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Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1]

Precious Provisions
Taught by: Shaykh Yasir Qadhi
Al Maghrib Institute
Durbah Study Sessions Department
Presents
[THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1]
Designed to help YOU score high on the exam and MORE
IMPORTANTLY, to help YOU retain the knowledge for the sake of
our Creator, our Master, Allah (swt).
Email: StudySessions@durbah.org for feedback, comments, or to help out!
Topics:
1) Introduction
2) Food
3) Land Animals
(Part 1)
In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1]
THE Quizzes
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QUIZ 1
ETIQUETTE OF FOOD
1. In which surah did Allah swt promise two blessings in Jannah to the Believers?
a. Surah Nisa
b. Surah Nur
c. Surah Taha
d. Surah Al-Maidha
2. What are the two strictest etiquettes that must be followed?
a. Washing hands before and after eating; not wasting food, even if dropped
b. Saying the Basmalah; eating with the right hand
c. Wiping the plate and fingers clean; not wasting food, even if dropped
d. Saying the Basmalah; Eating from that which is close to you
3. Is it sunnah to eat with fingers or can you use utensils without abandoning sunnah?
a. No, you cannot use utensils, because you must use your fingers
b. Sunnah is to eat with right hand, and not necessarily fingers. So you can eat with
utensils
c. No, because utensils are a modern phenomenon and are considered bida
d. Yes, because the Sunnah says you can use utensils
4. One should eat moderately, dividing stomach into:
a. Halves: one half of stomach should be filled with food, one half filled with
drinking
b. Fourths: one fourth of stomach filled with food, one fourth filled with drinking,
one fourth filled with sweets/dessert, one fourth filled with air
c. Thirds: one third of stomach filled with food, one third filled with drinking, one
third filled with air
d. It does not matter; you can eat and drink as much as you like
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1]
5. The prophet (sas) said, As for me, I do not eat while muttaki [Al-Bukhari]. What is
NOT one of the meanings of ittika?
a. Sitting on left foot, with right foot raised, so that stomach and thigh are
connected
b. To lean to ones left side, supporting the body with ones left hand
c. To lean with ones back against a support
d. To sit cross-legged
6. True or False: you do not need to make dua for the one who hosted you
7. True or False: if food drops on the ground, it is dirty and should be thrown away
8. True or False: eating from a separate plate is a sign of selfishness
9. True or False: when you are finished eating, do not wash your hands until you have
licked then or they have been licked by you (by an animal)
10. True or False: baraqah descends on center of plate, so you should eat from the center
first, and work your way outward toward the corners
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1]
QUIZ 2
ETIQUETTE OF DRINKING
1. True or False: it is not necessary to say the Basmalah before drinking
2. True or False: small sips are more quenching, healthy, and sweet to taste
3. True or False: do not breathe into container, even if it is to cool a babys bottle of milk
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QUIZ 3
LAND ANIMALS
1. Which Madhab is most lax in food, and which is most lax in drinking alcohol?
a. ShafiI; Hanbali
b. Maliki; Hanafi
c. Maliki; Hanbali
d. ShafiI; Hanafi
2. Which of the following is not permitted to be eaten?
a. All domesticated cattle
b. Nonpredatory wild animals
c. Wild donkey (zebra)
d. Domesticated donkey
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1]
3. There is a difference of opinion over these animals, on whether or not they are
permissible to eat
a. Horse
b. Rabbit
c. Zebra
d. Dog
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1]
List O Gems
---------------------------------
Taken From: http://forums.almaghrib.org/showthread.php?t=31327
Of the first plots of Shaytaan was to expose the nakedness of our parents, Adam and Hawwa, and
to have them eat the haraam.
When eating from a common plate, eat from what is near you.
Eat from the corners of the plate and work to the middle. There have been narrations of
ahadeeth that Rasulullah salllahu 'alaihi wa salaam said that the barakah of the food is in the
center.
Not following etiquettes of eating is NOT haraam. Etiquettes, in general, deal with
makrooh (actions which should be avoided) and mustahabb, whereby you gain reward
for doing it.
As always, intention is important in all aspects in life.
Eating in a common plate is a forgotten sunnah. We have become so selfish and self-centered that
we can't even fathom to eat together in a common plate. Rather, we all have our seperate plates.
blowing in your own vessel is allowed as long as it is not a communal vessel.
(a mother can blow into her child's vessel to cool it a little)
when/if others ask you: what kind of religion do you have that dictates to you how to eat, how
to relieve yourself, what foot to enter the door with, etc? just answer them: what kind of a
religion is one that does NOT dictate how to worship Allah or how to live life? - that tells you
what to do Sunday but not Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday?
shaytan considers food which hasn't had "bismillah" recited over it as "free for all" (ewww);
similarly a home in which one does not enter with bismillah and salaams will be a free place to
stay for the shayateen that day, a'oodhubillah min dhaalik
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1]
the Qur'an actually tells us how to eat! in fact an entire page talks about its etiquettes
an adab of food is to not criticize it, even if one dislikes it.. if the Prophet (S) ever liked a food,
he would eat it, otherwise if he did not like it, he would simply leave it, if asked, he would reply
"I don't find myself having any need for it." -look at the ihsaan in his reply.. Allahumma Salli 'Ala
Muhammad
this goes with not criticizing but is an important gem on it's own: be thankful for all food
if we ate in moderate quantities, there would be no need for diets
(what's the moderate quantity you ask? fill your stomach 1/3 food, 1/3 water, and leave 1/3 for
air)
the Prophet (S) said that there is no container more despicable to fill than the stomach
the shaykh also mentioned that it's only a modern phenomena that one entire civilization will
be so concerned with dieting because of obesity when the rest of the world is dying of
starvation.. even 100 years ago, he said, diets were unheard of
once a man belched and filled the room with a not-so-pleasant smell, to which the Prophet (S)
responded: "Save us from your belching!" lol
we should try to cut the amount of water we intake in our sips/gulps until we can divide that by
three - in fact, taking three small sips instead of a large gulp is more quenching, more healthy
and more sweet to the body

i thought this was a good little point/gem
we learn many etiquettes of eating from Anas ibn Maalik because he was the servant of the
Prophet (S) and thus was able to see how he behaved when he gave the Prophet food
the Prophet (S) loved the juiciest part of the animal (shank) - just another excuse to like that
part of it too
to say that eating meat is barbaric shows lack of iman as one who says such is saying this about
what Allah has made permissible.. you CAN however be a vegetarian if you want though, but
according to the shaykh's personal opinion, you're really missing out
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1]
avoiding a latte or french fries is good for your health and for your budget but it won't help your
brothers in Palestine.. what is better for you and for them is if you pray two raka'ah and make
du'aa for them
We are not supposed to use modern science to prove anything outlined in the Quran or Sunnah
rather we know that it is true because the our Lord and his Messenger told us and anything later
proved by science merely affirms something we already know. SubhanAllah what a blessing it is
that our religion outlined not only what to eat, but what is best to eat for our livelihood and
health. It truly makes you remember how blessed we are to be part of a complete and perfect
religion.
Average Person + C o l l e c t s leftovers + Gives it to those who need it + Preserves the
food + Helps the needy =
Huge
Difference & Lots of Ajr
in terms of FOOD, the maalikis are the most lax while the hanafis are the strictest,
in terms of drink it's pretty much the opposite
this isn't fiqh.. this is english which most people don't know, that's why i'm posting
it:
mules are the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse
a hinny is the offspring of a female donkey and a male horse
neither can reproduce, so each and every one you find was born from that process
It is of the etiquettes of eating food to wipe the plate and fingers clean and to not waste food
even if dropped! We are advised to not even waste the tiniest of morsel...
The food that is dropped and not eaten, the shaytan considers it permissible to eat
regardless of whether Bismillah was said in the beginning.
Q/. So what if the shaytan eats my food...why does it matter?
A/. The Shaytan is our biggest enemy. He leads us astray every chance he gets.
His mere presence is disasterous for us. So, by giving him an open invitation of
eating with us (not saying Bismallah before eating) is beyond disastrous!
The definition of barakah is to increase the good of something!
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1]
Be generous with your food. Prophet (saw) advised the companions to increase
their broth by adding water so they could share it with others. There is
barakah in sharing food...so much so that food normally used to feed one person
can satisfy the hunger of two people or more.
Here's a good thing to include in your diet plan: Don't eat while muttaki
(lean with one's back against a support; lean with one's left side
supporting the body with one's left hand; to sit cross-legged). When
you eat while muttaki, you allow the stomach to relax in a way that
makes it easier to keep filling it up with more food.
The first blessing that was given to our father Adam was FOOD.
A person does not fill any container more despicable than his stomach - hadith
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1]
Notes: DETAILED
------------------------------
Friday, January 9
th
, 2009
Introduction
The Fiqh of living
Allah mentioned two blessings of Jannah that are above all others food and clothing. Your
hunger and thirst and clothing will all be taken care of. Of the greatest blessing that Allah
blessed Adam and Hawwaa were food and clothing.
Verily, You have (a Promise from Us) that You will never be hungry therein nor naked.
[Surah TaHa: 118]
The first thing that Allah told Adam to enjoy in Jannah was food.
Raghada bountiful, plentiful. Eat to your hearts content. This is why the very firsts crisis that shaytaan
caused Adam and Hawwaa with was to eat haraam food.
Allah said that Sahytaan tempted them to eat the haraam and to expose their nakedness.
The very first crisis our mother and father fell into Shaytan tempted them to eat haram, and to expose
their nakedness. Therefore, ever since shaytaan was created, the very first plot that he created was to
cause mankind to eat the haraam and not dress appropriately. The #1 plot if Shaytan is to make man eat
haram and to dress improperly. But Alhamdulillah we have a religion that tells us what to eat and how
to dress properly.
Therefore, it is of the greatest blessing that Allah has given us.
The prophet told his companions not to make haraam what Allah made halaal.
Hadeeth of the men who decided to give up meat, sleep and marriage.
A'isha * tells us that he used to love the juiciest part of the animal the shank of the meat.
And he used to wear the best clothes in front of Allah , and on the day of Eid. He used to
enjoy the blessings that Allah blessed him with.
It is indeed the blessing of Allah that He has told us what to eat, what to drink, and how to
eat and drink. Even what to do when the food is exiting the system is told to us. He tells us even how to
use the bathroom. There is no other religion like Islam. Of what value is a religion that tells you how to
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1]
chant your prayer on Sunday but not how to live your life from Monday to Saturday, or a religion that
tells you who your God is but not how to worship Him? Allah informed us of each and every
matter that we need to live, because Islam is the only complete religion.
Forbidden to You (for food) are: Al-Maytatah (the dead animals - cattle-beast not slaughtered), blood,
the flesh of swine, and the meat of that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allh,
or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., or on which Allh's Name has not been mentioned while
slaughtering, and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or
by the goring of horns - and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal - unless You are Able to
slaughter it (before its death) - and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An-Nusub (stone altars).
(Forbidden) also is to use arrows seeking luck or decision, (all) that is Fisqun (disobedience of Allh and
sin). This day, those who disbelieved have given up All hope of Your religion, so fear them not, but fear
Me. This day, I have perfected Your Religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have
chosen for You Islm as Your religion. but as for Him who is forced by Severe hunger, with no
inclination to sin (such can eat These above-mentioned meats), Then surely, Allh is Oft-Forgiving, Most
Merciful.
[Surah Al-Maidah: 3]
Allah says in this verse that He has perfected our religion, and in what context does hHe
make this statement? The context of this verse, Allah revealed all the halaal and haraam
foods to eat.
Ibn Abbas : This is the last verse revealed regarding halal and haram.
Thus, Allah couples perfection of the religion with the halaal and haraam food. The entire
context is food, and right in the middle is verse 3 - that the religion has been perfected.
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Etiquettes of Food
p. 4
Etiquettes of Food
Once, the prophet was sitting in the house of his wife Umm Salamah, when her son 'Umar b. Abi
Salamah ran in, and started eating hastily from all over the plate. The prophet gently said to him,
O Ghulam! Mention Allah s Name, and eat with your right hand, and eat from that which is
close to you. (al-Bukhari & Muslim in their Sahihs)
The importance of adaab is demonstrated by this hadeeth due to the fact that the prophet stopped
his own meal and made a point of correcting even a little child, telling himto please Allah
even while eating.
Adaab At-Taaam:
1) Saying the Basmalah
This is the most strict.
The first thing that the prophet told 'Umar to do was to say bismillah. This is the most
important and strict etiquette.
Hudhaifah reported:
When we attended a meal with the Messenger of Allah , we would not stretch forth our
hands towards the food until he would start eating first. Once, we were with him when
a little girl rushed in as if someone was impelling her. She was about to lay her hand on the food when
the Messenger of Allah caught her hand. Then a bedouin came in rushing as if someone
were pushing him. He caught his hand also and said, "Satan considers that food lawful
for himself on which the Name of Allah is not mentioned. He (Satan) brought this girl to make the food
lawful through her but I caught her hand. Then he brought the bedouin to make it lawful through him
but I caught his hand too. By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, now Satan's hand is in my grasp along with
their hands.'' Then he mentioned the Name of Allah and began to eat.
[Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i]
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Jabir reported:
I heard Messenger of Allah saying, "If a person mentions the Name of Allah upon
entering his house or eating, Satan says, addressing his followers: `You will find nowhere to spend the
night and no dinner.' But if he enters without mentioning the Name of Allah, Satan says (to his
followers); `You have found (a place) to spend the night in, and if he does not mention the Name of
Allah at the time of eating, Satan says: `You have found (a place) to spend the night in as well as food.'''
[Sahih Muslim].
`A'isha reported:
Messenger of Allah said, "When any of you wants to eat, he should mention the Name
of Allah in the begining, (i.e., say Bismillah). If he forgets to do it in the beginning, he should say
Bismillah awwalahu wa akhirahu (I begin with the Name of Allah at the beginning and at the end).''
[At-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud].
2) Eating with the right hand.
Salama b. Akwa' reported on the authority of his father that a person ate in the presence of
Allah's Messenger with his left hand, whereupon he said: Eat with your right hand. He
said: I cannot do that, whereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: May you not be able to do that. It was
arrogance that prevented him from doing it, and he could not raise it (the right hand) up to his mouth.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 023, Number 5011]
The severity of intentionally not eating with your right hand.
How to eat with your right hand?
Ka`b bin Malik reported:
I saw Messenger of Allah eating with three fingers (i.e., the thumb, the index finger and
the middle finger) and licking them after having finished the food.
[Sahih Muslim]
The scholars differ about whether this is 3 fingers and the thumb or 2 and the thumb. The reason for this
scholars say is that this gives you smaller amounts. It is better for digestion, and it causes you to not
overeat.
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Question: are you abandoning the Sunnah if you eat with a utensil (spoon, knife, fork)? The scholars of
Fiqh did not discuss this issue, because utensils are a very modern thing. Having so many utensils is a
relatively modern phenomenon. However, it does appear that the Sunnah is to eat with the right hand
and not necessarily to eat with the right fingers. By eating with the fingers, the prophet indicated
that the Sunnah is to take small amounts, and this can be done even with utensils.
The prophet used to use knives to cut his meat with and the right hand to eat it.
Al-Mughirah ibn Shubah.
It is in the spirit of the Sunnah to eat with the fingers, but it is the Sunnah to eat with the right hand and
to eat small amounts.
3) Eating from that which is close to you.
The context of the hadeeth is that you have a large common plate. And this is still common in other
societies that are not as luxurious as American culture. However, when there is not a common plate, this
rule can be broken; if its your individual plate, you can eat from wherever you like. Also, the scholars
say that if you ask permission for what you want, then you can take from the other side of the plate and
the other person allows you. Also, it can be broken if it is generally okay to do so, such as if one is being
hosted. Hosts generally want to please their guests in whatever way.
Anas said:
"I went with Messenger of Allah to eat some food which a tailor made for him. He
served barley, bread and soup with pumpkin in it. I saw the Messenger of Allah, going after the pumpkin
around the dish, so I have always liked pumpkin since that day."
[Muttafaq Alay]
The prophet did this because he knew the host did not mind.
4) Eating from the corner of the plate and not from the center.
Ibn `Abbas reported:
The prophet said, "Blessing descends upon food in its middle, so eat from the sides of the vessel
and do not eat from its middle.''
[At-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud]
Increase the good so inshaaAllah it shall suffice.
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5) Eating together from a common plate.
The prophet said: Eat together and dont go individually because barakah is with the
congregation.
[Ibn Majah]
The concept of having your own plate and eating by yourself was considered rude.
Etiquettes, generally speaking, are not issues of haram; they are issues of makrooh and mustahab. For
example, if you dont do it out of arrogance, then this is kufr. But if your culture has different traditions,
then there is no sin in not doing it. Some of the scholars bring the bismillah and eating with the right
hadn to the level of a sin, but not the others.
There is no restriction on the blind, nor any restriction on the lame, nor any restriction on the sick, nor
on yourselves, if You eat from Your houses, or the houses of Your fathers, or the houses of Your
mothers, or the houses of Your brothers, or the houses of Your sisters, or the houses of Your father's
brothers, or the houses of Your father's sisters, or the houses of Your mother's brothers, or the houses
of Your mother's sisters, or (from that) whereof You hold keys, or (from the house) of a friend. No sin on
You whether You eat together or apart. but when You enter the houses, greet one another with a
greeting from Allh (i.e. say: As-Salmu 'Alaikum - peace be on you) blessed and good. Thus Allh makes
clear the Ayt (these Verses or Your religious Symbols and signs, etc.) to You that You may understand.
[Surah An-Nur: 61]
In this regard everything is the same. Therefore, when you are together, it is recommended to eat from
a common plate. But if you want to eat, you dont have to look for a jamaaah.
6) Wiping the plate and fingers clean.
Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported:
Messenger of Allah said, "When one of you finishes eating, he should not wipe his
fingers until he has licked them himself or has given them to someone else to lick for him.''
[Muttafaq Alay]
This also implies that you should wipe the utensils as well. The reason for this is to eat every last drop.
7) Washing hands before and after eating.
There are a number of ahadith about this but they are all weak, but it is common sense.
8) Not wasting food, even if dropped.
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Jabir reported:
The Messenger of Allah said, "Satan appears at everything done by you; he appears
even at one's dinner. When a morsel of any of you falls, he should pick it up and remove any dirt on it,
and then eat it. He should not leave it for Satan, nor should he wipe his hand with the towel until he has
licked his fingers, for he does not know in what portion of the food the blessing lies.''
[Muslim]
This is another type of food Shaytan considers permissible. The general premise is to not waste food
appreciate the food that Allah has given to you.
p. 5
9) Being generous with your food.
This is commonsense but the prophet commands it.
The prophet commanded us to be generous with our meat, and this was a luxury item in their day.
When one of you cooks meat, increase the water, and feed your neighbors.
Abu Hurairah reported:
Messenger of Allah said, "The food of two persons suffices for three persons, and the
food of three persons suffices for four persons.''
[Muttafaq Alay]
Be generous and Allah will bless you.
10) Not criticizing the food, even if you dislike it.
Abu Hurairah reported:
The Messenger of Allah never found fault with food. If he had inclination to eating it, he
would eat; and if he disliked it, he would leave it.
[Muttafaq Alay]
This is a perfection of Emaan. Whatever was presented to him, the prophet thanked Allah
for it. And the best example of this is the instance of the desert lizard when it was presented to
him.
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Narrated Khalid bin Al-Walid :
That he went with Allah's Apostle to the house of Maimuna, who was his and Ibn 'Abbas' aunt.
He found with her a roasted dabb (desert lizard) which her sister Hufaida bint Al-Harith had
brought from Najd. Maimuna presented the dabb before Allah's Apostle who rarely started
eating any (unfamiliar) food before it was described and named for him. (But that time) Allah's
Apostle stretched his hand towards the (meat of the) dabb whereupon a lady from among those
who were present, said, "You should inform Allah's Apostle of what you have presented to him.
O Allah's Apostle! It is the meat of a dabb." (On learning that) Allah's Apostle withdrew his hand
from the meat of the dabb. Khalid bin Al-Walid said, "O Allah's Apostle! Is this unlawful to eat?"
Allah's Apostle replied, "No, but it is not found in the land of my people, so I find myself having
no need for it." Khalid said, "Then I pulled the dabb (meat) towards me and ate it while Allah's
Apostle was looking at me.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 65, Number 303]
It is okay to have a bad reaction to the food (i.e. not like it), but you should not criticize the food.
The prophet was presented with the food, and he did not touch it. Rather than criticize, the
prophet said very eloquently: I dont find myself having any need for it. This was the perfection
of the prophet s akhlaaq. Dont criticize the food that Allah has blessed the people
with. Dont criticize any blessing other people eat for food.
11) Praising Allah afterwards:
The most authentic duaa is the one in Saheeh Bukhaari
))
((
Abu Umamah reported:
Whenever the prophet finished a meal, he would say: "Al-hamdu lillahi kathiran taiyiban
mubarakan fihi, ghaira makfiyyin wa la muwadda`in, wa la mustaghnan `anhu, Rabbuna. (All praise is
due to Allah, praise which is abundant, pure, and full of blessings, which is indispensable and to which
one cannot be indifferent).''
[Sahih Al-Bukhari]
Im not implying that this is sufficient, nor that I dont want or need more food, Oh Allah
we always need more and we will continue to thank you.
)) ((
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Mu`adh bin Anas reported:
Messenger of Allah said, "He who has taken food and says at the end: `Al-hamdu lillahi-
lladhi at`amani hadha, wa razaqanihi min ghairi haulin minni wa la quwwatin (All praise is due to Allah
Who has given me food to eat and provided it without any endeavour on my part or any power),' all his
past sins will be forgiven.''
[At-Tirmidhi]
12) Try your best to respond to someone who invites you to his house.
Abu Hurairah reported:
Messenger of Allah said, "When any of you is invited to a meal, he should accept the
invitation. If he is observing Saum (fasting), he should supplicate for the betterment of the host and if he
is not fasting, he should eat.''
[Sahih Muslim].
When someone goes to trouble to prepare food for you, try your best to honor that hospitality within
reason.
13) Making Du'a for the one who hosted you:
And when you respond to the invitation, go there and make duaa for the one who hosted you.
Whenever the prophet would go to someones house who invited him, he would do salaah. This
does not mean prayer, but that he would make duaa for them.
)) ((
The proof is in another version of the hadeeth, that when he would go to someones house, when the
table was lifted, he would make duaa for the host. This is also true for someone who hosted you at a
restaurant (paid the bill).
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14) Eating in moderate quantities.
It is enough for the son of Adam to have just morsels (of food) to keep his back upright. But if you have
to eat more than that, then one third for food, one third for water, and one third for air.
If we were to fulfill the Sunnah, people wouldnt have to worry about dieting and such.
The prophet said:
The worst vessel that the son of Adam can fill is his stomach.
15) Control ones belching.
Do not make belching sounds after eating and drinking. This irritates other people, and is also
mentioned in the Sunnah.
A bedouin came in front of the sahaabah and was sitting and he began to belch and he had eaten garlic
so it smelled. The prophet said: Yaa hadhaa, save us from your belching. He prohibited the man
from becoming a nuisance.
p. 6
16) Not doing ittika
As for me, I do not eat while muttaki (al-Bukhari)
Abu Juhaifah Wahb bin `Abdullah reported:
The Messenger of Allah said, "I do not eat reclining.''
[Sahih Al-Bukhari]
Meaning of ittika:
To lean with ones back against a support.
To lean to ones left side, supporting the body with ones left hand.
To sit cross legged.
The basic concept is to sit down in a way that allows your stomach to expand.
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`Abdullah bin Busr reported:
The prophet had a large bowl called Al-Gharra', which would be carried by four men. One day,
when the Companions finished their Duha (forenoon optional) prayer, Al-Gharra' was brought full of
sopped bread, meat and broth, and they sat down around it. When their number increased, The
Messenger of Allah sat down on his knees and rested on the soles of his feet. A bedouin
said to him: "What sort of sitting is that?'' Thereupon Messenger of Allah said, "Verily,
Allah has made me a courteous slave not a fierce tyrant.'' Then he said, "Eat from the sides of the bowl
and leave the central part of it so that your food will be blessed.''
[Abu Dawud]
The scholars have many opinions about how the prophet was sitting. He was sitting so that he was
leaning forward on the thigh and the knee. This is the perfection of the etiquette of eating. Of course,
the other extreme should not be observed either.
[THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1] Precious Provisions
For Drinking
1) Drinking in three sips.
This means that a normal swig that a person would take should be split into 3. A whole bottle of water is
fine, but it should be done in small sips, not one big gulp.
Anas reported:
Messenger of Allah used to breathe three times in the course of a drink (he used to
drink in three gulps).
[Muttafaq Alay]
Anas reported that Allah's Messenger breathed three times (outside the
vessel) in the course of a drink and said: It is more thirst- quenching, healthier and more wholesome.
Anas said: So I also breathe three times in the course of a drink.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 023, Number 5030]
This is what the prophet said so many years ago and modern science proves it today
2) Not blowing or breathing into the container.
Abu Qatada reported on the authority of his father that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him)
forbade breathing in a vessel.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 023, Number 5028]
Anas ibn Maalik said that the prophet forbade one to breathe into a container, to cool the drink, or
just holding it to the mouth and breathing. This is makrooh.
In those days, people did not have individual cups they had to share a water skin. The prophet
said dont blow into that. The scholars therefore said that if you blow into your individual container, that
is fine, because the issue of harming others does not exist anymore (as long as no one is sharing it).
Therefore, the prohibition does not apply anymore.
[THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1] Precious Provisions
3) Avoid drinking while standing?
The reason there is a controversy is because there are variant ahadeeth that allow it, or prohibit it.
Companions themselves differed over this issue.
Most of the adaab are narrated by Anas ibn Maalik because he was the servant of the prophet
, so he prepared the food of the prophet and gave him the food to eat and drink.
1- Prohibited
One of the hadeeth from Anas is that the prophet prohibited standing while drinking.
Anas reported:
The prophet forbade us from drinking while standing. Qatadah reported: "We asked him: `What
about eating?''' He said: "That is even worse, (or may be he said) more detestable.''
[Sahih Muslim]
There is another hadeeth that showed that the prophet himself stood and drank.
2- Allowed in certain circumstances
Ibn `Abbas reported:
I served Messenger of Allah Zamzam water to drink and he drank it while he was
standing.
[Muttafaq Alay].
Was it just because this was at Hajj? Theres no luxury to sit and drink water with so many people
bustling about at Hajj, not unless you want to get trampled.
Bukhari has both positions, but he leans toward permissibility. At-Tahawi (311H), Ibn Hibban (356H), etc.
all have chapters dedicated to this controversy it is an old controversy.
[THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1] Precious Provisions
3- Permitted
Ali ibn Abi Taalib stood up and drank from the water canister, and said: Some people say that you
shouldnt drink while standing, but I saw the prophet do exactly as I did.
Narrated An-Nazzal bin Sabra:
'Ali offered the Zuhr prayer and then sat down in the wide courtyard (of the Mosque) of Kufa in order to
deal with the affairs of the people till the 'Asr prayer became due. Then water was brought to him and
he drank of it, washed his face, hands, head and feet. Then he stood up and drank the remaining water
while he was standing. and said, "Some people dislike to drink water while standing thought the Prophet
did as I have just done."
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 69, Number 520]
It does appear that you should drink while sitting, unless there is a reason to stand.
Ibn 'Umar reported:
During the lifetime of Messenger of Allah we would eat while walking and would drink
while standing.
[At-Tirmidhi]
On the other hand, if there is no hurry, then it is better to sit down. This is the position of ibn Taymiyyah
.
[THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1] Precious Provisions
Saturday, January 10
th
, 2009
Section I:
Permissible & Impermissible Animals
p. 8
First Category: Land Animals
GENERAL RULE:
Everything is permitted unless an evidence proves otherwise.
Ijmaa: Everything is permitted unless stated otherwise and unless it would kill you.
If we find an exotic animal and Allah doesn't specify whether it's halal or haram, and if two people come
debating whether it's halal or haram, the one who has to bring proof is the one claiming it haram.
Allah says in the Qur'an:
And indeed we have honoured the Children of Adam, and we have carried them on land and sea, and
have provided them with At-Taiyibt (Lawful good things), and have preferred them above many of
those whom we have created with a marked preference.
[Surah al-Israa: 70]
Allah created these things for us- for our use. And he created the good things for us to enjoy.
Say (O Muhammad ): "I find not In that which has been inspired to Me anything forbidden to be eaten
by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be Maytatah (a dead animal) or blood poured forth (by
slaughtering or the like), or the flesh of swine (pork, etc.) for that surely is impure, or impious (unlawful)
meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allh (or has been slaughtered for
idols, etc., or on which Allh's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering). but Whosoever is
forced by necessity without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, (for Him) Certainly, Your
Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."
[Surah Al-Anam: 145]
[THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1] Precious Provisions
O You who believe! fulfill (your) obligations. lawful to You (for food) are All the beasts of cattle except
that which will be announced to You (herein), game (also) being unlawful when You assume Ihrm for
Hajj or 'Umrah (pilgrimage). Verily, Allh commands that which He wills.
[Surah Al-Maidah: 1]
Everything has been deemed halal except the exceptions; unless it is explicitly mentioned that it is
haram.
With regards to the four Madhahib, generally speaking, the Maliki are the most lax in terms of food and
the Hanafi are the strictest. However, when it comes to drink, it is the exact opposite, the Hanafiyya are
the most lax, and the Maliki are the strictest. This is the way of the madhahib and the other two (Hanbali
and Shafiee) fall somewhere in between.
Animals: The Shari'ah divides them into four categories:
1- Land (those that live on land)
2- Sea (those that live in the water any kind of water, not specifically sea)
3- Animals that fly (birds)
4- Vermin (insects, rats, mice, etc.)
This categorization has nothing to do with biology. The Shariah isnt concerned with biology.
[THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1] Precious Provisions
Land Animals
a) domesticated (anam: cattle)
b) wild (deer, lions, etc)
a. Predatory
b. Non-Predatory
p. 9
Allowed by unanimous consensus:
1) Cattle (cows, sheep, goat, camels)
All baheema are permitted.
2) Gazelles, deer, antelopes, etc.
3) Wild bovines (buffalos, etc.)
4) Zebras
The prophet permitted zebras & forbade donkeys
Jabir b. 'Abdullah is reported to have said:
We ate during the time of Khaibar the (flesh) of horses and of wild donkeys, but Allah's Messenger
prohibited us (to eat) the flesh of domestic donkeys. This hadith has then transmitted
on the authority of Ibn Juraij.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 021, Number 4780]
There is no such thing as wild donkeys. The term used in Arabic refers to zebras, not wild donkeys. It is
what they would call zebras in Arabic when once upon a time zebras used to live in Arabia.
5) Rabbits
The prophet was given a rabbits leg rate from it.
Narrated Anas :
We chased a rabbit at Mar-al-Zahran and the people ran after it but were exhausted. I overpowered and
caught it, and gave it to Abu Talha who slaughtered it and sent its hip or two thighs to Allah's Apostle
. (The narrator confirms that he sent two thighs). The Prophet accepted that. (The sub-
narrator asked Anas, "Did the Prophet; eat from it?" Anas replied, "He ate from it.")
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 3, Book 47, Number 746]
[THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1] Precious Provisions
Prohibited by unanimous consensus:
1) All types of pig, and all that is derived directly from it
Khinzeer-includes other types of animals than pig e.g. the wild boar.
Lahma al-khinzeer: the flesh of pig. When Allah prohibits the item that is the most
useful the juiciest part of the animal then anything less useful is also prohibited.
There is no ikhhlaf about this issue.
2) All types of dog
Maliki: dont consider them forbidden; some say makruh.
3) Donkeys (domesticated donkeys)
Maliki: dont consider them forbidden; some say makruh.
Shaibani reported:
I asked 'Abdullah b. Abu Aufa about (the lawfulness or unlawfulness of) the flesh of the domestic asses.
He said: We experienced hunger on the Day of Khaibar as we were with the Messenger of Allah
. We found domestic donkeys in the exterior of Medina. We slaughtered them and our earthen
pots were boiling when the announcer of the Messenger of Allah made an
announcement that the earthen pots should be turned upside down and nothing of the flesh of the
domestic donkeys should be eaten. I said: What kind of prohibition is it that he (the Holy Prophet) has
made? He said: We discussed it amongst ourselves. Some of us said that it has been declared unlawful
forever, (whereas others said) it has been declared unlawful since one-fifth (of the booty) has not been
given (to the treasury, as is legally required).
[Sahih Muslim: Book 021, Number 4768]
Jabir b. 'Abdullah is reported to have said:
We ate during the time of Khaibar the (flesh) of horses and of wild donkeys, but Allah's Messenger
prohibited us (to eat) the flesh of domestic donkeys. This hadith was then transmitted
on the authority of Ibn Juraij.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 021, Number 4780]
[THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 1] Precious Provisions
4) Mules (offspring of a male donkey and a female horse)
Horse: halal
+ Offspring = mule -> halal or haram?
Donkey: haram
Opinion #1: Jumhoor: If either of the parents are prohibited, the offspring are as well in terms of
food.
Opinion #2: Maliki: Look at the father: The child is ascribed to the father on whose bed he was
born.
Narrated 'A'isha :
Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas and 'Abu bin Zam'a had a dispute over a boy. Sa'd said, "O Allah's Apostle! This
(boy) is the son of my brother, 'Utba bin Abi Waqqas who told me to be his custodian as he was his son.
Please notice to whom he bears affinity." And 'Abu bin Zam'a said, "This is my brother, O Allah's Apostle!
He was born on my father's bed by his slave girl." Then the Prophet looked at the boy and noticed
evident resemblance between him and 'Utba, so he said, "He (the toy) is for you, O 'Abu bin Zam'a, for
the boy is for the owner of the bed, and the stone is for the adulterer. Screen yourself before the boy, O
Sauda bint Zam'a." 'Aisha added: Since then he had never seen Sauda.
[Sahih Muslim: Volume 8, Book 80, Number 757]
In this madhab, the hinny (male horse + female donkey) is halal.
Ijmaa: pig; Qiyas: all others.
Difference of opinion over horses
The main difference of opinion is over horses.
Hanafi: impermissible/makruh: Allah created the horse to ride, not to eat.
Others: permissible. Even though they are used to ride on, they are still halal to eat. The prophet
and his companions slaughtered horses in Medina and ate when there was no drought (Bukhari).
Narrated Asma' :
We slaughtered a horse (by Dhabh) during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle while we were at Medina, and
we ate it.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 419]
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]

Precious Provisions
Taught by: Shaykh Yasir Qadhi
Al Maghrib Institute
Durbah Study Sessions Department
Presents
[THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 &3]
Designed to help YOU score high on the exam and MORE
IMPORTANTLY, to help YOU retain the knowledge for the sake of our
Creator, our Master, Allah (swt).
Email: StudySessions@durbah.org for feedback, comments, or to help out!
Topics:
1) Land Animals
(Part 2)
2) Sea Animals
3) Birds
4) Vermin
5) Slaughtering
In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Quiz Time!
Continued from last study package:
4. Every animal that is mustakhbath is prohibited. What is the meaning of mustakhbath?
a. An animal that has fangs
b. An animal that is poisonous
c. An animal that is disgusting
d. An animal that eats other animals
5. Which Madhab is very strict over the ruling of mustakhbath animals, and which is most
lax?
a. Hanbali; Shafii
b. Hanafi; Shafii
c. Hanafi; Maliki
d. Maliki; Hanbali
6. There is a debate on the prohibition of eating the jallalah animal. What is the meaning
of jallalah?
a. An animal that has fangs
b. An animal that is poisonous
c. An animal that is disgusting
d. An animal that eats najas (dead animals, defecation, etc.)
7. True or False: the majority say it is makruh to eat jallalah, and minority say it is haram
QUIZ 4 SEA ANIMALS
1. What are the two adjectives that Allah uses in the Quran to describe fish meat? (hint:
lehman tariyyan)
a. white and juicy
b. fresh and tender
c. healthy and tasty
d. sweet and succulent
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
2. What are the two types of dead meat that we are allowed to eat? __________ and
__________
3. __________ and ___________ are the two types of blood we are allowed to eat
4. True or False: The Shariah considers whales to be mammals, not fish, and therefore
eating whales is prohibited.
5. Short Answer: What is the condition that Hanafis place on eating fish?
6. Which madhab considers lobsters, octopus, and shrimp to be disgusting?
a. Hanafi
b. Maliki
c. Hanbali
d. Shafii
7. True or False: The majority of madhabs believe that the Quran does not differentiate
between fish, and therefore all fish are permissible, unless they are poisonous after
cooking.
8. True or False: Ocean water is impure, and therefore one cannot perform wudu with this
water.
9. True or False: Fish, like all other animals, need to be slaughtered in order to be halal.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
10. Short Answer: What is the ruling for animals that live on the shore, such as crabs,
turtles, and amphibians?
11. It is haram to kill frogs because:
a. They are mustakhbath (disgusting), by unanimous consent
b. Their croaking is their way of doing tasbeeh
c. They are jallalah (eat najs)
d. Because the Prophet (sas) forbade the killing of frogs
QUIZ 5 BIRDS
1. True or False: Allah praises bird meat in the Quran by saying in Surah Waqiah verse 21
that He will allow His servants to eat bird meat in Jannah.
2. Which of the following birds are NOT prohibited?
a. Eagles and falcons
b. Hoopoes and shrikes
c. Turkeys and ostriches
d. Vultures, buzzards, and kites
3. All birds that __________ with their talons or feed off of ____________ are prohibited
to eat.
4. The Prophet (sas) forbade the killing of these two birds: ____________ and
_____________
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
QUIZ 6 LAND VERMIN
1. Which of the following are not land vermin?
a. Locust
b. Frog
c. Insects
d. Rats
2. Only the carcasses of _________ and ___________ are permissible to eat.
3. Most blood is najs, except the blood of these two organs: ___________ and
____________.
4. The only land vermin that is permissible to eat is the:
a. Rat
b. Ant
c. Locust
d. Beetle
QUIZ 7 SLAUGHTERING (PART1)
1. In regards to rulings in slaughtering, the two strictest madhabs are: ______________
and ______________. The madhab that is most lax is _____________.
2. Which if the following is NOT a category of permissible animals?
a. Killed by starving
b. Killed by slaughtering
c. Killed by hunting
d. Killed without slaughtering or hunting
3. _____________ and ______________ are the two ways of slaughtering.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
4. Matching: Match the following terms with their definitions/descriptions:
A.Maita a.) Upper neck; where cows, sheep, and goats are slaughtered
B. Nahar b.) Slaughtering
C. Sayd c.) killed without slaughtering or hunting
D.Dhabhah d.) hunting or can be hunted
E. Dabh e.) bottom of neck; where neck connects to collarbone; where
the camel is slaughtered
5. True or False: All blood-flowing land animals that are in your control, such as cows,
sheep, goats, and camels, must be slaughtered.
6. True or False: Only you can hunt. You cannot send trained animals to hunt for you.
7. Who is NOT allowed to slaughter?
a. Baligh boy (boy who has not reached puberty)
b. Girl or woman
c. Original Christian or Jew
d. Muslim in state of Ihraam (during Hajj)
8. True or False: A trained animal is one that stops eating when you tell it to, and it comes
to you when you call it.
9. Which of the following is an acceptable method of killing an animal?
a. Using a blade that is not sharp
b. Using a trained hunting animal
c. Using a stick to beat animal to death
d. Using trap to starve animal to death
e. Using teeth, nails or bones to kill the animal
10. Which madhab believes that saying Bismillah before sending trained animal out to
hunt is only Sunnah and not required?
a. Shafii
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
b. Maliki
c. Hanafi
d. Hanbali
11. What are the only two types of animals that can be eaten without hunting or
slaughtering? ______________ and ______________.
12. True or False: You cannot eat seafood that has been prepared by an atheist, agnostic,
or Zoroastrian.
13. Is the meat halal in the following three scenarios?
a. Before sending your trained dog out to hunt, you say Bismillah with the intention
that your dog will kill a particular deer. However, when your dog returns from
hunting, you realize that it has killed another deer. Is the meat of this dear
halal?
b. You shoot a bird, but it falls into the water. You are not sure if it has died from
drowning or by your arrow. Is the meat of this bird halal?
c. You send your trained dog out to hunt. When you go to the catch, you see your
dog by the dead animal. But you also see other dogs nearby. You are not sure
if the animal was killed by your dog or by the other dogs. Is the meat of this
animal halal?
14. True or False: You cannot eat from your partially-trained dogs catch. If you get to the
animal before it is killed, then you must slaughter it.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
THE Test on Fiqh of Food
--------------------------------------
Test Fiqh of Food
Directions: After you have finished studying on the fiqh of food section, close your notebook and
take this test. It will give you some indication as to how well you have studied, and how much
more you need to study, bidhnillah!
1. Which ones of the etiquettes of food do scholars say will constitute sin if you leave it out?
a. Saying the basmalah and not wasting food
b. Washing the hands and controlling ones belching
c. Not criticizing the food and eating with the right hand
d. Saying the basmalah and eating with the right hand
2. True or False: It is never permissible to breathe into the container youre drinking.
3. Which companion did most of the rulings of the etiquettes of eating and drinking come
from? Why?
4. Make a diagram of how the shariah divides animals.
5. What is the general rule regarding the madhaahib in food?
6. What is the one food that is unanimously considered haraam by all scholars?
a. dogs and pig
b. pig
c. mules
d. biryani
7. What is the duah you make for the one who hosted you?
8. Which animal do most of the scholars consider permissible to eat but the Hanafis
consider it to be makrooh? Why?
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
9. True or false: All animals with fangs are haraam.
10. How does a jallalah animal come out of the jallalah category?
11. True or false: There is a difference between whales and regular fish, according to the
scholars.
12. Which animal is forbidden to eat because it makes tasbeeh? Hint: It croaks!
13. Birds that hunt with ______ are forbidden.
14. Which of the following birds are forbidden to eat because the Prophet salallahu alaihi
wa salaam explicitly mentioned it?
A.The hoopoe and hudhud
B. The shrike and duck
C. The hoopoe and shrike
D.Tweety and Big Bird
15. With regards to slaughtering, what is the general rule of the madhaahib?
16. With regard to slaughtering animals, how are they categorized?
17. What may a person hunt with?
18. What is forbidden with regards to hunting?
19. Give an example of animals that you can eat without hunting or slaughtering.
20. Discuss the conditions of the one who is slaughtering.
21. True or false: You can slaughter with a blunt knife.
22. What is the majority opinion with regards to the fact that the knife is not from an
animals teeth or claws?
23. What is considered the perfect slaughter?
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
24. Which is the majority position with regards to eating animals whose necks have
completely been cut off?
a. Haraam
b. Makrooh
c. Mubah
25. The only scholars that saying the tasmiya before slaughtering is mustahabb are
a. The hanafis and Malikis
b. The Shafiees
c. The Hanbalis and Shafiees
d. ibn Taymiyyah and ibn Qayyim
26. Essay: Discuss the different opinions regarding what parts of the animal are required to
be cut to be considered the perfect slaughter.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Answers to the Test
---------------------------------
1. Which ones of the etiquettes of food do scholars say will constitute sin if you leave it out?
a. Saying the basmalah and not wasting food
b. Washing the hands and controlling ones belching
c. Not criticizing the food and eating with the right hand
d. Saying the basmalah and eating with the right hand
Answer: D. Saying the basmalah and eating with the right hand
2. True or False: It is never permissible to breathe into the container youre drinking.
Answer: False. It is permissible to breathe into your own cup. However, if youre sharing it, its
part of the etiquettes of drinking that you do not breathe into it.
3. Which companion did most of the rulings of the etiquettes of eating and drinking come
from? Why?
Answer: Anas ibn Malik because he had served the Prophet salallahu alaihi wa salaam for many
years.
4. Make a diagram of how the shariah divides animals.
Answer:
Land Animals
|
Domestic & Wild
_____|____
| |
a) Predatory b) non-predatory
5. What is the general rule regarding the madhaahib in food?
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Answer: The Malikis are most lax. The Hanafis are the most strict. The Hanbali and Shafiee
madhaahib are in between.
6. What is the one food that is unanimously considered haraam by all scholars?
a. dogs and pig
b. pig
c. mules
d. biryani
Answer: B. pigs; The Maliki madhab considers dogs and mules makrooh.
7. What is the duah you make for the one who hosted you?
Answer:
Allahumma baarik lahum fi ma razaq-tahum wagh-firlahum war-hamhum.
8. Which animal do most of the scholars consider permissible to eat but the Hanafis
consider it to be makrooh? Why?
Answer: The Hanafis consider the horse to be makrooh because they say that it was made for
riding, not eating, according to a hadeeth.
9. True or false: All animals with fangs are haraam.
Answer: False, predators with fangs are haraam. For example, some hyenas are permissible
because there are species that do not hunt, though they do have fangs, which are the canine teeth
that are sticking out. Also elephants tusks were considered fangs by some earlier scholars, but
latter scholars declared them permissible to eat because they do not hunt.
10. How does a jallalah animal come out of the jallalah category?
Answer: When the jallalah animals eats permissible/pure foods for a number of days. There is a
difference of opinion as to the exact numbers of days.
11. True or false: There is a difference between whales and regular fish, according to the
scholars.
Answer: False, there is no difference.
12. Which animal is forbidden to eat because it makes tasbeeh? Hint: It croaks!
Answer: Frogs.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
13. Birds that hunt with ______ are forbidden.
Answer: Talons.
14. Which of the following birds are forbidden to eat because the Prophet salallahu alaihi
wa salaam explicitly mentioned it?
A. The hoopoe and hudhud
B. The shrike and duck
C. The hoopoe and shrike
D. Tweety and Big Bird
Answer: C. The hoopoe and shrike.
15. With regards to slaughtering, what is the general rule of the madhaahib?
Answer: The strictest in slaughtering are the Malikis and Hanbalis. The most lax are the
Shafiees.
16. With regard to slaughtering animals, how are they categorized?
Answer: a. Animals you must slaughter.
b. Animals that you can hunt (sayd)
c. Animals you dont need to slaughter (mayta)
17. What may a person hunt with?
Answer: A dog or sharp instruments.
18. What is forbidden with regards to hunting?
Answer: You cannot
Hunt with something because of its weight
Hunt with something because of its bluntness
Use sticks by beating
Use animal traps to starve the animal to death
19. Give an example of animals that you can eat without hunting or slaughtering.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Answer: Fish, locuts, etc.
20. Discuss the conditions of the one who is slaughtering.
Answer:
He must know that he is going to slaughter and intends it.
He is a Muslim, Jew or Christian. According to the Shafiee madhab, the Christian must be
non-Arab.
He CANNOT be an agnostic, atheist or polytheist (i.e. Hindus, Zoroastrians, etc.)
21. True or false: You can slaughter with a blunt knife.
Answer: False, the knife HAS to be sharp.
22. What is the majority opinion with regards to the fact that the knife is not from an
animals teeth or claws?
Answer: The sharp instrument that is used to slaughter the animal is not from animals.
23. What is considered the perfect slaughter?
Answer: The trachea, esophagus and two jugular veins.
24. Which is the majority position with regards to eating animals whose necks have
completely been cut off?
a. Haraam
b. Makrooh
c. Mubah
Answer: B. Makrooh
25. The only scholars that saying the tasmiya before slaughtering is mustahabb are
a. The hanafis and Malikis
b. The Shafiees
c. The Hanbalis and Shafiees
d. ibn Taymiyyah and ibn Qayyim
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Answer: B. The Shafiees.
26. Essay: Discuss the different opinions regarding what parts of the animal are required to
be cut to be considered the perfect slaughter.
There are four passages of an animal in question with regards to slaughtering - trachea,
esophagus and two jugular veins are cut.
1. That all four parts need to be cut, i.e. the perfect slaughter. This opinion is a minority
opinion in the Maliki and Hanbali madhab.
2. Any of the three passages within the neck must be cut. This opinion is head by the Hanafi
madhab.
3. The trachea and two jugular veins must be cut. This is the standard position of the Maliki
madhab including Imam Malik, raheemahullah.
4. The trachea, esophagus and one of the jugular veins must be cut. This was the position of
Abu Yusuf, the student of Imam Abu Hanifa, raheemahumAllah.
5. Only the trachea and the esophagus need to be cut. This opinion is the primary position of
the Hanbali and Shafiee madhaahib.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Vocabulary List
-----------------------------
Adhab ut Taam- Etiquette of food and clothing
Raghada
1
- Freely or Bountiful
Al Maidah- The Table Spread
Hijaz Arabs- The people of the Prophet (s) (Meccan
and Medinan Arabs)
Ghulam- Little boy
Mustahab- Preferred
Makruh- Disliked or offensive
Barakah- increase in something good
Ittika- 1) To lean with ones back against a support
2) To lean to ones left side, supporting the
body with ones left hand
3) To sit cross-legged
Al Anam- The Cattle
Hinny- Hybrid of male horse and a female donkey
Mustakhbath- Disgusting or revolting
Jallalah- Any creature that eats a huge amount of najas
Tayyib- Pure

1
The translation from the Quran (surah Baqarah verse 35) is freely. However, we believe Sheikh Yasir
Qadhi stated bountiful AllahuAlim.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Tariyy(an)- Delectable, tender, or fresh (S. Fatir:12)
Hudhud- Hoopoe
Surad- Shrike
Carcass- Dead animal
Dhabh- Slaughtering
Sayd- May be hunted
Mayta- Already dead
Dhabah- Slaughtering top of neck (cows, sheep, goat)
Nahar- Slaughtering bottom of neck (camels)
Tasmiya- Mention of Allahs name
Bulugh/Baligh- Age of Puberty
Mumayaz- One who is aware of his/her surroundings
(able to make an intention)
Mansakan- rites (of sacrifice in Surah Hajj: 34)
Hunafa- The few who avoided idolatry in Pre-Islamic
times (example: Waraqah ibn Naufal)
Taabuddi- Sacrificing is not purely a religious act
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
List O Gems
---------------------------------
Taken From: http://forums.almaghrib.org/showthread.php?t=31327
Every Najas is haram but not every haram is najas!
Just because something is disgusting to you, does not mean its not allowed, it actually might be
someones delicacy.
You CANNOT eat the meat of other than Jews, Christians and Muslims (i.e. Zoroastrians, Hindus,
Sikhs, AGNOSTICS, ATHEISTS).
Bring about NJ-HAM!
New Jersey Halal Association of Meat - a body to monitor the halal meat stores around the area
to make sure that the authenticy of Halal does not dwindle any further
If the meat of something is forbidden, which is the most advantageous and useful part of an
animal, then other less useful things such as the skin are also forbidden
Allah did not reveal the Shariah for one ethnicity- Ibn Taymiyyah
While everyone in Madinah left the halaqa of Imam Malik to see the elephant (an exotic animal in
Arabia at the time), all but Yahya ibn Yahya left. He said:
There are many elephants in the world that I can encounter any other time in my life,
but there is only ONE Imam Malik!!
A Jalallah is makrooh, and it can become pure
Fishis the only meat Allah praised in the Quran
A jallalah is an animal that eats najis. It can however become pure if it eats pure food for a
number of days.
You cannot kill two birds: the strike (surad) and the hoopoe (hudhud)
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Food for thought:
You really have to do your homework when it comes to these issues. For example the shaikh said
around 40% of Denmark is openly agnostic (doesn't believe in a God). It is also a large exporter of
beef products.
It is also prohibited to eat the slaughter of an agnostic.
Be smart. Do your homework and ascertain its halality.
The perfect slaughter is when the trachea, esophagus and both jugular veins are cut.
You're not supposed to slaughter the animal in front of other animals.
Don't make a big racial debate about meat issues! Hanafis
aren't just desi and Shafi'ees aren't just Egyptian!
learn the usool (foundations) not the minutiae to distinguish halal and haram.
We differ over petty matters in the deen, forgetting that Islam is a religion meant to unite ALL
of mankind!
"SPICES MAKE YOU A BETTER PERSON!!!!!!"
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Notes: DETAILED
------------------------------
Allowed by unanimous consensus:
1. Cattle (cows, sheep, goat, camels)
All baheema are permitted.
2. Gazelles, deer, antelopes, etc.
3. Wild bovines (buffalos, etc.)
4. Zebras
The prophet permitted zebras & forbade donkeys
Jabir b. 'Abdullah is reported to have said:
We ate during the time of Khaibar the (flesh) of horses and of wild donkeys, but Allah's
Messenger
prohibited us (to eat) the flesh of domestic donkeys. This hadith has then
transmitted on the authority of Ibn Juraij.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 021, Number 4780]
There is no such thing as wild donkeys. The term used in Arabic refers to zebras, not wild
donkeys. It is what they would call zebras in Arabic when once upon a time zebras used to
live in Arabia.
5. Rabbits
The prophet was given a rabbits leg rate from it.
Narrated Anas :
We chased a rabbit at Mar-al-Zahran and the people ran after it but were exhausted. I
overpowered and caught it, and gave it to Abu Talha who slaughtered it and sent its hip or
two thighs to Allah's Apostle . (The narrator confirms that he sent two
thighs). The Prophet accepted that. (The sub-narrator asked Anas, "Did the Prophet; eat
from it?" Anas replied, "He ate from it.")
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 3, Book 47, Number 746]
Prohibited by unanimous consensus:
1. All types of pig, and all that is derived directly from it
Khinzeer-includes other types of animals than pig e.g. the wild boar.
Lahma al-khinzeer: the flesh of pig. When Allah prohibits the item that is
the most useful the juiciest part of the animal then anything less useful is also
prohibited.
There is no ikhhlaf about this issue.
2. All types of dog
Maliki: dont consider them forbidden; some say makruh.
3. Donkeys (domesticated donkeys)
Maliki: dont consider them forbidden; some say makruh.
Shaibani reported:
I asked 'Abdullah b. Abu Aufa about (the lawfulness or unlawfulness of) the flesh of the
domestic asses. He said: We experienced hunger on the Day of Khaibar as we were with the
Messenger of Allah . We found domestic donkeys in the exterior of Medina.
We slaughtered them and our earthen pots were boiling when the announcer of the
Messenger of Allah made an announcement that the earthen pots should be
turned upside down and nothing of the flesh of the domestic donkeys should be eaten. I
said: What kind of prohibition is it that he (the Holy Prophet) has made? He said: We
discussed it amongst ourselves. Some of us said that it has been declared unlawful forever,
(whereas others said) it has been declared unlawful since one-fifth (of the booty) has not
been given (to the treasury, as is legally required).
[Sahih Muslim: Book 021, Number 4768]
Jabir b. 'Abdullah is reported to have said:
We ate during the time of Khaibar the (flesh) of horses and of wild donkeys, but Allah's
Messenger
prohibited us (to eat) the flesh of domestic donkeys. This hadith was then
transmitted on the authority of Ibn Juraij.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 021, Number 4780]
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
4. Mules (offspring of a male donkey and a female horse)
Horse: halal
+ Offspring = mule -> halal or haram?
Donkey: haram
Opinion #1: Jumhoor: If either of the parents are prohibited, the offspring are as
well in terms of food.
Opinion #2: Maliki: Look at the father: The child is ascribed to the father on whose
bed he was born.
Narrated 'A'isha :
Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas and 'Abu bin Zam'a had a dispute over a boy. Sa'd said, "O Allah's
Apostle! This (boy) is the son of my brother, 'Utba bin Abi Waqqas who told me to be his
custodian as he was his son. Please notice to whom he bears affinity." And 'Abu bin Zam'a
said, "This is my brother, O Allah's Apostle! He was born on my father's bed by his slave
girl." Then the Prophet looked at the boy and noticed evident resemblance between him
and 'Utba, so he said, "He (the toy) is for you, O 'Abu bin Zam'a, for the boy is for the
owner of the bed, and the stone is for the adulterer. Screen yourself before the boy, O
Sauda bint Zam'a." 'Aisha added: Since then he had never seen Sauda.
[Sahih Muslim: Volume 8, Book 80, Number 757]
In this madhab, the hinny (male horse + female donkey) is halal.
Ijmaa: pig; Qiyas: all others.
Difference of opinion over horses
The main difference of opinion is over horses.
Hanafi: impermissible/makruh: Allah created the horse to ride, not to eat.
Others: permissible. Even though they are used to ride on, they are still halal to eat. The
prophet and his companions slaughtered horses in Medina and ate when there was no
drought (Bukhari).
Narrated Asma' :
We slaughtered a horse (by Dhabh) during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle while we were at
Medina, and we ate it.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 419]
p. 10
MAJOR RULING REGARDING LAND ANIMALS
1. Every predator that has fangs
Ibn 'Abbas reported that Allah's Messenger prohibited the eating of
all fanged beasts of prey, and all the birds having talons.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 021, Number 4752]
Fangs are 2 long canine teeth
E.g. lions, HUMANS, cats, etc.
2. Every animal that is mustakhbath
Examples: scorpions, snakes, rats, mice, monkeys of all types; hedgehog, porcupine;
squirrels.
Major ikhtilaaf about this category. This is what separates the Maliki madhab from
the others.
The 3 Madhahib: Every animal that is mustakhbath (disgusting, revolting) is
prohibited because of the verse:
Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write
(i.e.Muhammad ) whom they find written with them In the Taurt (Torah) (Deut,
xviii, 15) and the Injeel (Gospel) (John xiv, 16) , - He commands them for Al-Ma'rf
(i.e. Islmic Monotheism and All that Islm has ordained); and forbids them from Al-
Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism of All kinds, and All that Islm has forbidden); He
allows them as lawful At-Taiyibt [(i.e. All good and lawful) as regards things,
deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.], and prohibits them as unlawful Al-
Khab'ith (i.e. All evil and unlawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons,
foods, etc.), He releases them from their heavy burdens (of Allh's Covenant), and
from the fetters (bindings) that were upon them. so those who believe In Him
(Muhammad), honour him, help him, and follow the light (the Qur'n) which has
been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful.
[Surah Al-Araaf: 157]
Maliki: They say that the other madhahib are understanding the verse wrong.
Something can only be haram if Allah commands it to be haram. Here,
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Allah is not commanding a prohibition, rather He is making a statement
of fact: whatever Allah allows is good and pure, and whatever He
prohibits is khabeeth. If you think something is impure, thats your thinking and not
what Allah has deemed. Your personal feeling of disgust is irrelevant
because other people may not hold the same views, e.g. the desert lizard: some (like
the prophet ) find it disgusting, but others didnt and the Shariah allows it.
Correct position: the Jumhoor position. Some things are just naturally pure and
some impure. We know by our fitrah that some things are good and some things are
not. There is pure and there is impure and Allah s Shariah affirms this.
But what is mustakhbath?
E.g. snakes: most people find them disgusting.
Maliki position: Its not disgusting to some, so they allowed it all.
Hanafi: any animal they didnt like, they called it disgusting and deemed it haram;
this is the strictest opinion e.g. shrimp. Abu Hanifah grew up in aristocratic
Persia so anything he thought was disgusting was haram.
Shafiee and Hanbali position: They both are somewhere in the middle. They tried to
come up with a concrete specification.
Shafiee: In order to understand the Arabic word mustakhbath, look at the
people who use the word. Look at the culture of the Arabs civilized Arabs
who live in cities, not the Bedouins who eat anything.
Hanbali: Just Arabs is too broad. Who specifically was the Qur'an revealed to?
The Hijazi Arabs so look at their taste and cuisine.
Ibn Taymiyyah position (demolished the Shafiee and Hanbali position while
upholding the jumhoor position): Allah did not reveal the Qur'an for one
ethnicity and one culture. It is not allowed to take the culture of one ethnicity and
subjugate the rest of humanity to it. Look at the desert lizard incident:
Narrated Khalid bin Al-Walid :
That he went with Allah's Apostle to the house of Maimuna, who was his and Ibn
'Abbas' aunt. He found with her a roasted dabb (desert lizard) which her sister
Hufaida bint Al-Harith had brought from Najd. Maimuna presented the dabb before
Allah's Apostle who rarely started eating any (unfamiliar) food before it was
described and named for him. (But that time) Allah's Apostle stretched his hand
towards the (meat of the) dabb whereupon a lady from among those who were
present, said, "You should inform Allah's Apostle of what you have presented to him.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
O Allah's Apostle! It is the meat of a dabb." (On learning that) Allah's Apostle
withdrew his hand from the meat of the dabb. Khalid bin Al-Walid said, "O Allah's
Apostle! Is this unlawful to eat?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, but it is not found in
the land of my people, so I find myself having no need for it." Khalid said, "Then I
pulled the dabb (meat) towards me and ate it while Allah's Apostle was looking at
me.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 65, Number 303]
Both Khalid and the prophet were Hijazi and Khalid ate the lizard. The prophet
found it disgusting but he did not make it haram.
The Shariah prohibits that which the average person of a pure fitrah finds
disgusting, e.g. rats, scorpions, and we do not look to the lands of the East (dont
look at the shadh opinions).
Najdis to this day consider the dabb a delicacy.
In reality, it is very difficult to give a solid, air-tight definition of the word
mustakhbath. It is a gray area.
Discussion:
1. Elephants
2. Hyena there is no hadeeth about these three at all.
3. Fox
Elephants: The vast majority of the classical 'ulema say they have fangs so they are
haram. They considered the tusks as fangs. However, in all likelihood, they had
never seen a real elephant; they just saw the tusks and assumed there were no
greater fangs than those. They didnt realize that the elephant is of the gentlest of
herbivores. They are not predators so the hadeeth does not apply to them because
even if you consider the tusks as fangs (modern science says they arent because
they are made of different material from fangs) they still are not predators.
Story of Yahya bin Yahya: a circus came to town while Imam Malik was having a
halaqa and he let his students go see the elephant. The only person who remained
with Imam Malik was Yahya bin Yahya who said: I came all the way from N. Africa to
learn from you. I can travel all over the world and see elephants but there is only
one Imam Malik and I am here for you now. Yahya bin Yahya became the best
student of Imam Malik.
Fox: Haram: It has fangs and it is predatory.
Imam Shafiee believed they didnt hunt with its fangs so they considered them halal.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Hyena: they have fangs but there are two species, and the majority of them do not
hunt.
Hanafi: haram
Maliki: halal
Shafiee and Hanbali: they generally allow it and a sahih hadeeth backs them up.
Jaabir ibn Abdullah said,
I asked Allahs Messenger about the hyena and he replied, It is
game, and if one in the state of ihram hunts it, he should give a sheep as atonement.
[Sunan Abu Dawud, Vol. 3, p. 1071, Number 3792; ad-Daarimee, al-Bayhaqee, Ibn
Hibaan, ad-Daaraqutnee and al-Hakim, and declared Sahih (authentic) by al-Haakim
and al-Albaani in Irwaa al-Ghaleel, Vol. 1, p. 242, Number 1050]
If its game, then its halal.
4. Jackals
5. Dabb
p. 11
Narrated Khalid bin Al-Walid:
That he went with Allah's Apostle to the house of Maimuna, who was his and Ibn
'Abbas' aunt. He found with her a roasted mastigure which her sister Hufaida bint
Al-Harith had brought from Najd. Maimuna presented the mastigure before Allah's
Apostle who rarely started eating any (unfamiliar) food before it was described and
named for him. (But that time) Allah's Apostle stretched his hand towards the (meat
of the) mastigure whereupon a lady from among those who were present, said, "You
should inform Allah's Apostle of what you have presented to him. O Allah's Apostle!
It is the meat of a mastigure." (On learning that) Allah's Apostle withdrew his hand
from the meat of the mastigure. Khalid bin Al-Walid said, "O Allah's Apostle! Is this
unlawful to eat?" Allah's Apostle replied, "No, but it is not found in the land of my
people, so I find myself having no need for it." Khalid said, "Then I pulled the
mastigure (meat) towards me and ate it while Allah's Apostle was looking at me.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 65, Number 303]
3. The jallalah animal
Jallalah: Those animals that eat najas.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
The prophet forbade the meat and milk of a jallalah [Abu Dawud, Ahmad].
'Amr ibn Shu'aib related on the authority of his father, from his grandfather, that the
Messenger of Allah prohibited the meat of domestic donkeys. As for the jallalah, he
prohibited riding or eating them."
[Ahmad, An-Nasa'i and Abu Dawud]
Majority considered it makruh; some scholars of the three madhahib considered it haram.
Ijma: they should be avoided.
Jumhoor: it is makruh; you can eat it. The animal is halal and even though it eats
najas, you cant make the entire animal haram (haram haram).
How do you define jallalah? The issue isnt 1-2 mouthfuls. Even a chicken will
inevitably peck some najas as it is pecking for food. The issue is where to draw the
line.
Hanbalis, Hanafis: Majority of its food is najas. Meaning, more than 50% of its
food is najas.
Shafiees: Change in its smell (sweat) and taste (milk). There must be a
noticeable change.
Second Category:
Sea Animals
p. 13
1) By unanimous consensus, fish are permitted
Ijma: by unanimous consensus of all the scholars of Islam, all types of fish are permitted (as
long as they are not harmful, poisonous, etc.).
It is the only meat Allah praises in the Qur'an with those words.
And the two seas (kinds of water) are not alike, This fresh sweet, and pleasant to drink, and
that saltish and bitter. and from them both You eat fresh, tender meat (fish), and derive
the ornaments that You wear. and You see the ships cleaving (the seawater as they sail
through it), that You may seek of his Bounty, and that You may give thanks.
[Surah Al-Fatir: 12]
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Allah describes the meat of fish as lahman tauree fresh, and tender. He does
not praise any other meat like this.
Abdullah ibn 'Umar narrates that the Messenger of Allah said:
Two types of dead meat and two types of blood have been made lawful for our
consumption: The two dead meats are: fish and locust, and the two types of blood are: liver
and spleen.
[Sunan Abu Dawud, Musnad Imam Ahmad and Sunan Ibn Majah, Al-Bayhaqi]
Scholars do not differentiate between whales and regular fish.
Jabir narrated:
We set out in the army of al-Khabt and Abu Ubayda (Allah be pleased with him) was the
commander of the troops. We were struck with severe hunger and the sea threw out a dead
fish the like of which we had never seen, and it was called al-Anbar. We ate of it for half a
month. Abu Ubayda took (and fixed) one of its bones and a rider passed underneath it
(without touching it). Abu Ubayda said (to us): Eat (of that fish). When we arrived at
Madina, we informed the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) about what
had happened, and he said: Eat, for it is food Allah has brought out for you, and feed us if
you have some of it. So some of them gave him (of that fish) and he ate it.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 648]
Hanafi position: All fish are permitted as long as they do not die naturally and float on the
surface.
The fish must have been caught alive or thrown out onto the shore dead (like the whale in
the hadeeth), but if it dies in the water and floats there, it is not permissible. They cite a
hadeeth from Ad-Daraqutni stating that, whatever dies and floats on it is not permissible.
Jabir ibn Abdillah narrates that the Messenger of Allah said:
What the sea throws up and is left by the tide you may eat, but what dies in the sea and
floats you must not eat.
[Sunan Abu Dawud, no: 3809 & Sunan Ibn Majah]
However, this is a weak hadeeth.
p. 14
2) Animals that live in the water besides fish (e.g. lobster, octopus, shrimp)
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
All such (non-harmful) animals allowed: Malikis, Hanbalis, Shafiees.
Hanafi: all such animals are mustakhbath so they are haram; makruh at the most.
The other Madhahib say the Qur'an didnt specify fish; it permits anything from the ocean.
Lawful to You is (the pursuit of) watergame and its use for food - for the benefit of
yourselves and those who travel, but forbidden is (the pursuit of) landgame as long as You
are In a state of Ihrm (for Hajj or 'Umrah). And fear Allh to whom You shall be gathered
back.
[Surah Al-Maidah: 96]
The prophet said:
"Its [the ocean] water is pure and its dead are halal."
[Musnad Imam Ahmad]
They do NOT have to be slaughtered.
The vast majority of scholars allowed all the animals of the ocean (as long as they
are not harmful).
Those animals whose land-equivalents are prohibited are also prohibited: an opinion
within the latter two madhahib (e.g. sea-dog seal; sea-pig dolphin) a minority opinion
within the Hanbali and Shafiee madhahib.
Killing lobsters by boiling them in a pot of water? The scholars say if thats the way to
slaughter a sea animal in your culture, then there is nothing wrong with that.
3) Animals that live on the shore (e.g. crabs, turtles, seals)
Hanafi position: none of these animals are permitted (no evidence to permit it)
Maliki position: (all such animals are allowed)
Shafiee and Hanbali position: Blood-flowing animals require slaughter (you cannot just
find them dead and pick them up); rest are permitted except for frogs (and crocodiles for
Hanbalis)
Frogs:
Narrated AbdurRahman ibn Uthman :
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
When a physician consulted the prophet about putting frogs in medicine, he forbade
him to kill them.
[Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 28, Number 3862]
The prophet said that their croaking is the way they did tasbih. However, Allah
says in the Qur'an that all the animals make tasbih to Allah ,
The seven heavens and the earth and All that is therein, glorify Him and there is not a thing
but glorifies his praise. But You understand not their glorification. Truly, He is ever
forbearing, Oft-Forgiving.
[Surah Al-Israa: 44]
So how is it okay to kill them but not frogs? The reason for its prohibition is not because it
does tasbih; it is because the prophet forbade its killing so if you cant kill it, how can
you eat it?
Crocodiles: prohibited because they are predators with fangs (lots of em!)
p. 15
Third Category: Birds
Vast majority of birds considered permissible by unanimous consensus.
99% of them are permitted. Allah praises bird meat as well, but in another way.
Allah says in the Qur'an that the people in Jannah will have:
Otm:ur 9 s$JiB tbqktJo
And the flesh of fowls that they desire
[Surah Al-Waqiah: 21]
One of the culinary delights of Jannah that Allah has prepared for the
believers is bird meat.
Prohibited:
1. Birds that HUNT with talon [except for Malik] (e.g. falcons, eagles, kites, hawks)
Ibn 'Abbas reported that Allah's Messenger prohibited the eating of
all fanged beasts of prey, and all the birds having talons.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
[Sahih Muslim: Book 021, Number 4752]
2. Birds that feed off carrion [except for Malik] (e.g. vultures, buzzards, kites)
They are mustakhbath.
3. Hoopoe and shrike (hudhud, surad) due to explicit prohibition about killing them
(Abu Dawud)
Ibn Abbas said:
"Allah's Messenger prohibited the killing of four animals: The ant,
bee, shrike and hoopoe."
[Abu Dawud]
p. 16
Fourth Category: Land Vermin
Allowed by unanimous consensus: locusts
Abdullah ibn 'Umar narrates that the Messenger of Allah said:
Two types of dead meat and two types of blood have been made lawful for our
consumption: The two dead meats are: fish and locust, and the two types of blood are: liver
and spleen.
[Sunan Abu Dawud, Musnad Imam Ahmad and Sunan Ibn Majah, Al-Bayhaqi]
These types of locusts are not the same we see over here. They are much huger in Arabia;
every few years swarms of them come out and they would stand there with bags just
collecting them by the bagfuls.
Locusts are explicitly mentioned in the Talmud also as an exception. It is amazing the
similarities between the two religions, the laws and the exceptions, and yet they dont
realize that they came from the same source its not like the prophet knew their
religion before Islam.
Other vermin
*
: Majority of scholars prohibited or considered makruh (mustakhbath);
Maliki considered most permissible.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Imam An-Nawawi in al-Majmoo states that the view of the scholars considered this haram
but Malik said this is halal.
Imam Malik was once asked about a snail. He replied: I think it is like a locust, meaning
that it is halal but no need to be slaughtered.
Section II:
Slaughtering (Dhabh)
p. 18
Three Categories of Permissible Animals
The strictest madhab in some respects is the Maliki madhab; in others, Hanafi. The most lax
in this area is the Shafiee madhab.
1. Require Slaughtering
These animals need to be slaughtered according to a certain ritual (dhabh).
There are two types of slaughter:
a. Dhabh: done at the top of the neck; e.g. for cows, sheep, goat
b. Nahr: done at the bottom of the neck; e.g. for camels
Slaughtering is done for all blood-flowing animals in your control. If a deer is in your
control, e.g. if its injured but not dead, you must do dhabh.
2. May be hunted (sayd)
For some animals, there is no need for slaughter because Allah has
allowed a concession, but you or your trained animal must kill them (cant just find
them dead).
They ask You (O Muhammad ) what is lawful for them (as food ). say: "Lawful unto
You are AtTayyibt [all kind of Hall (lawfulgood) foods which Allh has made
lawful (meat of slaughtered eatable animals, milk products, fats, vegetables and
fruits, etc.)]. and those beasts and birds of prey which You have trained as hounds,
training and teaching them (to catch) In the manner as directed to You by Allh; so
eat of what they catch for you, but pronounce the Name of Allh over it, and fear
Allh. Verily, Allh is Swift In reckoning."
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
[Surah Al-Maidah: 4]
Separate chapter of Fiqh deals with issues such as:
Who is allowed to hunt?
The people in ihram are prohibited from hunting
With what may one hunt?
Cant hunt with a weapon that kills by force, or traps the animal and starves it
to death. You must use a sharp weapon that allows the blood to flow.
Narrated Rafi bin Khadij :
The prophet said, "Eat what is slaughtered (with any instrument) that makes blood
flow out, except what is slaughtered with a tooth or a nail.'
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 414]
Characteristics of a trained dog?
It stops eating from the prey when you tell it to, etc.
p. 19
Procedure of hunting?
Tasmiya is Sunnah for Shafiee, mandatory for others
You must say Bismillah before sending the animal out.
What if you intended a specific deer and the dog captured another
As long as you have said Bismillah over the dog, then its no big deal
What if you are in doubt as to how the animal died
In this case you are not allowed to eat of the catch
Narrated Adi bin Hatim :
I asked the Prophet about the game killed by a Mi'rad (i.e. a sharp-edged piece of wood or a
piece of wood provided with a sharp piece of iron used for hunting). He said, "If the game is
killed with its sharp edge, eat of it, but if it is killed with its shaft, with a hit by its broad side
then the game is (unlawful to eat) for it has been beaten to death." I asked him about the
game killed by a trained hound. He said, "If the hound catches the game for you, eat of it, for
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
killing the game by the hound, is like its slaughtering. But if you see with your hound or
hounds another dog, and you are afraid that it might have shared in hunting the
game with your hound and killed it, then you should not eat of it, because you have
mentioned Allah's name on (sending) your hound only, but you have not mentioned
it on some other hound.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 384]
You also cannot eat from the catch of a partially trained dog unless you slaughter it before
it dies.
Narrated Abu Tha'laba Al-Khushani :
I said, "O Allah's Prophet! We are living in a land ruled by the people of the Scripture; Can
we take our meals in their utensils? In that land there is plenty of game and I hunt the game
with my bow and with my hound that is not trained and with my trained hound. Then what
is lawful for me to eat?" He said, "As for what you have mentioned about the people of the
Scripture, if you can get utensils other than theirs, do not eat out of theirs, but if you cannot
get other than theirs, wash their utensils and eat out of it. If you hunt an animal with your
bow after mentioning Allah's Name, eat of it. and if you hunt something with your trained
hound after mentioning Allah's Name, eat of it, and if you hunt something with your
untrained hound (and get it before it dies) and slaughter it, eat of it."
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 387]
When there is a doubt about the meat, you cannot eat from it.
3. Eaten without slaughtering or hunting : Fish, Locusts
Here, there is no need to worry how it dies because the prophet has allowed
these two dead animals.
Condition of Slaughter
The procedures to make a land animal halal. The shariah concerns itself with
1. Who does the slaughter
2. The instrument that is used
Rafi narrates that there is no need for specifically a knife.
Rafi b. Khadij asked:
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
O Messenger of Allah ! We have no knives [with which to slaughter]. The
prophet said: Whatever [instrument] causes the blood to gush out, and whatever
[animal] Allah s Name is mentioned over, eat (of it).
[Muttafaq alay]
Narrated Rafi bin Khadij :
We were with the Prophet in Dhul-Hulaifa and there the people were struck with severe
hunger. Then we got camels and sheep as war booty (and slaughtered them). The Prophet
was behind all the people. The people hurried and fixed the cooking pots (for cooking) but
the Prophet came there and ordered that the cooking pots be turned upside down. Then he
distributed the animals, regarding ten sheep as equal to one camel. One of the camels ran
away and there were a few horses with the people. They chased the camel but they got
tired, whereupon a man shot it with an arrow whereby Allah stopped it. The Prophet said,
"Among these animals some are as wild as wild beasts, so if one of them runs away from
you, treat it in this way." I said. "We hope, or we are afraid that tomorrow we will meet the
enemy and we have no knives, shall we slaughter (our animals) with canes?" The Prophet
said, "If the killing tool causes blood to gush out and if Allah's Name is mentioned, eat (of
the slaughtered animal). But do not slaughter with a tooth or a nail. I am telling you why: A
tooth is a bone, and the nail is the knife of Ethiopians."
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 406]
3. How the procedure is done
p. 20
1. Intelligence (not bulugh) of the one who slaughters
Majority: Able to intend slaughter
There are two ages specified in the Shariah: Mumayyadh (able to make a niyyah for
something) and baligh (having reached the age of puberty).
The majority of scholars say the person must be mumayyadh; there has to be a
niyyah but nothing else is relevant.
Shafiees: Not a necessary condition, but preferred.
If a child, by some chance, accidentally slaughters a chicken, it is perfectly halal for
you to eat.
2. Religion of the one who slaughters
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
You cannot eat the sacrifice of an atheist, pagan, Hindu, etc.
Unanimous consensus: Muslim; original Christian or Jew are all allowed
Arab or convert Christians: Shafiees prohibited because Ibn 'Umar was
asked about [eating from] the Banu Tamim and he said theyre not Christians; all
they know about Christianity is drinking wine.
However, the other sahabah opposed him and said a Christian is a Christian.
3. Instrument used to slaughter
Two conditions: that it be a sharp instrument that kills by cutting, and not weight;
and that it not be manufactured from an animals teeth or claws
Narrated Rafi bin Khadij :
The prophet said, "Eat what is slaughtered (with any instrument) that makes blood
flow out, except what is slaughtered with a tooth or a nail.'
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 414]
Some scholars say its your own nail and tooth; i.e. dont go ripping the animal apart
with your bare teeth and nails.
p. 21
4. Veins that need to be cut
Mammals have four primary passages: trachea (air passage), esophagus (food
passage), and two jugular veins (blood arteries).
Perfect Slaughter: all four passages, while leaving the spinal cord
How many of these need to be cut? What is the minimum number?
Opinion #1: Minority within Maliki and Hanbali: all four must be cut
Opinion #2: Abu Hanifa: any 3 (Shaykh YQs opinion)
Opinion #3: Maliki: trachea + 2 jugular veins
Opinion #4: Abu Yusuf (student of Imam Abu Hanifa): trachea + esophagus + 1
jugular
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Opinion #5: Shafiee and Hanbali: Only the trachea and the esophagus
What if the entire neck is cut off? (factories today do it this way)
This is a controversu
Opinion #1: minority: this makes the animal haram
Opinion #2: Jumhoor: it is makruh, but still halal
5. The tasmiya
Crux of the matter with respect to meat available here (in the West)
Is it a necessary condition?
First Opinion: Obligatory to mention Allah s Name, in all
circumstances
Held by Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, and 1 opinion of Imam Ahmad
Second Opinion: Obligatory to mention Allah s Name, but forgiven
if accidentally forgotten
Standard position of the majority of scholars
Third Opinion: Mentioning Allah s Name is mustahab
According to the Shafiee madhab
p. 22
Evidences
Evidences for First Opinion:
PROOF ONE: Sacrificing an animal is an act of worship with specific conditions
Of course its an act of worship! You do it for religion, according to how Allah
wants you to
And for Every nation we have appointed religious ceremonies, that they may mention the
Name of Allh over the beast of cattle that He has given them for food. and Your Ilh (God)
is one Ilh (God Allh), so You must submit to Him alone (in Islm). and (O Muhammad )
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
give glad tidings to the Mukhbitin [those who obey Allh with humility and are humble
from among the true believers of Islmic Monotheism].
[Surah Al-Hajj: 34]
PROOF TWO: The verses of Al-Anam
When sacrificing, there are three options:
1. Mention Allah s Name
2. Mention other than Allah s Name
3. Say nothing
These verses address all three types and are explicit in regards to these
Do NOT eat the meat of that ascribed to other than Allah ; so if someone
says in the name of Jesus Christ or Buddha or Ram or whoever, it is not allowed.
Allah tells us: Eat the meat over which Allah s Name has been
mentioned then asks, why do you not eat the meat over which Allah s
Name has been mentioned? He has made this halal for you, so enjoy it but do not eat
the meat over which Allah s Name has not been mentioned it is fisq.
So eat of that (meat) on which Allh's Name has been pronounced (while slaughtering
the animal), if You are believers In his Ayt (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs,
revelations, etc.).
p. 23
And why should You not eat of that (meat) on which Allh's Name has been pronounced (at
the time of slaughtering the animal), while He has explained to You In detail what is
forbidden to you, except under compulsion of necessity? and surely many do lead
(mankind) astray by their own desires through lack of knowledge. certainly Your Lord
knows best the transgressors.
Leave (O mankind, All kinds of) sin, open and secret. Verily, those who commit sin will get
due Recompense for that which they used to commit.
Eat not (O believers) of that (meat) on which Allh's Name has not been pronounced
(at the time of the slaughtering of the animal), for sure it is Fisq (a sin and disobedience of
Allh). and Certainly, the Shaytin (devils) do inspire their friends (from mankind) to
dispute with you, and if You obey them [by making AlMaytatah (a dead animal) legal by
eating it], Then You would indeed be Mushrikn (polytheists) [because they (devils and
their friends) made lawful to You to eat that which Allh has made unlawful to eat and You
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
obeyed them by considering it lawful to eat, and by doing so You worshipped them, and to
Worship others besides Allh is polytheism].
[Surah Al-Anam: 118-121]
p. 24
PROOF THREE: It is of the signs of being a Muslim, just like prayer and facing the qiblah.

Narrated Anas bin Malik:
Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever prays like us and faces our Qibla and eats our slaughtered
animals is a Muslim and is under Allah's and His Apostle's protection. So do not betray
Allah by betraying those who are in His protection."
[Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 1, Book 8, Number 386]
This is of the outward signs that a person is Muslim and should not be harmed in battle.
It also therefore shows that sacrificing is a type of worship, just as salah and facing our
qiblah are.
PROOF FOUR: Strictness shown in hunted animals, so how about non-hunted?
When the animal is not in control, you must still say Bismillahl what about when it is in
your control?
Narrated Abu Tha'laba Al-Khushani :
I said, "O Allah's Messenger! We are living in a land ruled by the people of the Scripture;
Can we take our meals in their utensils? In that land there is plenty of game and I hunt the
game with my bow and with my hound that is not trained and with my trained hound. Then
what is lawful for me to eat?" He said, "As for what you have mentioned about the people of
the Scripture, if you can get utensils other than theirs, do not eat out of theirs, but if you
cannot get other than theirs, wash their utensils and eat out of it. If you hunt an animal with
your bow after mentioning Allah's Name, eat of it. and if you hunt something with your
trained hound after mentioning Allah's Name, eat of it, and if you hunt something with your
untrained hound (and get it before it dies) and slaughter it, eat of it."
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 387]
You cant eat of this animal because you dont know if youve said Bismillah before it
was killed.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
This hadeeth specifies saying Bismillah is necessary. It is a condition of the animal
being accepted as halal.
PROOF FIVE: Prohibited even in Pre-Islamic times
The Hunafa, of their own fitrah, wont eat of meat over which Allah s Name has
not been mentioned.
Waraqah bin Nawfals habits
Before prophethood, the prophet had a long conversation with Waraqa bn Nawfal, and
among the things he asked him was why he did not eat the meat of Quraysh, to which
Waraqa replied: I do not eat the meat they sacrifice to their idols, and I only eat the meat
over which Allah s Name has been mentioned. <- I think it was Zayd bin 'Amr bin
Nufayl he had this conversation with
Narrated 'Abdullah:
Allah's Apostle said that he met Zaid bin 'Amr Nufail at a place near Baldah and this had
happened before Allah's Apostle received the Divine Inspiration. Allah's Apostle presented
a dish of meat (that had been offered to him by the pagans) to Zaid bin 'Amr, but Zaid
refused to eat of it and then said (to the pagans), "I do not eat of what you slaughter on
your stonealtars (Ansabs) nor do I eat except that on which Allah's Name has been
mentioned on slaughtering."
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 407]
PROOF SIX: Shaytan eats from meat over which no name is mentioned
Evidences for Second Opinion:
Jumhoor opinion. They have all the evidences of the 1
st
opinion, but add one more as well:
On the authority of Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said:
"Allah has pardoned for me my people for [their] mistakes and [their] forgetfulness and for
what they have done under duress."
[Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Al-Bayhaqi]
Meaning if you didnt intentionally not say it. You were planning on saying it but at the
moment you did the sacrifice, you forgot it happens and Allah knows your
intention and He forgives mistakes.
p. 25
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Evidences for Third Opinion:
Shafiee position.
PROOF ONE: Explicit hadeeth
A Muslim sacrifices using the Name of Allah , regardless of whether he
verbalizes it or not.
[Ad-Daraqutni]
Even if he doesnt say it, because hes Muslim, his niyyah is for Allah . They say
theres a symbolic Bismillah ingrained in the action whether or not he verbalizes it.
The above hadeeth is considered weak by all discerning scholars of hadeeth.
Even Sahfiee muhadditheen like Ibn Hajr say its weak.
PROOF TWO: You should say Bismillah and eat from it
:
: . ((.
Narrated 'A'isha :
A group of people said to the prophet , "Some people bring us meat and we do not
know whether they have mentioned Allah's Name or not on slaughtering the animal." He
said, "Mention Allah's Name on it and eat." Those people had embraced Islam recently.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 415]
Scholars did not interpret this hadeeth in this way. Ad-Daraqutni (a Shafiee)
explains this hadeeth, saying: this hadeeth is not about tasmiya. It has to do with
whether you should doubt new converts or not, and the answer is that you should
not doubt their knowledge of the Shariah. Actually this is a proof Bismillah is
necessary or else the prophet wouldnt have said to say Bismillah. The very fact
that the companions are asking this question means that they understood that you
had to say Bismillah before slaughtering, but since there were new converts, they
may not have heard the ruling and so may not be doing so. Since this was their
understanding, this wouldve been the time for the prophet to clarify if they
were wrong. So the issue here was, were they (the new converts) aware of the
shariah or not.
Ibn Hajar agrees with this interpretation as does the Maliki scholar Ibn Abdul
Barr .
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
PROOF THREE: Sacrificing is not a purely religious act (taabuddi)
It is not a religious act, rather it is a cultural act.
Where is there evidence for this? Allah clearly praises sacrificing as an
act of worship.
Say (O Muhammad ): "Verily, My Salt (prayer), My sacrifice, My living, and My dying
are for Allh, the Lord of the 'Alamn (mankind, jinns and All that exists).
[Surah Al- Anam: 162]
PROOF FOUR: Allah allowed us to eat of their meat while knowing how they kill
Allah has allowed us the meat of Ahl Al-Kitab
Made lawful to You This Day are AtTayyibt [all kinds of Hall (lawful) foods, which Allh
has made lawful (meat of slaughtered eatable animals, etc., milk products, fats, vegetables
and fruits, etc.). the food (slaughtered cattle, eatable animals, etc.) of the people of the
Scripture (Jews and Christians) is lawful to You and yours is lawful to them. (Lawful
to You In marriage) are chaste women from the believers and chaste women from those
who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) before Your time, when You have given
their due Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage),
desiring chastity (i.e. taking them In legal wedlock) not committing illegal sexual
intercourse, nor taking them as girl-friends. and Whosoever disbelieves In the Oneness of
Allh and In All the other Articles of faith [i.e. his (Allh's), angels, his Holy Books, his
Messengers, the Day of Resurrection and AlQadar (Divine Preordainments)], Then fruitless
is his work, and In the Hereafter He will be among the losers.
[Surah Al-Maidah: 5]
Did not Allah know how they sacrifice? And He still allowed us to eat their meat.
Aoodhu Billah no one is saying Allah doesnt know how they sacrifice.
Allah knows what they do, but is that what they were commanded to do?
Allah allows us to eat from them as long as they sacrifice according to
their own laws and as long as the other conditions are met.
Kosher: one of its conditions is for Allah s Name to be mentioned this is
equal to halal.
The only group who believes in the same God we do is Ahl Al-Kitab (the Jews and
the Christians) so Allah has allowed their meat for us and their food, with
the right conditions.
PROOF FIVE: The verses of al-Maidah abrogate the verses of Al-Anam
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Surah Al-Maidah is a Madani surah (one of the last to be revealed) while Surah Al-Anam is
an early Makki surah. Therefore, Al-Maidah abrogates Al-Anam. Eat not of that over
which Allahs Name has not been mentioned (Surah Al-Anam: 121) has been abrogated by
the allowance to eat from Ahl Al-Kitab.
Abrogation is always a last resort; if two ahadith are conflicting and there is no way
for them to be reconciled.
Also, abrogation can only occur for commands and prohibitions. The ayah states: Eat
not (O believers) of that (meat) on which Allh's Name has not been pronounced (at
the time of the slaughtering of the animal) <- this part by itself may be abrogated,
but the next part, Allah s statement for sure it is Fisq (a sin and
disobedience of Allh) makes it impossible to abrogate. Allah makes a
statement of fact that eating such meat is a sin and this cannot be abrogated.
Opinion of Some Famous Modern Scholars
Modern Hanafis Haram
Modern Shafiees Halal
Modern Hanbalis Shaykh Uthaymeen (modern Hanbali 'ulema): many people say
that he allowed it; however, he followed Ibn Taymiyyahs opinion that saying Bismillah is
necessary and no exception is made for being forgetful. He added, however, that one should
not ask the Jews and the Christians what they do; just assume they sacrifice in the Name of
Allah .
Once a man came to him, while Shaykh YQ was there, saying, I know for a fact they dont
say Bismillah. Shaykh Uthaymeen responded, well then it is haram for YOU.
So if we know and we do know that they do not say Bismillah before they sacrifice, then
it is haram for us.
p. 26
Summary of fiqh issues pertaining to commonly available meat:
1. Religion of the one sacrificing
We assume the religion of the majority of people. However, in many Western
countries, there is a significant amount of atheists, etc. This occurs more so in the UK
more than in the US, such as in Denmark, where about 40% of the population claim
to be atheist. If it were a plant in Texas, then yes we could say for certain that it
would most likely be a Christian; however, are you going to check what plant every
single can came from before you eat it?
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
2. State of animal as instrument cuts throat
By law in this country you are required to stun cattle before you kill them and of
these, a significant percentage dies before they actually slaughter it. After stunning,
it takes about 15-20 minutes at the least for the animal to be slaughtered; some of
them die.
3. Mentioning Allah s Name
Even if they are Muslim, they have no intention of saying Bismillah. The machine
does it all and when theres like 70 chickens being slaughtered per minute, how can
you say Bismillah before each is killed?
4. Cleanliness of animal itself
Is the animal jallalah? They feed the animals the najas, which causes diseases like
mad-cow disease - theyre now figuring out that Allah didnt create some
animals to eat other dead animals. This makes it makruh.
Principle: When there is a doubt, avoid the meat.
Note: Distinction between halal and dhabiha has no real fiqh basis cultural difference.
Problems and Solutions
Problem: This issue, while not as divisive as the moon-sighting one, understandably raises
tension between Muslims, Even worse, it has taken on a cultural dimension that
exacerbates the matter.
When Muslims first began to come here, it was primarily the Desis and the Egyptians. The
Desis are mainly Hanafis so the meat is haram to them, while the Egyptians are mainly
Shafiees so the meat is halal for them. As other Arabs came, they bonded culturally with
the Egyptians and adopted the Shafiee view that the meat was halal. Now the issue has
become a cultural divide between the Desis and the Arabs without realizing that there was
a difference of opinion long before any Desi/Arab ever migrated to the West.
Solution: Educating the Muslims that this is a classical difference of opinion that
transcends cultural lines. The scholars of the past debated about it, and there likely will
continue to be debate about it but they both are two opinions and we should respect each
others opinions. We can sit down and have a polite, respectful meal with someone of the
opposite opinion, like Sh. YQ and Sh. YB do, without there being debate. Respect the other
persons opinion even if you dont agree with it.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
Problem: There is a very real problem regarding the halal meat in this country. Muslim
butchers themselves many times follow dubious practices. Sometimes they just buy the
non-halal meat at Sams or somewhere and then package it off to you as halal.
Solution: Dire need to form a national body that certifies halal butchers (gradation
system?). Theres no reason why each community cant have a committee that goes out and
researches how each halal meat store/ halal restaurant in their community gets its meat.
Problem: Large-scale meat-processing plants present unique issues which might not have
simplistic answers. How do you say Bismillah over every animal when 70 chickens are
being slaughtered a minute? Do you say Bismillah before you turn on the machine? Have a
recorder playing Bismillah on high speed? Say Bimillah Allahu Akbar! Over the entire batch
of chickens to be killed that day? Does that even suffice?
Solution: That why the door of ijtihad remains open lets use it! there are scholars, maybe
not here in the West, qualified to do ijtihaad so let them come up with solutions for these
modern dilemmas.
p. 27
Ibn Al-Qayyim s (d. 751 H) Psycho-Spiritual Comment
Ibn al-Qayyim writes, regarding animals that are slaughtered in other than Allah
s name:
[This] slaughtering gives the slaughtered animal a type of filth that necessitates its
prohibition. For mentioning the name of idols, or stars, or jinns over a slaughtered animal
gives it a type of filthwhile mentioning the Name of Allah Alone causes it to
acquire purity. And Allah has made the [animals] over which His Name has not
been mentioned fisq, and that is filthy. There is no doubt that mentioning the Name of Allah
over a slaughtered animal purifies it, and expels Shaytan both from the one
sacrificing and the animals that is sacrificed. So if the Name of Allah is not
mentioned, Shaytan remains a part of [both] the one who sacrifices and the animal that is
sacrificed, which in turn causes a type of filth in the animals. And Shaytan runs through the
blood veins of animalsso when Allah s Name is mentions by the slaughterer,
Shaytan is expelled along with the blood, thus purifying the slaughtered animal. And If
Allah s Name is not mentioned, the filth is not expelled. And if the name of other
than Allah , from the devils or idols this causes the animal to acquire yet another
type of filth. And slaughter is a type of worshipwhich explains why Allah pairs
the two together, as in, So pray to your Lord and sacrifice to Him, and Say: My prayer,
and sacrifice, and life and death are only for Allah, Lord of the Worlds, and And We have
made the sacrificial animals from amongst the signs of Allah, you have much good in it. So
mention the Name of Allah over it as they are lined up, and when their sides fall, then eat of
it, and feed the indignant and deprived So Allah informed us that he has given
ownership and power over these animals to those who mention Allah s Name
over it, and that through it one can achieve taqwa, and that is coming closer to Him through
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 2 & 3]
it and mentioning Allah s Name over it. So if Allah s Name is not
mentioned over it, it would be prohibited to eat, and would be despised
[Ilam Al-Muwaqqiin: v. 2 p. 154]
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Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]

Precious Provisions
Taught by: Shaykh Yasir Qadhi
Al Maghrib Institute
Durbah Study Sessions Department
Presents
[THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 &5 ]
Designed to help YOU score high on the exam and MORE
IMPORTANTLY, to help YOU retain the knowledge for the sake of our
Creator, our Master, Allah (swt).
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Topics:
1) Misc. Issues
2) The Fiqh of
Mens
Clothing
3) The Fiqh of
Womens
Clothing
In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
Quiz Time!
Fiqh of Mens Clothing Quiz
1/29/08
True/False:
1. T / F Keeping the clothing above the ankle is known as practicing isbaal.
2. T / F It is Sunnah to dye white beard with henna or other non-black colors.
3. T / F The Prophet (sallahu alahi wassalam) specifically commanded Muslim males to
cover their heads in the prayer.
4. T / F Looking at the awrah of the same gender is permitted in the Sharia of Muhammad
(sallahu alahi wassalam).
5. T / F Gold and Silk are considered to show effeminate characteristics.
Short Answer:
6. It is reported that ten (10) matters are from the Fitra (Natural Inclinations), List five (5)
out of the ten (10).
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
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____________________________
7. There are two opinions concerning the Awrah of men, list and briefly mention the
differences.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
____________________________
8. Explain in one sentence why spandex and tight jeans are not allowed to be worn in and
by itself.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
______________________________________________________________________________
____________________________
9. Explain briefly why most silk ties nowadays do not fall under the category of
prohibited articles of clothing.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
____________________________
10. Allah (Azawajal) honored the Children of Adam with the following characteristics for
each gender:
Males:-
________________________________________________________________________
Females:-
________________________________________________________________________
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
THE Test on Fiqh of Clothing
--------------------------------------
Directions: After you have finished studying on the fiqh of food section, close your notebook and
take this test. It will give you some indication as to how well you have studied, and how much
more you need to study, bidhnillah!
1. True or False: The prohibition of not using transparent or tight clothing is only for
women.
2. True or False: It is permitted to look at the awra of the same gender in general.
3. What are the men of this ummah forbidden to wear that women are allowed to wear?
a. silk and silver
b. platinum and gold
c. silk and gold
d. gold
4. In class, what were the evidences and reasons that covering the head is not a necessity for
men?
5. What is isbaal?
6. What type of isbaal is haraam by ijmaa?
7. Why is the proof of ijmaa stronger than bringing an ayah of the Quran?
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
8. Which scholar(s) follow the its haraam to trim it in any fashion?
a. Hanafis
b. Ibn Taymiyyah and Hanbalis
c. Malikis and Shafiee
d. Barely anyone! Thats a modern opinion.
9. What group of scholars believe that you will be rewarded for trimming the beard beyond
a fistful?
a. The Shafiees
b. The Malikis
c. The Hanafis
d. The Malikis and Hanafis
10. True or false: Its haraam to pluck white hairs.
11. True or false: Its allowed to die the hair any color.
12. Who are al mukhanitheen and al mutarajjilaat?
13. People who imitate the opposite gender are what according to the hadeeth in class?
a. Bound in the Hell-fire
b. Turned into those who they imitate
c. Cursed
d. Nothing; theyre left to their own condition.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
14. What did the Prophet salallahu alaihi wa salaam NOT wear?
a. Izar
b. Turban
c. Shawl
d. Modern day thobe
15. What does zuhd mean?
a. Going beyond your means
b. Showing off
c. Looking dignified
d. Asceticism
16. True or False: Only Muslim women have been obligated to cover themselves. No other
religion before had commanded women to cover.
17. The word hijaab as originally meant in the time of revelation meant:
a. A headscarf
b. A jilbab
c. A physical curtain separating the wives of the Prophet from others
18. The word jayoob is plural for jayb. What does jayb mean?
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
19. Which ayah in the Quran commands both the believing men and women to lower their
gaze?
a. Al Ahzab: 51
b. Al Ahzab: 31
c. An Noor: 31
d. Al Imran: 36
20. True or false: The hijab promotes promiscuous behavior.
21. Name at least two requirements of hijab.
22. Which hadeeth in Bukhari proves that the niqaab was practiced in the time of the
Prophet salallahu alaihi wa salaam, and not un-Islamic?
Essay: Give the various meanings of the word laha, and what the scholars have said regarding
each definition.
.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
Answers to THE Test
---------------------------------
Directions: After you have finished studying on the fiqh of food section, close your notebook and
take this test. It will give you some indication as to how well you have studied, and how much
more you need to study, bidhnillah!
1. True or False: The prohibition of not using transparent or tight clothing is only for
women.
False, it applies to both men and women, because the purpose of clothing is to conceal the
awrah.
2. True or False: It is permitted to look at the awra of the same gender in general.
False, Rasulullah (salallahu alaihi wa salaam) prohibited in a hadith. Let no man look at the
awra of another man, nor a woman at the awra of another woman. [Muslim]
3. What are the men of this ummah forbidden to wear that women are allowed to wear?
a. silk and silver
b. platinum and gold
c. silk and gold
d. gold
Answer: C. silk and gold
4. In class, what were the evidences and reasons that covering the head is not a necessity for
men?
There are no authentic ahadeeth in the ahadeeth books to command to cover the head. Shaykh
Yasir Qadhi mentioned that the covering of the head is subject to cultural norms. If you are in a
land where covering the head is normal, do not make a scene of not wearing it.
5. What is isbaal?
Isbaal is to lower the garment below the ankles.
6. What type of isbaal is haraam by ijmaa?
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
The type of isbaal that is haraam is to do it out pride. In the time of the Prophet salallahu alaihi
wa salaam, the people had very few garments of clothing. The wealther amongst them had many
garments, so they would let the hems of their garments go below the ankle and get dirty. This
was a sign of showing off their wealth, i.e. I am so wealthy, it doesnt bother me that my
garment is dirty. I will wear another one. This type of isbaal is clearly haraam.
7. Why is the proof of ijmaa stronger than bringing an ayah of the Quran?
The ayah is subject to interpretation.
8. Which scholar(s) follow that its haraam to trim it in any fashion?
a. Hanafis
b. Ibn Taymiyyah and Hanbalis
c. Malikis and Shafiee
d. Barely anyone! Thats a modern opinion.
Answer: D. Barely anyone! Thats a modern opinion.
9. What group of scholars believe that you will be rewarded for trimming the beard beyond
a fistful?
a. The Shafiees
b. The Malikis
c. The Hanafis
d. The Malikis and Hanafis
Answer: C. The Hanafis
10. True or false: Its haraam to pluck white hairs.
Answer: False, its makrooh.
11. True or false: Its allowed to die the hair any color.
Answer: False, its haraam or makrooh to die it black. Otherwise, all colors are permissible. The
sunnah is to use henna.
12. Who are al mukhanitheen and al mutarajjilaat?
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
Answer: Al mukhanitheen are men who imitate women. Al mutarajjilaat are women who imitate
men.
13. People who imitate the opposite gender are what according to the hadeeth in class?
a. Bound in the Hell-fire
b. Turned into those who they imitate
c. Cursed
d. Nothing; theyre left to their own condition.
Answer: C. Cursed
14. What did the Prophet salallahu alaihi wa salaam NOT wear?
a. Izar
b. Turban
c. Shawl
d. Modern day thobe
Anaswer: D. Modern day thobe
15. What does zuhd mean?
a. Going beyond your means
b. Showing off
c. Looking dignified
d. Asceticism
Answer: D. Asceticism
16. True or False: Only Muslim women have been obligated to cover themselves. No other
religion before had commanded women to cover.
False, the Old Testament (Torah) and the New Testament (Bible) both required that women
cover themselves modestly. Hence, the different types of coverings they use such as the snood,
tichel and wigs.
17. The word hijaab as originally meant in the time of revelation meant:
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
a. A headscarf
b. A jilbab
c. A physical curtain separating the wives of the Prophet from others
Answer: C. A physical curtain separating the wives of the Prophet from others.
18. The word jayoob is plural for jayb. What does jayb mean?
Jayb is the upper portion of the chest.
19. Which ayah in the Quran commands both the believing men and women to lower their
gaze?
a. Al Ahzab: 51
b. Al Ahzab: 31
c. An Noor: 31
d. Al Imran: 36
Answer: C. An Noor: 31
20. True or false: The hijab promotes promiscuous behavior.
False, the hijab helps promote purity of the heart, chastity, increases modesty and curbs this type
of behavior.
21. Name at least two requirements of hijab.
That it must not describe the body, either through tightness or transparency, i.e.
thick and loose
Not be eye-catching in and of itself
It does not imitate clothing of the opposite gender
Covers the awrah
Wear an outer garment above regular clothes, hence a jilbab
22. Which hadeeth in Bukhari proves that the niqaab was practiced in the time of the
Prophet salallahu alaihi wa salaam, and not un-Islamic?
Let not the women in ihram wear the niqab or gloves.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
Essay: Give the various meanings of the word laha, and what the scholars have said regarding
each definition.
All linguistic scholars agree that the hair on the chin is part of the laha
The majority also consider the hair on the cheeks and the bones/jaw to be part of
the laha.
Only a minority consider the chin bone to only be part of the laha. The Malikis
follow this position
There is a difference of opinion as to whether the hair below the chin and above
the throat constitute the laha.
The majority state that hair below the eyes and on the throat is not part of the
lihya.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
Vocabulary List
-----------------------------
Khamr- That which intoxicates
Rijs- Uncleanness
Ahl Kitab- The People of the Book (Jews, Christians)
Tahur- Pure and it purifies
Tahir- Pure but does not purify
Najas- Impure
Istihala- Chemical changes
Ijma- Unanimous consensus
Istihlak- Extremely small quantities of impurities
Awrah- That which one should always cover
Awrah Mughaladha- strictawrah
Awrah Mufakhafa- less strictawrah
Murua- People of stature (p. 34)
Sabala- Route or path (root word of isbal)
Isbal- Lowering of garment below the ankles
Mutlaq- Unconditional hadith
Muqayyad- Conditional
Juzu- Cut/trim (Shafi,Malikis,Hanbalis)
Shave (Hanafis)
Laha- (interpretations vary, check pg 37)
Lihya- Hair on laha
Wajib- Obligatory
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
Al-Mukhanithin- Men who act like women
Al-Mutarajillat- Women who act like men
Tashabbah- Imitation (pg 40)
Israf- Extravagance
Zuhd- Modest/Humble
Murua- Dignified
Shuhra- Flamboyant
Daraja- Degree
Qawwam- Care takers
Jalabib- Over garments (plural of jilbab)
Yudnin- (comes from danan) To draw closer to
yourself, let down.
Nisaa al Mumineen- Women of the believers
Khumar-
Khamr-That which intoxicates your mind (aqal)
Khimar-That which covers your head/mind (aqal)
Juyub- plural of Jayb, slit in cloth (in which you put
your head)
Hijab-
Classical usage: a physical barrier which
separates the men and women. This was
only used for the Prophet (s)wives.
Modern Usage: a head covering or the
Khimar.
Mailat Mumilat- women who were inclined to evil
and made their husbands incline towards it. (pg 46)
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
List O Gems
---------------------------------
Taken From: http://forums.almaghrib.org/showthread.php?t=31327
A chemical change purifies an impure substance
Beware of physical changesgelatin
Always think the best about your fellow Muslims!
Abrogation is always the last resort. An abrogation can only occur at commands of
prohibitions, not statements of fact!
Hijab is a concept and a way of life, not just a piece of cloth
When the prohibition of alcohol was revealed, the sahabah poured the wine onto the
streets. There were, however, orphans who inherited wine and the Prophet (saw) was
asked if they should turn the wine into vinegar for the orphans. The Prophet (saw)
refused.
He did this because otherwise, people would still keep wine with the excuse that they are
making vinegar. HIKMAH!
Clothes are a blessing! We cover our 'awrah with them and beautify ourselves with them.
And yet we complain that we don't have any clothes or enough clothes. Alhumdulillah, we
have more than we are worthy of!
Our shariah is not meant to be hard on us. In fact, it makes our lives much easier, simpler,
and happier. We are blessed that we are told how to live our daily life and daily aspects of
life. After all, does not the creator know what is best for His creation?
Muslims are encouraged to lean towards asceticism and dignity, and stay away from
extravagance and flamboyance.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
When Allah blesses someone with money, He loves to see the effects of that $money$.
on adjusting his clothing upon the entrance of Uthman (r) the prophet (s):
"Should I not cover from someone who even the angels are shy of?"
a Muslim moves towards zuhd and away from Israaf
Sisters should assert their femininity by wearing the hijaab.
Hijaab is more than a piece of cloth. Hijaab is a whole way of life. Hijab is seclusion. It is
seclusion from strange men. It's a means for you to understand that Allah SWT wants you
to perserve yourself for only one man: your husband.
All the perverted & disgusting behavior one finds in society is due to the lack of modesty
found amongst today's men and women. As modesty declines, social evils rise.
When a woman wears hijaab she is not saying: I am pious. She is saying: I am modest.
The Prophet (saw) wore an expensive dress with gold embroidery that was gifted to him.
On seeing the people admiring it He said:
The handkerchief of sa'ad ibn mu'adh is better!
The epitome of eman is to wear what Allah has allowed, but the heart remains attached to
Allah.
Allah honored men with beards and women with long hair
if you give men an inch, they take a foot. The more modesty you show, the better the man
you will get.
Many sisters say they do not wear the hijab because it attracs too much attenion.
Allah said so Himself that the hijab is for recognition. Hjab draws attention, but itdoes not
draw the LUST of men
There is no significance in rolling your pants up before prayer. Rather you're actually NOT supposed to roll
up any part of your clothing before prayer.
Back in the days people lowered their garments out of pride, nowadays there are some that raise
their garments out of pride.
May Allah protect us from pride.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
Single Sisters: You set the bar for gender interaction, the more modesty you display the
more modest brother you will attract
If you want to come closer to Allah swt re-evaluate your concept of Hijab.
Hijab is a blessing to all those who observe it and everyone around them.
How is it that our parents and grandparents have had generations and generations of
succesful arranged marriages yet our generation falls in love and still can't make it work?
The high divorce rates has a correlation with the level of the indecency and immodesty
that has become widespread in our communities. Hijab is the solution..
The Shariah of the Land wants that women look amazing and adorned as soon as she
walks out the door for all the men to gawk yet, yet the Shariah of our Lord wants that we
look amazing and adorned for our husbands and when we leave our homes, that we
remain protected by looking as simple as possible.
It's common sense, that any person Muslim or not can see that when you weigh out the
pro's and con's of both which liberates the Woman to her own standards and which
oppresses her to the standards of Men.
We need to discuss these issues [all those discussed in class] especially gender issues by
sticking our heads in the ground they will not go away, we as the Muslims in the West
need to confront them head on.
"Did you not hear, Did you not hear?
Simplicity is a part of Faith, Simplicity is a part of Faith"
When Allah swt blesses someone he LOVES to see the effects of that blessing.
When importing a fatwa from overseas remember some fatwas are culturally sensitive
When taking care of the beard it should be done in a manner that falls between the 2
extremes:
a. completely ignoring it (yikes)
and
b. always worrying about it (for the married brothers, there should only be one queen in the house....your wife )
Israf with dressing should be relative to your status, however if you have money don't
flaunt it
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
Evolution of a Muslim identity is what we are facing, we are living through a gray area
because we don't have a distinct cultural identity. We should take the clothes of our
society and "Islamify" it, the sunnah is to conform to the attire of the people in your
society as long as all shari'a requirements are met.
When it comes to covering there are two levels:
1. a covering in front of Mahrams
2. a covering forleaving the house
The minimum one can show a mahram goes back to what is acceptable in one's culture
May Allah bless those sisters who have started on their journey to proper hijab by
adopting the khimaar... they need our encouragement and support in adopting the
minimum of khimaar and jilbab. So don't push them away, rather, invite them to do more
and become better!
Covering the head FOR MEN is not sunnah, but mubaah
Do not judge a person by the length of his beard
The shariah did not dictate a length for the beard
When it comes to men wearing earrings or necklaces/chains, just think:
WOULD A RESPECTABLE MAN OF SOCIETY DO THIS?
(for example, could you see your president or a businessman doing such things?)
Look at the perfect ettiquettes and manners of the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam):
After conquering Makkah, Abu Bakr (radiallahu anhu) picked up his old father, Abu
Qahafa, to the Prophet.
The Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: Why didn't you leave the shaykh (old man)
at home? I would have come myself...
Abu Qahafa hated Islam and the Muslims. But after this meeting, he accepted Islam
immediately- JUST BECAUSE OF THE PROPHET'S EXCELLENT MANNERS!

By the way, Shaykh Yasir mentioned that the eyebrows are quite a strict matter because
even if a woman is wearing niqab, that area is showing... and if the eyebrows are shaped,
it causes attraction, and the first interaction is always through eye contact
So be careful. Women who do their eyebrows are cursed. May Allah forgive us.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
Shaykh Yasir reading a question: If I find a sister in hijab very attractive, should I tell her
to wear niqab?
::Everyone bursts out in laughter::
Answer: No, just lower your gaze.
It is more of a Sunnah to dress up in the dress of the culture YOU belong to.
Allah will judge a person based on their knowledge...NOT YOURS!
The Prophet (saw) did not start a fashion revolution...he wore the same clothes as the Quraysh.
Something to think about: If you looked at the scene of the Battle of Badr from a far
distance. You wouldn't be able to tell the difference between Abu Lahab and the Sahaba
(based on physical appearance).
What the Quran calls khimar, we call hijab. What the Quran calls hijab, was meant only for the Ummahatul
Mu'mineen in gatherings.
"I never saw any women more eager to implement the hijab (when the ruling came down) then the women
of Ansar" Aisha radiAllahu anha
The hadith of "imitation" comes into play, when you go OUTSIDE of your culture to do so.
The prophet loved white and is reported to have said: Dress your living in it and shroud your
dead in it
The word khumur (khimar/headscarf) comes from the same root as khamr (alcohol).
Khamr means "takes 'aqal (mind) away" and khumr means "to cover the 'aqal"
It is in the fitrah of modest people to be shy of showing their 'awrah.
Durin Musa's time, the people of Bani Israel would take baths in front of each other (men
in front of men and women in front of women). However, Musa (alayhis salaam) would be
too shy. Therefore, the people began making fun of him, saying he had a defect.
[Subhanallah! How can a people be so vulgar with their own prophet!?!]
To save Musa's honor, one day while bathing, Musa (alayhis salaam) put his clothes on the
rock and Allah caused the rock to move away. Musa began chasing the rock and passed in
front of the people who saw that there were no defects in him.
>>Musa then gave the rock such a beating that to this day, the rock has 6-7 marks!
It is makrooh to pluck white hair.
One hadith states: Do not pluck the grey/white hairs as they are a Muslim's light. Never a
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
Muslim grows grey in Islam except that Allah writes for him, due to that, a good deed.
And He raises him a degree. And He erases for him, due to that, one of his sins.
Hijab curbs perverted behavior, and increases modesty.
We are told to show hayya even in front of Allah, meaning when we are alone. So if we are
to show hayya in front of Allah, then what about the people??
With regards to niqab, there is no ikhtilaf over whether its makruh or haram, but the
ikhtilaf is whether its mustahabb or wajib!
I didn't want to stop here Alhumdulillah!
Ijma' (consensus) is the strongest evidence in the shari'ah.
And by ijma'... the entire body of a woman is considered awrah. (Of course, the differences
come in with the face, hands, and feet.)
Concerning the 'awrah of men, the Malikis said that there is the extreme 'awrah and the
relaxed 'awrah. The extreme consists of the private parts, and the relaxed is the thighs.
Therefore, it is not a sin if the thighs do unintentionally show, but they should be
otherwise covered.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
Notes: DETAILED
------------------------------
Section III:
Miscellaneous Issues
p. 29
1) The Status of Alcohol
Allah has prohibited khamr, not alcohol. Anything with an OH radical is alcohol,
but that is not what Allah prohibits. Some types of alcohol are not for drinking;
forget intoxicating, they will kill you if you drink it! The Shariah prohibits khamr, which is
one type of alcohol the definition of which is that which intoxicates. Only those drinks
that intoxicate are prohibited.
Narrated Ibn ''Umar :
'Umar delivered a sermon on the pulpit of Allah's Apostle, saying, "Alcoholic
drinks were prohibited by Divine Order, and these drinks used to be prepared from five
things, i.e., grapes, dates, wheat, barley and honey. Alcoholic drink is that which disturbs
the mind." 'Umar added, "I wish Allah's Apostle had not left us before he had given us
definite verdicts concerning three matters, i.e., how much a grandfather may inherit (of his
grandson), the inheritance of Al-Kalala (the deceased person among whose heirs there is
no father or son), and various types of Riba(1 ) (usury) ."
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 69, Number 493]
General guideline: Whatever intoxicates in large quantities is prohibited in small
quantities (An-Nasai)
The prophet said:
Anything which intoxicates in a large quantity is prohibited even in a small quantity.
[Sunan Ibn Majah: Volume 3, Book of Intoxicants, Chapter 30 Hadith No. 3392]
Large quantity means that a reasonable human can get drunk on about 7-8 glass, not
drinking like 100 glasses then getting drunk.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
What if the presence of khamr is not to the level of intoxication, but there is still a
significant presence of it in a product.
The issue here is: Is khamr najas?
First Opinion: Alcoholic Drinks are Najas
Four schools, ibn Hazm . There is almost ijma on this opinion.
1. Their strongest evidence:
O You who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), gambling, AlAnsb , and Al-
Azlm (arrows for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of Shaitn's (Satan)
handiwork. so avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) In order that You may be successful.
[Surah Al-Maidah: 90]
Rijs means spiritually and physically filthy. So are the gambling chips, the idols, and the
arrows najas as well? Common sense tells you theyre not and you can touch them.
Therefore, they say the default is that they all are physically impure since that is what rijs
means but since we have evidence that the idols, the chips and the arrows are not, they are
the exception, but there is nothing to exclude alcohol so that remains under the rule and is
considered najas.
2. The command to wash dishes of Ahl Al-Kitab because they eat pig and drink wine.
Narrated Abu Tha'laba Al-Khushani :
I said, "O Allah's Messenger! We are living in a land ruled by the people of the
Scripture; Can we take our meals in their utensils? In that land there is plenty of
game and I hunt the game with my bow and with my hound that is not trained and
with my trained hound. Then what is lawful for me to eat?" He said, "As for what you
have mentioned about the people of the Scripture, if you can get utensils other
than theirs, do not eat out of theirs, but if you cannot get other than theirs,
wash their utensils and eat out of it. If you hunt an animal with your bow after
mentioning Allah's Name, eat of it. and if you hunt something with your trained
hound after mentioning Allah's Name, eat of it, and if you hunt something with your
untrained hound (and get it before it dies) and slaughter it, eat of it."
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 67, Number 387]
Pig and wine arent in the hadeeth but the scholars reasoned that it was due to these
factors that the prophet commanded us to wash their utensils first because
traces could be left.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
3. It is prohibited in the strictest of terms, hence must be najas.
Allah made it so haram (haram haram) that it must be najas.
4. In Jannah, Allah describes wine as:
Their garments will be of fine green silk, and gold embroidery. they will be adorned
with bracelets of silver, and their Lord will give them a tahur drink.
[Surah Al-Insan: 21]
Since Allah describes the wine of that jannah to be tahur, the wine of this
jannah must be najas or else Allah wouldnt specify.
Second Opinion: Alcoholic Drinks are Not Najas. Very minority opinion throughout out
history
Rabia, al-Muzani, Adh-Dhahiri, Ibn Uthaymeen, Ash-Shaukani, among others: it is not
allowed to drink, but it is not physically impure.
1. The base ruling is that all things are pure unless explicit evidence otherwise; there is
no explicit evidence here.
They say the other scholars are reading in to the evidence, none of them are explicit
and the general rule is that everything is pure unless stated otherwise.
Refuting their evidences:
1. [Surah Al-Maidah: 90]: you yourself admit all the rest (the idols, chips and
arrows) are not najas, so why make khamr najas? The others arent the
exception to the rule, they are the rule.
2. Utensils of Ahl Al-Kitab: you assume its because khamr is najas, but there is
no proof that says so.
3. Haram haram: Shirk is prohibited even more strongly, in stronger terms, but
the idols are not najas.
4. Wine of Jannah: we agree the wine of this world is not tahur (pure and
purifying); it is tahir (pure but not purifying).
2. Action of the companions in pouring wine into the streets of Madinah.
Anas b. Malik reported:
I was the cup-bearer of some people in the house of Abu Talha on the day when liquor was
forbidden. Their liquor had been prepared from dry dates or fresh dates when the
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announcer made the announcement. He (Abu Talha) said to me: Go out and find out (what
the announcement is). I got out (and found) an announcer making this announcement:
Behold, liquor has been declared unlawful. He said: The liquor (was spilt and) flowed in
the lanes of Medina. Abu Talha said to me: Go out and Spill it, and I spilt it. They said
or some of them said: Such and such were killed, such and such were killed for (the wine)
had been in their stomachs. He (the narrator) said. I do not know whether it is the
narration transmitted by Anas, (or by someone else). Then Allah, the Exalted and Majestic,
revealed:" There shall be no sin (imputed) unto those who have believed and done good
works for what they may have eaten as long as they fear (Allah) and believe and do good
works" (v. 93).
[Sahih Muslim: Book 023, Number 4882]
Why would they pour najas onto the streets? It is haram to pour najas where the people
would have to walk. This shows that the sahaba understood that khamr was prohibited to
drink, but it wasnt najas, and if this was their interpretation and it was wrong, the prophet
wouldve corrected them.
Sh. YQ: this issue needs to be revisited. The classical 'ulema just assumed it was najas and
left it at that because it was very easy in their society to say that khamr is najas they
didnt have to deal with it to the extent that we do today. It didnt affect them like it affects
us today. The latter position (that alcohol is not najas) seems to have some very strong
evidences on its side, especially that of the sahaba pouring wine into the streets this is
very strong because they wouldnt pour najas into the streets.
Conclusion:
small quantities that are not intoxicating in products that if you were to drink
a large quantity of the product, you wouldnt be intoxicated.IF there is a
genuine need, e.g. cough syrup: theres alcohol in it, if we drink bottles of it, it
wouldnt make us drunk (though it probably wont make us better) and it is a
medical necessity.
Most alcohol in lotions, etc. is ethanol it doesnt intoxicate, it kills! You cant
drink it, but you can use it.
Most of the alcohol in substances is not produced by fermentation; they are
manufactured in a lab.
p. 30
2) Chemical Changes (istihala)
e.g. Pig: if it undergoes a complete change in chemical composition, is it still najas or is it
permitted?
First Opinion: Chemical Change Does Not Purify Except in Specific Circumstances
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Majority position of the Malikis, Shafiees, Hanbalis. Exceptions:
1. Wine changing to vinegar by itself (almost ijma)
Vinegar comes from wine. You cant have vinegar without it having first been wine.
Red wine etc is just the type of wine it was changed to vinegar from.
The prophet used to eat vinegar.
Narrated A'isha :
Allah's Apostle said: The best of condiments or condiment is vinegar.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 22, Number 5091]
The prophet would eat bread and vinegar
Jabir b. 'Abdullah reported:
Allah's Messenger took hold of my hand one day (and led me) to his
residence. There was presented to him some pieces of bread, whereupon he said: Is there
no condiment? They (the members of his household) said: No, except some vinegar. He (the
Holy Prophet) said: Vinegar is a good condiment. Jabir said: I have always loved vinegar
since I heard it trom Allah's Apostle
. Talha said: I have always loved vinegar since I heard about it from Jabir.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 023, Number 5094]
It is not allowed to purchase wine and turn it into vinegar by adding stuff, etc.
Abu Talhah reported that he asked the prophet about orphans who
had inherited wine and the prophet said, "Pour it out." He asked if he might not
make vinegar of it and he told him he must not.
[Related Muslim, Abu Dawud & at-Tirmidhi]
If it is done intentionally, the vinegar is haram. Human intervention in the process of
making vinegar makes it najas.
2. Tanning of leather for dead animals (except for Hanbalis)
Abdullah b. Abbas said:
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I heard the Apostle of Allah say: When the skin is tanned it becomes
purified.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 003, Number 0710]
Second Opinion: A Chemical Change Purifies An Impure Substance
Held by the Hanafis, Dhahiris, some Malikis, Ibn Taymiyyah and others
Even if the origin is najas, chemical change changes the substance because chemical change
is permanent. It makes the product pure. Just because a product comes from a najas source
doesnt make the product najas.
Gelatin: included in products to give them a viscous (jelly-like) density. It is extracted from
bone ligaments and then transformed so that it can be put into other products. However, it
is haram because they mostly get it from animals (pigs) and it doesnt undergo a chemical
transformation; it only undergoes a physical transformation so that it can be incorporated
into the other product.
1. What a great condiment is vinegar [Muslim]
Narrated A'isha :
Allah's Apostle said: The best of condiments or condiment is vinegar.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 22, Number 5091]
2. Whatever skin is tanned has become purified [Abu Dawud]
Abdullah b. Abbas said:
I heard the Apostle of Allah say: When the skin is tanned it becomes
purified.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 003, Number 0710]
3. Change of name
4. Extremely small quantities of impurities (istihlak)
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The shari'ah doesnt concern itself with extremely small quantities of najas. The
amount of the substance, such as enzymes used in a reaction, etc that is used is so
insignificant that the shari'ah disregards it. This is a practical religion something
absolutely so trivial is not taken into consideration the shari'ah is not that
ludicrous.
Sunday, January 11
th
, 2009
Section IV:
The Fiqh of Mens Clothing
p. 32
Mens Awrah
Awrah comes from the root a-wa-ra which means something to be embarrassed, ashamed
about. Your awrah is what you should be embarrassed about and to show in public.
O Children of Adam! we have bestowed raiment upon You to cover yourselves (screen Your
private parts, etc.) and as an adornment, and the raiment of righteousness, that is better.
such are among the Ayt (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of
Allh, that they may Remember (i.e. leave falsehood and follow Truth ).
[Surah Al-Araf: 26]
No other animal wears clothes except for Bani Adam. Allah has raised us above
other animals and honored us and given us clothes to wear. This ayah also tells us the
purpose of clothing:
1. To cover your awrah
2. It is a means of looking good and beautiful
3. The clothing of taqwa is better because that is what will save us on the Day of
Judgment
Bahz b. Hakim asked:
O Messenger of Allah ! What are we allowed to show of our awra? He
replied, Guard your awra except with your wife or right-hand possession. I asked, O
Messenger of Allah ! What if the people are tightly congested? He said, If
you are able to hide it such that no one sees, do so. I asked, O Messenger of Allah
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! What if we are alone? He replied, Allah has more right that you should be
ashamed of Him than of other people
[At-Tirmidhi]
Do what you can and Allah will forgive the rest.
Dont go around naked even if you are alone. Walking around naked even while youre
alone puts a sense of immodesty in you. Walking around with clothes inculcates a sense of
hayaa in you.
Obviously of course if you need to show of your awrah for a medical reason to a medical
doctor, thats forgiven because its a necessity.
Let no man look at the awra of another man, nor a woman at the awra of another woman
[Sahih Muslim]
This hadeeth specifies the same gender because in jahily society clothes were only worn in
front of the other gender.
The Christian and the Jews do this and we make fun of them but we shouldnt because their
shari'ah allows this. We know this from the hadeeth about Musa :
Narrated Abu Huraira :
Allah's Apostle said, "(The Prophet) Moses was a shy person and used to cover his body
completely because of his extensive shyness. One of the children of Israel hurt him by
saying, 'He covers his body in this way only because of some defect in his skin, either
leprosy or scrotal hernia, or he has some other defect.' Allah wished to clear Moses of what
they said about him, so one day while Moses was in seclusion, he took off his clothes and
put them on a stone and started taking a bath. When he had finished the bath, he moved
towards his clothes so as to take them, but the stone took his clothes and fled; Moses picked
up his stick and ran after the stone saying, 'O stone! Give me my garment!' Till he reached a
group of Bani Israel who saw him naked then, and found him the best of what Allah had
created, and Allah cleared him of what they had accused him of. The stone stopped there
and Moses took and put his garment on and started hitting the stone with his stick. By
Allah, the stone still has some traces of the hitting, three, four or five marks. This was what
Allah refers to in His Saying:-- "O you who believe! Be you not like those Who annoyed
Moses, But Allah proved his innocence of that which they alleged, And he was honorable In
Allah's Sight." (33.69)
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 4, Book 55, Number 616]
It was fine for them to bathe in the same area. However prophet Musa was too shy
to take off his clothes in front of them. This shows that it is a perfection of eman to be shy
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because the prophets have perfected eman. In our shari'ah it is a perfection of eman, but
not in their shari'ah.
Allah protects the arwah in this way, and He protects it in other ways as well e.g.
seeking permission before entering someone elses room/house.
Narrated Sahl bin Sa'd :
A man peeped through a round hole into the dwelling place of the Prophet, while the
Prophet had a Midray (an iron comb) with which he was scratching his head. the Prophet
said, " Had known you were looking (through the hole), I would have pierced your eye with
it (i.e., the comb)." Verily! The order of taking permission to enter has been enjoined
because of that sight, (that one should not look unlawfully at the state of others). (See
Hadith No. 807, Vol. 7)
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 8, Book 74, Number 258]
The prophet spoke very harshly- he would not have spoken so harshly except for a
severe matter.
What is awrah for a man?
First Opinion: The two private parts only
i.e. the front and the back.
Dhahiri Madhab
1.
So He misled them with deception. Then when they tasted of the tree, that which was
hidden from them of their shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began
to stick together the leaves of Paradise over themselves (in order to cover their shame).
and their Lord called out to them (saying): "Did I not forbid You that tree and tell you:
Verily, Shaitn (Satan) is an open enemy unto you?"
[Surah Al-Araf: 22]
This verse says shaytan caused the two private parts to be exposed.
2.
It has been narrated on the authority of Anas that the Messenger of Allah
raided Khaibar. One morning we offered prayers in the darkness of early dawn (near
Khaibar). Then the Messenger of Allah mounted (his horse). Abu Talha
mounted his and I mounted behind Abu Talha on the same horse. The Prophet of Allah rode
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through the streets of Khaibar and (I rode so close to him) that my knee touched the thigh
of the Prophet of Allah.
The wrapper got aside from his thigh, and I could see its whiteness. When he entered the town,
he said: God is Great. Khaibar shall face destruction. When we descend in the city-square of a
people, it is a bad day for them who have been warned (and have not taken heed). He said these
words thrice. The people of the town had just come out from (their houses) to go about their jobs.
They said (in surprise): Muhammad has come. We captured Khaibar by force.
[Sahih Muslim:
Book 019, Number 4437]
His thigh the whiteness means the inside of the upper thigh was exposed and he didnt
cover it up.
3.
A'isha reports:
The prophet was lying down in his house with his thighs or his calves exposes. Abu
Bakr asked permission to enter and was permitted while the Prophet (sas) was in that
position and he came in and spoke with him. Then, Umar asked permission to enter. He
was granted permission and came in and spoke with him while in that position. Then,
Uthman asked permission and the prophet sat up and straightened his clothing. He
was then permitted and came in and spoke with the prophet . After he had gone,
Aisha said: Abu Bakr entered and you did not get up for him or worry about him and Umar
came in and you did not get up for him nor worry about him but when Uthman came in, you
straightened out your clothing! The prophet said: Should I not be shy of a man
around whom the angels are shy?
[Sahih Al-Bukhari]
He only covered it up for Uthman because he was so shy but didnt for Abu Bakr
and 'Umar because he knew they wouldnt mind.
Second Opinion: Between navel and knee
Is the thigh inclusive of the navel and the knee? 4 opinions (logically)
i.
Includes both navel and knee
ii.
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Includes navel but not knee
iii.
Includes knee but not navel
iv.
Excludes both navel and knee
Reported Jurhad,
"The Messenger of Allah passed by me when the cloak I was wearing was a little bit off my
thigh. He said, 'Cover your thigh, for it (is part of) `Awrah."
[Ahmad, Abu Dawood, At-Tirmidhi]
On the authority of `Uqbah ibn `Alqamah, on the authority of `Ali, who said:
the Messenger of Allah said, "The knee is [part] of the nakedness."
[Ad-Daraqutni]
The Dhahiri consider this hadeeth to be weak.
The majority of muhadditheen consider it hasan and this is the strongest position.
The Maliki madhab differentiates between
i.
Awrah mughallada (extreme awrah), and
ii.
Awrah mukhaffafah (lesser awrah)
While both must be covered, they are not as strict about awrah mukhaffafah.
So what about the prophet s thighs being shown? A man should not intentionally
expose his thigh. He was riding for a long time, it was probably by accident.
The scholars are in agreement that covering the awrah does not include tight or
transparent clothing there is absolute ijmaa on this. Tight or transparent clothing is
considered nakedness (covered but not wearing clothes) according to the shari'ah.
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Clothing
Silk and Gold
Ali reported that the prophet took some silk in his right hand and some
gold in his left, declaring, "These two are haramfor the males among my followers but halal
for the females."
[Ahmad, Abu Dawud, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Hibban, and Ibn Majah]
Since he picked it up, this shows that you can touch it, buy it, sell it, trade in it, give a
present to your wife, etc, just not wear it yourself.
Hudhayfah b. Al-Yaman,
The prophet forbade us from eating and drinking in gold and silver utensils, and from
wearing and sitting on silk
[Sahih Al-Bukhari]
Even having a cushion of silk is not permissible for men.
Scholars say it is because these items are very feminine and not befitting the men of this
ummah. They are items worn by men who are vain. It is a sign of luxury and pride and this
should not be a part of the character of our men.
Narrated Hudhaifa b Al-Yaman :
The prophet said, "Do not drink in gold or silver utensils, and do not wear clothes of
silk or Dibaj, for these things are for them (unbelievers) in this world and for you in the
Hereafter."
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 69, Number 537]
'Umar reported that he heard the prophet say,
"Do not wear silk, for those who wear it in this life shall not wear it in the Hereafter."
[Muttafaq Alay]
It is for them in this life and for us in the akhira.
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p. 33
- Wearing ties?
If the tie had any religious significance in the past, there is none today, and Shaykh Yasir
has found no religious significance of the tie at all. So the issue is, is a small amount of silk
allowed to wear?
Silk is allowed to wear for medical purposes (if the other material is too harsh for your
skin). Jabir s skin was irritated wearing cotton (because it is harsh_ so the
prophet allowed him to wear silk.
Narrated Anas:
The Prophet allowed Az-Zubair and 'Abdur-Rahman to wear silk because they were
suffering from an itch
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 72, Number 730]
Narrated Aba 'Uthman An-Nahdi:
While we were with 'Utba bin Farqad at Adharbijan, there came 'Umar's letter indicating
that Allah's Apostle had forbidden the use of silk except this much, then he pointed with his
index and middle fingers. To our knowledge, by that he meant embroidery.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 72, Number 718]
This isnt a garment made of silk, but rather silk embroidery. The prophet wore a
garment embroidered at the bottom in silk on the Day of Eid.
Ties are a small amount of silk so the shari'ah would overlook it, and most ties are now
synthetic silk, and the issue is real silk. Nothing silk is really silk today. It is very, very rare
to find a garment made of real silk.
- Small amount of gold or silver?
It is allowed a small amount for mending utensils but the entire vessel should not be made
of gold or silver.
Narrated 'Asim al-Ahwal:
I saw the drinking bowl of the Prophet with Anas bin Malik, and it had been broken, and he
had mended it with silver plates. That drinking bowl was quite wide and made of Nadar
wood, Anas said, "I gave water to the Prophet in that bowl more than so-and-so (for a long
period)." Ibn Sirin said: Around that bowl there was an iron ring, and Anas wanted to
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replace it with a silver or gold ring, but Abu Talha said to him, "Do not change a thing that
Allah's Apostle has made." So Anas left it as it was.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 69, Number 542]
Gold is allowed if there is a good reason, especially if the reason is medical. One of the
companions of the prophet s nose was chopped off in battle. The prophet allowed
him to make a new nose made of silver. However, after a while, this nose rotted, so the
prophet allowed him to wear a nose made of gold.
Hanbali, Shafiee, Maliki: If the gold is for decorational purposes, it is forbidden in any
amount for men.
Hanafi/ Ibn Taymiyyah: small amounts of gold is allowed
Once the prophet wore a beautiful cloak on Friday that had traces of gold decoration
on it, gifted to him by a neighboring ruler, and the people said, We have never seen any
garment like this! To which the prophet replied, Are you impressed with this?!
Verily, the handkerchief of Sad b. Muadh in Paradise is better than what you see
[At-Tirmidhi]
Look at the eman of the prophet that his mind was still on the akhira. That is eman. He
took advantage of what Allah allowed him but his mind was on something else.
His heart wasnt attached to the garment, but on Allah .
So a small amount is allowed.
Prohibited Colors?
The prophet wore many colors. His favorite color was white.
Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas :
The prophet said: Wear your white garments, for they are among your best garments,
and shroud your dead in them. Among the best types of collyrium you use is antimony
(ithmid) for it clears the vision and makes the hair sprout.
[Sahih al-Bukhari: Book 32, Number 4050]
Women: allowed whatever color.
Men: Disagreement over red.
Muslim states that it must be because of the saffron-dye.
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Opinion #1: Red is prohibited.
Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As:
We came down with the Apostle of Allah from a turning of a valley. He
turned his attention to me and I was wearing a garment dyed with a reddish yellow dye. He
asked: What is this garment over you? I recognised what he disliked. I then came to my
family who were burning their oven. I threw it (the garment) in it and came to him the next
day. He asked: Abdullah, what have you done with the garment? I informed him about it. He
said: Why did you not give it to one of your family to wear, for there is no harm in it for
women.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Book 32, Number 4055]
The prophet forbade us from wearing red leather and silk [al-Bukhari]
Abdullah bin 'Amr bin Al-As came to the prophet wearing two saffron-dyed
garments. The prophet said, These are the clothes of the disbelievers, so do not wear
them [Sahih Muslim]
Opinion #2: Hanafi, Shafiee, Hanbali: the above opinion was abrogated by the following
hadeeth.
Amir bin 'Amr Al-Ansari said,
I saw the prophet deliver the sermon at Mina, on a donkey, wearing a red cloak, and
Ali was in front of him repeating [the speech]
[Abu Dawud]
Since this was at hajj, this was one of the final acts of the prophet .
Opinion #3: Some Hanafiyyah, Ibn Taymiyyah: wearing an entire red garment is haram.
Can wear 1 piece e.g. a red shirt with a blue jeans, etc. as long as the entire outfit isnt red.
Jabir ibn Samura narrated that he once saw the Prophet
on a night of full moon wearing a red mantle. He said: "I began to look at him then at the
moon. Verily he seemed to me more beautiful than the moon itself."
[At-Tirmidhi]
Avoid wearing a whole outfit of red.
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The jumhoor opinion is that the command was abrogated, so dont make a big deal about it
if someones wearing red.
p. 34
Covering the head?
Is it waajib to wear a topee? The prophet was never seen without a head covering
except during hajj. But there is no authentic hadeeth in which he commands people to do
this. It was the custom of his people, so he followed the custom and it is not a part of our
religion.
Ash- Shatibi said: [Customs] change matters from something praiseworthy to
something blameworthy, and vice versa. For example, uncovering the head, for this is an
issue that varies from place to place. In Eastern lands, it is something frowned upon for
people of stature [murua], while in Western lands, it is not. Therefore, the Islamic ruling on
it changes from place to place, and in Eastern lands, it would be taken into account for
considering someone not worthy, while this would not be the case in Western lands [Al-
Muwafaqat, 2/284].
It is a mubah item.
Issue of
isbal
Isbal comes from the root: sabala, which is the same root as sabil (path). It means lowering
the garment below the ankles.
The people of those days would have one garment which they wore all the time. Thus, it
was a custom of the time to wear them high to keep them clean because dirty meant they
had to be washed, meaning they would wear out faster. However, those with wealth would
wear their garments low to flaunt that they could afford to get this garment messy, theres
plenty more at home. It was a fashion statement of the time to practice isbal. When this
concept of lowering the garment due to pride became widespread, the prophet
forbade it.

If a man practices isbal out of pride: major sin by unanimous consensus

If a man practices isbal out of habit/custom and not pride (it is inconceivable for a Western
Muslim to lower his garment out of pride):
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1.
Haram [ibn Hajar, ibn Al-Arabi, minority in other madhahib]
2. Makruh [ibn Taymiyyah, An-Nawawi, standard position of all four
madhahib]
In Adab Ash-Shari'ah, it is narrated that Imam Abu Hanifa was wearing an expensive
garment that touched the ground. When a student asked if this is not forbidden, Imam Abu
Hanifa replied: it is forbidden for those showing off, and we are not of them.
-> Imam Abu Hanifa was an aristocratic Persian. It was of his class and culture to dress that
way.
In AnNawawis Al-Majmoo, Imam Shafiee said that isbal is not allowed in prayer and out
but if it is not done out of pride, it is not haram.
p. 35
Evidence of the minority position:
Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar :
The prophet said: Allah will not look, on the Day of Resurrection at the person who
drags his garment (behind him) out of conceit. On that Abu Bakr said, "O Allah's Apostle!
One side of my Izar hangs low if I do not take care of it." The Prophet said, You are not one
of those who do that out of conceit."
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 72, Number 675]
Majority: he was not doing it out of arrogance
Minority: he wasnt doing it deliberately; he couldnt help it and the other ahadith do not
mention arrogance.
Narrated Abu Huraira :
The prophet said, "The part of an Izar which hangs below the ankles is in the Fire."
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 72, Number 678]
Evidence of the majority position:

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Considering the unconditional hadeeth [mutlaq] as being conditional [muqayyad] to
arrogance.
Ibn 'Umar reported Allah's Messenger having said:
He who trails his (lower) garment out of pride, Allah will not look toward him on the Day of
Resurrection.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 024, Number 5193]
The point is not the trailing, its the arrogance. He gave Abu Bakr a reason: you
dont do it out of arrogance. Theres an illah attached to the command.

Some of the salaf understood that if it was done for a valid reason, it would be permissible
Abdullah ibn Mas'ud (one of the narrators of the hadeeth that doesnt have out
of arrogance ), after the death of the prophet , was seen wearing a garment that went
all the way to the bottom. When he was asked about it he replied: I am a man with skinny
legs.
This was a legitimate reason, and he understood that the ruling applies unless theres a legitimate
reason.

Cultural significance of isbal in the past


Abu Ayyub As-Sikhtiani: in the days of the past, fame was achieved by lengthening it. In our
time, fame is achieved by shortening it.
The illal is not being met in this way.
And if youre wearing your pants long, dont roll it up right before salah, because you may be
breaking another command: the prophet forbade folding the clothes before prayer.
Wear the same clothes in prayer.
p. 36
Guess Who?
How necessary is it to grow a beard?
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How haram is it to shave a beard?
p. 37
A'isha reported:
The Messenger of Allah said: Ten are the acts according to fitra: clipping the
moustache, letting the beard grow, using the tooth-stick, snuffing water in the nose, cutting
the nails, washing the barajim (finger joints), plucking the hair under the armpits, shaving
the pubes and cleaning one's private parts with water. The narrator said: I have forgotten
the tenth, but it may have been rinsing the mouth.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 002, Number 0502; Muttafaq Alay]
It would go against our nature to leave any of these things. It goes against the natural order
of things.
Some scholars also use the following verse as proof for the beard:
He [Hrn (Aaron)] said: "O son of My mother! seize (me) not by My beard, nor by My
head! Verily, I feared lest You should say: 'You have caused a division among the Children
of Israel, and You have not respected My word!' "
[Surah TaHa: 94]
And Allah commands us to follow the prophets.
But this is a stretch as is using the following verse:
And indeed we have honoured the Children of Adam, and we have carried them on land and
sea, and have provided them with At-Taiyibt (Lawful good things), and have preferred
them above many of those whom we have created with a marked preference.
[Surah Al-Israa: 70]
The honor of men is the beards, and of women is their long hair.
Narrated Nafi':
Ibn Umar said, The prophet said, 'Do the opposite of what the pagans do. Keep the
beards and cut the moustaches short.' Whenever Ibn 'Umar performed the Hajj or 'Umra,
he used to hold his beard with his hand and cut whatever moustaches. Ibn Umar used to cut
his moustache so short that the whiteness of his skin (above the upper lip) was visible, and
he used to cut (the hair) between his moustaches and his beard.
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[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 72, Number 780]
Juzush sha wa in -> trim the moustache.
The Hanafiyya say shaving is preferable (though not a MUST).
The beard = masculinity in all cultures of the past.
Ijmaa: it is obligatory to grow a beard. If our religion tells us to do it, then too bad if people
make fun of you.
What exactly is a
lihya?
Lihya: comes from the word laha so scholars agree that lihya is the hair that grows on the
laha.
What is the laha? (Opinions of the linguists who we turn to because this is their area of
expertise)

All linguists agree that hair on the chin is part of the Arabic word.

Vast majority include hair on the cheekbones as well.

Vast majority also state that the hair below the eyes and on the throat is not a part of the lihya.

Difference of opinion regarding hair below the chin and above the throat.
p. 38
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The Beard
Opinions of Scholars Regarding keeping a Beard
1.
It is obligatory (wajib) to grow a beard
Vast majority of scholars, of all times, and all madhahib, so much so that some
scholars such as Ibn Hazm declared there to be ijma on this issue.
Imam Ash-Shafiee in
Kitab Al-Um: explicitly mentions its obligatory to grow a beard.
There are 8 opinions of the length

Haram to trim it in any fashion or form


Hardly any scholar of the past. This is a very modern opinion made popular by one modern
scholar.

Makruh to trim
An-Nawawi in Al-Majmoo; the standard opinion of the Shafiee madhab.

Permissible to trim more than a fistful only during Hajj and Umrah
One position within the Shafiee madhab.

Permissible to trim more than a fistful at any time


It is makruh to trim less than a fistful: Hanbali madhab

Mustahab to trim beyond a fistful


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Makruh to trim less: Hanafi

Mustahab to trim if it becomes an object of pride and fame (shuhra): Maliki

Wajib to trim it after a fistful


You are sinful if you do not trim it after a fistful.
This opinion was unheard of before the 1970s. No scholar ever said this before.

Permissible to trim to a reasonable length


The length is not dictated by the shari'ah. Grow something you call a beard but it is mustahab to
grow a fistful.
p. 39
2.
It is recommended (mustahab) to grow a beard, and shaving it completely is
makruh
Minority position with Shafiee school; ascribed (?) to Al-Ghazali, An-Nawawi, and
Al-Rafii, and these three are considered the main pillars of the modern Sahfiee
school .
Do not judge the religiosity of a person by the length of his beard.
Etiquettes of the beards

Take care of it in a healthy manner between the two extremes


Not taking care of it vs. considering it the most important aspect of you, i.e. being frivolous.
Narrated AbuHurayrah:
The prophet said: He who has hair should honour it.
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[Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 33, Number 4151]

Makruh to pluck white hair


Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As:
The Apostle of Allah said: Do not pluck out grey hair. If any believer grows a
grey hair in Islam, he will have light on the Day of Resurrection. (This is Sufyan's version).
Yahya's version says: Allah will record on his behalf a good deed for it, and will blot out a
sin for it.
[Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 33, Number 4190]

Haram or makruh to dye with black without a valid reason


This gives a false impression of you being young.
Jaabir ibn Abdullah reported that Abu Quhaafah was brought on the day of the conquest of
Makkah, and his head and beard were white like "thaghaamah" (a plant whose flowers and
fruit are white). The Messenger of Allah (Peace & Blessings of Allah be upon Him) said:
"Change this with something, but avoid black."
[Muslim]
Narrated AbuDharr:
The prophet said: The best things with which grey hair are changed are henna and
katam.
[Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 33, Number 4193]
Other Guidelines
Imitating the Opposite Gender
This is prohibited for both genders. It is haram to imitate the opposite gender.
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas :
The prophet cursed effeminate men (those men who are in the similitude (assume the
manners of women) and those women who assume the manners of men, and he said, "Turn
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them out of your houses ." The Prophet turned out such-and-such man, and 'Umar turned
out such-and-such woman.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 72, Number 774]
In another version, he cursed al-mukhanithin and al-mutarajjilat [Ahmad]
Al- Mukhanithin: men who act like women
Al-Mutarajjilat: women who act like men.
-> what is considered as dressing of the opposite gender changes from culture to culture. It
is of this culture for women to wear pants. There are womens pants and mens pants. It is
not Islamic for her to wear them outside her home but in her home she can wear them in
front of her maharim. It is the custom of the place.
In some other cultures it is masculine for a woman to wear pants so the 'ulema say then it
would be prohibited for her to wear pants at all; also, if her husband/father dislikes her to
dress that way at home, then it is forbidden to her.
p. 40
Imitating other cultures
Abdullah b 'Umar narrates that Allahs Messenger said:
Whoever tashabbah [imitates] a people is from them.
[Abu Dawud]
What does it mean to imitate other cultures? Did the prophet start a fashion
revolution and discard the dress of his culture? NO! He followed his custom, which was the
custom of his people of Quraysh. If you were an onlooker at the Battle of Badr, you would
not be able to tell the difference between Quraysh and the Muslims, because they were of
the same culture and thus, dressed the same way.
This hadeeth comes into place when a group of people imitate a foreign culture. Its a
relative thing. If a Saudi youth were to dress up in American clothes, this would be
imitation because he has no need for such clothes; it is not the clothes of his people; of what
point is it other than imitation to discard your own culture and wear what a people halfway
across the world wear. On the other hand, if a youth growing up in NY wears the clothes of
the American culture, hes not imitating another culture, hes merely dressing the way
everyone else around him dresses. Hes wearing the clothes of his culture, his people. Its
going out of your way vs. doing what everyone else around you does.
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Can you look GQ? To a certain extent, yes. To a certain extent because Muslims should not
be so obsessed with the latest fashion trends but if its the culture, you can dress that way.
A Muslim should look dignified. It is not extra Sunnah to wear a thoube in North America.
Fit in with your people to the extent that it doesnt break the laws of the shari'ah.
A Lebanese man came to Shaykh Uthaymeen and asked him: Shaykh, is it okay to wear a
pant and shirt? Shaykh Uthaymeen was busy with something so he just said yes, assuming
the man was Lebanese. As the man was about to leave he called him back and said, Wait
come back! Where are you from? The man replied, Lebanon. The Shaykh then confirmed
his previous fatwa, saying: okay, yes its okay for you. The reason the Shaykh asked was
because these types of fatwa are dependent upon culture.
'Abdullah b. 'Amr b. al-As reported:
Allah's Messenger saw me wearing two clothes dyed in saffron. Whereupon
he said: These are the clothes (usually worn by) the non-believers, so do not wear them.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 024, Number 5173]

Imitating the Clothes of the prophet ?


And Ibn Al-Qayyim said,
The custom of the prophet with regards to clothing was that he would wear whatever
Allah had facilitated for him of the customs of his people, so he would wear a
qamis, a turban, an izar, a rida, a shawl, etc. and he would wear cotton and wool and other
garments, and he would also wear what was imported from Yemen and other lands. So his
Sunnah actually necessitates that a man should wear whatever Allah has
facilitated for him in his land, even if it be more luxurious [than this]
[Zad Al-Maad, 1/143]
There is no Islamic Dress. It is not more Sunnah to dress like the prophet if its not your
culture, and the clothes of the prophet s culture does not exist today, not even in
Arabia. The thoube and jilbab of today are not what the prophet wore (a rida and
izar). Imitating the clothes of the prophet is not rewarding in and of itself. It is not
legislated upon us.
Ayyub As-Shiktiani read a description about the sandals of the prophet . He
then went and ordered his cobbler to make him a pair of shoes matching this description.
He wore it for a few days then discarded it. His students asked him what happened and he
said it doesnt make sense going against everyone else and attracting attention to yourself.
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Israf versus Zuhd;
Murua versus Shuhra
The etiquettes of wearing clothes dictate that you wear clothes befitting your status. It is
arrogance to dress above your means.
Israf: extra fancy clothes.
Zuhd: simple, humble.
Muslims are encouraged to lean towards zuhd and away from israf.
Israf means to live above your means. It depends on your status and circumstances: it is
relative. If he has that much money, if he got it halal and spends it on halal, it is halal. It may
be foolish; maybe he could spend it in better, more beneficial ways, but it is not haram.
However, being arrogant and flamboyant is a major sin. But you should not be shabby; be
dignified. And you can dress for certain circumstances, e.g. an interview. Make this religion
as realistic as it is: no more, no less.
Murua: having dignity. Maintaining a dignified position.
Shuhra: flamboyant: attracting too much attention to yourself.
Allah has prohibited Shuhra and encouraged Murua.
Abdullah b 'Umar narrated that the prophet said:
Whoever wears a thawb shuhra in this world, Allah will place on him thawb
madhalla on the Day of Judgment and then cause him to enter the fire
[Abu Dawud]
From 'Abdullaah Ibn Mas'ood who said that the prophet said,
"No one will enter Paradise who has an atom's weight of pride in his heart." A man said,
"What if a man likes his clothes to look good and his shoes to look good?" He said, "Allaah is
beautiful and loves beauty. Pride means denying the truth and looking down on people."
[Sahih Muslim]
Dont flaunt your money, but do look dignified.
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The prophet said: Do you not hear?! Do you not hear?! Al-Badhadha is a part of faith,
Al-Badhadha is a part of faith [Abu Dawud]
Narrated AbuUmamah Ilyas ibn Tha'labah:
The Companions of the Apostle of Allah mentioned this word before him.
The Apostle of Allah said: Listen, listen! Wearing old clothes is a part of
faith, wearing old clothes is a part of faith.
[Abu Dawud: Book 33, Number 4149]
Narrated AbulAhwas Awf ibn Malik:
I came to the prophet wearing a poor garment and he said (to me): Have you any
property? He replied: Yes. He asked: What kind is it? He said: Allah has given me camels.
Sheep, horses and slaves. He then said: When Allah gives you property, let the mark of
Allah's favour and honour to you be seen.
[Sunan Abi Dawud: Book 32, Number 4052]
If Allah has blessed you with wealth, He loves to see you dressed appropriately.
Section V:
The Fiqh of Womens Hijab
p. 42
Modern Dilemmas
Post-feminist Western world versus ideal Islamic paradigm
There has been a complete paradigm shift in the Western world with regard to womens
role. This shift has happened mainly in the last 70 years, after the two World Wars. The
feminist movement began, encouraging women to be like men. The role of women has
changed radically. There is no doubt that the ideal of Islamic Society is radically different
from the world we live in, but how do we keep ourselves pure in this society? If youre in
the river, youre going to get wet. We will be affected by the lack of morality in the society
around us. Hijab is something that is incumbent upon all Muslims. Many of us today dont
even understand what it is. What do you do when the sisters are dressing, no doubt better
than everyone else around them, but we cannot say that they even meet the bare minimum
requirement of Islam, because they do not. What they wear is not fulfilling the Qur'an and
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Sunnah, but yet is it far better than everyone else around them. What do you say when, in
other countries such dress is considered of the most sluttish, yet you cannot be harsh with
them because in this society it is of the most modest.
Then when she delivered her [child Maryam (Mary)], she said: "O My Lord! I have delivered
a female child," - and Allh knew better what she delivered, - "And the male is not like the
female, and I have named her Maryam (Mary), and I seek Refuge with You (Allh) for her
and for her offspring from Shaitan (Satan), the outcast."
[Surah Al-Imran: 36]
And divorced women shall wait (as regards their marriage) for three menstrual periods,
and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allh has created In their wombs, if they
believe In Allh and the Last Day. and their husbands have the better Right to take them
back In that period, if they wish for reconciliation. and they (women) have rights (over
their husbands as regards living expenses, etc.) similar (to those of their husbands) over
them (as regards obedience and respect, etc.) to what is reasonable, but men have a degree
(of responsibility) over them. and Allh is All-Mighty, All-Wise.
[Surah Al-Baqarah: 228]
Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allh has made one of them to
excel the other, and because they spend (to support them) from their means. Therefore the
righteous women are devoutly obedient (to Allh and to their husbands), and Guard In the
husband's absence what Allh orders them to Guard (e.g. their chastity, their husband's
property, etc.). as to those women on whose part You see illconduct, admonish them (first),
(next), refuse to share their beds, (and last) beat them (lightly, if it is useful), but if they
return to obedience, seek not against them means (of annoyance). surely, Allh is ever Most
High, Most Great.
[Surah An-Nisa: 34]
History of Hijab Legislation
Jewish and Christian coverings
Hijab is something even the Christians and Jewish religions speak about.

SNOOD TICHEL WIG
p. 43
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
4 Everyman who prays or prophesies with his head covered dishonors his head. 5
And every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head

it is just as though her head were shaved.


6 If a woman does not cover her head, she should have her hair cut off; and if it is a disgrace for
a woman to have her hair cut or shaved off, she should cover her head13 Judge for yourselves:
Is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered? 14 Does not the very nature of
things teach you that if a man has long hair, it is a disgrace to him, 15 But that if a woman has
long hair, it is her glory? For long hair is given to her as a covering. 16 If anyone wants to be
contentious about this, we have no other practice nor do the churches of God
[Corinthians 11:3-6]
This is the law of Allah , mandated in both the Bible and the Torah, and many
orthodox Jews still cover their hair. However, most of Ahl Al-Kitab has abandoned this
legislation. We are the last ones upholding the law of Allah in this respect.
Today, people look at our women and say that were backward and oppressive. We have
different values than society from the shari'ah problematic verses; i.e. verses that they
find problematic because of their modern values (or lack thereof). So Muslims react, which
they can in a number of ways:
1. Reject the text
a.
Reject the text in totality -> leave the religion
b.
Reject the text but still associate yourself with the religion (Asra Nomani, etc)
2. Revisionism: revise the meaning of the text
a.
Radical Revisionism: claim that youre the first person in the history of Islam to discover this
new and correct interpretation of the verse; e.g. Hur = grapes; the men will have grapes in
paradise; Surah An-Nisaa: the verse allowing men to beat their wives if they misbehave it
says walk out and leave them, not beat them.
b.
Utopic Revisionism: the ideal was during the time of the prophet , but then Islam started
declining and now were back again and able to interpret things better. So for 13-14
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centuries, they had no idea, and now were back to the ideal. (at least they say the ideal was
with the prophet )
3. We understand and dont try to reinterpret, but we contextualize for time and place
(Sh. YQ leans towards this)
4. Blindly following: if the Qur'an says to beat your wives, beat her.
When did hijab become fard? Dhul Qaadah, 5 H
It was one of the later rulings of Islam.
O Prophet! tell Your wives and Your daughters and the women of the believers to draw
their cloaks (veils) All over their bodies (i.e.screen themselves completely except the eyes
or one eye to see the way). that will be better, that they should be known (as free
respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. and Allh is ever OftForgiving, Most Merciful.
[Surah Al-Ahzab: 59]
Yudnin thanaa: to draw closer to yourself.
What to put around themselves? Their jalabib (pl. of jilbab)
When you look up the word jilbab in the Arabic dictionary, you get many different meaning:
large headscarf, sheet, larger than a khimar but smaller than an izar. They had to take it and
draw it over themselves.
Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:
May Allah have mercy on the early immigrant women. When the verse "That they should
draw their veils over their bosoms" was revealed, they tore their thick outer garments and
made veils from them.
[Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 32, Number 4091]
Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Mu'minin:
When the verse "That they should cast their outer garments over their persons" was
revealed, the women of Ansar came out as if they had crows over their heads by wearing
outer garments.
[Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 32, Number 4090]
Within a few months after this, Surah An-Nur: 31 was revealed:
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And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and
protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts, etc.) and not to show off their
adornment except Only that which is apparent (like palms of hands or one eye or both eyes
for necessity to see the way, or outer dress like veil, gloves, head-cover, apron, etc.), and to
draw their veils All over Juyubihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms, etc.) and
not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's
fathers, their sons, their husband's sons, their brothers or their brother's sons, or their
sister's sons, or their (Muslim) women (i.e. their sisters In Islm), or the (female) slaves
whom their Right hands possess, or old male servants who lack vigour, or small Children
who have no sense of the shame of sex. and let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal
what they hide of their adornment. and All of You beg Allh to forgive You all, O believers,
that You may be successful.
[Surah An-Nur: 31]
Hijab is a requirement upon the men as well. Men and women have similar commandments
in the beginning of the ayat.
In the verse above, Allah uses
yubdin: let themnot show, then
dhahara: except that which is apparent
you conceal yourself as much as possible and whatever is left is out of your control.
Allah commands two things in this ayah: khumr and juyub.
Was Hijab only for wives of the prophet ?
Some people claim that yes, the Qur'an commands hijab, but only for the wives of the
prophet .
Two meanings of hijab: classical usage and modern usage.
Khimar: head covering, scarf; what they call hijab these days
Jilbab: outer garment worn over clothes.
Hijab: a physical barrier, screen, in the room that separates men and women. THIS barrier
was mandatory ONLY for the wives of the prophet .
Khimar comes from the root: Khumr, which is the same root khamr comes from-> khamr
takes away your 'aql; khimar covers your 'aql (head).
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Juyub comes from the root jayb: the slit in a cloth through which you put your head.
Ibn Abbas said that the women of jahiliyyah would tie their khimar and throw it
behind their back, exposing their chests so Allah told them to lower their
khimar over their chest.
There are two levels of hijab mentioned in this ayah:
1. In front of your maharim
There is nothing explicit in the Qur'an and Sunnah (whatever is acceptable in their
culture) about the awrah in front of the maharim
In front of other women: the bare minimum is that of men but dont take advantage
of it without reason
2. In front of non-mahram
O You who believe! enter not the Prophet's houses, except when leave is given to You for a
meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. but when You are invited,
enter, and when You have taken Your meal, disperse, without sitting for a talk. Verily, such
(behaviour) annoys the Prophet, and He is shy of (asking) You (to go), but Allh is not shy
of (telling you) the truth. and when You ask (his wives) for anything You want, ask
them from behind a screen, that is purer for Your hearts and for their hearts. and it is
not (Right) for You that You should annoy Allh's Messenger, nor that You should ever
marry his wives after Him (his death). Verily! with Allh that shall be an enormity.
[Surah Al-Ahzab: 53]
However, the khimar and jilbab are mandatory for ALL Muslim women.
p. 44
Primary verses dealing with Hijab
O Prophet! tell Your wives and Your daughters and the women of the believers to draw
their cloaks (veils) All over their bodies (i.e.screen themselves completely except the eyes
or one eye to see the way). that will be better, that they should be known (as free
respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. and Allh is ever OftForgiving, Most Merciful.
[Surah Al-Ahzab: 59]
And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and
protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts, etc.) and not to show off their
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adornment except Only that which is apparent (like palms of hands or one eye or both eyes
for necessity to see the way, or outer dress like veil, gloves, head-cover, apron, etc.), and to
draw their veils All over Juyubihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms, etc.) and
not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's
fathers, their sons, their husband's sons, their brothers or their brother's sons, or their
sister's sons, or their (Muslim) women (i.e. their sisters In Islm), or the (female) slaves
whom their Right hands possess, or old male servants who lack vigour, or small Children
who have no sense of the shame of sex. and let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal
what they hide of their adornment. and All of You beg Allh to forgive You all, O believers,
that You may be successful.
[Surah An-Nur: 31]
p. 45
Benefits of Hijab
Some are clearly mentioned in the Qur'an.
1. Purity of heart
O You who believe! enter not the Prophet's houses, except when leave is given to You for a
meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. but when You are invited,
enter, and when You have taken Your meal, disperse, without sitting for a talk. Verily, such
(behaviour) annoys the Prophet, and He is shy of (asking) You (to go), but Allh is not shy
of (telling you) the truth. and when You ask (his wives) for anything You want, ask
them from behind a screen, that is purer for Your hearts and for their hearts. and it is
not (Right) for You that You should annoy Allh's Messenger, nor that You should ever
marry his wives after Him (his death). Verily! with Allh that shall be an enormity.
[Surah Al-Ahzab: 53]
It is better and more purer for both hearts when both act properly.
2. Sign of chastity
The hijab of a woman says that she is modest. It is a claim to modesty
not piety. The point of the hijab is to be known and to be known as modest. Women in hijab are
always better treated, more respected, than other women.
3. Promotes healthiness in marriage
Having not been exposed to other women except your maharim, you will find your
wife absolutely stunning. Youre average so youll be satisfied with the average
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woman. This is why our parents, and the generations before, had such successful
marriages to people they barely if even knew: they werent exposed to the things
we are exposed to in this society so they had no expectations and when they got
married, they could love their spouses and live happily and contentedly. This society
over exposes you to the most beautiful and gorgeous models, who are not even
real, so when you find yourself with an average wife, she cant please you, youre
always looking for more. Looks are honestly superficial; it is not what makes a
marriage. If the entire society wore hijab, the divorce rates would go down because
men would stop fantasizing about other women.
4. Increases modesty
And modesty hayaa is a sign of eman.
5. Curbs perverted behavior
Homosexuality, bestiality, pornography, etc.
There is a definite correlation between the decrease in modesty and the increase in
perverted behavior. The porn industry is one of the most lucrative business in the
entire world, especially since the internet. The increase in lewdness leads to an
increase in stimulation because they can't be satisfied anymore with the norm; they
need more, leading to an increase in perverted behavior.
When there is modesty, people are satisfied with much less.
6. Protects the natural beauty of women from being exploited
We see this all the time, all over the place advertisements. What has a woman got
to do with a car or a truck? They dangle the woman there in front of you and take
advantage of her beauty to reel you in. Whyre you taking advantage of the beauty of
this woman in this way?
7. Part of the inner beauty of women
The hijab shows the modesty of a woman in a way that shows her inner beauty
rather than her physical beauty. The Hur ul-Ain are hidden away because it makes
them more appealing.
And (there will be) Houris (fair females) with wide, lovely eyes (as wives for the pious)/
like unto preserved pearls.
[Surah Al-Waqiah: 22-23]
No one has seen/touched them before and that is part of their appeal.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
p. 46
Requirements of Womens Hijab
1.
That it not describe the body, either through tightness or transparency. Hence, it must be thick,
and loose.
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger having said this:
Two are the types of the denizens of Hell whom I did not see: people having flogs
like the tails of the ox with them and they would be beating people, and
the women who would be dressed but appear to be naked, mailat mumilat (who would be
inclined [to evil] and make their husbands incline towards it). Their heads would be like the
humps of the bukht camel inclined to one side. They will not enter Paradise and they would not
smell its odour whereas its odour would be smelt from such and such distance.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 024, Number 5310]
Theyre wearing garments that are so tight and so transparent, its as if theyre
naked.
Narrated Dihyah ibn Khalifah al-Kalbi:
The Apostle of Allah was brought some pieces of fine Egyptian linen and he
gave me one and said: Divide it into two; cut one of the pieces into a shirt and give the other
to your wife for veil. Then when he turned away, he said: And order your wife to wear a
garment below it and not show her figure.
[Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 32, Number 4104]
He feared it would describe the shape and size of her limbs and both are forbidden
neither must be known.
2.
That it not be eye-catching in and of itself.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
The goal is not to draw the lust of men, the notice of men, therefore it should be
simple and not decorative. Today the fashion is to look as beautiful as possible.
Hijab fashion defeats the purpose of hijab because even though youre covering
yourself, youre still dressed up beautifully and attracting attention.
3.
That it conform with the general etiquettes of clothing [gender-specific; not imitating others; not
libas shuhra].
This is the same for men and women.
4.
That it cover the womans awrah.
Ijma: a womans awrah is her entire body including the hair, ears, chest
In some respects this is the strongest evidence in Islam. Sometimes even more so
than the Qur'an because some verses in the Qur'an is subject to interpretation but
ijma means all the scholars interpret the verse this way; there is no dispute and this
is the strongest evidence.
Everything must be covered with a loose, non-transparent cloth.
Ikhtilaaf: face and hands (and for some, the feet - Hanafi) due to the hadeeth of
Asma.
Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:
Asma, daughter of AbuBakr, entered upon the Apostle of Allah wearing thin
clothes. The Apostle of Allah turned his attention from her. He said: O
Asma', when a woman reaches the age of menstruation, it does not suit her that she
displays her parts of body except this and this, and he pointed to her face and hands.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Book 32, Number 4092]
5.
That she wear an outer garment (jilbab) over and above her regular clothes (That she
wears in front of her mahram).
She must be wearing the clothing item (jilbab) that is specified in the Qur'an. The
Qur'an specifically mentions jalaabeeb.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
O Prophet! tell Your wives and Your daughters and the women of the believers to draw
their cloaks (veils) All over their bodies (i.e.screen themselves completely except the eyes
or one eye to see the way). that will be better, that they should be known (as free
respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. and Allh is ever OftForgiving, Most Merciful.
[Surah Al-Ahzab: 59]
p. 47
Evidences for Jilbab
1. Allah commands it.
O Prophet! tell Your wives and Your daughters and the women of the believers to draw
their cloaks (veils) All over their bodies (i.e.screen themselves completely except the
eyes or one eye to see the way). that will be better, that they should be known (as free
respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. and Allh is ever OftForgiving, Most Merciful.
[Surah Al-Ahzab: 59]
Narrated Ummul Mu'minin A'isha who said,
"The riders would pass us while we were with the Messenger of Allah

. When they got close to us, we would draw our outer cloak from our heads over our faces.
When they passed by, we would uncover our faces.
[Abu Dawud Book 10, Hadith # 1829]
They would always be wearing an outer cloak.
2.
And as for women past child-bearing who do not expect wed-lock, it is no sin on them if
they discard their (outer) clothing In such a Way as not to show their adornment. but to
refrain (i.e. not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them. and Allh is All-Hearer,
All-Knower.
[Surah An-Nur: 60]
This cloth refers to their outer cloak. Allah would never allow them to discard
their clothes. The jilbab is the outer cloak that they wear over their regular clothes. And the
fact that Allah gives a concession to the older women means that no such
concession is given to the younger women. They are not allowed to discard their jilbabs.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
3.
Narrated Aiyub:
Hafsa bint Sirin said, "On Id we used to forbid our girls to go out for 'Id prayer. A
lady came and stayed at the palace of Bani Khalaf and I went to her. She said, 'The
husband of my sister took part in twelve holy battles along with the Prophet and my
sister was with her husband in six of them. My sister said that they used to nurse the
sick and treat the wounded. Once she asked, 'O Allah's Apostle! If a woman has no
Jilbab, is there any harm if she does not come out (on 'Id day)?' The Prophet
said, 'Her companion should let her share her jilbab with her, and the women
should participate in the good deeds and in the religious gatherings of the believers.'
" Hafsa added, "When Um-'Atiya came, I went to her and asked her, 'Did you hear
anything about so-and-so?' Um-'Atlya said, 'Yes, let my father be sacrificed for the
Prophet (p.b.u.h). (And whenever she mentioned the name of the Prophet she
always used to say, 'Let my father be' sacrificed for him). He said, 'Virgin mature
girls staying often screened (or said, 'Mature girls and virgins staying often
screened--Aiyub is not sure as which was right) and menstruating women should
come out (on the 'Id day). But the menstruating women should keep away from the
Musalla. And all the women should participate in the good deeds and in the religious
gatherings of the believers'." Hafsa said, "On that I said to Um-'Atiya, 'Also those who
are menstruating?' " Um-'Atiya replied, "Yes. Do they not present themselves at
'Arafat and elsewhere?"
[Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 2, Book 15, Number 96]
They knew it was a requirement so they asked about it. Why else would they ask?
They didnt think they could come out without their jilbabs. The women of those
days didnt have the 20-30 + pieces of clothes we have today and they didnt come
out of their houses a lot. They used to draw huge pieces of cloth over themselves,
many times they only had 1 piece of cloth and sometimes it was the same cloth they
used to sleep on, and they were ordered to share that with their sister.
4.
Narrated 'A'isha :
Allah's Apostle used to offer the Fajr prayer and some believing women covered
with their veiling sheets used to attend the Fajr prayer with him and then they
would return to their homes unrecognized.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 1, Book 8, Number 368]
The hadeeth mentions thick cloaks this was their jilbab.
Ijma: jilbab is a requirement of our religion and not wearing jilbab is not meeting the
minimum requirement of the Qur'an but it is still better than the immodesty that surrounds
us in this part of the world. There is a reason Allah chose to end the verse
commanding jilbab with Ghafoor Ar-Raheem. It is up to us to teach and to correct; it is not
up to us to judge. Sometimes a non-Hijabi sister is much better and more modest in her
actions than a hijabi sister, and maybe Allah will accept the actions of the
former sister over the latter despite the way they dress.
The reality is that Hijab is an overall modesty, a seclusion, a mental seclusion from the
brothers. Allah wants you to protect yourself only for your husband.
If you are trying to get closer to Allah , then you need to reevaluate your
understanding of Hijab because it is an entire concept.
p. 48
Issues of Niqab
Was in practice from earliest times, but is it obligatory?
The niqab isnt an unIslamic practice that is based upon backward culture. It is a very
Islamic practice. The issue is not whether it is halal or haram but whether it is fard or
mustahab.
First Set of Evidences
1. Let not the women in ihram wear the niqab or gloves [Al-Bukhari].
Narrated byAbdullah bin Umar
A person stood up and asked, O Allahs: Apostle! What clothes may be worn in the state of
Ihram? The Prophet replied, Do not wear a shirt or trousers, or any headgear (e.g. a
turban), or a hooded cloak; but if somebody has no shoes he can wear leather stockings
provided they are cut short off the ankles, and also, do not wear anything perfumed with
wars or saffron, and the Muhrima (a woman in the state of Ihram) should not cover
her face, or wear gloves.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari 3.64]
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
The very fact that the prophet has to make such a statement means that it was in
vogue. He had to tell them not to wear niqab because they usually would be covering their
faces.
2.
Narrated Ummul Mu'minin A'isha who said,
"The riders would pass us while we were with the Messenger of Allah
. When they got close to us, we would draw our outer cloak from our heads over
our faces. When they passed by, we would uncover our faces.
[Abu Dawud Book 10, Hadith # 1829]
When they were at hajj, they couldnt wear their niqabs so when the men would pass them
by she would have to cover her face by another means.
3. Surah Ahzab commands that the khimar be lowered to cover the face.
Second Set of Evidences
1.
Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:
Asma, daughter of AbuBakr, entered upon the Apostle of Allah wearing thin
clothes. The Apostle of Allah turned his attention from her. He said: O
Asma', when a woman reaches the age of menstruation, it does not suit her that she
displays her parts of body except this and this, and he pointed to her face and hands.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Book 32, Number 4092]
This hadeeth is subject to a huge controversy.
2. Hadeeth of Jabir b. Abdullah that on the Day of Eid, the prophet went
to the women to give them a lecture [until he said], so a woman stood up, from the
middle of the gathering with dark cheeks, and asked
[Sahih Al-Bukhari]
The woman couldnt have been wearing niqab for Jabir to know she had dark cheeks
and be able to describe it.
Precious Provisions [THE STUDY PACKAGE: PART 4 & 5]
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abbas :
Al-Fadl (his brother) was riding behind Allah's Apostle and a woman from the tribe
of Khath'am came and Al-Fadl started looking at her and she started looking at him.
The Prophet turned Al-Fadl's face to the other side. The woman said, "O Allah's
Apostle! The obligation of Hajj enjoined by Allah on His devotees has become due on
my father and he is old and weak, and he cannot sit firm on the Mount; may I
perform Hajj on his behalf?" The Prophet replied, "Yes, you may." That happened
during the Hajj-al-Wida (of the Prophet ).
[Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 2, Book 26, Number 589]
He was staring at her because she was beautiful and how would he have known she
was beautiful unless her face was uncovered. He knew only because she wasnt
wearing niqaab.
Conclusion: Hijab is a total concept; a way of life, not just a piece of cloth
Theres no point in wearing the hijab (though dont take it off) if youre not going to act like
a muhajjibah; if youre not going to act the way Allah commands you to.
p. 49
Conclusion
The best of all deeds is to bring happiness to other Muslims: by covering his nakedness, or
satiating his hunger, or fulfilling any need of his
[Al-Mundhiri]
Shaytans earliest plot was to expose the nakedness of our parents, and cause them to eat
impermissible foods.