History of Málaga

Málaga, by Edward Gennys Fanshawe, 1857
The history of Málaga, shaped by the city's location in the south of Spain on the western shore of the
Mediterranean Sea, spans about 2,800 years, makingMálaga one of the oldest cities in the world. The
first inhabitants to settle the site may have been the Bastuli, an ancient Celtiberian tribe. The Phoenicians
founded the colony ofMalaka here about 770 BC, and from the 6th century BC it was under the
hegemony of ancient Carthage in north Africa. From 218 BC the city was ruled by the Roman
Republic and then at the end of the 1st century during the reign ofDomitian it was federated with
the Roman Empire as Malaca (Latin). Thereafter it was governed under its own municipal code of law,
the Lex Flavia Malacitana, which granted free-born persons the privileges of Roman citizenship.

The Romanization of Málaga was, as in most of southern Hispania Ulterior, effected peacefully through
the foedus aequum; a treaty recognizing both parties as equals, obligated to assist each other in
defensive wars or when otherwise summoned. During this period, under the rule of the Roman Republic,
the Municipium Malacitanum became a transit point on the Via Herculea, which revitalised the city both
economically and culturally by connecting it with other developed enclaves in the interior of Hispania and
with other ports of the Mediterranean Sea.
The decline of the Roman imperial power in the 5th century led to invasions of Hispania
Baetica byGermanic peoples and by the Byzantine Empire. In Visigothic Spain, the Byzantines took
Malaca and other cities on the southeastern coast and founded the new province of Spania in 552.
Malaca became one of the principal cities of the short-lived Byzantine Provincia Spaniae (Latin); it lasted
until 624, when the Byzantines were expelled from the peninsula. After the Muslim Arab conquestof
Hispania (711–718), the city, then known as Mālaqa (مالقة), was encircled by walls, next to which
Genoese and Jewish merchants settled in their own quarters. In 1026 it became the capital of the Taifa of
Málaga, an independent Muslim kingdom ruled by the Hammudid dynasty in theCaliphate of Córdoba,
which existed for four distinct time-periods: from 1026 to 1057, from 1073 to 1090, from 1145 to 1153 and
from 1229 to 1239 when it was finally conquered by the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada.
The siege of Mālaqa by the Catholic Monarchs in 1487 was one of the longest of the Reconquista. The
Muslim population was punished for its resistance by enslavement or death. Under Castilliandomination,
churches and convents were built outside the walls to unite the Christians and encourage the formation of
new neighborhoods. In the 16th century, the city entered a period of slow decline, exacerbated by
epidemics of disease, several successive poor food crops, floods, and earthquakes.
With the advent of the 18th century the city began to recover some of its former prosperity. For much of
the 19th century, Málaga was one of the most rebellious cities of the country, contributing decisively to
the triumph of Spanish liberalism. Although this was a time of general political, economic and social crisis
in Málaga, the city was a pioneer of the Industrial Revolutionon the Iberian peninsula, becoming the first
industrialised city in Spain. This began the ascendancy of powerful Málagan bourgeois families, some of
them gaining influence in national politics. In the last third of the century, during the short regime of
the First Spanish Republic, the social upheavals of the Cantonal Revolution of 1873 culminated in the
proclamation of the Canton of Málaga on 22 July 1873. Málaga political life then was characterized by a
radical and extremist tone. The federal republican (republicanismo federal) movement gained strong
support among the working classes and encouraged insurrection, producing great alarm among the
A new decline of the city began in 1880. The economic crisis of 1893 forced the closing of the La
Constancia iron foundry and was accompanied by the collapse of the sugar industry and the spread of
the phylloxera blight, which devastated the vineyards surrounding Málaga. The early 20th century was a
period of economic readjustment which produced a progressive industrial dismantling and fluctuating
development of commerce. Economic depression, social unrest and political repression made it possible
for petite bourgeois republicanism and the labour movement to consolidate their positions.
In 1933, during the Second Spanish Republic, Málaga elected the first deputy of the Communist Party of
Spain, or Partido Comunista de España (PCE). In February 1937 the nationalist army, with the help of
Italian volunteers, launched an offensive against the city under the orders ofGeneral Queipo de Llano,
occupying it on 7 February. Local repression by the Francoist military dictatorship was perhaps the
harshest of the civil war, with an estimated 17,000–20,000 citizens shot and buried in mass graves at the
cemetery of San Rafael.
During the military dictatorship, the city experienced an expansion of tourism from abroad to theCosta del
Sol, igniting an economic boom in the city beginning in the 1960s. After the end of the Francoist military
dictatorship, the first candidate for mayor on the ticket of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party or Partido
Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) was elected, and remained in office until 1995, when the conservative
Popular Party or Partido Popular (PP) won the municipal elections and have governed since.
Prehistory and antiquity
The territory now occupied by the Province of Málaga has been inhabited since prehistoric times, as
evidenced by the cave paintings of the Cueva de la Pileta (Cave of the Pool) in Benaoján, artefacts found
at sites such as the Dolmen of Menga near Antequera and the Cueva del Tesoro (Treasure Cave)
near Rincón de la Victoria, and the pottery, tools and skeletons found in Nerja. Paintings of seals from the
Paleolithic and post-Paleolithic eras found in the Nerja Caves and attributed to Neanderthals may be
about 42,000 years old and could be the first known works of art, according to José Luis Sanchidrián of
the University of Córdoba.
Phoenician Malaka

Archaeological site of Cerro del Villar
The first colonial settlement in the area, dating from the late 8th century BC, was made by seafaring
Phoenicians from Tyre, Lebanon, on an islet in the estuary of the Guadalhorce River at Cerro del Villar
(the coastline of Málaga has changed considerably since that time, as river silting and changes in river
levels have filled the ancient estuary and moved the site inland).

Although the island was ill-suited for habitation, it is likely the Tyrians chose to settle it because of its
strategic location, the possibilities for trade, and the excellent natural harbour. Sailboats heading towards
the Strait of Gibraltar would have found protection there from powerful sea-currents and strong westerly
winds. From Cerro del Villar the Phoenicians began trading with coastal indigenous villages and the small
community at present-day San Pablo near the mouth of the river Guadalmedina. Gradually the centre of
commerce was moved to the mainland and the new trading colony of Malaka was founded, which was
from the 8th century BC a vibrant commercial centre. The name Malaka may be derived from
the Phoenicianword for "salt" (mlk), as fish was salted near the harbour.

Economic development in the colony of Malaka included industries for the production of sea salt and
possibly of purple dye. The Phoenicians had discovered in the waters off the coast murex sea snails, the
source of the famed Tyrian purple. The city had its own mint (sikka in the Phoenician language) and
minted coinage. The Phoenician colonial period lasted approximately from 770 to 550 BC.

Phoenician trade routes
The dominance of the Phoenicians as a Mediterranean trading power waned after the destruction of Tyre
by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in 572 BC. Cyrus the Great conquered Canaan in 539 BC, and
Phoenician influence declined further. Their influence did not disappear entirely in the western
Mediterranean, however, as their place was taken by the Carthaginians, whose capital city
ofCarthage had been founded as a Phoenician trading outpost in 814 BC. It is likely that much of the
Phoenician population migrated to Carthage and other colonies following the Persian conquest. Having
gained independence around 650 BC, Carthage soon developed its own considerable mercantile
presence in the Mediterranean.

Greek Mainake
The Phoenician settlements were more densely concentrated on the coastline east of Gibraltar than they
were further up the coast. Market rivalry had attracted the Greeks to Iberia, who established their own
trading colonies along the northeastern coast before venturing into the Phoenician corridor. They were
encouraged by the Tartessians, who may have desired to end the Phoenician economic
monopoly. Herodotus mentions that around 630 BC, the Phocaeansestablished relations with King
Arganthonios (670–550 BC) of Tartessos, who gave them money to build walls around their city.
they founded Mainake (Greek: Μαινάκη Mainákē) on the Málaga coast (Strabo. 3.4.2).

Recent archaeological investigations have reopened the debate about the location of Mainake.
TheMassaliote Periplus places the city under Tartessian dominion on an island with a good harbour; its
author emphasises that the city was on an island close to the river of the same name, and surrounded by
saltwater lagoons. Geomorphological and paleo-environmental studies have shown that the Phoenician
colony of Cerro del Villar, at the mouth of the Guadalhorce, was situated on an ancient island, now a rise
in an alluvial flood plain west of Málaga.

The Periplus, a merchants' guidebook possibly dating to as early as the 6th century BC, which described
the sea routes used by traders from Phoenicia and Tartessos, contains the most ancient identification of
Malaca as Mainake. It gives an account of a sea voyage circa 525 BC from Massalia (Marseille) along the
western Mediterranean. The part referring to the Iberian Peninsula is preserved in the Ora Maritima (The
Maritime Shores) of the Latin writer Rufus FestusAvienus, who wrote down excerpts much later, during
the 4th century. Lines 425–431, which come after a description of the Pillars of Herakles (The Straits of
Gibraltar), say that Mainake is close to the island of Noctiluca:
hos propter autem mox iugum Barbetium est Malachaeque flumen urbe cum cognomine Menace priore
quae vocata est saeculo. Tartessiorum iuris illic insula antistat urbem, Noctilucae ab incolis sacrata
pridem. in insula stagnum quoque tutusque portus. oppidum Menace super.
In English:
Near them [the Tartessians] is Cape Barbetium and the river Malacha with the town of the same name,
formerly called Menace, under Tartessian dominion. In front of the town lies an island formerly dedicated
by the inhabitants to Noctiluca. On the island is a marsh and a safe harbour; the town of Menace is

Greek and Phoenician colonies about 550 BC
The mythical Greek colony of Mainake existed for at least two centuries. The name appears to be derived
from the Greek: μαίνη (maínē). There are several ancient documents that mention its existence and
discuss its intensive commercial activity. Strabo and other ancient historians placed it east of Malaka, but
recent archaeological investigations suggest that the site of the 8th century BC Phoenician settlement at
Cerro del Villar, less than three miles (4 km) west of the original site of Malaka, corresponds to the
location of the Greek colony. According to the ancient sources it was gradually abandoned after the battle
of Alalia and the consequent collapse of the Phocaean Greek trade, which led the native inhabitants to
shift their residence to the Phoenician-Punic Malaka.

The Greek historian and geographer Strabo (64 BC–24 AD) says in his Geographica that in his time
some thought this colony was the city of Malaca, a supposition he contradicted by pointing out that the
ruins of Mainake could still be seen near Malaca and showed the regular urban plan of the Greeks,
versus the haphazard Semitic layout of Malaka:
The first city on this coastline is Malaca, which is as far distant from Calpe as Gades is. It is a market for
the nomad tribes from the opposite coast, and it also has great establishments for salting fish. Some
suppose it to be the same as Maenaca, which tradition reports to be the farthest west of the Phocaean
cities; but this is not true. On the contrary, the city of Maenaca is farther away from Calpe, and is now in
ruins, though it still preserves traces of having been a Grecian city, whereas Malaca is nearer, and
Phoenician in its configuration. [Calpe is an ancient name for Gibraltar].

The layout of ancient Malaka is unknown, but its location on a hill at the foot of Mount Gibralfarosuggests
it was a more dense and irregular urban cluster than neighboring Cerro del Villar, that is, Mainake. Traces
of ancient landings there, as of a port, correspond with the description in the Periplous. The ruins
mentioned by Strabo were still visible in the 1st century BC, and could only belong to a place that was
already vacated in the Roman period, as occurred in Cerro del Villar but not in Malaka. The Phoenician
city at Cerro del Villar lay in ruins at the beginning of the 6th century BC, when it was apparently resettled
by the Phocaean Greeks.

Carthage created its hegemony in part to resist Greek encroachments in the Phoenician sphere of
influence. The Phoenicians initially (750–650 BC) did not resist the Greeks, but after the Greeks had
reached Iberia sometime later than 638 BC, Carthage emerged as the leader of the Phoenician
resistance. During the 6th century BC, mostly under the leadership of the Magoniddynasty, Carthage
established an empire which would commercially dominate the Western Mediterranean.

Dominion of Carthage
Nebuchadnezzar II had conquered Canaan in 572 BC with the intention of appropriating the rich Tyrian
trade, and with the transition to Carthaginian domination of the western Mediterranean, Malaka became in
573 BC a colony of the Punic empire of Carthage, which sent its own settlers. The mercantile nature of
the city, which developed during Phoenician rule, had taken hold, as well as such idiosyncratic cultural
features as the religious cults devoted to the gods Melkart andTanit.
The second half of the sixth century BC marks the transition between the Phoenician and
thePunic periods of Málaga.
When the Phoenician city-states of the eastern Mediterranean were assimilated into the Persian empire in
the 6th century BC, Carthage took advantage of their diminishing control over maritime trade. For two
hundred years the Phoenician settlements had maintained close relationships with the "mother cities" on
the coast of Syria and Lebanon, but from the mid-6th century, these connections shifted to the north
African city of Carthage as it expanded its hegemony.
With the arrival of the Magonid dynasty around
550 BC, Carthaginian foreign policy seems to have changed dramatically. Carthage now took the lead,
establishing itself as the dominant Phoenician military power in the western Mediterranean. Although a
Punic-Etruscan fleet of 120 ships was defeated by a Greek force of Phocaean ships in the naval Battle of
Alalia between 540 BC and 535 BC, and Carthage lost two more major naval battles with Massalia, it still
managed to close the Strait of Gibraltar to Greek shipping and thus contained the Greek expansion in
Spain by 480 BC.
Carthage proceeded to destroy Tartessos and to drive the Greeks from southern Iberia. It defended its
trade monopoly in the western Mediterranean vigilantly, attacking the merchant ships of its rivals. During
the 3rd century BC, Carthage made Iberia the new base for its empire and its campaigns against the
Roman Republic. Although they had little influence in the hinterland behind the coastal mountains, the
Carthaginians occupied most of Andalusia, expanding along the northern Mediterranean coast and
establishing a new capital at Cartagena.
The Romans conquered the city as well as the other regions under the rule of Carthage after thePunic
Wars in 218 BC.
Roman Malaca

Roman statue of Urania, the muse of Astronomy. It decorated the peristyle of a villa near Malaca.
The Romans unified the people of the coast and interior under a common power; Roman settlers in
Malaca exploited the local natural resources and introduced Latin as the language of the ruling classes,
establishing new manners and customs that gradually changed the culture of the native people. Malaca
was integrated into the Roman Republic as part of Hispania Ulterior, but Romanisation seems to have
progressed slowly, as indicated by the discovery of inscriptions dating to the 1st century AD written in the
Phoenician alphabet. During this period the Municipium Malacitanum became a transit point on the Via
Herculea, which revitalised the city both economically and culturally by connecting it with other developed
enclaves in the interior of Hispania and with other ports of the Mediterranean Sea.
With the fall of the Republic and the advent of the Roman Empire, the territory of Malaca, which had
already been occupied for two centuries by the Romans, was framed administratively as one of four legal
convents into which the province of Baetica, newly created by order of Caesar Augustus, was divided.
Baetica by this time was rich and completely Romanised; the Emperor Vespasian rewarded the province
by granting it the ius latii, which extended the rights of Roman citizenship (latinitas) to its inhabitants, an
honour that secured the loyalty of the Baetian elite and the middle class.
According to the Greek geographer Strabo, the city had an irregular plan, in the manner of the Phoenician
cities. The Romans began the construction of important public works: the Flavian dynasty improved the
port and Augustus built the Roman theatre. Thereafter the Emperor Titus of the Flavian family granted
Malaca its privileges as a municipality.

Reproduction of the Lex Flavia Malacitana, Loringiano Museum
Malaca reached a high cultural and civic development in this period, having been converted into a
federated city of the empire, and was governed by its own code of laws, the Lex Flavia Malacitana. The
presence of an educated populace and their patronage of the arts had a significant bearing on this. The
great Roman baths, remains of which have been found in the subsoil of the Pintor Nogales and the
Cistercian Abbey, also belong to this period, as well as numerous sculptures now preserved in the Museo
de Málaga.
The Roman theatre, which dates from the 1st century BC, was rediscovered by accident in 1951. The
theatre is well preserved but has not been completely excavated. The Augustan character of the
inscriptions found there date it from this period. The theatre must have been abandoned in the 3rd
century since it was covered with a dump, rich in small finds, of the 3rd–4th centuries. The upper part of
the stage was not covered, and its material was reused by the Arabs in the Alcazaba.

Roman amphitheatre
The economy and the wealth of the territory were dependent mainly on agriculture in the inland areas, the
abundance of the fishery in the waters off the coast, and the productions of local artisanal works. Among
noteworthy Malacan products for export were wine, olive oil and the garum malacitano, a fermented fish
sauce famed throughout the empire and in demand as a luxury item in Rome. Regarding social aspects
such as religious devotions in Malaca, adherence to a particular cult was a function of ethnicity. In 325,
the year of the Council of Nicaea, Malaca figured as one of the few Roman enclaves in Hispania where
Christianity was strongly rooted. Previously, there had been frequent uprisings of an anti-Roman
character catalyzed by the opposition to paganism of those Hispano-Romans affiliated with Christianity.
Spain's present languages, its religion, and the basis of its laws originate from the Roman period. The
centuries of uninterrupted Roman rule and settlement left a deep and enduring imprint upon the culture of
what is now Málaga.
Germanic invasions and Visigothic rule
In the 5th century, Germanic peoples, including the Franks, Suevi, Vandals, and Visigoths, as well as
the Alans of Sarmatian descent, crossed the Pyrenees mountain range into the Iberian peninsula. The
Visigoths eventually emerged as the dominant power, and in about 511, they moved onto the Malaca
coast. However, Hispania remained relatively Romanized under their rule—it did not see a decline in the
perpetuation of classical culture comparable to that in Britain, Gaul, Lombardy and Germany. The
Visigoths adopted Roman culture and language, and maintained more of the old Roman institutions. They
had a respect for the legal codes that resulted in continuous frameworks and historical records for most of
the period between 415, when Visigothic rule in parts of Spain began, and 711, when it is traditionally
said to end. The Catholic bishops were the rivals of Visigothic power and culture until the end of the 6th
and beginning of the 7th century—the period of transition from Arianism to Catholicism in the Visigothic
kingdom—excepting a brief incursion of Byzantine power.
Under Visigothic rule, Malaca became an episcopal see. The earliest known bishop was Patricius,
consecrated about 290, and present at the Council of Eliberis (Elvira).
After the division of the Roman Empire and its final crisis in 476, Malaca was one of the areas of the
peninsula affected by further migrations of the Germanic tribes, especially the Silingi Vandals, who during
the 5th century introduced the Arian heresy to western Europe. The province lost much of the wealth and
infrastructure achieved under Roman rule, but maintained a certain prosperity, even as it suffered the
destruction of some of its most important towns, as at Acinipo, Nescania, and Singilia Barba, which were
not rebuilt.

Byzantine Malaca

Visigothic Hispania and the Byzantine province of Spania circa 560 AD
The Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (482–565) conceived a military and foreign policy, the Recuperatio
Imperii, to recover the territories which had formerly comprised the Western Roman Empire and were
under the rule of the barbarians. It was led by his brilliant general, Belisarius, and succeeded in regaining
North Africa, southern Iberia and most of Italy. Malaca and the surrounding territory were conquered in
552; Malaca then became one of the most important cities of the Byzantine province of Spania.
The city was conquered and sacked again by the Visigoths under King Sisebut in 615. In 624, during the
reigns of the Visigothic king Suintila and the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, the Byzantines definitively
abandoned their last settlements in the narrow area they still held.
It is known that Sisebut devastated much of the city, and although it remained an episcopal see and the
site of a mint built by Sisenand, its population was drastically reduced and its prosperous economy
ruined. There is clear documentary evidence of the violent destruction of at least one commercial district.
Such was the devastation that the first Islamic invaders of the old Visigothic county of Malacitana initially
had to locate their capital in the interior, at Archidona.
Eight centuries of Arab rule
The Chronicle of 754, covering the years 610 to 754, indicates the Arabs began disorganised raids and
only undertook to conquer the peninsula with the fortuitous deaths of Roderic and much of the Visigothic
nobility. They were probably killed at the Battle of Guadalete against an invading force of Muslim Arabs
and Berbers under the command of Ṭāriq ibn Ziyad. Roderic was the last king of the Visigoths, but his
disputed succession to the throne and the resulting internal conflict may have contributed to the collapse
of the Visigoth kingdom before the advance of the Moorish invaders. The Visigoths elected their kings
outright rather than making the throne hereditary byright of succession, but Roderic had apparently led a
coup and usurped the throne in 711.
Hearing of Tariq's landing, Roderic had gathered his followers and
engaged the Arab-Berber invaders, making several expeditions against them before he was deserted by
his troops and killed in battle in 712.
After Roderic’s defeat, the Muslim armies, reinforced by more
troops from Africa, faced little opposition as they moved north. By 714, the Muslims were in control of all
of Hispania, except for a narrow strip along the north coast. Malacitana was settled by Arabs and
Berbers, while much of the indigenous population fled into the mountains. The Muslims called the city
Mālaqa (Arabic: مالقة), designating it as part of the region of al-Andalus. The military and political
leader Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa became governor of the city, but his tenure did not last long. For forty years
following his assassination in 716, al-Andalus was filled with chaos and turmoil as the Hispano-Romano
residents rebelled against Muslim rule, until in 743 Málaga came decisively under Arab domination.
The invading forces were mostly Berber tribesmen from the Maghreb (the northwest of Africa), under
Arab leadership. They and the other Muslim soldiers fighting with them were united by their religion. After
the battle of Guadalete the city passed into the hands of the Arabs, and the bishopric was suppressed.
Málaga then became for a time a possession of the Caliphate of Cordova. After the fall of the Umayyad
dynasty, it became the capital of a distinct kingdom (taifa), dependent on Granada.

The Muladi, or Muwallads, were in almost constant revolt against the Arab and Berber immigrants who
had carved out large estates for themselves, which were farmed by Christian serfs or slaves.
The most
famous of these revolts was led by a rebel named Umar ibn Hafsun in the region of Málaga and the
Ronda mountains. Ibn Hafsun ruled over several mountain valleys for nearly forty years, having the castle
obastro (Arabic :

) as his residence. He rallied disaffected muwallads and mozárabs to his cause,
and eventually renounced Islam in 889 with his sons and became a Christian. He took the name Samuel
and proclaimed himself not only the leader of the Christian nationalist movement, but also the champion
at the same time of a regular crusade against Islam. However, his conversion soon cost him the support
of most of his Muwallad supporters who had no intention of ever becoming Christians, and led to the
gradual erosion of his power.

When Hafs, son of Umar ibn Hafsun, finally laid down his arms in 928 and surrendered the town of
Bobastro, Abd-al-Rahman III imposed the Islamic system of civil organisation in Mālaqa province. This
allowed a new population distribution that encouraged urban development and the proliferation of farms in
rural areas, as opposed to the pattern of feudalism dominant in the rest of Europe. The farmers practiced
intensive irrigation-based agriculture, while artisanry and trade flourished in the cities—leading to
prosperity and an era of peace in the province.

Alcazaba of Málaga
Surrounded by a walled enclosure with five large gates, Mālaqa city itself thrived; the Alcazaba, a Moorish
citadel, was built in the mid-11th century on Mount Gibralfaro, a hill in the centre of the city overlooking
the port. The fortress comprised two walled enclosures situated to conform to the steep terrain. The
Alcazaba was fortified with three walls towards the sea, and two facing the town. Antonio de
Nebrija counted, in the circumference of the castle, 110 large towers, and a great number of turrets, the
largest of which were those that surrounded the Atarazanas.
New suburbs formed as the city expanded,
including walled neighbourhoods, within which evolved theadarves characteristic of medieval Islamic
cities; these were streets leading to private homes, with a gate at the beginning. The banks of the Wad-al-
Medina (Guadalmedina river) were lined with orchards, and crossed from east to west by a route that
connected the harbor and the fortress inside the city walls. Near the enclosure rose neighborhoods
settled by Genoese and Jewish merchants, independent of the rest of the city. The Jewish quarter of
the medina produced one of Mālaqa's most illustrious sons: the Jewish philosopher and poet, Solomon
Ibn Gabirol, who would be the first to use the term "Paradise City" to refer to his hometown.
Besides the splendid Alcazaba, the marble gate of the Nasrid shipyards (atarazanas), and part of the
Jewish quarter, other vestiges of Moorish Mālaqa remain today: a section of the monumental cemetery of
Yabal Faruh, considered the largest in Andalusian Spain, has been excavated on the slopes of Mount
Gibralfaro. Two burial mosques, part of a mausoleum, and the remains of a pantheon (a temple dedicated
to all the gods) have been preserved as well on Calle Agua. The mosques date from about the 12th and
13th centuries and were built on a quadrangular plan with single naves and mihrabs.
Taifa of Mālaqa

Málaga lustreware found at the Alcazaba
In 1026 Mālaqa became the capital of the Taifa of Málaga, an independent Muslim kingdom which existed
for four distinct periods: it was ruled by theHammudid dynasty as the Rayya Cora in the Caliphate of
Córdoba from 1026 to 1057, by the Zirí dynasty from 1073 to 1090, by the Hassoun from 1145 to 1153
and the Zannun from 1229 to 1239 when it was finally conquered by the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada.
Vestiges of the urban plan of this era are preserved in the historical centre: in its two principal
monuments, the Alcazaba and the castle of Gibralfaro; and La Coracha, a walled passage of double
ramparts built to secure communication between the fortress and the Alcazaba. Mālaqa had two suburbs
outside the walls and enjoyed a thriving trade with the Maghreb. The city had an important pottery
industry—terra cotta tiles were fired there and its ornamental vases, called Málagan lustreware, came to
be recognized throughout the Mediterranean. Trade was regulated by the "Proper Governance of the
Souk", a treatise on Hisba (business accountability) written by Abu Abd Allah al-Saqati of Mālaqa, in the
13th century.

Nasrid Mālaqa
After the death in 1238 of Ibn Zannun, the last king of the Mālaqa Taifa, the city was captured in 1239
by Mohammed I ibn Nasr and became part of the Moorish kingdom of Granada. His brother Isma`il
became the governor of Mālaqa during Mohammed's reign (until 1257). When Isma'il died, Mohammed
ibn Al-Ahamar raised his nephews Mohammed and Abu Said Faraj, the latter of whom would become
governor of Mālaqa in his father's place. Mālaqa remained under the rule of the Nasrid dynasty till the
reconquista of the Catholic Monarchs.
During the reign of the Nasrids, Mālaqa became a centre of shipbuilding and international trade.

In 1279, Muhammad II signed an economic and trade agreement with the Republic of Genoa,
Genoese traders obtained a privileged position in the port. By the mid-fourteenth century, Mālaqa was the
maritime gateway of the Nasrid kingdom, assuming many of the functions formerly held by Almería.

The Genoese established a network of trade centres under their control around the Mediterranean Sea
and connected the Iberian trade with that of northern Africa by Atlantic routes as well. Many of these
communities organised cooperative institutions known as consulados (consulates) to connect merchants
regionally and internationally. A ship's registry (logbook) written by Filippo de Nigro in 1445 shows that
Mālaqa was an important part of this trade network and describes the regional system controlled by the
Genoese Spinola family. As a stopover on the coastal navigation routes, Mālaqa became a crucial
business hub with the rise of associated commercial activity.

Fine ceramics made in Mālaqa were frequently given as diplomatic gifts. In the mid-15th century the king
of Granada sent ambassadors to the Mameluke sultan in Cairo bearing them as presents. The workshops
for their manufacture were located in the suburb known as Fontanalla in the foothills of the mountain El

Nasrid Arch of the Atarazanas
The Mālaqa shipyards, the Atarazanas, were built during the reign (1354–1391) of Mohammed V to
strengthen his political and military power.
Constructed as a naval workshop, with probably some limited
use as a warehouse, the main building was one of Mālaqa's largest and most impressive, and was noted
for its seven monumental horseshoe arches. During this period the coast was further inland and the
Atarazanas was at the edge of the sea, so low that the water flowed in and formed a basin capacious
enough to contain 20 galleys. The walls around it were eighty feet high; the arches, for the reception of
ships, were sixty feet high by thirty wide, and twelve feet thick, and each of these arches had its own
The southern facade was described by Hieronymus Münzer in 1494: it had six open arches
providing access to a high vaulted nave with transverse ribs under which the ships anchored. The
seventh arch, located on the left, and still in existence today, was the entranceway to a large columned
There are two heraldic shields above the arch, designed in Castilian style and having
diagonal bands inscribed in Arabic with the Nasrid motto, Wah lâ ghâlib ilâ Allâh (There is no victor other
than God). At the western corner was a square tower attached to the portal and from there a wall joined
the Borch Hayta, or Torre del Clamor, which closed the natural inlet between it and the Genoese castle,
which is no longer extant. The tower served as a minaret for the muezzin to call the faithful to prayer at
the mosque.
At this time about 15,000 people lived in Mālaqa; most of them were Muslims strictly observant of
religious orthodoxy as taught by the Fuqahā', the expert jurists of Islamic law. There was a sizable
minority of Jews, while the presence of Christians was reduced to those captives taken in war, enslaved,
and forced to labour in the shipyards, where light ships were built for patrolling the coast. The small
colony of foreign traders was mostly Genoese. The governor of the city was typically a Moorish prince
serving as a representative of the Sultan, and resided in the Alcazaba with his retinue of personal
secretaries and lawyers. The large massive city walls, with their many towers, monumental gates and
moat, all surmounted by the fortress of Gibralfaro, made the defences of the city nearly impregnable.
The generally mountainous land around Mālaqa did not favour agriculture, but the Muslim peasants
organised an efficient irrigation system, and with their simple tools were able to grow crops on the slopes;
spring wheat being the staple of their diet. An unusual feature of Mālaqiviticulture was the interplanting of
grape vines and fig trees, grown mostly in the Axarquía area east of Mālaqa. The raising of livestock,
absent pigs because of Muslim dietary restrictions, played only a secondary role in the local economy.
The production of olives was low, and olive oil was actually imported from the Aljarafe. Other fruit and nut
trees, such as figs, hazelnuts, walnuts, chestnuts, and almonds were abundant and provided important
winter foodstuffs, as did the mulberry trees introduced by the Arabs, their fruit being used to make juice.
Trade in hides and skins and leatherworking was a major industry in Mālaqa, as was metalsmithing,
especially of knives and scissors; gold inlaid ceramics and porcelain were manufactured as well. The
production of silk textiles was still important and closely linked to the Moorish sector of the population.
Light ships for patrolling the coast were built in the Atarazanas.
In 1348, while the black plague ravaged Europe, the Alcazaba and the castle of Gibralfaro took their final
shape. The city had several gates that allowed passage through the walls, some of which still stand
today, such as the Puerta Oscura (Dark Gate) and the Puerta del Mar (Sea Gate). Looming over the port,
the Alcazaba was the Moorish citadel built on the hill called Mount Gibralfaro in the centre of the city, on
whose summit was the castle. The citadel and the castle were connected by a corridor known as La
Coracha between two zig-zagging walls that followed the contours of the land. Erected in the 11th
century, the Alcazaba combined defensive fortifications with residential palaces and inner gardens; it was
fortified with three walls towards the sea, and two facing the town. Antonio de Nebrija counted, in the
circumference of the castle, 110 large towers, besides a great number of turrets. The same walls also
enclosed the whole compound, though each building had its own entrance. The Puerta de los
Arcos (Gate of the Arch) of the Torre del Tinel (Tower of Tinel) was the entrance to the Nasrid palace in
the enclosure dating to the 13th and 14th centuries. Remnants of the old city wall remain today in Calle
Alamos and Calle Carreteria.

The Capitulation of Granada to Ferdinand and Isabella, by Francisco Pradilla
In May 1487 Ferdinand and Isabella began their siege of Mālaqa, which after a desperate resistance was
compelled to surrender. The victory was a bloody episode in the war for the conquest of the Kingdom of
Granada, but the Christian religion was restored, and with it the episcopal see. The Catholic Monarchs
had already taken the city of Ronda by storm on 22 May 1485. Its warden (arraez), the Moorish chieftain
Hamet el Zegrí (Hamad al-Tagri), refused Ferdinand and Isabella's offer to accept his vassalage, and
took refuge in Mālaqa, where he led the Muslim resistance. The siege began on May 5, 1487; the Nasrid
troops held out till August, when only the Alcazaba, under the command of the merchant Ali Dordux, and
the fortress of the Gibralfaro, under the command of Hamet el Zegrí and Ali Derbal, still resisted.
The Catholic Monarchs besieged Mālaqa for six months, one of the longest sieges in theReconquista.
They cut off the supplies of food and water to the city, forcing its Muslim garrison to eventually surrender.
On 13 August the Castilian army, over 45,000 strong, took the city defended by 15,000 African (Magreb)
mercenaries and Mālaqi warriors. King Ferdinand decided to make an example of the resistors and
refused to grant them an honorable capitulation, The civilian population was punished by enslavement or
execution, with the exception of twenty-five families allowed to stay as Mudéjar converts in the Moorish
On August 18, Ali Dordux, after negotiating his group's status as mudejars, surrendered the citadel, but
Gibralfaro had to be taken by assault, and its defenders were sold as slaves, while Hamet el Zegrí was
executed. The conquest of Mālaqa was a final blow to the Nasrid kingdom of Granada, which lost its
principal maritime port.
The troops who served in the army of the Spanish victors were paid by the customary division of
properties, the repartimientos. Between 5,000 and 6,000 Christians from Extremadura, Leon, Castile,
Galicia and the Levante repopulated the province, of which about a thousand settled in the capital, now
called by its Castilian name, Málaga. The city spread beyond its walls with the creation of the religious
convents of La Trinidad, Los Angeles, Santuario de la Victoria, and the Capuchin monastery.
Early Modern Era
The Mudéjars (1485–1501)
The word Mudéjar is a Medieval Spanish corruption of the Arabic word Mudajjan gninaem ,نجدم
"domesticated", in reference to the Muslims who submitted to the rule of the Christian monarchs. By this
means many Islamic communities survived in the Málaga area after the Reconquista, protected by the
capitulations they signed during the war. These covenants were feudal in nature: the Moors recognized
the sovereignty of the Catholic Monarchs, surrendered their fortresses, delivered all Christian captives,
and committed to continue paying traditional taxes. In return, they received protection for their persons
and property, and legal assurances that their beliefs, laws and social customs would be respected.
The Treaty of Granada had protected religious and cultural freedoms for Muslims and Jews in the
imminent transition from being the Emirate of Granada to being a province of Castile. After the fall of
Granada in January 1492, Mudéjars kept their protected religious status, but in the mid-16th century, they
were forced to convert to Christianity. From that time, because of suspicions that they were not truly
converted, they were known as Moriscos. In 1610 those who refused to convert to Christianity were
expelled from Málaga.
The layout of the Muslim city was changed in the 16th century to suit the needs of the Christian
conquerors, beginning with the construction of a wide road to allow the transport of merchandise from the
main square, the Plaza Mayor (now Plaza de la Constitución) to the Puerta del Mar gate, in present-day
Calle Nueva. At this time also the transept, nave and main chapel of the Cathedral of Málaga were built
on the foundations of the old mosque. New churches and convents raised outside the walled enclosure of
the city attracted the populace, leading to the formation of new neighborhoods like La Trinidad and El
The artisanal productions of Málaga included textiles, leather, clay, metal, wood, building construction
and prepared food. The city became a shipping centre for export of the surplus agricultural output of the
kingdoms of Cordoba, Jaen and Granada, as well as an entry point into Andalusia for a range of goods.
16th–18th centuries
In 1585, Philip II ordered a new survey of the port, and in 1588 commissioned the building of a new dam
in the eastern part, along with repairs of the Coracha. In the next two centuries the port was expanded
both to the east and west.

The Battle of Malaga by Isaac Sailmaker. Oil on canvas, 1704
Trade, dominated by foreign merchants,
was the main source of wealth in Málaga of the 16th century,
with wine and raisins as the principal commodity exports. The public works on the port as well as those
on the Antequera and Velez roadways provided the necessary infrastructure for distribution of the
renowned Málaga wines. The production of silk textiles was still important and closely linked to the
Moorish part of the population. The real estate of the aristocracy was increased through the
"refeudalization" produced by the sale of manors, a policy implemented by the nobility who monopolised
high office. The mercantile operations of the town and its port were important to the national Spanish
economy and the raising of revenue for the Habsburg government, but suffered from the general
corruption of the time, including the sale of important offices.
From the 17th century to the 18th century, the city entered a period of decline,
a consequence not only
of the social disruption caused by the expulsion of the Moors, but also of flooding of the Guadalmedina
River and several successive crop failures. Other disasters and disruptive events of the 17th century
included earthquakes, explosions of gunpowder mills, and the conscription of men to serve in battle;
nevertheless, the population increased.
Málaga, as headquarters of the Capitanía General de Granada (Captaincy General of the Kingdom of
Granada) on the coast played an essential role in the foreign policy of the Bourbon kings of Spain. The
regional military, the supply of the North African presidios, and the defence of the Mediterranean were
administered in the city. This involved massive defence spending on fortification of the harbor, the
building of coastal towers and the organising of militias. The loss of Gibraltar to the British in the Battle of
Málaga of 1704 made the city the key to military defence of the Strait.

Málaga Cathedral
During the second half of the 18th century Málaga solved its chronic water supply problems with the
completion of one of the largest infrastructure projects carried out in Spain at the time: the building of the
Aqueduct of San Telmo,
designed by the architect Martín de Aldehuela. After the success of this
impressive feat of engineering, the city enjoyed an economic recovery with a new expansion of the port,
the revival of the works of the Cathedral, and the erection of the new Customs building, the Palacio de la
Aduana, begun in 1791. The peasantry and the working classes still made up the vast majority of the
population, but the emergence of a business-oriented middle-class lay the foundations for the 19th-
century economic boom.
y the 18th century, the port of Málaga, the linchpin of the city’s economy, was again one of the most
important on Andalusia’s Mediterranean coast.
Following the Decree of Free Trade in 1778 by King
Charles III, which allowed the Spanish American ports to trade directly with ports in Spain, commercial
traffic at the port increased further, and the population grew considerably. Major urban renovations were
made in Málaga under the influence of the ideas of the European Enlightenment, bestowing on it many of
its most characteristic features: the Cathedral, the harbour of the port and its Customs House, the
Alameda, and the Antequera and Velez roadways.
In 1783 a bayfront boulevard, the Paseo de la
Alameda, a symbol of urban prosperity, was built on land reclaimed from the sea with sand dredged from
the Guadalmedina River. By 1792 mansions had risen on either side of the avenue in the fashionable
new residential area settled by the Málaga merchant class.
19th century
The 19th century was a turbulent time of political, economic and social crisis in Málaga. The War of the
Third Coalition (1803–1806) fought against Great Britain decimated Spain's maritime commerce while the
deadly 1803–1804 epidemic of Yellow Fever killed more than 26,000 people in Málaga alone.
The city
suffered the further ravages of the Peninsular War, conflicts between royal absolutists and liberals, the
end of the transatlantic trade with the Americas, the collapse of its industry, and finally
the phylloxera epidemic that destroyed the vineyards of the region.
On 2 May 1808 the people of Madrid rebelled against the French occupation of their city; this event was
followed by the abdication of the royal family in Bayonne and the proclamation of Napoleon's brother
Joseph as king of Spain. When news of the uprising reached Málaga, its citizens revolted against the
French invaders, with the guerrillas in the mountains putting up the fiercest resistance.
The Military Governor of Málaga province, General Theodor von Reding, held command of the First
Division of the Spanish Army of Andalusia and was architect of the Spanish victory in the Battle of
Bailen during the (Peninsular War). The French encountered strong resistance in Málaga and left much of
the city in ruins when they withdrew. War and revolution against Napoleon's occupation led to the
adoption of the Spanish Constitution of 1812, later a cornerstone of European liberalism,
by the Cádiz
Cortes. Málaga elected representatives to send to the national legislative assembly and a new
constitutional Town Council which immediately implemented reconstruction plans. The French were
decisively defeated at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813, and the following year, Ferdinand VII was restored as
King of Spain. The burden of war had destroyed the social and economic fabric of Spain and ushered in
an era of social turbulence, political instability and economic stagnation.

Execution of Torrijos and his men, by Antonio Gisbert
Although the juntas, which forced the French to leave Spain, had sworn by the liberal Constitution of
1812, Ferdinand VIIopenly held that it was too liberal for the country. On his return to Spain on April 16,
he refused to swear by the constitution himself, and continued to rule in the authoritarian fashion
of his forebears.
Thus the first bourgeois revolution ended in 1814.
The reign of Ferdinand VII from
1814 to 1820 was a period of a stagnant economy and political instability. Much of the country was
devastated after the Peninsular War, and government coffers were drained to fight against
the independence movements in the Latin American colonies. Political conflict between liberals and royal
absolutists further diverted energy and resources needed to rebuild the country.
There were several attempts to install a liberal regime during the absolutist reign (1814–1820). In 1820,
an expedition intended for the American colonies revolted in Cadiz. When armies throughout Spain
pronounced themselves in sympathy with the revolters led by Rafael del Riego, Ferdinand was forced to
relent. On 9 March 1820 he finally accepted the liberal Constitution of 1812, and appointed new ministers
of state, thus ushering in the so-called Liberal Triennium (Trienio Liberal), a period of three years of liberal
government and popular rule in Spain. This was the start of the second bourgeois revolution in Spain,
which would last from 1820 to 1823.
Once again in the revolution of 1820, it was the independent towns
such as Málaga that led the drive for constitutional change in Spain.
Ferdinand himself was placed
under effective house arrest for the duration of the liberal experiment.
The tumultuous three years of liberal rule that followed were marked by various absolutist conspiracies.
The liberal government was looked on with hostility by the Congress of Verona in 1822, and France was
authorized to intervene. A French army under the command of Duke of Angoulême, invaded Spain in the
so-called Spanish expedition and overwhelmed the armies of the liberal government with massive force.
Ferdinand was restored as absolute monarch in 1823, marking the end of the second Spanish bourgeois
During the "Ominous Decade" (1823-1833), the name given to this period of return to the reactionary
power of absolutism, the liberals suffered under a wave of repression and acts of vengeance. In 1831, the
liberal general José María Torrijos, who fought against the absolutist regime of Ferdinand VII and for the
restoration of the Constitution of 1812, set his field of operations in Málaga province. He and his men
were captured in Alhaurin de la Torre after their betrayal by the governor of the city; they were executed
by firing squad on the beach of San Andrés. Torrijos' remains are buried under the obelisk erected in his
honour at the Plaza de la Merced.
As Málaga pioneered the Industrial Revolution in Spain, its educated and entrepreneurial merchant class
agitated for modernity in government, making Málaga one of the most rebellious cities of the country. The
bourgeoisie led several uprisings in favor of a more liberal regime to encourage free commercial
enterprise. In 1834, soon after the death of Ferdinand VII, a revolt was organized against the inefficiency
of the government of the Count of Toreno (Conde de Toreno), who had been appointed prime minister by
the queen regent, Maria Christina on 7 June. His tenure in the premiership lasted only till 14 September.
A year later the civil and military governors of Málaga, the Conde Donadio and Señor San Justo, were
killed in a violent insurrection.

Etching of a drawing of Málaga, 1836
The Ecclesiastical Confiscations of Mendizabal in 1836 resulted in a new initiative to modernize the city.
Religious convents had accumulated property since the reconquest, and by the end of the 18th century a
fourth of the urban properties bounded by the ancient city walls belonged to religious orders or similar
fraternal organisations. With the seizure of the church holdings, many of these buildings were demolished
and new buildings or streets or squares were built to replace them. The site of the convent of San Pedro
de Alcantara became the Plaza del Teatro, while the convent of San Francisco was replaced by an
architecturally refined square which became the home of the Lyceum and the Philharmonic Society.
Economic expansion and industrialisation (1833–1868)
The second half of the 19th century began a period of prosperity in Málaga, with an economy energised
by the resumption of traditional mercantile activities and new industrial employment. This positioned the
city as an important European manufacturing centre; urban renewal projects and the modernisation of
local infrastructure were initiated by local government. Manuel Agustin Heredia's ironworks, La
Constancia, located in San Andrés, started a run of productivity in 1834 that made it the country's leading
iron foundry.
Commerce grew significantly as the city attracted business entrepreneurs, and powerful families rose
from the merchant class, some gaining influence in national politics. Notable among them were the Larios
and the Lorings, the conservative politician Canovas del Castillo, the industrialist Manuel Agustin Heredia,
and the Marquis of Salamanca.
From 1834 to 1843, in the period known as Spain's third bourgeois revolution, the country was ruled
under the liberal government of the Progressive Party (Partido Progresista).
After these years of
progressivist domination, the Moderate Party (Partido Moderado) gained control. It held power
continuously during the so-called Década moderada ("Moderate decade", 1843–1854) under the
leadership of General Ramón María Narváez, the Duke of Valencia, using the executive office to advance
its economic goals and maintain public order. The Moderates were to the right of the opposing
Progressive Party, but also characterized themselves as liberal. Like the Progressives, they supported
Isabel II against the claims of the Carlists.

Formal portrait of Queen Isabel II of Spain
Isabella II of Spain took a more active role in government after she came of age, but she was unpopular
throughout her reign. During the railway boom years of the early 1850s self-enrichment by senior
Moderate politicians and members of the royal family was coming under mounting press criticism,
mood which would culminate in a fourth bourgeois revolutionary insurrection in the summer of 1854.
uprising began in the spring of 1854 as an expression of dissatisfaction on the part of the people against
the government.
The people were protesting the growing economic hardship under which they had been
suffering. On June 28, 1854, a military coup occurred in Madrid,
led by General Domingo Dulceand
General Leopoldo O'Donnell. The coup overthrew the dictatorship of Luis Jose Sartorius, 1st Count of
San Luis. As a result of the popular insurrection, the Progressive Party obtained widespread support in
Spain and came to power in the government in 1854.
The Progressives were the party of the National
Militia, the jury trial, laicism, and of national sovereignty and the broadening of the franchise under census
suffrage. Although riots in December 1854 accompanied the demobilisation of Málaga's radical
proletarian Militia companies,
a new Progressive Town Council was elected and port and consumer
levies were withdrawn, taxes that the lower classes, who supported the uprising, abhorred.
The expanding economy in all sectors required an increased money supply and capitalisation apart from
that offered by the professional moneylenders. In 1859, Jorge Loring founded the private Bank of Málaga,
the first to issue currency under the national Act of 1856. The bank's business was based in the booming
steel and textile industries, and in commerce of the port; it operated under the control of the leading
businessmen of the province.
In 1862, Queen Isabel II and her consort Francis de Assisi de Bourbon visited Málaga to mark the official
opening of the Córdoba-Málaga railway, the Málaga railway station, and an exhibition of provincial
agricultural and industrial products. The visit had a diplomatic purpose as well, serving as a means to
repair political relations with Málaga in particular and Andalusia in general; that year there had been a
bloody revolt in the Granadan town of Loja which had spread to some villages in Málaga province, with
half of the detainees convicted of rebellion being Malagueños.
The Revolution of 1868 and First Spanish Republic (1873–1874)

Juan Prim, general and statesman
In 1866, a revolt led by Juan Prim was suppressed, but in 1868 there was a further revolt, known as
the Glorious Revolution. Theprogresista generals Francisco Serrano and Juan Prim revolted against
Isabella and defeated her moderado generals at the Battle of Alcolea. Isabella was driven into exile in
Paris, and euphoria reigned in Málaga when General Prim and the other revolutionary generals landed at
the port.
However, two years of revolution and anarchy followed, until in 1870 the Cortes declared that Spain
would again have a king. Amadeus of Savoy was selected, and duly crowned King of Spain early the
following year. Amadeus—a liberal who swore by the liberal constitution the Cortes promulgated—was
faced immediately with the impossible task of bringing the disparate political ideologies of Spain to one
Following the Hidalgo affair, when he had been required by the radical government to sign a decree
against the artillery officers, Amadeus famously declared the people of Spain to be ungovernable, and
fled the country. In his absence, a coalition of radicals, republicans, and democrats formed a government
and on 11 February 1873 proclaimed the First Spanish Republic, which was immediately under siege
from all quarters. The Carlists were the most immediate threat, launching a violent insurrection after their
poor showing in the 1872 elections. There were calls for socialist revolution from the International
Workingmen's Association and pressure from the Catholic Church against the fledgling republic.

Málaga did not recognize the new Republic until 12 February when pro-Republicans took to the streets
and erected barricades. The Cantonal Revolution, a Cantonalist uprising whose goals included the
redistribution of wealth and improvement of the situation of the working classes, spread locally throughout
Spain in July. There were large disturbances in the city during the insurrection led by local militia leader
Eduardo Carvajal; on 22 July a telegram from the civil governor, Francisco Sorlier, announced the
proclamation of the Cantón Federal Malagueño Independiente. The Customs House was assaulted and
many of its files and dossiers were burnt; factional clashes continued until General Pavia entered the city
with his troops and ended the Cantón de Málaga on 19 September 1873.
The chaotic situation in Spain caused officers in the Spanish military to plot against the Republic and in
favour of Alfonso XII, son of the exiled Isabel II. On 29 December 1874, General Martínez Campos led a
coup d'état in Sagunto to restore the throne to Alfonso XII. Prime minister Sagasta's Liberal government
did not object to this development, and allowed the restoration of the monarchy.
The Restoration

Alfonso XII
After the tumult of the First Spanish Republic, Spaniards were willing to accept a return to stability
under Bourbonrule. Isabella II had abdicated in 1870 in favor of her son, Alfonso, who was now duly
crowned Alfonso XII of Spain. The Republican armies in Spain—which were resisting
aCarlist insurrection—pronounced their allegiance to Alfonso in the winter of 1874–1875, led by Brigadier
General Martínez-Campos. The Republic was dissolved and Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, a trusted
advisor to the king, was named Prime Minister on 31 December 1874. The Carlist insurrection was put
down vigorously by the new king, who took an active role in the war and rapidly gained the support of
most of his countrymen.

Antonio Cánovas del Castillo
A system ofturnos was established in Spain in which the liberals, led by Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, and
the conservatives, led by Cánovas, alternated in control of the government. A modicum of stability and
economic progress was restored to Spain during Alfonso XII's rule. His death in 1885, followed by the
assassination of Canovas del Castillo in 1897, destabilized the government, though constitutional
monarchy continued under King Alfonso XIII.

There were social changes as well as economic ones in Málaga during the reign of Isabel II—the
bourgeoisie solidified its position as an oligarchy in control of local politics, while a labouring class of
industrial workers developed in the factories. The presence of these large factories resulted in the growth
of an industrial and workers' suburb on the banks of the Guadalmedina river, separate from the residential
areas of the bourgeoisie in the centre and the eastern part of the city. The city's population continued to
grow, creating a need for the expansion of civil infrastructure.

Málaga's bullring, Plaza de toros de La Malagueta
The monasteries were not only religious centres but also places where Málaga's cultural heritage was
preserved and even, occasionally, where political power was exercised. Their spatial distribution affected
the development of the city outside the medieval centre: on the western edge the urban landscape began
to take shape under the influence of industrial activity, while at the eastern end villas and hotels began to
appear. With the seizure and subsequent demolition of old church buildings, the city gained new
opportunities for growth.
Communications were improved in the province with the construction of new railway lines to transport raw
supplies and industrial products. Jorge Loring and Joaquin de la Gandara acquired numerous small rail
lines and unified their interests in 1877 to found the Andalusian Railway Company (Compañía de los
Ferrocarriles Andaluces), which owned most of the rails in Andalusia. This consolidation and expansion
helped create a common regional market for trade goods.
Málaga had substantial economic development in the first half of the 19th century, and by 1850 it ranked
second in industrial production among the provinces of Spain, after Barcelona. The textile and steel
industries generated a number of ancillary industries, including factories for soap, paint, and salt fish;
breweries; timber mills; potteries; brickworks; and tanneries. Their production necessitated the building of
a rail network between Córdoba and Málaga, which was connected with the national network on 15
August 1865. The city acquired public gas lighting on 6 July 1852, the Gas Lebón Company supplying the
city with gas until 1897, when electrification was introduced. A public tram service with horse-drawn
carriages began on 19 November 1881; in January 1901, electric power replaced the horses.
In 1880 the city council formed a corporation to promote the construction of the Calle Marqués de Larios,
in honor of the textile industrialist and financier Manuel Domingo Larios, The project was capitalised to
one million pesetas by selling shares distributed in lots of forty shares of 25,000 pesetas each, most of
them acquired by the Larios family. The plans were drawn and the works directed by architect Eduardo
Strachan; the grand street opened in 1890. This was the beginning of the modernization of the city
envisioned by Theodor von Reding and executed by the architects Manuel Rivera Vera, Jerónimo Cuervo
and Fernando Guerrero Strachan.
The rise of dissident workers' organisations and the increase of labour conflict with the oligarchy reflected
social tensions at the end of the century. The origins of the socialist unions in Málaga date to a workers'
athenaeum founded in 1884 by Rafael Salinas Sánchez, known popularly as the "apostle" of socialism.
Sánchez was born on 21 June 1850 to a working-class family in the El Perchel barrio. His childhood
family life was marked by the typical hardships of the working classes of the 19th century. As a young
man he became an active member of the workers' unions, notably the International Association of
Workers, and was forced into exile in 1874 for two years in Cuba during the Restoration. In 1884 he
founded, with Antonio Valenzuela, the Agrupación Socialista de Málaga. That the socialist cause was
taking hold in the provincial capital was evidenced by the more than 2,000 attendees at a rally in 1890 at
the Café El Turco.
While running as a candidate for Parliament in 1891, Salinas organised local chapters in eastern
Andalusia of the Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT), or General Union of Workers, which held its
Third National Congress in Málaga in 1892. They produced plans to assuage the working conditions of
workers in the Larios' textile factory, but Salinas was jailed for his support of the workers and harassed by
the authorities. The Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE), or Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, and
the UGT were repressed throughout the province in the following years, which saw frequent clashes
between workers and employers.
Economic crisis of 1893 and decline at the end of the century
The end of the economic boom in 19th century Málaga started in 1880 when the high cost of importing
coal for steel production made its foundries less competitive with those of the industrial complexes in
northern Spain. The economic crisis of 1893 finally forced the closing of the La Constancia iron foundry
and was accompanied by the collapse of the sugar industry and the spread of the phylloxera blight, which
devastated the vineyards of the province. The abandonment of farms and consequent neglect of the
terraces where the vineyards were cultivated resulted in gradual deforestation of the slopes, causing
increased flooding after heavy rains, with severe erosion in the beds of the streams and rivers of virtually
the entire coastal area. The more vulnerable sections of society were hardest hit by the repercussions of
the economic crisis, especially farm labourers and small landholders in the rural areas, along with
industrial workers and artisans in the urban areas. Tens of thousands of Malagueños emigrated overseas
in search of better opportunities.
The social disruption caused by the crisis and its aftermath of job loss, business collapse and general
decline in economic activity, led many residents to consider other means of livelihood. Even at this early
date some of them envisaged tourism as an alternative source of income, but years passed before
initiatives were put forward to develop Málaga as a tourist resort. TheSociedad Propagandística del Clima
y Embellecimiento de Málaga ((Propagation Society for the Climate and Beautification of Málaga) was
founded in 1897 by a pioneering group of influential Málaga businessmen
who saw the potential of
tourism as a generator of wealth, and tried to organize a rational planned development of this sector of
the economy. Their promotional campaigns extolled the mild climate of Málaga, attracting enough tourists
and winter visitors to help relieve the economic slump.
20th Century
The economic depression that gripped Málaga at the end of the 19th century continued during the first
few years of the 20th century. Caciquism, government by local political bosses, prevailed in Andalusia.
Monarchist parties dominated the political environment by turns, nevertheless the recession worsened.
The depressed economy, social conflict and a government dominated by political patronage made
oligarchy and caciqueism the distinguishing political features of a province lagging in its development as
the 1900s began. In this context, bourgeois republicanism and the labour movements found new support.
The beginning of the 20th century was a time of readjustment and contrast in Málaga with the expansion
and improvement of agriculture, which had become the dominant economic sector. There was a
progressive dismantling of industry accompanied by fluctuating commercial activity. All this occurred
within a backward and barely literate society, where oligarchs exercised political control and manipulated
the economy. Primary education in the city was plagued by funding deficits and a lack of schools and
places for students and teachers, while secondary education was limited and university education
nonexistent. Málaga faced the new century in the midst of an economic depression with the attendant
social unrest and a weak structure of the state; meanwhile the republicans and the labour movement
found common ground.
The city's commercial activity, though still significant, lacked the vigour that had characterised the
economy throughout most of the 19th century. Infrastructure was improved with the inauguration of a tram
line, the entry into service of the Suburban Railway (Ferrocarriles Suburbanos de Málaga)with two
commuter lines, and the opening of a hydroelectric plant in El Chorro. In 1919 the Málaga Airport was
created as a stop on the passage route (Toulouse – Barcelona – Alicante – Málaga – Casablanca) of the
first airline established in Spain.
Málaga during World War I (1914–1918)
Spain's neutrality in World War I allowed it to become a supplier of material for both sides to its great
advantage. The export of raw agricultural products, minerals, textiles and steel prompted an economic
boom; subsequently the surplus balance of trade grew to over five hundred million pesetas.
extraordinary growth in business profits favoured industrial oligarchs and the merchant middle class, but
increases in wages for workers did not keep pace with inflation—overall standards of living for the
masses actually decreased. The urban industrial proletariat, meanwhile, kept up continuous pressure for
wage increases.
"The 1917 Crisis" (Crisis de 1917) is the name given by Spanish historians to events of the summer of
1917 in Spain, primarily three simultaneous movements that challenged the government: a military
movement (the Juntas), a political movement (the Parliamentary Assembly of Catalanist and Spanish
Republican deputies in Barcelona), and a social movement (therevolutionary general strike).
Spain's economy suffered upon the decline of the wartime economic activity. Following the end of the
war, the fall in foreign demand depressed the agricultural, industrial and trade markets. With the loss of
these, protective measures were demanded by workers as the downward pressure of prices on salaries
intensified. Employers argued that the solution was to reduce product costs, lower labour costs and
increase productivity, but the workers refused to accept their propositions.
Factories closed, unemployment soared and wages declined. Expecting class conflict, especially in light
of the recent Russian Revolution, much of the capitalist class began a bitter war against the unions,
particularly the CNT or Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of
Labour). Lockouts became more frequent. Known militants were blacklisted. Pistoleros, or assassins,
were hired to kill union leaders. Scores, perhaps hundreds, of anarchists were murdered during this
period. Anarchists responded in turn with a number of assassinations, the most famous of which is the
murder of Prime Minister Eduardo Dato Iradier.
The pandemic outbreak of influenza in the spring of 1918, along with a major economic slowdown in the
postwar period, hit Spain particularly hard, and the country went into debt. From that moment the social
conflict was to come to a head. The post-World War I economic difficulties heightened social unrest
among urban industrial workers and rural peasants, with a period of strikes and agitation in both the city
and the countryside. The Cortes (Spanish parliament) under the constitutional monarchy seemed to have
no solution to Spain's unemployment, labor strikes, and poverty. The socialists and anarchists pressed for
radical changes, but the government proved unable to reform itself or the nation and frustration mounted.
The various socialist factions had consolidated their organisations and from 1909 had become more
influential in Málaga, while anarchism was gaining popular support. "The Bolshevik triennium" (1918–
1920) saw a major outbreak of strikes and land occupations, triggered by news of the Russian Revolution
and deteriorating economic conditions in the countryside. This was a time of conflict for the workers'
movements in Andalusia and one of reorganisation for those in Málaga. In 1919 Málaga and Seville
provinces had the greatest CNT presence, and Málaga was the Andalusian city with the most local
affiliates. The general elections of 1 June 1919 resulted in the Conservative Party winning 198 seats in
the Cortes Generales, revealing the weakness of the republican parties.
The dictatorship of Primo de Rivera (1923–1930)

General Primo de Rivera
On 13 September 1923, General Miguel Primo de Rivera, at the time Captain General of Barcelona, led a
military revolt against the parliamentary government, and established himself as dictator. He proposed to
keep the dictatorship in place long enough to clean up the mess created by the politicians, and in the
meantime, he would use the state to modernize the economy and alleviate the problems of the working
Primo de Rivera set his economic planners to building infrastructure for the country. Hydroelectric dams
were constructed to provide water for irrigation and to bring electricity to some of Spain's rural regions.
Spain had few cars when he came to power; by 1930, it possessed a network of automobile roads. His
regime upgraded the country's railroads, helping the Spanish iron and steel industry to recover. Public
works carried out in Málaga included the planning and creation of theCiudad Jardín district and
construction of the Gaitanejo reservoir (accomplished with private financing) in El Chorro.
Between 1923 and 1927, foreign trade increased three hundred per cent, although the government
intervened to protect national producers from foreign competition. Primo de Rivera enjoyed some success
in improving relations with the labour unions and in public works projects, but failed to win the support of
the middle classes. His allegiance to the land-holding class prevented fundamental agrarian reforms, and
he repressed human rights in Catalonia.
The census for this period shows lower population densities in Málaga province due to high levels of
emigration, mostly to the Americas. With the fragmentation of the monarchist parties, the republicans
regrouped and the socialist workers movements grew stronger. Even in an era of repression of basic civil
rights and little cultural development, an intellectual movement to cultivate the fine arts, the humanities
and science arose in the tertulias of Málaga. This would profoundly influence the evolution of cultural
pursuits in the city.

Federico García Lorca, 1934
In 1925 the poets Emilio Prados (1899–1962) and Manuel Altolaguirre (1905–1959) became editors for
the Surprinting house in Málaga. Sur was responsible for publishing most of the work of the Generation of
'27, and the quality of their editing brought Prados and Altolaguirre international prestige. In 1926 they
founded the magazineLitoral, one of the most influential literary and artistic publications of 1920s
Federico García Lorca'sCanciones, published in 1927 as the first supplement of the "little
magazine" Litoral, was a high-water mark of the initial phase in his poetic output.

The writers and intellectuals of Málaga congregated at the Café de Chinitas
(Café of the Chinese,
1857–1937), the famous cabaret immortalised by Federico García Lorca, where the best flamenco
singers performed in the 1920s.
Málaga between the dictatorship and the republic (1930–1931)

Málaga City Hall (Ayuntamiento)
The economic boom ended as Spaniards became increasingly disenchanted with the dictatorship.
Conservative critics blamed rising inflation on the government's spending for public works projects. Then
1929 brought a bad agricultural harvest and Spain's imports far outstripped the worth of its exports. The
economic slump after the Wall Street crash decimated foreign trade and once again the old problems
returned to Spain's internal politics and economy. Dissatisfaction spread throughout society, and when
King Alfonso and the army, his main source of power, no longer backed him, Primo de Rivera resigned on
26 January 1930. He retired to Paris and died from fever and diabetes on 16 March.
The political atmosphere in Málaga was contentious in the period between the fall of the dictatorship and
the national elections in April 1931. For the republicans in Málaga it was a period of reorganisation,
assimilation with other groups, and political activity in cooperation with the socialists. At the same time,
the divergent agendas of Málaga's monarchist factions were an obstacle to finding a candidate to
represent their interests. Meanwhile, the anarchist CNT and the Communist Party (PCE) organised social
protests and strikes against the difficult conditions suffered by the working class.
National bankruptcy and massive unpopularity had left the king no option but to demand Primo de
Rivera's resignation. Disgusted with the king's involvement in his dictatorship, the urban population voted
for the republican parties in the municipal elections of April 1931. The king fled the country without
abdicating and a republic was established.
The Second Spanish Republic

Proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic
After the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republicon 14 April, the year 1931 saw the burning of
convents, churches and religious buildings by crowds rioting throughout Spain, an event known as la
quema de conventos (the burning of the convents). When news of the events in Madrid on 11 May
reached Málaga, uncontrolled mobs took to the streets that night and assaulted the Jesuits' residence
and the Episcopal Palace. The mayhem lasted overnight and all the next day.
Málaga was the Spanish city most affected by thequema–much of its religious, artistic, cultural and
historical heritage was destroyed. It suffered not only the partial or complete destruction of many
buildings, but also the loss of priceless historical records, religious images, ancient paintings, and
libraries. Among the many works burnt were religious sculptures, including two masterpieces of Spanish
baroque art by the sculptor Pedro de Mena as well as images carved by Fernando Ortiz. According to the
historian Antonio Garcia Sanchez,
the historical precedents of the burning of the convents may be found
in the adoption of vehement anti-clerical positions by the workers' political parties prior to the
proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.

The Episcopal Palace
In 1933, Málaga elected the first deputy of the Communist Party of Spain to become a member of
Congress, Cayetano Bolivar. With its large number of active socialist, anarchist, and communist militants,
Málaga became known as "Red Málaga", although Catholics, liberals and conservatives were still
represented in local politics.
The Cedistas and the Popular Front (1934–1936)
Spanish politics was polarized to the left and the right throughout the 1930s. The left-wing favoredclass
struggle, land reform, autonomy to the regions and reduction in church and monarchist power. The right-
wing groups, the largest of which was the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA), a
right wing Roman Catholic coalition, held opposing views on most issues. The first two governments of
the Republic were centre-left. Economic turmoil, substantial debt inherited from the Primo de Rivera
regime, and fractious, rapidly changing governing coalitions led to serious political unrest. In 1933, CEDA
won the national elections; an armed uprising of workers in October 1934 was forcefully put down by the
new government. This in turn energized political movements across the spectrum in Spain, including a
revived anarchistmovement and new reactionary and fascist groups, including the Falange and a
revived Carlistmovement. The left united in the Popular Front and won the electoral vote in February
1936, reversing the right-wing trend.
However, this coalition, dominated by the centre-left, was undermined both by the revolutionary groups
such as the anarchist Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) and Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI)
and by anti-democratic far-right groups such as the Falange and theCarlists. The political violence of
previous years started again. There were gunfights over strikes, landless labourers seized land, church
officials were killed and churches burnt. On the other side, right wing militias such as the Falange and
gunmen hired by employers assassinated left wing activists. The Republican democracy never developed
the consensus or mutual trust between the various political groups that it needed to function peacefully.
The right wing of the country and high-ranking figures in the army began to plan a coup,
and as a result
the country slid into civil war. The Spanish Civil War began after a pronunciamiento (declaration of
opposition) by the generals under the leadership of José Sanjurjo against the elected government of
PresidentManuel Azaña. The rebel coup was supported by a number of conservative groups including
CEDA, the religious monarchist Carlists, and the Fascist Falange.
The Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)
Main article: Battle of Málaga (1937)

Spanish Civil War, August–September 1936
On 17 July 1936, General Francisco Franco led the colonial army from Morocco to attack the mainland,
while another force from the north under General Sanjurjo moved south from Navarre. Military units were
also mobilised elsewhere to take over government institutions. Franco's move was intended to seize
power immediately, but successful resistance by Republicans around the country meant that Spain faced
a prolonged civil war. Soon much of the south and west was under the control of the Nationalists,
whose regular Army of Africa was the most seasoned of all the forces.
The Siege of the Alcázar at Toledo early in the war was a turning point, with the Nationalists winning after
a long siege. The Republicans managed to hold out in Madrid, despite a Nationalist assault in November
The Battle of Málaga was the culmination of an offensive in February 1937 by the
combinedNationalist and Italian forces under the command of General Queipo de Llano
eliminateRepublican control of the province of Málaga. The participation of Moroccan regulars and Italian
tanks from the recently arrived Corpo Truppe Volontarie resulted in a complete rout of the Spanish
Republican Army and the capitulation of Málaga in less than a week on 8 February.
The occupation of
Málaga led to an exodus of civilians and soldiers on the road to Almería, who were bombarded by
Franco's air force, navy cruisers,
tanks and artillery on 8 February, causing hundreds of deaths. This
episode is known as the "Málaga-Almería road massacre".

The Spanish cruiser Almirante Cerveraparticipated in the shelling of the Málaga littoral
The Nationalists began to further erode the Republican territory, starving Madrid and making inroads into
the east. The north, including the Basque country fell in late 1937 and the Aragon front collapsed shortly
afterwards. The Battle of the Ebro in July–November 1938 was the final desperate attempt by the
Republicans to turn the tide. When this failed and Barcelona fell to the Nationalists in early 1939, it was
clear the war was over. The remaining Republican fronts collapsed and Madrid fell in March 1939.

The war, which cost between 300,000 to 1,000,000 lives, ended with the destruction of the Republic and
the accession of Francisco Franco as dictator of Spain. Franco amalgamated all the right wing parties into
a reconstituted Falange and banned the left-wing and Republican parties and trade unions.
The conduct
of the war was brutal on both sides, with massacres of civilians and prisoners being widespread. After the
war, many thousands of Republicans were imprisoned and up to 151,000 were executed between 1939
and 1943.
Málaga during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco (1936–1975)

General Francisco Franco
During Franco's rule, Spain was officially neutral in World War IIand remained largely economically and
culturally isolated from the outside world. Under a right-wing military dictatorship, Spain saw its political
parties banned, except for the official party, theFalange. The formation of labor unions and all dissident
political activity was forbidden.
Under Franco, Spain actively sought the return of Gibraltar by the UK, and gained some support for its
cause at the United Nations. During the 1960s, Spain began imposing restrictions on Gibraltar,
culminating in the closure of the border in 1969. It was not fully reopened until 1985.
Spanish rule in Morocco ended in 1967. Though militarily victorious in the 1957–1958 Moroccan invasion
of Spanish West Africa, Spain gradually relinquished its remaining African colonies. Spanish Guinea was
granted independence as Equatorial Guinea in 1968, while the Moroccan enclave of Ifni was ceded to
Morocco in 1969.
The latter years of Franco's rule saw some economic and political liberalization, known as theSpanish
Miracle, including the birth of a tourism industry. Spain began to catch up economically with its European

Franco ruled until his death on 20 November 1975, when control was given to King Juan Carlos.
In the
last few months before Franco's death, the Spanish state went into a paralysis. This was capitalized upon
by King Hassan II of Morocco, who ordered the 'Green March' into Western Sahara, Spain's last colonial

Málaga's coast
Málaga experienced an explosive demographic and economic expansion with the boom in tourism on
the Costa del Sol between 1959 and 1974. The name "Costa del Sol" was created specifically to market
the Mediterranean coastline of Málaga province to foreign vacationers.
Historically the provincial
population had lived in the fishing villages, and in the "white" villages(pueblos blancos) a short distance
inland in the mountains running down to the coast. The area was developed to meet the demands of
international tourism in the 1950s and has since been a popular destination for foreign tourists not only for
its beaches but also for its local culture. There was significant migration from many towns around the
province to the capital and a simultaneous migration of part of the population from Málaga to northern
Spain and other European countries.
The "Spanish miracle" fed itself on the rural exodus which created a new class of industrial workers.
economic boom led to an increase in rapid, largely unplanned building on the periphery of the cities of the
Costa del Sol to accommodate the new workers arriving from the countryside. Some cities preserved their
historic centres, but most were altered by often haphazard commercial and residential developments. The
same fate befell long stretches of scenic coastline as mass tourism exploded.

The University of Málaga (UMA, Universidad de Málaga) was founded by governmental decree on 18
August 1972, consolidating the existing centres of higher education: the Polytechnic University of
Málaga (Escuela Universitaria Politécnica), the Normal School, the Faculty of Economics and the
Seminary, which offered instruction in philosophy and theology. The Faculty of Medicine was created
after ratification of the decree.
Teatinos Campus, located in the Teatinos-Universidad district, is the largest UMA campus and is home to
most of the university academic buildings including the Schools of Engineering, the Faculty of Medicine,
the Faculty of Science, the College of Philosophy and Letters, the Faculty of Psychology and the Faculty
of Law; the General Library is also located there. Currently the campus is expanding by more than 1000
m² to accommodate the faculties still in El Ejido.

Torremolinos by air
On 27 September 1988, the Andalusian Parliament (Junta de Andalucía)unilaterally approved the
separation of the suburb of Torremolinos and its incorporation as its own municipality, depriving the city of
Málaga of ten percent of its population. The decision, regarded as illegal by many Malagueños,
dispensed with the requirement of an uninterrupted separation of at least ten kilometres from another
village (although currently the limit is set to 7.5 kilometres). Nevertheless it was hailed as setting an
historic precedent: although it did not take into account popular opinion in the rest of Málaga, it did
respond to the wishes of thousands of the residents ofTorremolinos who, although mostly non-natives,
demanded municipal autonomy. In any case, the city of Málaga, in addition to the loss of the
aforementioned population (estimated at the time at about 50,000 people), lost six per cent of its tax
revenue and five per cent of its expenses.
The Andalusia Technology Park (PTA, Parque Tecnológico de Andalucía) opened in 1992.
21st century

The Port of Málaga
The Metro in Málaga began with proposals in the late '90s to create a light rail network to relieve the
problem of traffic congestion in the city. In 2001, the Ministry of Public Works and Transport
commissioned a study based on suggestions in the Intermodal Transport Plan, which had initially
proposed four lines. The first two lines are still under construction as of 2012.
Since 1998 the Port of Málaga has been undergoing renovation and expansion as part of the project
called the Plan Especial del Puerto de Málaga.
There are major projects underway or planned which will
radically change the image of the port and surrounding areas. The traffic of goods rose from 2,261,828
metric tonnes in 2010 and more than doubled to 5,448,260 tonnes in 2011.

View of Málaga from the port
Cruise shipping has become an essential industry at the port and a major driver of investment in Málaga.
In 2012 there were 651,517 passengers visiting the city onboard cruise ships calling at the port, including
those who started or ended their cruise in Málaga. Meanwhile, the regular line of coast trade between
Málaga and Melilla moved around 303,369 passengers, for a total of approximately 942,214 passengers
traveling to, from or through the port.
The development of the cruise industry is proceeding with a new
passenger terminal, port museum and environmental education centre planned for inclusion in the cruise
ship facilities at Quay 2. A commercial marina will also operate from Quay 1, catering to 24 super-yachts
of up to 30 metres, and the Eastern Quay passenger terminal will be remodeled to improve pedestrian
access and double existing capacity to 560,000 passengers a year. The quays are connected by a
system of internal roads and a network of internal and external railway lines. The internal rail network
links the Harbor Services Area with the Málaga main rail station.
AVE (Alta Velocidad Española, AVE), a high-speed rail service operated by Renfe, the Spanish national
railway company, inaugurated the Córdoba-Málaga high-speed rail line, a standard gaugerailway line 155
kilometres (96 mi) in length, on 24 December 2007. Designed for speeds of 300 km/h (186 mph) and
compatibility with neighbouring countries' rail systems, it connects Málaga and Córdoba.
The line runs
through precipitous terrain in the Sierra Nevada and several viaducts and tunnels were necessary to
complete the connections.
Málaga Airport (Aeropuerto de Málaga), the fourth busiest airport in Spain, is important for Spanish
tourism as it is the main international airport serving the Costa Del Sol. It is the international airport of
Andalucia accounting for 85 percent of its international traffic and is the only one offering a wide variety of
international destinations.
Málaga Airport is one of the oldest Spanish airports that has stayed in its
original location. The ambitious Málaga Plan has been established to meet the increase in the number of
passengers, owing primarily to the growth in tourism on the Costa del Sol. It includes the construction of a
new terminal and a new car park, as well as the extension of the airfield.

Trade Fairs and Congress Centre
A civic convention hall, the Trade Fairs and Congress Centre (Palacio de Ferias y Congresos de Málaga
o Fycma), opened in 2003.
The Club Málaga Valley e-27 is an initiative by a group composed of politicians and business leaders in
the telecommunications and information sectors who want to design strategies and implement policies to
move Málaga forward in information technology.
The Picasso Museum (Museo Picasso Málaga), opened in 2003 in the Buenavista Palace, has 285 works
donated by members of Picasso's family.

The Museo Thyssen Carmen, housing a collection of 19th- and 20th-century Spanish paintings in the
Palacio de Villalón and surrounding buildings, opened in 2011.
The Contemporary Art Centre of Málaga (CAC) was created by the city council to disseminate and
encourage appreciation of modern art. The Centre is located in the heart of the city, in the former
Wholesalers' Market, designed in 1939 by the architect Luis Gutiérrez Soto, one of the preeminent
exponents of rationalism in Spanish architecture.
The Málaga Film Festival (Festival de Málaga Cine Español) is the most prestigious festival dedicated
exclusively to cinema made in Spain. It is held annually during a week in April.
 Aubet, Maria Eugenia, Mediterranean Urbanization 800–600 BC The Legend and the New
Archaeological Evidence, Aubet Chapter 9 p. 187-188 British Academy Oxford University Press, USA
2005 ISBN 978-0197263259
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Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain, Up to the Gates of Ekron: Essays on the Archaeology and History
of the Eastern Mediterranean, Editor Sidnie White Crawford, W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological
Research and The Israel Exploration society Jerusalem, 2007, p. 449.
 Aubet,Maria Eugenia, The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade, Cambridge
University Press, 2001, p. 325
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Concerning Febrile Contagion, Typhus Fever, Dysentery, and the Plague, Cushing and Jewett, 1821
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 Blanca, Garí, "Why Almería? An Islamic Port in the Compass of Genoa", Journal of Medieval History,
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Periods, Brill Academic, 2001, ISBN 978-9004116047
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Published by J. Nichols for T. Cadell, 1777, p. 308-309
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Maria Eugenia Aubet (6 September 2001). The Phoenicians and the West: Politics,
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Pottery from the Iberian Peninsula: Archaic and Classical Periods Adolfo J. Domínguez,
Carmen Sánchez, Gocha R. Tsetskhladze 501 pages Brill Academic Pub Greek pottery
from the Iberian Peninsula : Archaic and Classical Periods]. Boston: Brill's New
Pauly.ISBN 978-9004116047.
4. ^ Maria Eugenia Aubet (2007). "East Greek and Etruscan Pottery in a Phoenician Context".
In Sidnie White Crawford and Amnon Ben-Tor. "Up to the gates of Ekron": essays on the
archaeology and history of the eastern Mediterranean in honor of Seymour Gitin. published
by the W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, the Israel Exploration Society.
p. 449. ISBN 978-965-221-066-1.
5. ^ Blázquez, J.M. (1976). Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland
McAllister, ed. The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites. Princeton, New Jersey:
Princeton University Press.
6. ^

Aubet 2005, p187
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Roman Imperialism, 218-82 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 18.ISBN 978-
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Classical Library ed.). London: Henry G. Bohn. p. 235. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
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Further reading
Published in the 19th century
 Richard Ford (1855). "Malaga.". A Handbook for Travellers in Spain (3rd ed.). London: J.
Murray. OCLC 2145740.
 John Lomas, ed. (1889). "Malaga.". O'Shea's Guide to Spain and Portugal (8th ed.). Edinburgh:
Adam & Charles Black.
Published in the 20th century
 "Malaga". Spain and Portugal (3rd. ed.). Leipsic: Karl Baedeker. 1908.OCLC 1581249.

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