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1.

NATIONAL MISSION FOR


SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
Recognizing the challenge of climate change
to Indian agriculture, the National Mission for
Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA), which is one
of the eight Missions under the National Action
Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) has been
conceptualized. The proposed national mission
will focus on four areas crucial to agriculture
in adapting to climate change, namely dryland
agriculture, risk management, access to
information, and use of biotechnology.
Climate Change Risks at Three Levels
Crop (Livestock) Level: Productivity and
Quality of Produce
Farm (Cropping System) Level: Soil quality,
Water resources, Pest & Diseases
Food System Level: Pricing, Food Security
Mission Objectives
To devise strategic plans at the agro-climatic
zone level so that action plans are
contextualized to regional scales in the areas
of research and development (R&D),
technology and practices, infrastructure and
capacity building.
To enhance agricultural productivity
through customised interventions such as
use of bio-technology to develop improved
varieties of crops and livestock, promoting
efficient irrigation systems, demonstration
of appropriate technology, capacity building
and skill development.
To facilitate access to information and
institutional support by expanding
Automatic Weather Station networks to the
Panchayat level and linking them to existing
insurance mechanisms including the
Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme and
the National Agriculture Insurance Scheme
(NAIS), scaling the returns at that level.
To promote "laboratory to land" research
by creating model villages and model farm
units in rain-fed and dryland areas.
To strategise long-term interventions for
emission reduction from energy and
nonenergy uses by way of introduction of
suitable crop varieties and farm practices,
livestock and manure management.
To realise the enormous potential of growth
in dryland agriculture through the
development of drought and pest resistant
crop varieties, adopting resource-conserving
technologies, providing institutional support
to farmers and capacity building of
stakeholders.
2. THE NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY
MISSION (NFSM)
Launched in Rabi 2007-08 with a view to
enhancing the production of rice, wheat,
and pulses by 10 million tonnes, 8 million
tones, and 2 million tonnes respectively
The Mission aims to increase production
through area expansion and productivity;
create employment opportunities; and
enhance the farm-level economy to restore
confidence of farmers.
Besides, a series of activities for more
vigorous promotion of pulse crops has been
adopted under the NFSM to intensify the
pulse production programme from 2010-11.
These are:
i. Merging of the pulse component of the
Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses,
Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM) with the
AGRICULTURE
MANOJ K. JHA
PROGRAMMES & POLICIES 2
NFSM so as to increase the scope and
area coverage of the pulses programme.
Jharkhand and Assam have also been
included under the programme since
there is immense potential for pulse
promotion in rice fallows.
ii. Through a new programme under the
NFSM called the Accelerated Pulses
Production Programme (A3P), 1000
block demonstrations of technology have
been launched from 2010-11.
Another programme, namely Bringing
Green Revolution in the Eastern States is
operational in seven states - Uttar Pradesh,
Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam,
Orissa, and Chhattisgarh.
The Rice Development and Organizing
Pulses and Oilseeds Villages is another
programme, beside the pulses promotion
strategies and other initiatives undertaken
to boost agricultural productivity in these
states.
3. THE RASHTRIYA KRISHI VIKAS
YOJANA (RKVY)
Launched in 2007-08 with an outlay of Rs.
25,000 crore for the Eleventh Plan to
incentivize States to enhance public
investment so as to achieve a 4 per cent
growth rate in agriculture and allied sectors
during the Plan. Specific allocation has been
made for the following three new initiatives
introduced under the RKVY in 2010-11:
i) Extending the Green Revolution to the
eastern region of the country, covering
the States of Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh,
Jharkhand, Orissa, eastern UP, and West
Bengal.
ii) Special initiatives for pulses and oilseeds
in dry-land areas by organizing 60,000
pul se and oi l seeds vi l l ages i n
identified watersheds where pulse
and oilseed farmers are provided farm
machinery and equipment on custom
hiring basis.
iii) Implementation of the National Mission
on Saffron - Economic Revival of Jammu
& Kashmir Saffron Sector during
2010-11.
The RKVY has linked 50 per cent of Central
assistance to the percentage of State Plan
expenditure on agriculture and allied sectors.
Its convergence with other schemes like the
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
Employment Scheme (MGNREGA) is
expected to boost development of the
agrarian economy.
4. THE INTEGRATED SCHEME OF
OILSEEDS, PULSES, OIL PALM AND
MAIZE (ISOPOM)
The ISOPOM is being implemented in 14
major States for oilseeds and pulses, 15 for
maize, and 10 for oil palm.
The pulses component has been merged with
the NFSM with effect from 1 April 2010.
5. THE NATIONAL HORTICULTURE
MISSION (NHM)
The Ministry of Agriculture has been
implementing the centrally sponsored NHM
for the holistic development of the
horticulture sector since 2005-06, duly
ensuring forward and backward linkages,
and with the active participation of all the
stakeholders.
All the States and the three Union Territories
of Andaman and Nicobar Islands,
Lakshadweep, and Puducherry are covered
under the Mission except the eight
northeastern States including Sikkim and
the States of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal
Pradesh, and Uttarakhand.
The latter are covered under the
Horticulture Mission for the North East and
Himalayan States (HMNEH).
6. NATIONAL MISSION ON MICRO
IRRIGATION
The Centrally sponsored National Mission
on Micro Irrigation (NMMI) was launched
in June 2010 in addition to the earlier Micro
Irrigation Scheme launched in January
2006.
The scheme provides assistance at 60 per
cent of the system cost for small and
marginal farmers and at 50 per cent for
general farmers.
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7. NATIONAL BAMBOO MISSION (NBM)
With a view to harnessing the potential of
the bamboo crop in the country, the Ministry
of Agriculture has been implementing the
centrally sponsored NBM in 27 States.
The Mission aims to promote holistic growth
of the bamboo sector by adopting an area
based, regionally differentiated strategy and
to increase the area under bamboo
cultivation and marketing.
8. LIVESTOCK INSURANCE
A Centrally sponsored scheme of livestock
insurance is being implemented in all the
States with twin objectives: providing
protection mechanism to the farmers and
cattle rearers against any eventual loss of
their animals due to death; and
demonstrating the benefits of insuring
livestock to the people.
9. REVISED MACRO MANAGEMENT OF
AGRICULTURE
In the year 2008-09, Macro Management of
Agriculture Scheme was revised to improve
its efficacy in supplementing/
complementing the efforts of the States
towards enhancement of agricultural
production and productivity.
The Revised MMA scheme comprises 11 sub
schemes relating to crop production and
natural resource management.
Some of the salient features of the Revised Macro
Management of Agriculture Scheme are as
follow:
The Practice of allocating funds to States/
UTs on historical basis has been replaced
by a new allocation criteria based on gross
cropped area and area under small and
marginal holdings. The revised MMA
Scheme has formula-based allocation criteria
and provides assistance in the form of grants
to the States/UTs on 90:10 basis except in
case of the north-eastern States and Union
Territories where the Central share is 100
per cent.
Subsidy structure has been rationalized to
make the pattern of subsidy uniform under
all the schemes implemented by the
Department of Agriculture and
Cooperation. Revised subsidy norms
indicate maximum permissible limit of
assistance. States may either retain the
existing norms, or increase them to a
reasonable level provided that the norms
do not exceed the revised upper limits
specified.
Two new components have been added
namely. (a) Pulses and oilseeds crop
production programmes for the areas not
covered under the Integrated Scheme of
Oilseeds Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize
(ISOPOM) and (b) "Reclamation of Acidic
Soil" along with the existing component of
"Reclamation of Alkali Soil."
Permissible ceiling for new initiatives has
been increased from existing 10 per cent to
20 per cent of the allocation.
At least 33 per cent of the funds have to be
remarked for small, marginal and women
farmers.
Active participation of the Panchayati Raj
Institutions (PRIs) of all tiers would have to
be ensured in the implementation of the
Revised MMA scheme including review,
monitoring and evaluation at district/
subdistrict level.
10. REVAMPING OF COOPERATIVE
CREDIT STRUCTURE
In January 2006, the Government
announced a package for revival of the
Short-term Rural Cooperative Credit
Structure on the recommendation of the
Vaidyanathan Committee.
The National Bank for Agriculture and
Rural Development (NABARD) has been
designated the implementing agency for the
purpose.
11. REHABILITATION PACKAGE FOR
DISTRESSED FARMERS
The Government is implementing a
rehabilitation package for 31 suicide-prone
districts in the States of Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka, Kerala, and Maharashtra.
Special packages are being implemented in
Kerala for the development of Kuttanad
wetland ecosystem and mitigation of
agrarian distress in Idukki district.
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12. KISAN CREDIT CARD (KCC) SCHEME
The KCC scheme was introduced in August
1998.
The scheme includes reasonable components
of consumption credit and investment credit
within the overall credit limit sanctioned to
the borrowers to provide adequate and
timely credit support to the farmers for their
cultivation needs.
13. THE NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL
INSURANCE SCHEME (NAIS)
The NAIS is being implemented in the
country from Rabi 1999-2000 seasons.
The Agriculture Insurance Company of
India Ltd. (AIC) is the implementing agency
(IA) for the Scheme.
The main objective of the scheme is to
protect farmers against crop losses suffered
on account of natural calamities.
The scheme is available to all the farmers -
loanee and non-loanee - and covers all food
crops.
14. WEATHER BASED CROP INSURANCE
SCHEME (WBCIS)
Efforts have been made to bring more
farmers under the fold of crop insurance
by introducing a Weather Based Crop
Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) as announced
in the Union Budget 2007 in selected 208
areas on pilot basis.
The WBCIS is intended to provide insurance
protection to farmers against adverse
weather incidences, which are deemed to
unfavourably impact crop production.
In addition to the Agriculture Insurance
Company of India Ltd. (AIC), private
insurers have also been included for
implementing the scheme in selected areas.
15. COCONUT PALM INSURANCE
SCHEME (CPIS)
The CPIS is being implemented on pilot basis
since 2009-10 in selected areas of Andhra
Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala,
Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, and
West Bengal.
The scheme is administered by the Coconut
Development Board (CDB) through the AIC.
16. ACCELERATED IRRIGATION BENEFIT
PROGRAMME (AIBP)
The Accelerated Irrigation Benefit
Programme (AIBP) was launched during
1996- 1997 to give loan assistance to the
States to help them complete some of the
incomplete major/medium irrigation
projects which were at an advanced stage
of completion and to create additional
irrigation potential in the country.
Surface minor irrigation schemes of
northeastern states, hilly states of Sikkim,
Uttaranchal, Jammu and Kashmir,
Himachal Pradesh and Koraput, Bolangir
and Kalahandi districts of Orissa have also
been provided Central Loan Assistance
(CLA) under this programme since 1999-
2000.
Grant component has been introduced in
the programme from April 2004 like other
Central Sector Schemes. As per the existing
AIBP criteria effective from December 2006,
grant amounting to 25% of the project cost
or major and medium irrigation projects in
non-special category States and 90% grant
of the project cost for major/medium/minor
irrigation projects in special category States
(including Koraput, Bolangir and Kalahandi
districts of Odisha) are provided to the
selected projects.
The minor irrigation schemes in non-special
category States falling in drought-prone/
tribal areas are treated at par with special
category States and are provided 90% grant
of the project cost.
Major and medium projects providing
irrigation benefits to drought-prone/tribal
area and flood-prone area are also eligible
for 90% grant of the project cost.
The State Governments have been provided
an amount of about Rs. 36,534 crores as
CLA/Grant under AIBP since inception of
this programme till 07.07.2009 for 268
major/ medium irrigation projects and 9,908
Surface Minor Irrigation Schemes.
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17. HORTICULTURE MISSION FOR
NORTH EAST AND HIMALAYAN
STATES
In order to improve livelihood opportunities
and to bring prosperity to the North Eastern
Region (NER) including Sikkim,
Government of India launched a Technology
Mission for North East for integrated
Development of Horticulture in 2001-02.
Considering the potential of Horticulture for
socio-economic development of Jammu &
Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and
Uttarakhand, Technology Mission was
extended to these States from 2003-04.
The Mission is based on the "end-to-end
approach" taking into account the entire
gamut of horticulture development, with all
backward and forward linkages, in a holistic
manner.
The mission has now been renamed as
Horticulture Mission for North East and
Himalayan States (HMNEH).
The objectives of the Mission are:
To improve the production and productivity
of horticulture crops by harnessing the
potential of the region.
Special emphasis on "Low Volume, High
Value, Less Perishable Horticulture Crops".
A horticulture-based farming system to be
developed, thereby providing viable and
ample opportunities for employment,
especially for women, besides improving the
productivity of land.
The programmes under the HMNEH have been
evolved in consultation with all the
stakeholders, including the State Governments.
The HMNEH strives to address the following
issues:
Technology & technological development
Demonstration of technologies
Production of quality planting material
Organic farming
Efficient water management
Plant health.
It covers:-
Plantation works
Area expansion
Post harvest management, processing, value
addition including that of aromatic plants,
marketing and exports.
Department of Agriculture will be the nodal
department for the Horticulture Mission for
coordination and implementation.
The Horticulture Mission will be
implemented through "Small Farmers' Agri-
Business Consortium" (SFAC), except the
programmes of ICAR, NHB, APEDA and
NCDC.
All the funds are to be routed through
SFAC, New Delhi (SFAC is a society under
the Government of India, Ministry of
Agriculture and Cooperation - Declared as
a Financial Institution under Section 17(8A)
of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934).
Half percent service charges would be paid
to SFAC Society for the funds routed
through it.
18. OECD SEED SCHEMES IN INDIA
The OECD Seed Schemes provide an
international framework for the certification of
agriculture seed moving in international trade.
Membership of the Schemes is voluntary and
participation varies.
India became its member in 2008.
With the accession of India and Moldova,
number of participating countries in the
OECD Seed Schemes has increased to 57
from Europe, North and South America,
Africa, the Middle-East, Asia and Oceania.
There are seven Agriculture Seed Schemes in
OECD viz.,
Grasses and Legumes
Cereals
Crucifers and other oil or fibre species
Fodder beet and sugar beet
Subterranean clover and similar species
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Maize and sorghum
Vegetables
Objectives
The objectives of the OECD Schemes for
the varietal certification of seed are to
encourage the use of "quality-guaranteed"
seed in participating countries.
The Schemes authorize the use of labels and
certificates for seed produced and processed
for international trade according to agreed
principles ensuring identity and purity.
The Schemes facilitate the import and export
of seed, by the removal of technical trade
barriers through internationally recognized
labels (passports for trade).
They also lay down guidelines for seed
multiplication broad as well as for the
delegation of some control activities to the
private sector ("accreditation").
The quantity of seed certified through the
OECD Schemes has grown rapidly in recent
years and reached 5,90,000 tonnes in 2005-06.
How do the Seed Schemes operate?
The success of international certification
depends upon close cooperation between
maintainers, seed producers, trades and
the designated authority (appointed by
the government) in each participating
country.
Frequent meeting allow for a multi-
stakeholder dialogue to exchange
information, discuss case studies, prepare
new rules and update the Schemes.
The UN family of bodies, a vast range of
non-government organizations (UPOV,
ISTA) and seed industry networks
participate actively in the Schemes.
Benefits of the Schemes
To facilitate international trade by using
globally recognized OECD labels and
certificate (e.g. they are required to export
seeds to Europe).
To build a framework to develop seed
production with countries or companies.
To participate in the elaboration of
international rules for seed certification.
To develop collaboration between the public
and private sectors.
To benefit from regular exchanges of
information with other national certification
agencies and observer organizations.