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Modern Control Theory 10EE55

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Question Bank Solutions
UNIT 1 & 2
1) Compare modern control theory with conventional control theory (Jan 2010)
Comparison: Conventional vs. Modern Control
Conventional Control (Linear) Modern Control (Linear)
Frequency domain
analysis & Design(Transfer
function based)
Based on SISO models
Deals with input and
output variables
Initial conditions are
assumed to be zero.
Restricted to linear time-
invariant systems
Time domain analysis
and design(Differential
equation based)
Based on MIMOmodels
Deals with input, output
and state variables
Initial conditions are
taken into consideration
Applicable to nonlinear
time variant system also
2) Determine state model for given transfer function (Jan 2007)
s3C + 9s2C + 26sC + 24 c = 24 R
Take in LT
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3) Determine state model for given transfer function (June 2007) (Dec 2012)
Taking in LT
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C(S) = s2X1 +7s X1 + 2 X1
.. .
C(t) = X1 + 7 X1 + 2 X1
= X3 + 7 X2 + 2 X1
4.) Develop a state model in Cascading form (June 2009)
The denominator of TF is to be in factor form
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5) Construct the state model using phase variables if a the system is described by the
differential equation (Dec 2012)
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Select variables x
1
(t) = y(t)
x
2
(t) = (t) =
1
(t) = dy(t)/dt
x
3
(t) = (t) =
2
(t) = d
2
y(t)/dt
2

1
(t) = x
2
(t) ...........1

2
(t) = x
3
(t) ........ ..2
To obtain
3
(t)

3
(t) = -4x
1
(t) -14x
2
(t) -8 x
3
(t) + 10u(t)
from equation

1(t)
2(t)
3(t)
=
0 1 0
0 0 1
4 14 8

1
2
3
+
0
0
10
u(t)
The output is Y(t) = x
1
(t)
|1 0 0 |
1
2
3
+ [0] u(t)
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UNIT 4
1) What is STM? Obtain the state transition matrix using power series method (Dec 09) (Jan 2010)
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2) What is STM? Compute the state transform matrix e
AT
. (Dec 2008) (June 2007)
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(Jan 2006)
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4 ) What is STM? Compute the state transform matrix e
AT
using Cayley Hamilton theorem. (Dec
2008) (June 2007) (Dec 2012)
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(July 2008)
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UNIT 5
Controllability and Observability
1) Explain the concept of Controllability and observability, with the condition for complete
controllability and observability in the S- plane (Dec 2010) (June 2010)
Concept:
Consider the typical state diagram of a system. The system has two state variables. X1(t) and X2(t).
The control input u(t) effects the state variable X1(t) while it cannot effect the effect the state variable
X2(t). Hence the state variable X2(t) cannot be controlled by the input u(t). Hence the system is
uncontrollable, i.e., for nth order, which has n state variables, if any one state variable is uncontrolled by
the input u(t), the system is said to be UNCONTROLLABLE by input u(t).
Definition:
For the linear system given by
Y (t) = CX (t) + Du (t)
X (t ) = AX (t) + Bu(t)
is said to be completely state controllable. If there exists an unconstrained input vector u(t), which transfers
the initial state of the system x(t0) to its final state x(tf) in finite time f(tf-t0) i.e. ff. It can be seen if all the
initial states are controllable the system is completely controllable otherwise the system the system
uncontrollable.
Methods to determine the Controllability:
1) Gilberts Approach
2) Kalmans Approach.
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Observability:
Concept:
A system is completely observable, if every state variable of the system effects some of the outputs. In
other words, it is often desirable to obtain information on state variables from the measurements of outputs
and inputs. If any one of the states cannot be observed from the measurements of the outpits and inputs,
that state is unobservable and system is not completely observable or simply unobservable. Consider the
state diagram of typical system with state variables as x1 and x2 and y and u(t) as output and inputs
respectively,
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2) Check the controllability of the system (Jan 2008)
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3) Check the controllability of the system by Kalman's method (Dec 2009)
4) Determine the state controllability of the system by Kalmans approach. (June 2006) (Dec 2012)
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5) Test the observablity using Kalmans method (Dec 2005)
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UNIT 6
Pole Placement Techniques
1) Design a controller K for the state model ( Dec 2009)
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2) Design controller K which places the closed loop poles at -4 j4 for a system using Acermanns
formula. (Dec 2007)
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3) Design a full order state observer. Assume the eigen values of the observer matrix at -2 j 3.464
and -5 (June 2010) (Jan 2010)
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4) Design a full order state observer. Assume the eigen values of the observer matrix at -2 j 3.464
and -5 (June 2010) (Jan 2010) (Dec 2012)
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5) Design controller to take place closed loop poles -1 j1, -5. Also design an observer such that
observer poles are at -6, -6, -6. (Jun 2009) (Jan 2007)
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UNIT 7
NON LINEAR SYSTEM
1) What is phase- plane plot ? Describe delta method of drawing phase- plane trajectories (Jan 2010)
(Dec 2012)
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2) What are singular points? Explain the different singular points with respect to stability of non-
linear system (Jan 2010) (Dec 2009) (June 2009) (June 2010) (Jan 2009)( Dec 2010) (Dec 2012)
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3) Explain the common physical Non-linearities (Jan 2010) (Dec 2010) (Jan 2008) (June 2010)
Common Physical Nonlinearities: The common examples of physical
nonlinearities are saturation, dead zone, coulomb friction, stiction, backlash,
different types of springs, different types of relays etc.
Saturation: This is the most common of all nonlinearities. All practical systems,
when driven by sufficiently large signals, exhibit the phenomenon of
saturation due to limitations of physical capabilities of their components.
Saturation is a common phenomenon in magnetic circuits and amplifiers.
Dead zone: Some systems do not respond to very small input signals. For a
particular range of input, the output is zero. This is called dead zone existing in a
system. The input-output curve is shown in figure.
Modern Control Theory 10EE55
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Backlash: Another important nonlinearity commonly occurring in physical systems is
hysteresis in mechanical transmission such as gear trains and linkages. This
nonlinearity is somewhat different from magnetic hysteresis and is commonly referred
to as backlash. In servo systems, the gear backlash may cause sustained
oscillations or chattering phenomenon and the system may even turn unstable for
large backlash.
Control Theory 10EE55
Figure 6.3
Another important nonlinearity commonly occurring in physical systems is
hysteresis in mechanical transmission such as gear trains and linkages. This
nonlinearity is somewhat different from magnetic hysteresis and is commonly referred
servo systems, the gear backlash may cause sustained
oscillations or chattering phenomenon and the system may even turn unstable for
Figure 6.4
Control Theory 10EE55
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Another important nonlinearity commonly occurring in physical systems is
hysteresis in mechanical transmission such as gear trains and linkages. This
nonlinearity is somewhat different from magnetic hysteresis and is commonly referred
servo systems, the gear backlash may cause sustained
oscillations or chattering phenomenon and the system may even turn unstable for
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Relay: A relay is a nonlinear power amplifier which can provide
large power amplification inexpensively and is therefore deliberately
introduced in control systems. A relay controlled system can be switched
abruptly between several discrete states which are usually off, full
forward and full reverse. Relay controlled systems find wide
applications in the control field. The characteristic of an ideal relay is as
shown in figure. In practice a relay has a definite amount of dead zone as
shown. This dead zone is caused by the facts that relay coil requires a
finite amount of current to actuate the relay. Further, since a larger coil
current is needed to close the relay than the current at which the relay
drops out, the characteristic always exhibits hysteresis.
Multivariable Nonlinearity: Some nonlinearities such as the torque-
speed characteristics of a servomotor, transistor characteristics etc., are
functions of more than one variable. Such nonlinearities are called
multivariable nonlinearities.
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UNIT 8
STABILITY
1) Determine the stability of the system. (Jan 2009) (Dec 2012)
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2) Determine the stability of the system described by (Dec 2010)
23 > 0 and det(P) > 0. Therefore, P is positive define. Hence, the equilibrium state at origin is
asymptotically stable in the large.
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3) Explain PID controller (June, Dec 2010) ( Jan 2010) (Dec 2012)
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4 ) Check the sign definiteness of the following quadratic equation :
V(x) = 8x1
2
+ x2
2
+ 4x3
2
+ 2x1x2 4x1x3 2x2x3. (Dec 2012)
Sol. V(x)= X
T
PX = [x x
2
x
3
]

1

Applying Sylvesters criterion


8 > 0
8 1
1 1
= 7 > 0
8 1 2
1 1 1
2 1 4
= 20 > 0
As the successive principle minors of matrix P are +ve
Therefore V(x) is +ve definite