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A PESTEL analysis is a framework or tool used by marketers to analyse

and monitor the macro-environmental(external marketing environment)

factors that have an impact on an organisation. The result of which is used
to identify threats and weaknesses which is used in a SWOT analysis.
PESTEL stands for:
P Political
E Economic
S Social
T Technological
E Environmental
L Legal

Political Factors
These are all about how and to what degree a government intervenes in
the economy. This can include government policy, political stability or
instability in overseas markets, foreign trade policy, tax policy, labour law,
environmental law, trade restrictions and so on.
It is clear from the list above that political factors often have an impact on
organisations and how they do business. Organisations need to be able to
respond to the current and anticipated future legislation, and adjust their
marketing policy accordingly.
Economic Factors
Economic factors have a significant impact on how an organisation does
business and also how profitable they are. Factors include economic
growth, interest rates, exchange rates, inflation, disposable income of
consumers and businesses and so on.
These factors can further be broken down into macro-economical and
micro-economical factors. Macro-economical factors deal with the
management of demand in any given economy. Governments use interest
rate control, taxation policy and government expenditure as their main
mechanisms they use for this.
Micro-economic factors are all about the way people spend their incomes.
This has a large impact on B2C organisations in particular.
Social Factors
Also known as socio-cultural factors, are the areas that involve the shared
belief and attitudes of the population. These factors include population
growth, age distribution, health consciousness, career attitudes and so on.
These factors are of particular interest as they have a direct effect on how
marketers understand customers and what drives them.
Technological Factors
We all know how fast the technological landscape changes and how this
impacts the way we market our products. Technological factors affect
marketing and the management thereof in three distinct ways:
New ways of producing goods and services
New ways of distributing goods and services
New ways of communicating with target markets
Environmental Factors
These factors have only really come to the forefront in the last fifteen years
or so. They have become important due to the increasing scarcity of raw
materials, polution targets, doing business as an ethical and sustainable
company, carbon footprint targets set by governments (this is a good
example were one factor could be classes as political and environmental at
the same time). These are just some of the issues marketers are facing
within this factor. More and more consumers are demanding that the
products they buy are sourced ethically, and if possible from a sustainable
Legal Factors
Legal factors include - health and safety, equal opportunities, advertising
standards, consumer rights and laws, product labelling and product safety.
It is clear that companies need to know what is and what is not legal in
order to trade successfully. If an organisation trades globally this becomes
a very tricky area to get right as each country has its own set of rules and
After you have completed a PESTEL analysis you should be able to use
this to help you identify the strengths and weaknesses for a SWOT