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Modern Control Theory Solution

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Question Bank Solutions

UNIT 1 & 2

1) Compare modern control theory with conventional control theory (Jan 2010)

Comparison: Conventional vs. Modern Control

Conventional Control (Linear) Modern Control (Linear)

Frequency domain

analysis & Design(Transfer

function based)

Based on SISO models

Deals with input and

output variables

Initial conditions are

assumed to be zero.

Restricted to linear time-

invariant systems

Time domain analysis

and design(Differential

equation based)

Based on MIMOmodels

Deals with input, output

and state variables

Initial conditions are

taken into consideration

Applicable to nonlinear

time variant system also

2) Determine state model for given transfer function (Jan 2007)

s3C + 9s2C + 26sC + 24 c = 24 R

Take in LT

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 2

3) Determine state model for given transfer function (June 2007) (Dec 2012)

Taking in LT

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 3

C(S) = s2X1 +7s X1 + 2 X1

.. .

C(t) = X1 + 7 X1 + 2 X1

= X3 + 7 X2 + 2 X1

4.) Develop a state model in Cascading form (June 2009)

The denominator of TF is to be in factor form

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 4

5) Construct the state model using phase variables if a the system is described by the

differential equation (Dec 2012)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 5

Select variables x

1

(t) = y(t)

x

2

(t) = (t) =

1

(t) = dy(t)/dt

x

3

(t) = (t) =

2

(t) = d

2

y(t)/dt

2

1

(t) = x

2

(t) ...........1

2

(t) = x

3

(t) ........ ..2

To obtain

3

(t)

3

(t) = -4x

1

(t) -14x

2

(t) -8 x

3

(t) + 10u(t)

from equation

1(t)

2(t)

3(t)

=

0 1 0

0 0 1

4 14 8

1

2

3

+

0

0

10

u(t)

The output is Y(t) = x

1

(t)

|1 0 0 |

1

2

3

+ [0] u(t)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 6

UNIT 4

1) What is STM? Obtain the state transition matrix using power series method (Dec 09) (Jan 2010)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 7

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 8

2) What is STM? Compute the state transform matrix e

AT

. (Dec 2008) (June 2007)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 9

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 10

(Jan 2006)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 11

4 ) What is STM? Compute the state transform matrix e

AT

using Cayley Hamilton theorem. (Dec

2008) (June 2007) (Dec 2012)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 12

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 13

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 14

(July 2008)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 15

UNIT 5

Controllability and Observability

1) Explain the concept of Controllability and observability, with the condition for complete

controllability and observability in the S- plane (Dec 2010) (June 2010)

Concept:

Consider the typical state diagram of a system. The system has two state variables. X1(t) and X2(t).

The control input u(t) effects the state variable X1(t) while it cannot effect the effect the state variable

X2(t). Hence the state variable X2(t) cannot be controlled by the input u(t). Hence the system is

uncontrollable, i.e., for nth order, which has n state variables, if any one state variable is uncontrolled by

the input u(t), the system is said to be UNCONTROLLABLE by input u(t).

Definition:

For the linear system given by

Y (t) = CX (t) + Du (t)

X (t ) = AX (t) + Bu(t)

is said to be completely state controllable. If there exists an unconstrained input vector u(t), which transfers

the initial state of the system x(t0) to its final state x(tf) in finite time f(tf-t0) i.e. ff. It can be seen if all the

initial states are controllable the system is completely controllable otherwise the system the system

uncontrollable.

Methods to determine the Controllability:

1) Gilberts Approach

2) Kalmans Approach.

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 16

Observability:

Concept:

A system is completely observable, if every state variable of the system effects some of the outputs. In

other words, it is often desirable to obtain information on state variables from the measurements of outputs

and inputs. If any one of the states cannot be observed from the measurements of the outpits and inputs,

that state is unobservable and system is not completely observable or simply unobservable. Consider the

state diagram of typical system with state variables as x1 and x2 and y and u(t) as output and inputs

respectively,

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 17

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

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2) Check the controllability of the system (Jan 2008)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 19

3) Check the controllability of the system by Kalman's method (Dec 2009)

4) Determine the state controllability of the system by Kalmans approach. (June 2006) (Dec 2012)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 20

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 21

5) Test the observablity using Kalmans method (Dec 2005)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 22

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 23

UNIT 6

Pole Placement Techniques

1) Design a controller K for the state model ( Dec 2009)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 24

2) Design controller K which places the closed loop poles at -4 j4 for a system using Acermanns

formula. (Dec 2007)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 25

3) Design a full order state observer. Assume the eigen values of the observer matrix at -2 j 3.464

and -5 (June 2010) (Jan 2010)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 26

4) Design a full order state observer. Assume the eigen values of the observer matrix at -2 j 3.464

and -5 (June 2010) (Jan 2010) (Dec 2012)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 27

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 28

5) Design controller to take place closed loop poles -1 j1, -5. Also design an observer such that

observer poles are at -6, -6, -6. (Jun 2009) (Jan 2007)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 29

UNIT 7

NON LINEAR SYSTEM

1) What is phase- plane plot ? Describe delta method of drawing phase- plane trajectories (Jan 2010)

(Dec 2012)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 30

2) What are singular points? Explain the different singular points with respect to stability of non-

linear system (Jan 2010) (Dec 2009) (June 2009) (June 2010) (Jan 2009)( Dec 2010) (Dec 2012)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 31

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 32

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 33

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 34

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT Page 35

3) Explain the common physical Non-linearities (Jan 2010) (Dec 2010) (Jan 2008) (June 2010)

Common Physical Nonlinearities: The common examples of physical

nonlinearities are saturation, dead zone, coulomb friction, stiction, backlash,

different types of springs, different types of relays etc.

Saturation: This is the most common of all nonlinearities. All practical systems,

when driven by sufficiently large signals, exhibit the phenomenon of

saturation due to limitations of physical capabilities of their components.

Saturation is a common phenomenon in magnetic circuits and amplifiers.

Dead zone: Some systems do not respond to very small input signals. For a

particular range of input, the output is zero. This is called dead zone existing in a

system. The input-output curve is shown in figure.

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. of EEE, SJBIT

Backlash: Another important nonlinearity commonly occurring in physical systems is

hysteresis in mechanical transmission such as gear trains and linkages. This

nonlinearity is somewhat different from magnetic hysteresis and is commonly referred

to as backlash. In servo systems, the gear backlash may cause sustained

oscillations or chattering phenomenon and the system may even turn unstable for

large backlash.

Control Theory 10EE55

Figure 6.3

Another important nonlinearity commonly occurring in physical systems is

hysteresis in mechanical transmission such as gear trains and linkages. This

nonlinearity is somewhat different from magnetic hysteresis and is commonly referred

servo systems, the gear backlash may cause sustained

oscillations or chattering phenomenon and the system may even turn unstable for

Figure 6.4

Control Theory 10EE55

Page 36

Another important nonlinearity commonly occurring in physical systems is

hysteresis in mechanical transmission such as gear trains and linkages. This

nonlinearity is somewhat different from magnetic hysteresis and is commonly referred

servo systems, the gear backlash may cause sustained

oscillations or chattering phenomenon and the system may even turn unstable for

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. Of EEE, SJBIT Page 37

Relay: A relay is a nonlinear power amplifier which can provide

large power amplification inexpensively and is therefore deliberately

introduced in control systems. A relay controlled system can be switched

abruptly between several discrete states which are usually off, full

forward and full reverse. Relay controlled systems find wide

applications in the control field. The characteristic of an ideal relay is as

shown in figure. In practice a relay has a definite amount of dead zone as

shown. This dead zone is caused by the facts that relay coil requires a

finite amount of current to actuate the relay. Further, since a larger coil

current is needed to close the relay than the current at which the relay

drops out, the characteristic always exhibits hysteresis.

Multivariable Nonlinearity: Some nonlinearities such as the torque-

speed characteristics of a servomotor, transistor characteristics etc., are

functions of more than one variable. Such nonlinearities are called

multivariable nonlinearities.

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. Of EEE, SJBIT Page 38

UNIT 8

STABILITY

1) Determine the stability of the system. (Jan 2009) (Dec 2012)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. Of EEE, SJBIT Page 39

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. Of EEE, SJBIT Page 40

2) Determine the stability of the system described by (Dec 2010)

23 > 0 and det(P) > 0. Therefore, P is positive define. Hence, the equilibrium state at origin is

asymptotically stable in the large.

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. Of EEE, SJBIT Page 41

3) Explain PID controller (June, Dec 2010) ( Jan 2010) (Dec 2012)

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. Of EEE, SJBIT Page 42

Modern Control Theory 10EE55

Dept. Of EEE, SJBIT Page 43

4 ) Check the sign definiteness of the following quadratic equation :

V(x) = 8x1

2

+ x2

2

+ 4x3

2

+ 2x1x2 4x1x3 2x2x3. (Dec 2012)

Sol. V(x)= X

T

PX = [x x

2

x

3

]

1

8 > 0

8 1

1 1

= 7 > 0

8 1 2

1 1 1

2 1 4

= 20 > 0

As the successive principle minors of matrix P are +ve

Therefore V(x) is +ve definite

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