© All Rights Reserved

105 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Thesis Analysis and Design of Variable Stiffness Composite Cylinders
- Column Buckling
- Buckling Experiment
- Buckling
- Bridge Collapses
- Buckling
- Lab#3 Compression Test
- Steel Column Design
- Mathcad - 34
- Paper_Crippling of Composite Sections Using Progressive Failure
- ASTM Structural Sections Imperial 2006
- Compression Only Spring-STAAD
- Torsional Section Properties of Steel Shapes
- Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures According to Bs 5950
- ME syllabus
- Compendium of en 1993-1-1
- Design of Monorail Systems
- STRUCTURAL DESIGN.pdf
- Behavior and Design of Concrete-Filled Beam-Columns Webinar Slides
- SCI_P398

You are on page 1of 22

BUCKLING OF COLUMNS

[Reading CIVIL210 lecture notes; Megson I, Ch 18; Megson II, Ch 21]

EQUILIBRIUM AND STABILITY

not in equilibrium

stable equilibrium

unstable equilibrium

neutral or critical

equilibrium

The concept of equilibrium has been explored and applied to a range of structural problems and should be

reasonably familiar. There are a number of equilibrium criteria including those based on Newtons laws,

and a range of others based on virtual work and energy principles.

Stability of equilibrium is a concept about which we have intuitive notions as illustrated by the figure

above showing a ball rolling over a curved surface. As with equilibrium, there are a number of criteria that

can be used to verify the stability of an equilibrium state. For example:

Energy criterion:

If the rolling ball settles in a position at which its energy is a minimum then it will be in stable equilibrium.

Dynamic criterion

If, following a small disturbance from an equilibrium position, the ball executes dynamic oscillations (of

decreasing magnitude) about the equilibrium position, then equilibrium is stable.

Adjacent equilibrium state criterion

This criterion depends on the argument that the borderline between stable and unstable equilibrium is

characterised by a state of neutral (or critical) equilibrium, as illustrated by the middle case in the

figure. If equilibrium is neutral the ball can be given a small displacement either way and remain in

equilibrium in the adjacent position.

Of these criteria the dynamic one is the most robust but also the most difficult to apply. We will continue

to use the adjacent equilibrium state criterion which is the easiest to apply.

P

P

CR

P >P

CR

STABLE - equilibrium unconditionally

stable (deflections dont result in extra

bm)

CRITICAL - equilibrium also

possibe in adjacent position

UNSTABLE - vertical position

now unstable.

New stable positions appear

at large deflection

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p2 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

PIN-ENDED COLUMN, AXIAL LOAD

This case, often referred to as Euler buckling, (after Leonhard Euler who first derived it) is presented in

Megson (Megson I, 18.1; Megson II, 21.1). Edition II uses a different coordinate system from Edition I,

and the derivation below is in the coordinate system of Edition I (the difference is slight - a nuisance

that we will have to live with).

Consider a light, straight, slender, uniform, pin-ended column of length L, with a cross-section property I

and elastic modulus E. An axial load P is gradually increased until the column is on the point of buckling.

We argue that the column, in its critical equilibrium state can be in equilbrium in an adjacent (slightly

displaced) state.

v

P

z

L

y

z

v

M(z)

0

P

BM at z Pv ) z ( M =

Substituting in the moment-curvature relationship, v EI ) z ( M = :

v EI Pv =

0 Pv v EI = +

(governing equation)

Divide through by EI and let

2

EI

P

= :

0 v v

2

= +

This differential equation (linear, 2

nd

order, homogeneous, constant coefficients) has the solution (can

check by differentiating)

z cos B z sin A ) z ( v + =

The solution is completed by imposing the boundary conditions:

= 0 ) 0 ( v 0 B =

Thus z sin A ) z ( v = ,

showing that the deflected shape (buckling mode) is a sine curve.

= 0 ) L ( v 0 L sin A =

Either 0 ) z ( v 0 A = = -i.e. the column remains straight (but OK, this is a possible solution),

Or 0 L sin = , meaning that etc , 3 , 2 , , 0 L = .

Thus L 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 n , n L = =

L

n

=

and since ,

EI

P

2

=

2

2 2

L

EI n

P

=

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p3 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

defining the critical or buckling loads of the column.

The least value of P (>0) corresponds to n=1 giving the lowest critical load as

2

2

CR

L

EI

P

= , the critical or Euler load.

The associated buckled shape or mode will be

L

z

sin A z sin A ) z ( v

= = - i.e. a half sine wave, similar to the sketch on previous page.

Note that although we know the shape is a half sine wave, we have no information about the amplitude. A

bit like the ball on the level surface, we have merely established that we can displace it from its original

equilibrium position and it will still be in equilibrium.

Higher Modes

For other values of n we obtain increasing values of P

CR

and the associated (higher) mode.

n P

CR

Mode v(z)

0 indeterminate

0 ) z ( v =

1

2 2

L / EI

L / z sin A ) z ( v =

2

2 2

L / EI 4

L / z 2 sin A ) z ( v =

3

2 2

L / EI 9

L / z sin 3 A ) z ( v =

However, buckling loads > 1

st

critical load,

2 2

L / EI , can not be achieved unless the column is physically

restrained against lateral displacement at the necessary number of places. Otherwise the column simply

buckles at its first opportunity the lowest critical load.

Thus a column that was restrained at its mid-point would not buckle until the load reached

2 2

L / EI 4 .

L/2 L/2

P

From the sketch it can be seen that there is an inflexion point (zero BM) at mid-span, so that the column

behaves in a similar way to two pin-ended columns of length L/2.

The buckling load of a pin-ended column of length L/2 is

2

2

2

2

CR

L

EI 4

) 2 / L (

EI

P

=

=

and the original column (length L, with mid-span restraint) is said to have an effective length of L/2.

Other support conditions

By applying a similar analysis to that on p.2 to columns with other end support conditions, it is possible to

derive their buckling loads. Details can be found in Megson. The table below summarises the more common

cases.

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p4 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

P

CR

2

2

L

EI

2

2

L 4

EI

2

2

L

EI 046 . 2

2

2

L

EI 4

2

2

L

EI

Effective

Length

L 2L 0.7L 0.5L L

Effective length

For any column, the effective length is defined as the length of a pin-ended column with the same critical

load (and same EI).

For example, in the case of a propped cantilever of length L:

Critical load of actual column:

2

2

CR

L

EI 046 . 2

P

=

Critical load of pin-ended column:

2

eff

2

CR

L

EI

P

=

Equating:

2

2

2

eff

2

L

EI 046 . 2

L

EI

=

And so L 7 . 0 L

eff

=

The concept of effective length is widely used in design as it allows formulas,

etc, developed for the standard pin-ended case to be applied to a wide range

of other cases.

e.g. (somewhat trivial) to calculate the critical load of a propped cantilever:

Standard formula:

2

eff

2

CR

L

EI

P

= (i.e. the formula for the pin-ended case)

Subst. L

eff

= 0.7L:

2

2

2

2

CR

L

EI 04 . 2

) L 7 . 0 (

EI

P

=

=

Hence only one formula to remember (but still need to know effective length for other cases).

L

L

eff

P

CR

P

CR

same

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p5 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

BEHAVIOUR OF IMPERFECT COLUMNS

So far the cases we have considered have been rather idealised, overlooking a number of important

features or imperfections that will be present in most practical columns, such as

initial lack of straightness

material that is not perfectly linearly elastic

non-slender cases (i.e. short, thick columns)

INITIALLY CURVED COLUMN

v

o

v

P P

natural shape

before loading

after loading

z

Note that the initial deflection (v

o

) and associated curvature corresponds to zero bm throughout - it is

only the extra deflection (v) and associated curvature that causes bm.

For equilibrium:

0

Pv Pv v EI = +

To proceed we need to know (or assume) ) z ( v

0

. Could assume a Fourier series,

=

0

n 0

L

z n

sin a ) z ( v , (as

Megson does) and get a more general result, but here we assume

L

z

sin a v

0

= (the natural buckled shape

of a pin-ended column). By doing this we make life as tough as possible for the column.

hence

L

z

sin Pa Pv v EI

= + (1)

subst.

2

EI

P

=

L

z

sin a v v

2 2

= +

CF: z cos B z sin A v + =

PI: try

L

z

sin b v

= and substitute in equation (1)

This leads to

2

2

2

L

a

b

= , and the complete solution,

CF + PI is thus

2

2

2

L

L

z

sin a

z cos B z sin A ) z ( v

+ + =

Applying boundary conditions: 0 B 0 ) 0 ( v = =

L sin A 0 0 ) L ( v = =

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p6 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

If = n L , 0 A , giving solutions at a set of discrete P values only (the critical loads of the straight

column),

2

2

2

2

cr

L

EI 4

,

L

EI

P

= , etc.

However, our interest is in what happens for values of

2

2

L

EI

P

< , so we choose the other possibility and

let 0 A = , so that the solution becomes

1

P

P

v

1

L

1

L

z

sin a

L

L

z

sin a

) z ( v

cr

0

2

2

2

2

2

=

or total deflection,

cr

0

0

P

P

1

v

v v

= + .

A plot of mid-span deflection

1

P

P

a

) 2 / L ( v

cr

= = ,

shows deflection increasing steadily with P and then increasing rapidly as

cr

P P . The initial mid-span deflection, a, is magnified by the factor

1

P

P

1

cr

.

SOUTHWELL PLOT

Rewriting

1

P

P

a

cr

= as a

P

P

cr

= ,

finally

cr cr

P

a

P

1

P

giving a linear relationship between (/P) and .

Known as the Southwell Plot, it permits the experimental determination of

buckling loads from a series of load and corresponding deflection

measurements at loads less than the buckling load. Thus the buckling load can

be determined without actually buckling the column (and probably damaging

it).

The Southwell plot can be used for a wide range of buckling problems, not just columns. The main

requirement is that the measured quantity, , should exhibit a first order (major) change with the

primary buckling mode.

a

P

P

P

cr

P

P

cr

/P

P

cr

1

slope=1/P

cr

a

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p7 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

ECCENTRICALLY LOADED COLUMN

The behaviour of an eccentrically loaded column is similar to that of an initially curved

column.

For equilibrium in a slightly displaced position

) v e ( P ) z ( M v EI + = =

leading to e v v

2 2

= + .

Solving, ) 1 z sin

L sin

L cos 1

z (cos e v

+ =

Mid-span deflection, ) 1

2

L

sin

L sin

L cos 1

2

L

(cos e

= ,

simplifying to ) 1

2

L

(sec e

=

or

= 1

P

P

2

sec e

cr

.

In both cases deflection starts to increase immediately any load is applied.

Consequently there is no distinct instant of buckling, merely a rapid increase in

rate of deflection as P

cr

is approached. Simultaneously the bm at mid-height will be increasing

proportionately with a likelihood that the material at that location will yield or fail in some way, initiating

complete failure of the column.

MATERIAL STRENGTH LIMITATIONS

Considering the case of a pin-ended column again, the critical load is given by

2

2

cr

L

EI

P

=

Mean stress at P

cr

,

2

2

cr

cr

L

) A / I ( E

A

P

= = .

But

2

r

A

I

= , the radius of gyration.

So

2

2

cr

) r / L (

E

= .

L/r is known as the slenderness ratio and a plot of

cr

against L/r will appear as

shown. This suggests that as L/r gets smaller the critical (buckling) stress

increases without limit. However, all real materials will yield or fail as their stress

increases.

For a simple elasto-plastic material (such as mild steel) the stress-strain behaviour

is approximately as shown to the right.

Hence, in our diagram showing buckling stress we should place a cut-off at a stress

of

y

:

P

P

cr

P

P

cr

P

e

L/r

cr

strain,

y

P

area A

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p8 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

L/r

cr

y

short

columns

long

columns

material failure

unstable

stable

yielding

Columns with a sufficiently small slenderness ratio (L/r) will fail by squashing (yielding), whereas more

slender columns will fail (at least initially) by elastic buckling.

The dividing line between short and long columns depends on yield stress and elastic modulus. For

example, if

y

= 300MPa and E = 200,000MPa,

81

E

r / L

) r / L (

E

y

2

2

2

y cr

=

= =

The transition from short (yielding) columns to long (buckling) ones is not sharply defined in practice.

There is a transition zone in which failure involves a mix of buckling and yielding. For example, a slight

tendency to buckle may cause yielding and further deflection. Similarly buckling may be precipitated by

the first hint of yielding on one side of a column.

Actual failure loads (or the corresponding stresses) if plotted will follow a pattern as shown in the next

figure.

The curve followed will depend on factors such as initial imperfection (lack of straightness), residual

stresses resulting from manufacture and construction processes, etc.

Different curves are used for different classes of column and a considerable variety of these column

design curves have evolved. We will look at just a few of these.

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p9 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

L/r

fail

y

short

columns

long

columns

Euler

transition

locus of actual failure stress

RANKINE FORMULA

One of the oldest and simplest column design curves is the interaction formula of Rankine:

y e

1 1 1

where is the mean stress at failure

e

is the Euler critical stress,

2 2

L / EI

y

is the yield stress.

Rankines curve is asymptotic to the Euler and yield stress

lines at 0 and r / L . It can also be written in terms of

loads:

y e

P

1

P

1

P

1

+ =

Rearranging the stress version

2 2

y

y

) r / L )( E / ( 1 +

=

E

2

y

failure stress

2

y

) r / L ( a 1 +

=

and failure load, A P =

By using L

eff

in place of L, the formula is applicable to columns with any type of end restraints:

2

eff

y

) r / L ( a 1 +

=

EXAMPLES

FAILURE LOAD OF A PROPPED CANTILEVER COLUMN

A 200mm x 200mm x 5mm hollow box section column is 5m long, fixed at

one end and propped at the other.

y

= 300MPa. What axial load will

cause failure if Rankines ) E / ( 9 . 0 a

2

y

= ?

Effective length: m 5 . 3 L 7 . 0 L

eff

= =

Section properties:

2 3

m 10 x 9 . 3 A

=

L/r

e

(Rankine)

P

200mm

5mm

5m

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p10 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

4 6

m 10 x 73 . 24 I

=

m 0796 . 0 A / I r = =

Slenderness ratio 95 . 43 r / L

eff

=

Rankine a

6 2

y

10 x 78 . 136 ) E / ( 9 . 0 a

= =

Failure stress MPa 3 . 237

95 . 43 10 x 78 . 136 1

300

2 6

=

+

=

Failure load kN 925 10 x 9 . 3 3 . 237 A P

3

= = =

Note: kN 1170 A P

y y

= = (squash load)

kN 3984

L

EI

P

2

eff

2

E

=

= (Euler load)

STRESS IN AN INITIALLY CURVED TUBULAR COLUMN

A pin-ended steel tube 1.5m long, 25mm outside diameter, 2mm wall thickness, has initial curvature

) L / z sin( a v

0

= , where a = 5mm. What is the maximum stress due to an axial load of 3.5kN?

Section properties:

4 3 3

mm 9556 2 5 . 11 t r I = = =

2

mm 5 . 144 rt 2 A = =

We had (on p.6)

1

P

P

v

v

cr

0

=

or

cr

0

0

P

P

1

v

v v

= +

Need P

cr

: kN 38 . 8

L

EI

P

2

2

cr

=

=

At mid-height, total deflection mm 58 . 8

38 . 8

5 . 3

1

5

v v

0

=

= +

Bending moment Nm 30 00858 . 3500 ) v v ( P M

0

= = + =

Stress: MPa 5 . 63

9556

1000 5 . 12 30

5 . 144

3500

I

My

A

P

=

+ = + =

BUCKLING LOAD FROM SOUTHWELL PLOT

A strut is subjected to axial force in a testing machine and the resulting increments in mid-span lateral

deflection measured as follows:

v(mm) 0.23 0.38 0.55 0.75 0.96 1.27

P(kN) 6.85 8.90 9.80 10.54 11.20 11.75

What is the predicted buckling load?

The Southwell plot (p.6) is a plot of

against

P

. We have and P so just need to calculate

P

:

(mm) 0.23 0.38 0.55 0.75 0.96 1.27

P(kN) 6.85 8.90 9.80 10.54 11.20 11.75

P

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p11 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

/

P

Using the two points indicated calculate the inverse of the slope:

kN 85 . 13

0561 . 1081 .

55 . 27 . 1

P

cr

=

=

(Alternatively one could plot

P

against

and calculate the slope)

NONLINEAR ELASTIC MATERIALS TANGENT MODULUS THEORY

Many materials exhibit nonlinear elastic behaviour but with no clear yield point.

Engesser showed that for such materials buckling occurs (theoretically) when

2

eff

t

2

cr

2

eff

t

2

cr

) r / L (

E

or ,

L

I E

P

=

=

where E

t

is the tangent modulus at the critical stress (i.e. the slope of the tangent to the stress-strain

curve).

However, experiments generally revealed a higher buckling load than that given by the tangent modulus

theory.

Shanley, using a more accurate theoretical model showed that a better prediction is given by the reduced

modulus or double modulus load:

2

eff

R

2

R

L

I E

P

=

where

( )

2

t

t

R

E E

EE 4

E

+

= is the reduced modulus (for a rectangular cross-section).

The reason for the different result is that as buckling commences, strain on the concave side of the

column increases, with a corresponding stress change dictated by E

t

, whereas on the convex side strain

decreases slightly and stress follows the unloading curve governed by E. Hence the need to use both

moduli.

Measured buckling loads tend to lie between a lower bound given by the tangent modulus load and an upper

bound given by the reduced modulus load. (The simple Euler buckling load will of course be higher than

both.) Since the reduced modulus load errs on the unsafe side it is more common to use the tangent

modulus load which is also simpler to calculate.

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p12 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

PERRY-ROBERTSON FORMULA (BASIS OF COLUMN DESIGN TO NZ STEEL DESIGN STANDARD)

The formula underlying the NZ Steel Structures Standard is based on the Perry Robertson formula which

in turn is derived from the expression for the maximum stress in an axially loaded initially curved column.

v

o

v

P P

natural shape

before loading

after loading

z

For an initially curved shape

L

z

sin a v

0

= ,

we had on p.6, max. deflection,

cr

0

0

P

P

1

v

v v

= + = .

Hence max. bending moment

E

P

P

1

Pa

P M

= =

Stress at mid-span

I

My

A

P

max

+ =

I

P

P

1

Pay

A

P

E

max

+ =

subst.

A

P

,

A

I

r

2

= = , =

2

E

max

r

P

P

1

ay

+

Column assumed to be at its limit when this maximum stress reaches

y

i.e.

2

E

max

y

r 1

ay

+ =

Putting

2

max

r

ay

= in the previous equation gives a quadratic in :

0 )] 1 ( [

E y E y

2

= + + +

with solution

2

4 )] 1 ( [ ) 1 (

E y

2

E y E y

+ + + +

= (1)

This is the Perry formula, giving the axial load capacity, P

C

= A.

depends on initial imperfections. Test by Robertson were used to get suitable values for . Initially

was taken as 0.003(L/r) to give the Perry-Robertson formula. More recent tests have been used to refine

the value of which varies according to the types of steel column. For example

2

) r / L ( 00003 . 0 = .

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p13 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

Noting that

y y y

C

A

A

P

P

y

to obtain

+ +

+ =

=

y

E 2

y

E

y

E

y y

C

4 )] 1 ( 1 [ ) 1 ( 1 5 . 0

P

P

(2)

Using equation (2) we plot

y

C

P

P

(the load capacity ratio) against slenderness ratio

r

L

e

to obtain the column

design curves below.

The curves are plotted for sample values of

2

) r / L ( 00002 . 0 = and

2

) r / L ( 00004 . 0 = and a yield

stress of 300MPa.

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Slenderness Ratio, L

e

/

r

A

x

i

a

l

L

o

a

d

C

a

p

a

c

i

t

y

R

a

t

i

o

,

P

C

/

P

y

Column Design Curves

Perry-Robertson

=0.00002(L

e

/r)

2

=0.00004(L

e

/r)

2

L

e

/r =44

Figure 1 Column design curves based on Perry-Robertson formula

EXAMPLE

FAILURE LOAD OF A PROPPED CANTILEVER COLUMN

A 200mm x 200mm x 5mm hollow box section column is 5m long, fixed at

one end and propped at the other.

y

= 300MPa. What is the axial load

capacity according to the Perry-Robertson criterion.

From the previous example using this column, 44 r / L

eff

= .

Using the Perry-Robertson curve based on

2

) r / L ( 00004 . 0 = , we obtain

. 9 . 0

P

P

y

C

= And since kN 1170 A P

y y

= = , kN 1053 1170 9 . 0 P

C

= = .

In practice a strength reduction factor of 9 . 0 = would also be applied to obtain a reliable load capacity

of kN 948 1053 9 . 0 = (not greatly different from Rankines value of 925kN).

P

200mm

5mm

5m

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p14 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

STEEL STRUCTURES STANDARD, NZS 3404:1997

The strength limit state design criterion for a steel column requires that it satisfy both

S

*

N N , and

C

*

N N

Where N

*

is the maximum design axial force in the member due to the action of the factored loads,

N

S

is the nominal section axial force capacity,

N

C

is the nominal member axial force capacity, and

is the strength reduction factor (0.9).

NOMINAL SECTION CAPACITY, N

S

N

S

is the axial force capacity of a length of column sufficiently short that overall buckling has no effect

(i.e. it is more or less identical to the squash load P

y

). It is defined as

y n f S

A k N = ,

where k

f

is a form factor ( 1) that reduces the cross-sectional area of the column if its shape is prone

to local buckling, and

A

n

is the net area of the cross section (gross area minus any holes, etc).

For rolled sections and welded columns k

f

is usually close to 1.0, but there is a significant range of

columns composed of slender plate elements, and these will buckle locally before the squash load is

reached. This is why the squash load (A

n

y

) is modified by the local buckling form factor (k

f

).

Section capacity will govern the design of very short columns or columns with closely spaced restraints.

NOMINAL MEMBER CAPACITY, N

C

For longer columns the tendency to buckle dominates and determines the member capacity, N

C

.

NZS3404 defines N

C

/N

S

, the ratio of member capacity to section capacity, in terms of a modified

member slenderness ratio, and presents the results as a table (see pages 17 and 18). Plotting the table

data gives column design curves which are very similar to the plots of P

C

/P

y

based on the Perry-Robertson

relationship, but with the following refinements:

1. Allowance for different types of member

Different column design curves are provided for different types

of column. These recognise the effects of residual stress due to

manufacturing process and geometric imperfections.

2. Varying yield stress

Rather than have different curves for different column yield

stresses, a modified slenderness ratio,

n

, replaces the simple

L

e

/r previously used.

n

is defined as

250

k

r

L y

f

e

n

= (value is dominated by the L

e

/r component)

The 250 appears because the standard structural steel grade at the time NZS3404 was written was

250MPa. The design curves are tabulated for this value and the correction term is only required for

yield stress values other than 250MPA. The standard grade is now 300MPa and it is probable that the

tabulated values will be changed to reflect this in the next edition of the Standard.

The form factor k

f

, also appears in the modified slenderness ratio, taking account of reduced

effective area due to local buckling.

MEMBER SLENDERNESS REDUCTION FACTOR,

c

.

This is the name used in NZS3404 for the axial load capacity ratio N

C

/N

S

.

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p15 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

i.e.

S

C

c

N

N

=

Figure 2 shows the NZS3404 column design curves (with a couple of Perry-Robertson curves

superimposed for comparison). The similarity between the older Perry-Robertson curves and the more

recent curves can be seen.

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Modified Member Slenderness

A

x

i

a

l

L

o

a

d

C

a

p

a

c

i

t

y

R

a

t

i

o

,

N

C

/

N

S

Column Design Curves

NZS 3404 Steel Structures Standard

b

=-1.0

b

=-0.5

b

=0.0

b

=0.5

b

=1.0

Member section type constant,

b

for example:

-1.0: Hot-rolled RHS and CHS

-0.5: Cold-formed RHS and CHS (stress-relieved)

0.0: Hot-rolled UB and UC (flange thickness <40mm

0.5: T-sections flame cut from universal sections

1.0: Hot-rolled UB and UC (flange thickness >40mm)

Perry-Robertson formula

- samples for comparison

=

250

k

r

L y

f

e

n

Figure 2 Column design curves from NZS3404

Table 6.3.3(2) of NZS3404, reproduced on pages 17 and 18, tabulates values of ) N / N (

S C c

= for each

of the five member section constants (

b

= -1, -0.5, 0, 1, 0.5, 1) against a range of modified slenderness

ratios.

COMPRESSION MEMBER SECTION CONSTANT,

b

.

The value of this constant varies according to the member type as noted in Figure 2. Selecting the

appropriate

b

selects a column design curve suited to the particular type of column being designed (hot

rolled, cold-formed, welded, etc). Table 6.3.3(1) on p.16 sets out the various member types and the

corresponding section constants.

FURTHER EXAMPLES OF RESIDUAL STRESS PATTERNS

The figure shows typical patterns of residual stress due to

manufacturing. With hot rolled sections, shrinking of the late-cooling

regions induces residual compressive stress in the early-cooling regions,

and these are balanced by equilibrating tensile stresses in the late-

cooling regions. In a hot-rolled I-section the flange-web junctions are

the slowest cooling and so acquire residual tensile stress, whilst the the

more exposed flange tips are regions of residual compressive stress. The

presence of residual stress is of most significance in intermediate length

columns (longer columns tend to buckle elastically at low stress, short

columns achieve full plasticity regardless of initial stress).

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p16 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

The compression member section constant

b

, is used to select the appropriate column design curve

from the five which are tabulated in the table on pages 17 and 18.

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p17 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

The modified member slenderness is defined as

250

k

r

L y

f

e

n

= .

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p18 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

The modified member slenderness is defined as

250

k

r

L y

f

e

n

= .

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p19 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

STEPS IN THE DESIGN OF A STEEL COLUMN

1. Determine the effective length, L

e

, for each axis of buckling. Typically this can be taken as the

distance between restraints, or based on the standard cases tabulated earlier (see p.4).

2. Calculate the slenderness ratio, L

e

/r, for each axis of buckling.

3. Calculate the effective area, A

e

, and form factor,

g e f

A / A k = . [Topic yet to be discussed]

4. Calculate section capacity,

y n f S

A k N = .

5. Calculate modified slenderness ratio,

250

k

r

L y

f

e

n

= .

6. Select the member section constant,

b

, based on the column type (Table 6.3.3(1)).

7. Obtain the slenderness reduction factor

c

for each axis of buckling.

8. Calculate the nominal member axial force capacities,

S CX CX

N N = and

S CY CY

N N = (for major and

minor axis buckling).

9. Check that

S

*

N N , and

C

*

N N (where N

C

is the minimum of N

CX

and N

CY

).

EXAMPLE AXIALLY LOADED UB COLUMN

Steel I-section column, 310UB32, fixed base,

restrained by bracing in the (weak) minor y-axis

direction, free to deflect in the major x-axis

direction. What is the axial load capacity?

EULER BUCKLING LOAD

Euler buckling loads are too idealised for practical

use, but are useful benchmarks.

Buckling about the major x-axis

Column is a cantilever for buckling in this direction

kN 1247

5 4

EI

N

2

x

2

CR

=

=

Or, using the effective length of

L

e

=2L,

kN 1247

) 5 2 (

EI

L

EI

N

2

x

2

2

e

x

2

CR

=

=

Buckling about the minor y-axis

Column is a propped cantilever for buckling in this

direction.

kN 714

5

EI 046 . 2

N

2

y

2

CR

=

=

Or, using the effective length of L

e

=0.7L,

kN 714

) 5 7 . 0 (

EI

L

EI

N

2

y

2

2

e

y

2

CR

=

=

Thus buckling occurs about the minor axis, despite the additional restraint.

brace

brace

5m

x

y

310UB32

I =63.2E-6 m

I =4.42E-6 m

r =0.124m

r =0.0329m

A =4080mm

A =3733mm

=320MPa

x

y

x

y

g

e

y

4

4

2

2

unrestrained in

y direction, but

propped in x

direction by braces

fixed base

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p20 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

CAPACITY CHECK TO NZS3404

1. L

ex

= 2 x 5m = 10m (cantilever)

L

ey

= 0.7 x 5m = 3.5m (propped cantilever)

2. 81

124 . 0

10

r

L

x

ex

= =

106

0329 . 0

5 . 3

r

L

y

ey

= =

3. A

g

= 4080mm

2

, A

e

= 3733mm

2

, and so 915 . 0

4080

3733

k

f

= =

4. Assuming no significant holes in the section, take A

n

= A

g

, giving section capacity

kN 1195 ) N ( 320 4080 915 . 0 A k N

y n f S

= = =

5. 88

250

320

915 . 0 81

250

k

r

L y

f

x

ex

nx

= =

115

250

320

915 . 0 106

250

k

r

L

y

f

y

ey

ny

= =

= (y-axis buckling)

6. Column section is a hot-rolled UB with k

f

< 1, so from Table 6.3.3(1)

b

= 0

7. From Table 6.3.3(2):

cx

= 0.624 (interpolating between values of

nx

= 85 and 90), and

cy

= 0.448

(The two values are shown on the column design curve plot below)

8. kN 746 1195 624 . 0 N N

S CX CX

= = =

kN 535 1195 448 . 0 N N

S Cy Cy

= = =

Choosing the minimum, nominal member capacity, . kN 535 N

C

=

9.

S

*

N N : kN 1075 1195 9 . 0 N

*

C

*

N N : kN 482 535 9 . 0 N

*

CONCLUSION: The axial load capacity (reliable ultimate strength) of the column is 482kN - this should

not be exceeded by the axial compressive load resulting from the application of strength

limit state factored loads (such as 1.2G+1.5Q).

88, 0.624136221

115, 0.447998089

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Modified Member Slenderness

A

x

i

a

l

L

o

a

d

C

a

p

a

c

i

t

y

,

N

c

/

N

s

NZS 3404 Steel Structures Standard

Column design curve for

b

=0

250

k

r

L y

f

e

n

=

(x axis buckling)

(y axis buckling)

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p21 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

EXAMPLE DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COLUMN

A grade 300 steel column is 12m long and simply supported about both axes at each end and has a central

brace preventing displacement in the minor axis plane (i.e. L

ex

= 12.0m, L

ey

= 6.0m).

Select a suitable UC section to carry a design axial load based on nominal dead and live loads of 150kN

and 250kN respectively.

DESIGN TO NZS3404

1. Design load, kN 555 250 5 . 1 150 2 . 1 Q 5 . 1 G 2 . 1 N

*

= + = + =

2. 0 . 1 k assume and , 0 , 300

f b y

= = =

3. Get started by guessing . say , 100

n

=

From Table 6.3.3(2): 541 . 0

c

=

4. Require

*

s c

N N >

555 300 A 541 . 0 9 . 0

g

>

2

g

mm 3800

300 541 . 0 9 . 0

1000 555

A >

>

5. Try 150UC30: . mm 1 . 38 r , mm 5 . 67 r , mm 3860 A

y x

2

g

= = =

195

173

250

300

1 . 38

000 , 6

195

250

300

5 . 67

000 , 12

n

ny

nx

=

= =

= =

Hmmm,

n

is much bigger than our guessed value .

6. Try a new guess halfway between:

147

2

195 100

n

=

+

=

303 . 0

c

=

2

g

mm 6784

300 333 . 0 9 . 0

1000 555

A >

>

7. Try 200UC59: . mm 7 . 51 r , mm 7 . 89 r , mm 7620 A

y x

2

g

= = =

5 . 146

127

250

300

7 . 51

000 , 6

5 . 146

250

300

7 . 89

000 , 12

n

ny

nx

=

= =

= =

Now

n

is very close to our guessed value .

8. Check effective area (note that assuming k

f

=1 implies fully effective area)

(refer to notes on PLate Buckling for background to this step)

For 200UC59: Flange: T = 14.2mm b

1

= 97.85

y

= 300MPa

Web: t = 9.3mm d

1

= 181.6mm

y

= 320MPa

Plate slenderness ratios:

Flange: ) 4 . 2 . 6 table from ( 16 55 . 7

250

300

2 . 14

85 . 97

ey ef

< = =

Web: ) 4 . 2 . 6 table from ( 45 1 . 22

250

320

3 . 9

6 . 181

ey ew

< = =

Column_Buckling_Notes.doc p22 Copyright J .W. Butterworth August 2005

Since neither plate slenderness exceeds the yield limit slenderness, local buckling will not occur

before yielding and no reduction in width is required i.e. effective width = actual width so that

k

f

= 1 and A

e

= A

g

= 7620mm

2

.

9. Section Capacity:

kN 2057 N 300 7620 0 . 1 9 . 0 N

s

= =

10. Member Capacity:

5 . 146

n

=

0

b

=

306 . 0 ) 293 . 311 (.

) 145 150 (

) 145 5 . 146 (

311 . 0

c

=

= (interpolating, Table

kN 555 ( kN 629 2057 306 . 0 N N

c c c

> = = = )

The reliable strength of 629kN is significantly higher than the design moment of 555kN. This is

simply a consequence of the available column sizes. The next size down would turn out to be too

weak.

- Thesis Analysis and Design of Variable Stiffness Composite CylindersUploaded byC V CHANDRASHEKARA
- Column BucklingUploaded byConnor Hoover
- Buckling ExperimentUploaded byAbe Saulnier
- BucklingUploaded byAlma Rosa García
- Bridge CollapsesUploaded byEd B. Lledo
- BucklingUploaded byAkshay Mahajan
- Lab#3 Compression TestUploaded byLarisaVlad
- Steel Column DesignUploaded byAye Nyein
- Mathcad - 34Uploaded byStephen James
- Paper_Crippling of Composite Sections Using Progressive FailureUploaded bywydowaerdt
- ASTM Structural Sections Imperial 2006Uploaded byOscar Cruz
- Compression Only Spring-STAADUploaded byAjaykumar Mistry
- Torsional Section Properties of Steel ShapesUploaded bysm8575
- Design Procedure for Steel Frame Structures According to Bs 5950Uploaded byAli Gaffar
- ME syllabusUploaded bySuniljpatil
- Compendium of en 1993-1-1Uploaded byvasiile
- Design of Monorail SystemsUploaded byapi-3840630
- STRUCTURAL DESIGN.pdfUploaded byHeronijosh Dg
- Behavior and Design of Concrete-Filled Beam-Columns Webinar SlidesUploaded byAlexandra Guta
- SCI_P398Uploaded byMatthew Mamek Sanggat
- buckling plateUploaded byDurgesh Hingnekar
- LECTURE-3-BEC304 .pptUploaded byMohd Nizam Shakimon
- NSC1704 Features EnUploaded bydevojce1
- slideChap3ver1Uploaded byTrinh Duy Khanh
- IRJET-V5I2108Uploaded bySimang Machahari
- Columns 1Uploaded bym7j7a7
- Ae2254 Unit Test II Qp AUploaded byAravindan Sivanandan
- Vert Tee Brace ConnsUploaded bysreenivasulu chenchugari
- BucklingUploaded byrajeshmteccivilengg
- Ch1 IntroductionUploaded byErnie Ernie

- Mmsm1 Handout PlasticityUploaded byhezihilik
- ProductFlyer_9783319984698Uploaded byafegao2
- ProductFlyer_9783319587271 (1)Uploaded byafegao2
- 366087764-Jeanne-Neumann-A-Companion-to-Familia-Romana-Based-on-Hans-rberg-s-Latine-Disco-with-Vocab.pdfUploaded byAidan
- ddUploaded byafegao2
- Cloelia v.1.1.pdfUploaded byafegao2
- HysteresisModels OTANIUploaded bymancas50
- teseUploaded byafegao2
- Pascal Work MITUploaded bysajjanac
- mef madera, ANSYS.pdfUploaded byEddy Amanda Ruiz
- [American Philological Association Classical Resources Series 6] John Gruber-Miller - When Dead Tongues Speak. Teaching Beginning Greek and Latin (American Philological Association Classical Resources Series - Volume.pdfUploaded byafegao2
- lllUploaded byafegao2
- A Comparison of Methods for Calculating Notch Tip Strains and Stresses Under Multiaxial LoadingUploaded byDmitry
- Numerical Implementation and Calibration of a HystUploaded byafegao2
- Understanding MapleUploaded byafegao2
- Writing for the Benefit of the ReaderUploaded byafegao2
- Zubelewicz Et Al-2016-Scientific ReportsUploaded byafegao2
- README-parafem-and-drivers-win32-intel.txtUploaded byafegao2
- erratum.txtUploaded byafegao2
- readme.txtUploaded byafegao2
- Examples v3Uploaded byafegao2
- extrae-joule-readme.txtUploaded byafegao2
- Extrae Tutorial 3Uploaded byafegao2
- Parafem f90 CodingUploaded byskc3128
- r5.03.16Uploaded byafegao2
- materials-06-02090Uploaded byafegao2
- emonds_14_The-Phonologica.pdfUploaded byafegao2

- HDB ChecklistUploaded byVance Kang
- Modeling With ETABSUploaded bygautamshankar
- Tuscan ColumnsUploaded byAlexLion
- Design ProceduresUploaded bySameer Belim
- Axis Vm Step by StepUploaded bydoru_enciu
- Columns and PipesUploaded bysotiris
- HW8W2016Uploaded byAnonymous rFeO9t3N
- MULTI STORY BUILDINGSUploaded byRavi Shankar
- Trump BakerUploaded byNadya Pricilia
- Chapter8 Column DesignUploaded byKaren Lovedorial
- ETABS Building Design ManualUploaded byAntuan Kouros
- IBS Score ManualUploaded bywanjailani
- 4Uploaded byLee Tin Yan
- Design of RC Structures to EC2_v.2.1 Priyan DiasUploaded byransajeewani
- Rcc Wo- j1 Building Final - CopyUploaded byswapnil_nirgude
- Concrete Masonry Fire WallsUploaded bymajeeth_aneesa
- WCEE2012_3328Uploaded bysugi zhuang
- Progressive CollapseUploaded byUsman Ilyas
- The Conception of the Resistance Structure of the City Stadium of Cluj-napoca Under Accidental LoadingsUploaded byAnonymous t2lyqO
- Moment Connections Bolted WeltedUploaded byRavirajsinh Jadeja
- moment connection using mathcad.pdfUploaded bybong2rm
- General Reference ConnectionUploaded byAtiq R. Rafi
- 60302536 Unit 14 Design of Slender ColumnsUploaded bySh Jvon Sh Jvon
- Brancusi Endless Column: A masterpiece of art and engineering Giovanni SolariUploaded byAndres Fernandez
- Single Column FootingUploaded bytopukuet
- Est. Const. of Residential Accommodation for DA-DPP in Hunza.Uploaded byqazalbash1109588
- Modern Steel ConstructionUploaded byohundper
- Expozitia HanoverUploaded byMariana Robu
- RC Design IIUploaded byvenkatesh19701
- SAP2000 TutorialUploaded byHemant Sonawadekar