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BASIC RIGGING
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Contents
• Introduction
• Roles and responsibilities
• Wire ropes
• Slings, belt slings, round slings,
• Bow Shackles
• Rigging Hitches & Slinging Methods
• Basic Knots
• Chain blocks
• Pull lifts
• Tirfors, eye bolts, plate clamps, turnbuckles, hooks,
lifting beams
• Lifting Appliances
• Procedure for lifting operations
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INTRODUCTION
A. Mission

This course on Lifting Equipment, Rigging, and
Slinging is designed to identify and detail the
mandatory requirements for the safe utilization
of all lifting equipment operating on the Project.
The course will also provide a clear
understanding of Lifting tackles, Rigging and
Slinging practice, Safe Working Loads, Different
types of Cranes and Crane Signals.
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B. Problem Analysis


Everyday, Routine Crane Operations –
• cause most of our accident due to lack of
adequate planning.

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C. Expectation
• To analyze all lifts
• Ground Preparations
• Using proper lifting tackles
• Interpretations of capacity charts
• Operators and signalmen must
maintain continuous and undivided
communication
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D. Objectives
Upon completion of the lesson, participants will
be able to:

• List the four major causes of crane accidents.

• Describe the pre-planning that is required
before putting a crane in use.

• State the main precautions that apply to
working with cranes.
• Explain at least three ways to eliminate
hazards that may lead to injury when using
cranes or slings to handle materials.

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Roles and Responsibilities (Cont.)
Rigging Superintendent
– Ensuring that the lifting equipment and gear
selected to work, has been inspected,
certified and is maintained according to
procedure
– Ensuring that only
qualified and competent
riggers/slingers/banks-men
are assigned to any lifting
operations
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Roles and Responsibilities (Cont.)
• Appointed Competent Person (Lifting
Equipment) – Third Party
• Appointed Competent Person (Lifting
Gear) – Third Party
– Responsible for ensuring that the testing,
examination and certification of lifting
Equipment / Gear is carried out in
accordance with the Requirement

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Roles and Responsibilities (Cont.)
Line Supervisors

– Ensuring the adequate supervision of personnel,
carrying out, or involved in, lifting operations
– Ensuring that work method statements, task risk
assessments, Lifting Plan /Rigging Study have been
carried out
– Ensuring that areas around the lifts are suitably
barricaded and warning signs posted
– Ensuring that the Load weight, shape and radius of lift
are suitable for selected lifting equipment and gear
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Roles and Responsibilities (Cont.)
Riggers and Slingers

– Identifying any defects in lifting gear
– Conforming the weight, center of gravity and
characteristics of a load prior to lifting
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Roles and Responsibilities (Cont.)
•Banks-men

– Preventing all unauthorized
personnel from entering the
restricted area around the lifting
operation
– Ensuring that taglines are attached
and used on all loads

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Wire Ropes
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Single Layer Rope
• One layer of outer
strands (usually 6 or 8)
laid helically over a
centre core of fibre or
steel
• Illustration - rope with
independent wire rope
core (IWRC)
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Wires in a Stranded Rope
Core wires
Inner wire
Outer wire
Centre wire
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Stranded Ropes
Single layer Two layers Three layers
Rotational Resistant Low Rotation Rotates
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Rotation-resistant rope
(Illustration is 35LS - Low rotation rope)
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Rope Dimensions
Actual (measured) diameter
22.2 mm
Nominal diameter (d)
22 mm
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Measurement of Rope Diameter
(New rope)
• 2 measurements at right angles at two
positions spaced approximately one metre
apart.
– (Measurements taken over strand crowns)
• Average of the four measurements is the
rope diameter.

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Sheave Groove Profile
Wrong Wrong
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WHIP LASH:
A damaged or overstrained rope may break and cause serious
injury to anyone in its path.
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Slings
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WIRE ROPE SLINGS
Inspection
• Safe working load stamping.
• Identification mark.
• Correct colour code (if applicable).
• Broken wires (Randomly distributed wire breaks are not to
exceed 5% in any length of 10 diameters. Localised breaks are
not to exceed 3 in a close group or in any one strand within a
length of 6 diameters).
• Ensure rope end of the looped parts does not terminate inside
ferrule.
• Excessive wear (max 10% loss of nominal diameter)
• Kinks.
• Exposure of core.
• Flattening of rope (especially in the eye).
• Stretch by reduction in diameter or circumference.
• Corrosion.
• Heat damage, look for evidence of discoloration, loss of
lubricant, pitting and the presence of weld blobs.
Action
If any of the above faults are present refer to a competent
person for through examination.
Maintenance
• Keep ropes clean and free from grit.
• Lubricate at regular intervals.
• Slings should be suspended from storage rack if not in use.
Soft Eye
Soft Eye
Endless
Grommet
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CARE AND USE OF WIRE ROPES.

Examine all wire ropes for damage before use.
Faults which may render a rope unserviceable
include;
Kinking
Badly worn strands
•Corrosion
•Kinking.
•Broken and fraying strands.
Broken and fraying
strands
Corrosion
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Wire Rope Capacities
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The stresses in the legs of the sling increases as the
angle between them increases. Using the human
body and two buckets filled with water it will not be
difficult to demonstrate the effects of lifting a load at
narrow and wide angles. The arms represent the
sling and lift angle.
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SKETCH “A” SHOWS THE ARMS VERTICAL AND A
REASONABLY EASY LIFTING CONDITION.
SLING
A

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SKETCH “B” SHOWS THE ARMS STRETCHED BEYOND ITS LIMIT WITH THE LOAD.
THE BODY AND SLINGS ARE NOT DESIGNED TO TAKE UN-NECESSARY STRAINS.
SLING
B
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On two leg sling work always be
aware of the changing SWL factor
with the changing angles of the
slings.

Caution — Slung Angles are Critical
Slings should always
be used as near
vertical as possible.
In general if L is
greater than S then
the slinging is OK

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Chain Slings
Only Grade 8 or better ALLOY Chain can be used for
overhead lifting purposes! All chain is not rated the same!
Chain must have a capacity tag attached to it.
Chains will withstand more rough handling and abuse, but a
chain with the same rated lifting capacity of wire rope will be
much larger in diameter and heavier in weight.
Chains must be inspected daily before use and as often as
necessary during use to assure safety.
It is the riggers responsibility to do the inspections!
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Chain Slings
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SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
WEBBING SLING (FLAT & ROUND)
• All webbing sling shall;
• Be stored away from direct sunlight to minimize
the effect of UV deterioration.
• Be stored on a non-corrodible rack, away from
any source of heat.
• Not be used in knotted or twisted condition.
• Never be repaired. A damaged webbing sling or
sling with damaged cover shall be discarded
and taken out of service.
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BELT SLINGS
Identification
• Safe working load marking.
• Identification mark.
• Colour inspection code (if used).
• Condition of stitching.
• Tears or abrasions
• Burning of outer surface.
• Excessive wear.
If any of the above faults are present refer to a
competent person for through examination.
Maintenance
• Keep surface clean and free from grit.
• Re-apply colour code if necessary.
• Sling should be suspended in storage when not in use.
Belt Sling with Eyes
Endless Belt Sling
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Flat Webbing and Round Synthetic
Slings

Types of synthetic slings and fittings
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• INSPECTION

• Synthetic slings must be inspected before each use.

• They must also be inspected by a competent person at least once
every 3 months. If a sling is subject to severe conditions the
inspections should be more frequent.

• Send slings for a proof load test at least every 12 months.


Flat Webbing and Round Synthetic
Slings

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• LOOK FOR:

• Any external wear such as abrasion or cuts and contusions.
• Internal wear which is often indicated by a thickening of the sling
or the presence of grit and dirt.
• Damage to the protective coating of the sling.
• Damage caused by high temperatures, sunlight or chemicals
(indicated by discolouration).

Flat Webbing and Round Synthetic
Slings

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• Damage to the label or stitching.
• Damage to the eyes or any terminal
attachments or end fittings.
• Where the sling is covered by a sleeve, the
sleeve must cover the sling for the full length
from eye to eye.

Flat Webbing and Round Synthetic
Slings

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• DISCARD A SYNTHETIC SLING IF:

• It is considered that it has lost more than 10% of its original
breaking strength. (Send the sling to the manufacturer for
regular testing.)
• The label has been removed or destroyed.
• There is any damage to the sleeve or protective coating.
• A nylon sling comes into contact with acid.
• A polyester sling comes into contact with alkaline substances.
Flat Webbing and Round Synthetic
Slings

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• A polypropylene sling comes into contact with an organic solvent
such as, paint, coal tar or paint stripper
• There are any visible cuts on the sling.

NB: A nylon sling will lose more than 10% of its strength
when it is wet.

After 6 months exposure to sunlight send a sling in for
testing.
Flat Webbing and Round Synthetic
Slings

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Flat Webbing and Round Synthetic
Slings

(b) Some damage to load-bearing fibres (c) Badly damage sleeve
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Flat Webbing and Round Synthetic
Slings

(d) Load-bearing fibres have been cut
(e) Cut load-bearing fibres
(f) Broken load-bearing yarn
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Flat Webbing and Round Synthetic
Slings

(g) The use of hooks that are too narrow
has damaged the eye of the sling
(h) Burn damage to sleave and
load-bearing yarn
(i) Surface wear evident by furry surface
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ROUNDSLINGS
Identification
A further category of man-made fiber slings is the round sling.
This is manufactured from an endless polyester yarn and
covered with a protective polyester sleeve stitched as illustrated.

Maintenance
• Safe working load markings.
• Identity number.
• Colour inspection code.
• Broken load bearing internal yarn.
• Cuts and abrasions to external cover.
• Cuts in stitching.
• Discoloration (due to chemical attack).
• Burn marks on outer surface.
• Knots.

Action

If any of the above faults are present refer to a competent
person for thorough examination.

Maintenance
• Keep clean and free form grit.
• Re-apply colour code if necessary
• Sling should be suspended in storage when not in use.
Typical Round sling colour coding
(Basic Configuration)
WLL Tonnes Colour

1.0 Violet
2.0 Green
3.0 Yellow
4.0 Grey
5.0 Red
6.0 Brown
8.0 Blue
10.0 Orange
Endless Round Sling

Round Sling with eyes
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SLING INSPECTION
while inspecting the sling;

• Sling should be laid out in good light and
examined over its entire length for:

1. Damage caused by sharp edges (cuts)
2. Damage caused by abrasion (burning or scuffing)
3. Impact damage.
4. Contamination by chemicals.
5. ID tag with SWL marked ID number and length.
6. Certification.
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COLOR CODING
• The project operates a system where by all
―Lifting Equipment‖ is color coded with a unique
color, at monthly intervals, after inspection where
applicable.

• Red color is reserved especially for items
scrapped or not to be used. We have to comply
with the project color coding system every 3
months or depending upon the project
requirement.
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Thumb Rules
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Bow Shackles
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SHACKLES
Three types of shackles are commonly used for rigging
applications. They are the anchor (bow type), chain shackle (D-
shackle) and wide-body type shackle.

Many more different type shackles are available in the market-
place which should not be considered for rigging use.

Three suppliers of shackles are well known in the construction
industry with Crosby and Green Pin being the leaders and most
widely utilized. Le Beon shackles can occasionally be found as
well.

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Screw Pin Anchor Shackle Bolt Type Anchor Shackle
Screw Pin Chain Shackle
Bolt Type Chain Shackle
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Wide Body Shackles
Greatly improve wear-ability of wire
rope slings and can be used to connect
high strength Synthetic Round Slings
or Wire Rope Slings by improving the
D/d ratio. The sling bearing area
increases by a minimum of 58 %
which increases sling strength by a
minimum of 15 %. Pins are smaller
than equally rated quenched and
tempered shackle pins and for
instance a 75 Tonne wide body
shackle can be utilized where a 55
Tonne normal quenched and
tempered shackle is intended to fit.
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Normal Shackle
Reduced Sling Bearing Area in Shackle Bow
Wide Body Shackle
Increased Sling Bearing Area up to 58 %.
Increases usable sling strength up to 15 %
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A simple Formula is used to calculate the
Factor of D/d
Factor = 1 -
d D/
5 . 0
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This means if a 25 mm Diameter Sling is
used over a 30 mm Pin the Equation will
be:

25 / 30
5 . 0
2 . 1
5 . 0
1 - = 1- = 1 – 0.416 = 0,584

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Rigging Hitches & Slinging Methods
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IDENTIFICATION OF RIGGING HITCHES
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CURVATURE:

Sharp bends in a wire rope
sling reduce its strength and
cause crushing.
Fit a wire rope sling so that
the minimum radius around
which it is bent is atleast 3
times the diameter of the rope.
Packing may be inserted to
increase the radius of the
bend.
PRECAUTION WHEN USING
LIFTING GEAR
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Slinging Hazards
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Slinging Hazards
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SOFT EYE
Not to be hammered
down
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DOUBLE CHOKER
OR
A PAIR OF CHOKER HITCHES
Not to be hammered down.
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DOUBLE BASKET
OR
PAIR BASKET HITCHES
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SAFE WORKING LOAD (SWL)
A calculated, design approved and
certified maximum load, normally
specified in Kilograms (kgs) or Tones,
up to which, an item of ―Lifting
Equipment‖ is safe to operate.
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CENTER OF GRAVITY
The center of gravity of an object is that point at which the object will balance.
The entire weight may be considered as concentrated at this point.

Any suspended object (load) will center itself directly under the hook.



STABLE Hook is directly above
Center of Gravity
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UNSTABLE
Load is not above
Center of Gravity
Load will shift until
Center of Gravity is
below the Hook
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UNSTABLE
Load is not above Center of Gravity
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Rules to Follow When Slinging and
Handling a Load

Raise
Move
Lower
slowly
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Basic Knots
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ROUND TURN AND
TWO HALF HITCHES
Used to secure a rope to a column or post. Easily tied and does not jam.
Will stand heavy strain without slipping.






BOWLINE
A favorite knot with riggers and one of the best
known and widely used of all knots.
It is easily constructed and used wherever a
hitch is required that will not slip, jam or fail.

REEF KNOT
Also known as the square knot. Used to join two rope or
lines of the same size. Holds firmly and is easily united.
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Chain Blocks,
Pull lifts,
Tirfors, eye bolts, plate clamps,
turnbuckles, hooks, lifting
beams
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USING CHAIN BLOCKS
Ensure that the SWL of the
chain block is adequate for
the load to be lifted.
Attach the head fitting to a
suitable anchorage
Pull the operating chain to
determine the hoisting and
lowering sides of the chain.
Attach the load to the hook
using correct slings and / or
shackles.
Pull down the relevant side of
the operating chain to hoist
or lower the load.
Operating Chain

Hook

Safety catch
Load Chain
Head Lifting
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USING PULL LIFTS
Attach the head fitting to a
suitable anchorage taking
into account the load to be
lifted, lowered or pulled.
Hook with Safety catch

Step Line
Head fitting
Pawl Lever
Hand wheel

Operating Lever
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PULL LIFT OPERATION:
HOISTING OR PULLING:

1. Turn the lever to the neutral
position.
2. Turn the hand wheel to adjust the
chain to the required length.
3. Attach the load to the bottom hook,
using appropriate slings and / or
shackles.
4. Turn the lever to the up position.
5. Turn the hand wheel to take up the
slackness in the chain.
6. Operate the handle backwards and
forwards to lift or pull the load.
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LOWERING:
• To lower the load, turn the lever
to the down position.
• Operate the handle backwards
and forwards to lower the load.
• When the load is securely in
position, operate the handle to
slacken the chain.
• Turn the lever to the neutral
position and turn the hand
wheel to give sufficient length
of chain to be able to release
the slings and / ore shackles.
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Examine a
chain before
using it.
Look for
stretched links,
wear, distortion
and any other
sign of
weakness.
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HAND OPERATED WINCH / TIRFOR
Identification
A hand operated, lever controlled friction drive mechanism for lifting,
lowering and pulling a load.
Identification
• Safe working load stamping.
• Identity number.
• Colour inspection code (if used).
• Check for free operation of operation, reversing and rope release lever.
• Check that correct shear pins are fitted, and pin condition is satisfactory.
• Inspect complete machine for cracks, indentations or distortion.
• Wear in operation jaws
• Corrosion.
• Inspect wire rope and hooks.
• Correct rope.
• Damage to casing.

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Identification
This is a multi purpose tool made to pull and
pay-off wire rope.
A special wire rope is fitted through the
machine and cannot be removed whilst
there is a load on the winch.
When the operating handles are actuated by
hand, the rope is either pulled or paid-out
through the machine.
Using the hand-operated winch
1. Uncoil the special wire rope, used with the machine, in a straight
line to prevent loops which might untwist the stands or form kinks
under tension.
2. Push the release handle into the notched position to
open the jaws inside the machine.
3. Insert the tapered end of the wire ripe into the
machine at the hole in position A
These machines are available in a range of
Sizes to suit different working conditions.
Notched
position
Release
handle
A
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4. Push the rope through the machine until it emerges at
exit B.
B
5. Anchor the machine using the correct slings. Fit
them to the hook attached to the machine.













6. Pull the wire rope through the machine until the
desired length is reached and the rope
becomes tight on the load.
7. Lift the release handle out of the notched
position and allow it to return to the operating
position under its spring pressure. The rope is
now firmly held in jaws fitted inside the
machine.

Hoisting or Pulling
Fit the operating handle on to the actuating lever and work the handle
to and fro.
This action pulls the rope through the machine and automatically locks
it in position when the operating handle is released.
Actuating lever
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Lowering or slackening off
Fit the operating handle to the lowering
lever and work the handle to and fro.
this action pulls the rope back through the
machine and when the handle ceases to
move automatically locks the rope in
position.

Releasing the wire rope
from the machine
1. Fit the operating handle on to the lowering lever
and work the handle to and fro until all the
tension is taken off the rope.
2. Remove the anchoring slings.
Push the release handle to the notched position
to open the jaws inside the machine
3. Pull the rope back through the machine.
The jaws in the machine automatically lock the
rope in position. It is therefore impossible to
release the wire rope form the winch whilst there
is any strain (load) on it.
Lowering lever
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COLLAR EYE BOLT

This bolt has a small eye;
a large collar with a
machined under face
which is relieved to allow
a radius between collar
and shank and to provide
a thread run out.
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EYE BOLT WITH LINK

This bolt is used for
normal lifting
purposes and has a
link forged in the
eye.
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DYNAMO EYE BOLT

This is designed for
vertical lifting only.
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PLATE CLAMPS
Identification
There are various types of plate clamps in use, the following three being the most common:
Inspection
• Safe working load stamping.
• Identity number.
• Plate thickness marking
• Colour inspection code (if used).
• Free working of assembly.
• Condition of ―teeth‖
• Wear at all bearing points and on pins.
• Cracks, nicks and gouges.
• Inspect weld (if used).
• Security of all pins.
• Deformation.
• Corrosion.
• Condition of springs
Action
If any of the above faults are present refer to a competent person for thorough
examination.
Maintenance
• Keep clean and free from grit.
• Lubricate moving parts if necessary.
• Re-apply colour code if necessary.


Universal Vertical Horizontal
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Plate clamps are available in two basis designs, i.e horizontal plate clamps (sued in pairs and usually suspended by a two leg sling from
a lifting beam) for handling plates in the horizontal position. (These clamps can also lift from horizontal to vertical and vice versa, but
should NOT be used to transport plates horizontally).
Selection
The first consideration when selecting the clamp is how the plate is to be transported and stacked, ie horizontal or vertically.
The second consideration is the weight of the plate to be handled which will determine the SWL of the clamps.
The third consideration is the plate thickness which will determine the correct model of clamp with the appropriate jaw opening.
Pre-use Examination
Before using any plate clamps, the following checks should be made:

•The SWL is adequate for the load.
•The colour coding (where applicable) is current and the clamp has a plant number / ID mark.
PLATE CLAMPS
Horizontal Clamps Universal (Vertical) Clamps
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Lock the jaw in the closed position and ensure the jaws have a firm bite on the plate.

Always
i) Check that the plate is clean and free from mill scale, dirt, Oil and grease.
ii) Double check that the jaws are locked.
iii) Use an adequate number of clamps to balance the load.
iv) Lift slowly to allow the jaws to obtain a good grip.

Never
Attach clamps to the side of the plate
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Never
• Fast lower onto the floor as this could cause the clamp to open and release the
plate.
• Lift horizontally with a vertical clamp.
• Lift more than one plate at a time.
• Use large capacity clamps to lift light loads.






When using horizontal plate clamps, do not exceed the sling angles indicated
below and do not lift more than one plate at a time unless the clamps are suitable,
i.e. sheet bundle clamps


Never
• Use endless slings with clamp pairs as this practice
can drastically overload the clamps.
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Selection
The first consideration when selecting turnbuckles
is the SWL which is determined by the thread diameter.
The second consideration is the adjustability (commonly known as ―Take-up‖) of
the turnbuckle. The take-up often varies with different patterns.
Turnbuckles (Rigging Screws) can be obtained with various types and combinations of end
fittings, the most popular being the ―Jaw and Eye‖ type.
COMMON TURNBUCKLE
Eye Jaw Stub
Hook
(Has Reduced
capacity)
Jaw & Eye combination
Jaw & Jaw combination
Hook & Hook combination
Hook & Eye combination
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When using a turnbuckle in an application where vibration is present, (most areas in an engineering
environment), it is extremely important to lock the end fittings to the frame or body to prevent them from
unscrewing and possible releasing the load. The most popular and preferred method is to wire the eye or jaw
to the body (see fig. 1). As an alternative (for open body type only) a split pin through the end of the screwed
shank is acceptable (see fig – 2). The split pin has to be removed to facilitate adjustment. Should lock nuts be
used, care must be taken not to over tighten them as this can put undue stress on the threaded shank (see fig
– 3)
Preferred
Fig - 1
Acceptable
Fig - 2
Caution Required
Fig- 3
Lock wire will hold
WARNING

When turnbuckles are to be left under load for any length of time, eg temporary hangers for
pope work, etc they should be visually checked on a daily basis to ensure they are still secure.
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PRE-USE EXAMINATION
Prior to using a turnbuckle in a lifting situation, visually examine it and ensure that:
i) The SWL is adequate for the load.
ii) The colour code is current and the turnbuckle has a plant number / I.D. mark.
iii) The threads are free from wear, stretch and impact damage.
iv) The eyes/hooks are not worn or stretched.
v) The clevis pin and pin holes are free from distortion/wear.
vi) The threads are suitable lubricated.


Safety
Turnbuckles must always have the threaded shank protruding into the body to ensure
that the load is borne over the correct length of the threaded shank.





Particular care must be taken when using ―Closed Body‖ type screws. It may be necessary
to dismantle to dismantle the turnbuckle, measure the length of the threaded shanks,
reassemble and use measurement to ensure the above ―unsafe‖ case is avoided.
Check for cracks & bends
Check for thread damage & bent rods
CORRECT
UNSAFE
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SWIVEL HOOKS WITH SAFETY
CATCHES
These allow the load to be
moved round without
twisting and possibly
endangering slings, wire
ropes and chains. The
safety catch ensures that
the rope or chain does not
slip off the hook.
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CARE OF HOOKS:

Fit a shackle between the
lifting hook and the eye bolt to
prevent the point of the hook
being strained.
The shackle will swivel to
allow the sling and hook to
make a correct lift as
illustrated along side and
below.


Note: Collar eye bolts are
not designed to take hooks.
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CARE OF EYE BOLTS:
Always tighten eye bolts to
the correct position, but do
not over strain them. Fit a
shackle so that the
minimum strain is imposed
when the lift is made
unless an eye bolt with link
is used.

Ensure the collar is hard
down on the material and
the eye in the right
direction for the lift.

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WEIGHT OF SPREADER BEAM AND
LIFTING BEAMS

Weight of spreader beams can be calculated from weight tables of
the steel section, from which they are made, or obtained from the
manufacturer‘s specification.
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LIFTING APPLIANCES
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LIFTING APPLIANCES
• CRANES (Tower, Mobile, Crawler.)
• Identification
• Hand signals
• Safety Procedures
• Inspection
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Rough Terrain
(RT)
All Terrain (AT)
Crawler
Truck Crane (TC)
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Crane Selection
Weights, Dimensions and Lift Radii expected
Type of Lifting to be done
The Crane Position, where the Load is
to be lifted from, Access, Erection and
Dismantling restraints
Site Conditions
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Site Review and Crane Setup
Character of the Ground and Soil
Conditions.
Access and Stability
Working Area
Presence and Location of any
Underground Hazards
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RESPONSIBILITIES
• Be familiar with the lifting capabilities of the crane.
• Check the lifting equipment being used is in good condition,
certified for use, correctly color coded, and is of sufficient
capacity to carry out the lift.
• Ensure taglines are attached to loads which are likely to swing.
• Be aware of any obstruction within the crane radius and working
area.
• Check that the area around the load to be lifted is clear and that
the load is attached to the floor, transportation cradle or adjacent
equipment.
• Ensure that the escape route is identified.
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THE PROCEDURE FOR SETTING UP
AND WORKING WITH A CRANE
Set up the crane as close as possible to the load , set the outriggers
and block out securely ensuring that the crane is as level as
possible. You can use a level or the main block to level the crane.
Barricade the area making sure that no other personnel other than
the rigging crew are within the barricade.
Prepare the load for lifting making sure all equipment used is of
sufficient size and Safe Working Load including crane radius and
boom length
Rig the load once everything has been checked float the load
making sure it is balanced this assists the crane to check his
brakes and stability
When all the checks have been completed continue with the lift
following all safety procedures only one person giving the signals,
using tag lines to control the load if required.
Once the load has been placed into its final position remove all the
equipment and barricades.

104
BARRIER
TAPE

Z
A
W
E
D

Z
A
W
E
D

Z
A
W
E
D
WARNING
SIGNS
.
.
.
.
CONES
WHEN WORKING WITH CRANES YOU MUST
BARRICADE THE WORKING AREA
.
105
Crane Mats
106
Isolate Working Area
107
CRANE HOOKS
Most cranes are fitted with ‗C‘ type hooks to prevent snagging on protrusions such
as handrails, etc., and in certain cases also have safety catch to prevent the eye of
the lifting sling being accidentally displaced in the figure. Large cranes however tend
to be fitted with ramshorn type hooks which could have an effect on the sling
design.
Soft
Eye
Soft
Eye
Hard
Eye
‗C‘ Hook Ramshorn Hooks
108
IDENTIFICATION OF TYPES OF CRANE & THEIR
PARTS
109
Poor Ground Conditions are a Factor in
Many Accidents
Never attempt to make a lift
from soft or unstable ground
110
Poor Ground Conditions are a Factor in
Many Accidents
Over 50% of all crane accidents are
the result of mistakes made and
rushed sloppy work done when the
crane was being put together, readied
and placed to make its lifts.
REMEMBER: Failure to follow
just one safety precaution can
cause that accident, to men or
machine.
111
Failure to Level the Crane is a
Common Accident Cause
Just a little side tilt when
lifting a load over the rear
can become dangerous
when swung over the side.
What can happen
when you swing
over the side!
Load radius increases when
swung over the side.
112
LEVELING THE CRANE
The line
Should lie dead in the centre of the boom in all
positions, end, side and corner.
WRONG RIGHT
Leveling With the Load Line
113
Check That Cranes are Level
114
Boom Length and Radius
Capacity Lost
When out of Level
1° 2° 3°
Short Boom, Minimum Radius 20 % 20 % 30 %
Short Boom, Maximum Radius 8 % 15 % 20 %
Long Boom, Minimum Radius 30 % 41 % 50 %
Long Boom, Maximum radius 5 % 10 % 15 %
Possible Capacity Loss Due to being out of Level
Accurate Calculations are available from the specific, applicable Crane Manufacturers
115
Remember — capacity chart ratings are
based on ideal conditions:

• Standing on firm, level surface
• CALM wind
• No side loads or outswing of load
• Good visibility
• Machine in A-1 condition and equipped
as when leaving the factory.

When such conditions cannot be attained,
loads being handled must be reduced to
compensate.

DON‘T FORGET:

If a tipping condition is suddenly sensed —
start lowering the load and retract or
elevate the boom to bring the load in. Never
lower the boom and aggravate the
condition.
Failure to Level the Crane is a
Common Accident Cause
The machine must be level
116
Many Crane Accidents are Caused by
Poor Blocking Under Floats
117
Many Crane Accidents are Caused by
Poor Blocking Under Floats
USE SOLID BLOCKING
UNDER ALL FLOATS
THE CRANE’S BEARING PRESSURE MUST BE DISTRIBUTED TO THE GROUND BY USING
LARGE TIMBER BLOCKING

WARNING:
Only cranes with approved free on wheels ratings can be used without outriggers set.
118
Set Outriggers Correctly
119
OUTRIGGERS:

Capacities are based on all outriggers fully extended. Working
with outriggers partially retracted will reduce capacities and
machine stability considerably and may cause an accident. If it is
absolutely necessary to operate a machine with outrigger beams
partially retracted, reduce capacities to those shown on the chart
for ―on rubber‖. Remember — the machine must be level.

DON‘T OPERATE WITH ONLY REAR OUTRIGGERS EXTENDED. If
you swing over the side, the machine may tip over, or the boom
may be damaged from side loadings because the machine is not
level.

Set Outriggers Correctly
120
When working a machine with mechanical (non-hydraulic)
outriggers, make sure the beams are pinned in place, otherwise
they can ―creep in‖ while operating, causing an unstable
condition and possibly tipping the machine over.

WARNING

Before travelling make sure mechanical outriggers are securely
pinned in position otherwise they can come out on the road and
cause serious damage.


Set Outriggers Correctly
121
HYDRAULIC OUTRIGGERS:

When setting hydraulic outriggers make sure that
the outriggers are set evenly otherwise severe
twisting of the crane‘s chassis frame will result.
Set Outriggers Correctly
122
Exceeding the Rated Capacity of any
Crane is Dangerous
Overloads can damage the machine and such damage causes
failure and accidents.
It looks like about
10 tonnes.
Whoops!
123
Spreads out the load so the supporting surface can support it
Transmits the load without bending or breaking
124
WRONG
125
Do not set up too close
to trenches etc., as the
machine vibration can
cause the walls to
collapse.

Setting Up and Parking
126
WRONG
127
WRONG
128
Know Conditions and Use
Precautions
129
Ensure Handbook
and Chart are with
Crane
130
131
Required Clearance for Operations near
High Voltage Power Lines
To 50 KV 10 ft. 3.05 M
over 50 to 200 KV 15 ft. 4.60 M
Over 200 to 350 KV 115 ft. 4.60 M
Over 350 to 500 KV 25 ft. 7.62 M
Over 500 to 700 KV 35 ft. 10.67 M
Over 700 to 1000 KV 45 ft. 13.72 M
All overhead Lines and other apparatus should be treated
as live unless officially declared “DEAD” and “SAFE”.
If in doubt, seek advise
132
During Thunderstorms and Lightening STOP
Work and retract/lower Boom
133
Mechanical
Advantage
Wrong
Correct
134
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
135
Wedge Socket
136
Two Block Cutout
137
Watch for boom drawdown as the
crane takes the load. This increases
the radius and can result in the load
drifting away from the crane.

THE RADIUS WILL INCREASE WHEN
A LOAD IS LIFTED.

MEASURE THE LOAD RADIUS BEFORE
MAKING CAPACITY LIFTS.
Know The Radius Of The Load
138
Always Ensure
that the Hook
has got a
Safety Catch
139
Never let the
Boom touch a
Structure
140
It
Might
Cause
the Boom
to
Collapse
Or Damage
141
Use Taglines
142
Always Stand Clear
of Suspended Loads
Never Let Anyone Ride on a
Suspended Load
143
IDENTIFICATION OF CRANE HAND SIGNAL
144
The Users Responsibilities
Rigger
Crane
Operator
145
Protecting Rigging From
Damage or Environment
Rigging components are expensive to buy and to replace!
Use them properly and store them properly!
Keep wire rope slings lubricated and all rigging stored out of
the weather.
Treat the rigging as though your life depended on it!
Because it does if it fails!
Don‘t use makeshift rigging or attempt to repair any rigging
components.
Knots tied in rigging reduces the strength by 50% or more!
146
Lifting Operations Procedure
(Cont.)



Lifting operation planning:
 Planning shall basically contain and consider the following
steps:
 Weight of the load
 Method of lifting
 Working radius
 Communication system
 Ground stability
 Existing services (AG / UG)
 Height restriction
 Competent resources
 Over head power line
 Selection of equipment

147
Lifting Operations Procedure
(Cont.)
• Ground stability
– When planning a lift, consideration must be
given to the ground conditions.
• Outriggers
– Sound timber packing or metal plates shall
be positioned under each outrigger pad /
Crawler to distribute the load.
These should be a
minimum of 3 times
the area dimension
of the outrigger pad.
148
Lifting Operations Procedure
(Cont.)
– Outriggers must be fully extended on both
sides when performing a lifting operation.
– Outrigger pads are not to be permanently
attached to outriggers
• A sign warning of the danger of
overhead power lines shall be mounted
in each crane.
149
Lifting Operations Procedure
(Cont.)
Lifting Equipment
– The lifting equipment operator shall not begin
the machine movement, until the banks-man is
within his range of vision, or in radio contact,
and the signal is given and understood.
– Where several individuals are involved, the
crane operator shall obey the signal of the
banks men ONLY.
The only exception shall
be in the case of an emergency,
when the crane operator can
receive the Emergency Stop
Signal from anyone
150
Lifting Operations Procedure
(Cont.)
Restrictions to crane operations
– The most common restriction to lifting
operations is bad weather, specifically high
wind.
– However, No lifts will be permitted at wind
speeds exceeding 30 Knots or 35 Miles per
hour.
– When working in close proximity to overhead
electric lines or cables, the crane shall not be
positioned closer to the plumb of the nearest
line or cable than a distance equal to the length
of the crane Jib fitted, plus 6 meters measured
along the ground.
151
Lifting Operations Procedure
(Cont.)
Communication

– An effective communication
system shall be in place for all
lifting operations.
– The type of system will depend
on the nature of the task i.e.,
radio communication may be
necessary when visibility
between the crane operator and
the Banks-man is restricted.
152
Lifting Operations Procedure
(Cont.)
Color Code System

– The Color Code System shall be developed and
implemented for all Lifting Gear used within the Project
such as for slings, shackles, rope wire, belts.
– The color shall indicate to the user and the inspector, that
an examination has been performed within the prescribed
period.
– A new color shall be introduced on regular basis as per the
Project Color Coding System and each color shall be
current for a specified period
– Information boards showing the current
color coding shall be posted at prominent
locations at each work site where it is
anticipated lifting operations will take
place.
153
Lifting Operations Procedure
(Cont.)
Lifting Operations Check List
– A Risk assessment shall be conducted prior to
any lift being performed.
– The lifting operations check list acts as a
reminder and guidelines to the personnel
concerned, and basically consists of the items
shown below and listed in the Lifting Operations
Procedure.


154
CRANE OPERATION ANALYSIS
"our plan for a safe job"


Crane: Date: Time:
Crane has been inspected/ safe condition:.YesNo
Job Location:
Job Description:

The weight of the load is:
The swing radius of the lift is:
Net crane capacity at this radius is:
Is operator qualified to operate this crane? Yes No
Is operator’s certification card current? Yes No
Critical lift permit required for this lift? Yes No
Crane level/outriggers fully extended? Yes No
Is the rigger qualified for this task? Yes No
Is sling/hardware in safe condition? Yes No
Sling sizing/hookup reviewed? Yes No
Do sharp edges have softeners? Yes No
Tag lines needed to help control load? Yes No
Center of gravity of load located? Yes No

EMERGENCY INFORMATION
What is the wind direction?
Reviewed emergency alarms/phone numbers Yes
Escape route(s):
Location of eyebath/shower station:

Our evacuation assembly point is:
Operator Signature:
Rigger Signature:
Signalman Signature:
Supervisor Signature:
155
RIGGING PLAN

156
RIGGING COMPONENTS
List each component

Slings

Type Hitch Cap. Sling Angle Actual Cap.

Sling 1

Sling 2

Sling 3

Sling 4


Shackles

Size Capacity

Shackle 1

Shackle 2

Shackle 3

Shackle 4


Other Devices:

Description Capacity



How has the lifting area been restricted?
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