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WideEye 2

Published on Monday, 27 June 2011 06:39 | Written by rcp | | | Hits: 2948



Critical part that analyzed
Stress analysis on critical part of the UAV is done by using MSC. NASTRAN and analyze
it with MSC. NASTRAN. Distributed load is performed to find the stress on the critical
part. The maximum stress found will be used to identify the structure whether the
material yield stress is exceed or not when under the applied load. Critical part for this
UAV is decided at the wing and the load is applied on the top surface of the wing.
The analysis is done by using surface elements. Surface elements are two-dimensional
elements (2-D) which used to represent a structure whose thickness is small compared
to its other dimension such as plates, which are flat, or shells, which have single
curvature or double curvature. For linear analysis, MSC.Nastran plate elements are
assumed classical assumptions of thin plate behavior :
A thin plate is one in which the thickness is much less than the next larger
dimension.
The deflection of the plates mid-surface is small compared with its
thickness.
The mid surface remains unstrained (neutral) during bending-this applies
to lateral loads, not in-plane loads.
The normal to the mid-surface remains normal during bending.
Wing was made with Fiber Glass with Elastic Modulus of 76 000Mpa and Poisson Ratio
of 0.22. Wing was tapped wing made of NACA4415 on the rib and NACA4412 on tip.

MSC PATRAN Drawing and using MSC NASTRAN Analysis
1. Airfoil Shape is transferred from CATIA to Patran.
From CATIA file needed to save into step file first.
2. Surface of the wing is drawn using the airfoil profile that is imported from the CATIA
software.

3. The Surface is meshed.
Output ID list: 1746 Nodes and 1217 Elements
Element Shape: Quad
Mesher: IsoMesh
Topology: Quad4


4. Material & Properties are created.
Wing is using Fibre Glass with Elastic Modulus of 76 000Mpa and Poisson Ratio of
0.22.
5. Load and Constrain Condition are created.
The wing is constrained on the root.
Load is applied on each surface. Load calculated is discussed more detail on the
Calculation of Load on Wing section below.
Calculation of Load on Wing
To determine distributed pressure at wing span wise, schrenks approximation method is
used. From span wise distribution, pressure distribution on the surface can be obtained
by dividing it to wing chord length.

Schreks loading approximation is a method commonly used to determine overall
spanwise lift distribution, especially for low sweep and moderate to high aspect ratio
wings. Load distribution is arithmetic mean of :
load distribution representing actual plan form shape
elliptical distribution of same span and area
For elliptical load distribution equation below is used :

L = total wing lift = UAV weight
L = 22.509 kN
b = 13.15 m

y (m) 0.465 1.395 2.325 3.255 4.185 5.115 6.045
w (kN/m) 21.739 21.298 20.386 18.936 16.809 13.640 8.573
For trapezoidal distribution equation below is used :


y (m) 0.465 1.395 2.325 3.255 4.185 5.115 6.045
w (kN/m) 22.016 20.402 18.788 17.174 15.560 13.945 12.33
To get schrenks loading approximation :


y (m) 0.465 1.395 2.325 3.255 4.185 5.115 6.045
w (kN/m) 21.878 20.85 19.587 18.055 16.185 13.793 10.452
Then, w is divided with chord length of each y to get pressure distribution along wing
chord. Chord length for each y is determined using Patran.


y (m) 0.465 1.395 2.325 3.255 4.185 5.115 6.045
w (kN/m) 21.878 20.85 19.587 18.055 16.185 13.793 10.452
c (m) 2.106 1.936 1.766 1.596 1.425 1.253 1.082
P (kN/m
2
) 10.388 10.770 11.091 11.313 11.358 11.008 9.660
Now pressure along wing chord should be distributed equally along the wing chord as a
figure below :

So we assume pressure distribution along the wing chord should be like figure below,
and its maximum pressure at 0.25c.

Calculation for y = 0.465 m
Area under rectangular and area under the triangle must be equal. So,

Pressure at front surface :

Pressure at middle surface :

Pressure at back surface :


y(m) P(kN/m2) h(kN/m2) P1(kN/m2) P2(kN/m2) P3(kN/m2)
0.465 10.388 20.776 10.388 15.540448 5.152448
1.395 10.77 21.54 10.77 16.11192 5.34192
2.325 11.091 22.182 11.091 16.592136 5.501136
3.255 11.313 22.626 11.313 16.924248 5.611248
4.185 11.358 22.716 11.358 16.991568 5.633568
5.115 11.008 22.016 11.008 16.467968 5.459968
6.045 9.66 19.32 9.66 14.45136 4.79136
Applied load:

6. Analysis In Nastran is run after the MSC. Nastran Input is created.
7. Result is created Into Patran & Fringe and Deformation Plot are created.

Result
1. Stress Tensor

Maximum stress found is 25.8Mpa at the wing root.
2. Displacement and Translational

Maximum displacement is 0.00305m
From the analysis, the wing of the UAV made by fiber glass is proved that the maximum
Von Mises stress is 25.8MPa that is below the material yield stress for fiber glass that
was 70MPa. So, the wing structure for this UAV is acceptable and satisfied the
requirement to fly safely.