.29: Transient Response of the PV system During Fault at Middle of Line-3
Figure 7.30: Distribution System Line Currents During Fault at Middle of Line-3
7.7. Case 6: Study of Nuisance Trip for Fault Ride Through Enabled PV System 79
Figure 7.31: Grid Voltage at PCC & PV System Current During Fault at Middle of Line-3
Chapter 8
Conclusions
This project was aimed to study the behaviour of the photovoltaic system during both
climatic and grid disturbances. This study is important, because of increasing penetration
of the grid connected PV generation. Since not much study were done on fault behaviour of
inverter based generation, particularly fault response of the PV system.
Manufacturer data sheet based PV panel is modelled. Constant current control based(UPF)
interface is used to connect the PV system to the grid. Distribution system which assumes
innite grid as a source were modelled using state space matrix. The overall PV system is
modelled such that it takes very less time for simulation. The given system is implemented
by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. System model also takes care of unbalanced conditions.
This model can be used for any number of distribution system.
System model is used to simulated the dierent disturbances. Eect of each PV system
element for dierent disturbances were analysed. Those are
System with voltage controller showing better performance. Voltage controller reducing
the eect of the MPPT during the grid voltage disturbances
MPPT act as an important role, During large DC voltage disturbances under non-fault
conditions.
PLL dynamics act as an very important role in non fault grid disturbances(voltage and
frequency disturbances)
PV system fault current is limited to 1.5 to 2pu, so PV panel contribution to the
system fault is very less(depends on the penetration level)
80
81
MPPT have less eect on dynamics of the system during three phase bolted fault
condition.
MPPT act as an important role in system dynamics during climatic disturbances.
MPPT have much eect during
Absence of voltage controller
Large climatic disturbance
System with high PV penetration
PLL have very less inuence on system response, during climatic disturbances
Current and voltage controller have eect in system dynamics during all possible grid
and climatic disturbances. Current controller bandwidth is depends on the lter in-
ductance(which act as a plant) and PI controller.
Change in controller parameter aects the transient response of the system during
fault, faster controller have less fault current overshoot and slower controller have high
fault current overshoot.
Saturation block(Limit) in the PI controller also aect the transient response of the
PV system.
Transient response of the PV system is depends on the design parameters(like con-
troller, lter design, DC bus Capacitor). So it is not possible to standardize the
transient response of the system.
MPPT is helping the system to reach stable condition.
PV system behaviour during islanded conditions are also studied, islanding detection
becomes very dicult, if load demand is equal to PV generation
Since PV system is operating in UPF. Particularly for PV system, passive frequency
detection and ROCOF detection based anti-islanding method is better performing than
voltage detection based anti-islanding method.
82 Chapter 8. Conclusions
Nuisance trip study for fault ride through capable PV system is very important for
maintaining the power system stability. This study will be very critical for high pen-
etrated System. There is no standard method is available to carry out this study for
high penetrated PV systems. So there is need for standardization of PV system fault
analysis and co-ordination with the protection devices.
Appendix A
MATLAB Simulation
A.1 Over all system
Grid
powergui
Cont inuous
N
A
B
C
PV System1
V
s
a
V
s
b
V
s
c
f
a
u
l
t
I
a
I
b
I
c
PV System
V
s
a
V
s
b
V
s
c
f
a
u
l
t
I
a
I
b
I
c
Distribution Network
A
B
C
Visa
Visb
Visc
R
Y
B1
N
Add2
Add1
Add
Figure A.1: Over all System
83
84 Appendix A. MATLAB Simulation
A.2 Distribution Network
Visc
3
Visb
2
Visa
1
N
4
B1
3
Y
2
R
1
Voltage Sensor
Vsa
Vsb
Vsc
R
y
B
N
Nt2
-K-
Nt1
-K-
Nt
-K-
C Phase
I
Vs
Vinv
B Phase
I
Vs
Vinv
A Phase
Isa
Vs
Vinv
Isc
3
Isb
2
Isa
1
Figure A.2: Distribution Network Implementation
A.3. Distribution System - Phase a 85
A.3 Distribution System - Phase a
Vinv
1
To Workspace8
Is
To Workspace7
Vpcc
To Workspace6
Ig3
To Workspace5
Ig2
To Workspace3
V2L
To Workspace2
Vs
To Workspace1
V1L
State-Space11
x' = Ax+Bu
y = Cx+Du
Load-2
x' = Ax+Bu
y = Cx+Du
Load-1
x' = Ax+Bu
y = Cx+Du
Fault
Ig11
Ig12
Vt
Vs
2
Isa
1
Figure A.3: Distribution System - Phase a implementation
86 Appendix A. MATLAB Simulation
A
.
4
P
V
S
y
s
t
e
m
Ic 4 Ib 3 Ia 2
1
V
o
lta
g
e
C
o
n
tro
lo
r
V
dcref
KV
fault
P
ow
er
Idvol
V
dc
T
ra
n
s
fe
r
F
c
n
4
1
0
.0
0
1
s
+
1
T
o
W
o
rk
s
p
a
c
e
9
fre
q
T
o
W
o
rk
s
p
a
c
e
8
v
m
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