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Problems of Urban growth.

With special reference to Ranchi city.


By
Dr. Nitish Priyadarshi.
Geologist.
76 circ!lar road Ranchi"#$%&&'
(mail) nitish.priyadarshi*gmail.com
+bstract)
Owing to population growth, poor levels of hygiene, and increasing urban poverty, the
urban environment in many developing countries is rapidly deteriorating. Densely packed
housing in shanty towns or slums and inadequate drinking-water supplies, garbage
collection services, and surface-water drainage systems combine to create favourable
habitats for the proliferation of vectors and reservoirs of communicable diseases. Ranchi
the capital city is expanding both vertical and horiontal resulting in lots of problem like
irregular electric supply, water supply, ground water depletion, air pollution, noise
pollution, municipal waste disposal, failure of drainage systems, traffic !ams etc. "urface
waters are being contaminated. "easonal diseases have also multiplied.
Night view of Ranchi city.
Expansion of Ranchi city.
,ntrod!ction)
#s more and more people leave villages and farms to live in cities, urban growth results.
$rbaniation occurs naturally from individual and corporate efforts to reduce time and
expense in commuting and transportation while improving opportunities for !obs,
education, housing, and transportation. %iving in cities permits individuals and families to
take advantage of the opportunities of proximity, diversity, and marketplace competition.
&eople move into cities to seek economic opportunities. 'n rural areas, often on small
family farms, it is difficult to improve one(s standard of living beyond basic sustenance.
)arm living is dependent on unpredictable environmental conditions, and in times of
drought, flood or pestilence, survival becomes extremely problematic.
*ities, in contrast, are known to be places where money, services and wealth are
centralied. *ities are where fortunes are made and where social mobility is possible.
+usinesses, which generate !obs and capital, are usually located in urban areas. ,hether
the source is trade or tourism, it is also through the cities that foreign money flows into a
country. 't is easy to see why someone living on a farm might wish to take their chance
moving to the city and trying to make enough money to send back home to their
struggling family.
-here are better basic services as well as other specialist services that aren(t found in rural
areas. -here are more !ob opportunities and a greater variety of !obs. .ealth is another
ma!or factor. &eople, especially the elderly are often forced to move to cities where there
are doctors and hospitals that can cater for their health needs. Other factors include a
greater variety of entertainment /restaurants, movie theaters, theme parks, etc0 and a
better quality of education, namely universities. Due to their high populations, urban
areas can also have much more diverse social communities allowing others to find people
like them when they might not be able to in rural areas.
*learly, urban settlements differ greatly in sie, as mentioned by their populations. 's
there a -heoretical maximum and an optimum sie1 *riffith -aylor and others believe
that the ultimate sie may be fixed by the increasing difficulty of obtaining enough water
to supply unduly large numbers concentrated in a small area, while %ewis 2umford and
similar authors think that the continued growth of very large cities not only produces
more administrative problems than benefits. -his also paralyses rather than furthers social
relationships and phenomenally raises central land values, so much that land ceases to be
adaptable to new needs.
3iews on the optimum sie of a city have altered with the march of history. &lato
believed that most desirable sie was 4,555, a figure which would allow everybody to
hear the voice of an orator and so participate in active political life and develop varied
social relations. %ate nineteenth 6 century garden city enthusiasts in +ritain thought that
towns of 75,555 to 45,555 would be large enough supply all necessary human needs,
whether medical, educational, social, economic or cultural.
-owns could not come into being until the surrounding countryside was capable of
providing a food surplus in the past. Due to modern transport and large surpluses in many
parts of the world, towns generally have little difficulty in obtaining food, even from far
distant lands. Developing countries may lack the capital to give all their town folk an
adequate diet, and even in developed countries there are sporadic temporary shortages,
owing to failures in economic planning, poor harvests, dock strikes and traffic hold-ups
occasioned by excessive rain, snow, floods, droughts etc.
-he problem of water supply is more permanent and applies specifically to cities. 't is
becoming increasingly serious even in advanced countries which certainly have no
problem in paying for the water they consume. -he root of the problem lies in the fact
that 89: of the earth;s surface water is contained in the salt oceans and in ice-caps. -he
remainder is unevenly distributed and often polluted. Over half is needed for agriculture,
about a third for industry, <5 percent for domestic use.
2any cities, especially in developing countries, lack a clean supply of fresh water. 'n
'ndia, e.g., less than a third of the urban population has access to pure water, and the main
reason why water borne diseases are rampant. =ven when people are provided with
purified water for drinking, they usually wash themselves and their clothing in
contaminated supplies.
Owing to population growth, poor levels of hygiene, and increasing urban poverty, the
urban environment in many developing countries is rapidly deteriorating. Densely packed
housing in shanty towns or slums and inadequate drinking-water supplies, garbage
collection services, and surface-water drainage systems combine to create favourable
habitats for the proliferation of vectors and reservoirs of communicable diseases. #s a
consequence, vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis and dengue are
becoming ma!or public health problems associated with rapid urbaniation in many
tropical countries
#nother change that has occurred after the oil crisis of <8>7 is the vertical growth of
large cities. &eople who were living in suburbs found it costly to travel to the city. -he
open spaces within the city got filled up by the construction of high rise buildings. %arge
bungalows and old residences were demolished and high rise buildings have come up
both as commercial complexes and as residential flats. 2any rich families are migrating
from the suburbs to flats or apartments near the city centre. -he vertical expansion of
cities poses further problems in water supply, sewage disposal and traffic congestion on
the roads. -raffic causes urban noise, air pollution, stress and strain in an individual.
$rbaniation results in construction of a large number of buildings, more roads factories,
parking places, etc. for all these, land is secured either by diverting agricultural land or by
cutting forests. -here may not be one example where a large urban centre has been
developed on barren land. 't is always the agricultural land or forest land which is
utilied. #t some places beaches, lakes and rivers are filled to create land to
accommodate the growing population. 'n these cases too, natural habitat is disturbed or
destroyed.
$rbaniation also introduces new types of plants and animals. ,hen human beings
occupy any area they prefer to those animals and plants which are of immediate value.
)or example, dogs, horses, cows and other domestic animals, are maintained. &arks and
garden are created where plants of ornamental and economic values are cultivated. -here
is also another class of animals, which automatically start living in areas which are
occupied by humans. -here are rats, crows, mosquitoes, houseflies etc.
-he demands made on water by urban industries, power stations and homes are growing
at a more rapid rate than the growth of population. 2any wells do not yield enough
water, river pollution, like ?anga, Damodar etc. in 'ndia, is a continuing evil, and the
remaining water resources- mostly in thinly populated highland areas of abundant rain-
are far from many consuming centres.
-b.ecti/es)
<. -o understand the problem of the Ranchi city due to population growth after
becoming capital of @harkhand state.
A. -o enhance equal and good environment planning on every aspect of
development in Ranchi city.
7. -o create awareness of water contamination and water depletion.
B. -o examine the relationship between urbaniation and climate change.
0ethodology)
'n order to achieve the purpose of this paper and to answer the research questions,
information was gathered in several ways. -hese areC field interviews, and field
observation . "econdary data also is an important source of information for this paper
which was collected through local news papers and web sites.
1ase st!dy of Ranchi.
Ranchi is located in the southern part of the *hota Dagpur plateau, which is the eastern
section of the Deccan plateau. Ranchi is known as the E*ity of ,aterfallsE because of its
numerous waterfalls, the most well known of which are Dassam )alls, .undru )alls,
@onha )alls, .irni )alls and &anchghagh )alls.
-he "ubarnarekha river and its tributaries constitute the local river system. -he channels
Fanke, Rukka and .atia have been dammed to create reservoirs that supply water to the
ma!ority of the population.
Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a
relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. #lthough Ranchi has a
humid subtropical climate, its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce
the unusually pleasant climate for which it(s known. 'ts climate is the primary reason why
Ranchi was once the summer capital of the undivided "tate of +ihar and was designated a
preferable Ehill stationE. "ince that time, rapid population growth and industrialiation
have caused a marked change in its weather patterns and an increase in average
temperature. -his has resulted in gradual loss of its eligibility for Ehill stationE status
Demographic history of Ranchi shows that its population grew slowly during <85<-<8B<.
'n the subsequent decade of <8B< and <84<, its rate of growth was higher than national
average. Due to enhanced importance of the city and its environment, people are attracted
towards the city, and occupy land for businesses and residential purposes. -he decade
<8G<-<89< saw the highest growth of population due to migration and attraction of
people towards the old summer capital of +ihar. &opulation increased with 9A percent in
<8G<->< and 8A percent in <8><-9<. Obviously, people occupied the area where they felt
secure in terms of education, hospital, infrastructure, employment, etc.
Ranchi started as a small city occupying an area of around G sq km in <9G8 with a
population of approximately <A,555 in <9><. -he area gradually increased to B7.BB sq km
in <8G4, <>4.A8 sq km in <894 and eventually stood at <>>.<8 sq km in A55B.
?eographically Ranchi city is heterogeneous and due to its varied topological features,
development process disturbs-land, village forests, and natural resources. $se of land and
steep slopes for cultivation, and heavy engineering works can easily activate ecological
degradation. "ince natural resources are important base for subsistence, some means
should be devised for planned use of these resources. Ranchi region needs much more
attention due to regular occurrences of deforestation and improper urbaniation.
Rapid urbaniation has resulted due to several factors. .owever, natural population
growth remains one of the ma!or factors since <895s.Ranchi *ity is experiencing a high
rate of growth and it is one of the fastest growing cities in 'ndia. #s per census from <85<
to <8B< the rate of growth was 7.4 percent per annum, whereas it was <B percent during
<84< to <8>< and 9 percent during <8>< to A55<. #fter independence, population of
Ranchi *ity in <84< was only <,5G,9B8, which increased by over eight times to 9,G7,<95
in A55<.
#fter being separated from +ihar, @harkhand state of 'ndia is now fast growing in terms
of business. Ranchi the capital city is expanding both vertical and horiontal resulting in
lots of problem like irregular electric supply, water supply, ground water depletion, air
pollution, noise pollution, municipal waste disposal, failure of drainage systems, traffic
!ams etc. "urface waters are being contaminated. "easonal diseases have also multiplied.
2ore and more people are concentrating in the city flats which has raised the land values
many fold. Ranchi earlier known as the summer capital has now become the heat furnace
during summer. 't is all due to the unplanned expansion of the city.
Plastic pollution in picnic spot.
Ponds and dams are getting polluted.
Fine stone dust created by stone crushers to fulfill the demand for construction in
Ranchi city is affecting the forest cover.
"ome of the ma!or problems of urbanisation in Ranchi are <. $rban "prawl A.
Overcrowding 7. .ousing B. $nemployment 4. "lums and "quatter "ettlements G.
-ransport >. ,ater 9. "ewerage &roblems 8. -rash Disposal <5. $rban *rimes <<.
&roblem of $rban &ollution.
-he sheer magnitude of the urban population in Ranchi, haphaard and unplanned growth
of urban areas, and a desperate lack of infrastructure are the main causes of such a
situation. -he rapid growth of urban population both natural and through migration, has
put heavy pressure on public utilities like housing, sanitation, transport, water, electricity,
health, education and so on.
&overty, unemployment and under employment among the rural immigrants, beggary,
thefts, dacoities, burglaries and other social evils are on rampage. $rban sprawl is rapidly
encroaching the precious agricultural land.
# considerable change in land use has occurred during the last four decades. *hange
from rural to urban land has been fast as a result shortage of land has led to speculation
and increase in land values.
Over the last thirty years, expansion of the urban settlement has left adverse impact on
the health of surface water bodies. #part from the lessening of the numbers /around 7550
of water bodies, it has also lead to the shrinkage of wetlands. Dow-a-days, residential or
business apartments, at the expense of the water bodies, have become a common
phenomenon in the city. #ccording to the study the area has from <8G5s
onwards suffered from substantial decrease of agricultural lands, open spaces, water
bodies, along with an increase of settlements. 'n <8>A, the total area under the surface
water bodies was only GG.A7 sq. km, while in A5<5, the area was GA.<B sq. km. -he area
under the ma!or reservoirs of the study area /Fanke, Rukka, .atia reservoir0 too has
undergone shrinkages.
#ccording to Ranchi district ?aetteer published in <8>5, H-he climate of Ranchi is cool
and pleasant. -he general elevation of A,<95 feet above sea level gives it a uniformly
lower range of temperature than the plains. .owever, in spite of the high day
temperature, the nights are cool and the atmosphere is so dry that the heat is by no means
so oppressive as that in plains. #bout 4 to G thunder-storms and nor;-westers occur in
#pril and 2ay and cause refreshing fall in the temperatureI. +ut today climate is
changing with rising temperature and erratic rainfall. =arlier Ranchi received rainfall
almost throughout the year but the now it has changed.
-he urban heat island has become a growing concern in Ranchi and is increasing over the
years. -he urban heat island is formed when industrial and urban areas are developed and
heat becomes more abundant. 'n rural areas, a large part of the incoming solar energy is
used to evaporate water from vegetation and soil. 'n cities, where less vegetation and
exposed soil exists, the ma!ority of the sun;s energy is absorbed by urban structures and
asphalt. .ence, during warm daylight hours, less evaporative cooling in cities allows
surface temperatures to rise higher than in rural areas. #dditional city heat is given off by
vehicles and factories, as well as by industrial and domestic heating and cooling units.
-his effect causes the city to become A to <5 degree ) /< to G degree *0 warmer than
surrounding landscapes. 'mpacts also include reducing soil moisture and intensification
of carbon dioxide emissions.
'nhabitants of Ranchi city of @harkhand state of 'ndia are facing acute water crisis. 2ost
of the dug wells and deep wells and the corporation taps of this populated area have run
dry forcing people to consume polluted surface water. =xtensive deforestation,
urbaniation and industrilisation has led to uneven spread of rainfall, on which the water
supply from the dams to the city area is depended. =ven the ground water table has been
affected due to uneven rainfall. )rom last few years rainfall due to western disturbances
during winter season has shown decline trend. -his rainfall earlier used to recharge
groundwater which helped to maintain water table in peak summer season.
-he process of urbaniation and industrilisation from last 75 years has caused changes in
the water table as a result of decreased recharge and increased withdrawal. 2any of the
small ponds which were main source of water in the surrounding areas are now filled for
different construction purpose affecting the water table. %ots of D==&- +OR'D? in the
Ranchi city has also forced the water table to move down as well as Ranchi plateau
consists of metamorphic rocks which are relatively impermeable and hence serve as poor
aquifers. -hey bear groundwater only in their weathered top portion which rarely exceeds
<5 meters.
Dow the Ranchi air has become highly polluted. *hildren are suffering from different
lungs diseases. =yes burning while driving scooter or even walking, is now a very
common phenomenon. -oxic gases emitted from the automobiles are increasing many
folds. %ots of trees have also been cut down for making houses, marketing complexes etc.
Due to thin vegetation Ranchi is under the grip of dust pollution. Due to the dust
pollution sky above the Ranchi looks pale yellow.
Ranchi topped the list of increase in vehicle registrations in A55<-A55A, the largest in
buses, cars, taxis, !eeps, two-wheelers and three wheelers were recorded in Ranchi.
-ransportation /cars, trucks, buses etc.0 is responsible for a significant percentage of
criteria pollutants, such as "ulfur dioxide, Ditrogen oxides, 3olatile organic compounds,
&articulates, *arbon monoxide and %ead.
=missions from an individual car are generally low. #verage emission of carbon
monoxide from the two wheelers varies from 5.5B: to 5.<5: and average emission of
hydro carbons was 455 ppm in Ranchi city. +ut emissions from thousands of vehicles
plying in the streets of Ranchi city add up, making the automobile the first greatest
polluter. 2ain problem is with old cars especially diesel operated. 'n fact, driving a car is
probably a typical citien;s most HpollutingI daily activity.
Ranchi *ity has put heavy pressure on the ecologically sensitive areas, due to
deforestation and loss of cropped area. #gricultural land is being gradually converted into
built-up land for industrial, commercial, residential and others, uses.
1-N12U3,-N3)
-heme of the paper is urban growth and its haphaard nature, which is obvious while
traveling on the streets of Ranchi. #reas are being converted for urban use without any
systematic development plan and without a corresponding investment in infrastructure.
Ranchi *ity is expanding towards northeast and southwest, encroaching ad!acent small
towns and engulfing rich agriculture land. Ranchi *ity has put heavy pressure on the
ecologically sensitive areas, due to deforestation and loss of cropped area. #gricultural
land is being gradually converted into built-up land for industrial, commercial, residential
and others, uses. &oor water and poor land management has resulted in urban areas with
inadequate services and infrastructure and a corresponding lack of accessibility, that may
prove very costly to resolve in future.
One solution for both lateral expansion and vertical growth of a city is to develop satellite
towns at a distance of B5 to 45 km from the city. -he satellite town will not be a mere
residential town to accommodate commuters. "uch a satellite town will be both a place of
work and a place of living.
References)
*herunilam, ). and O.D. .eggade, J89>. .ousing in 'ndia, .imalaya &ublishing house,
Dew Delhi.
httpCKKwww.researchgate.netKpublicationKAAA><57<8LL'mpactL#ssessmentLofL$rbaniati
onLinL'ndianL*ityLofLRanchi
httpCKKitpi.org.inKpdfsK!ournalL4xBK54LRupesh:A5gupta:A5and:A5Dr:A5#D@#D
:A5"=D.pdf
httpCKKnitishpriyadarshi.blogspot.inKA559K<AKair-pollution-threats-ranchi-city-of.html