You are on page 1of 4

International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (p): 2320-2084, Volume-1, Issue-3, May-2013

Power Flow Analysis of a Continuous Process Plant: (A Case Study)



Electrical Dept.,VJTI, Mumbai, India,
Petrochemical Industry Expert, Mumbai, India

Abstract For the continuous evaluation of the performance of the power system, power flow solutions are essential for
exhibiting suitable control actions in case of requirement. This case study presents analysis of the electrical power system of
continuous process plant having its own captive generation along with the provision of the Grid connectivity. The different
power system elements are modeled as per the manufacturers data sheet. To evaluate the steady state performance, power
flow simulations and analysis of the complex power system for various invasive operating conditions are carried out.

Keywords Power flow analysis, active and reactive power flow, tie line flow, voltage variations


Large industrial process plants like oil and gas,
fertilizers and petro-chemical etc. needs electrical as
well as steam energy. These plants demand high
reliability as well as economic costs for power and
steam generation. In many areas where reliable power
is costly or difficult to access, these industries have
developed their own captive power plants to meet
their needs. This increases the complexity of
industrial power systems due to distributed generation
and grid interconnection. The power system deployed
must be capable of meeting the load requirement
under defined contingencies. To monitor, to maintain
stability under various operating conditions and to
manage these complex industrial power systems,
different additional sophisticated simulation
softwares are used. To facilitate the supply of
reliable power, operation team needs to create
different scenarios for power flow, short circuit and
stability studies in advance to check the constrains in
the system, if any. Proactive actions can be taken
based on these simulation study results to minimize
disruption to process plant operations.
A continual and comprehensive analysis of a power
system is required to evaluate current status of the
system and to evaluate the optional plans for system
expansion. IEEE 399-1997 [1] contains a good
discussion of the power system data required and the
techniques most commonly used in computer-aided
analysis in order to perform specific power system
studies. Modeling of different power system
components along with the control aspects in details
are presented in [2]. Power flow analysis provides an
efficient way to know electrical performance and
power flows of the system operating under steady
state. This study provides the real and reactive power
losses of the system and voltages at different nodes of
the system. A properly developed load flow model of
the system provides the basic network information
and the initial steady-state condition for other
important studies. The network model formation, load

flow problem, and different methods of power flow
are described in [3]. The type and calculations for
power flow depends on the accuracy, on-line or off-
line studies and also the cases to be evaluated [4].
High speed, low storage, and reliability for ill-
conditioned problems are the characteristics
requirements of a superior power flow method. For
regular power flow studies Newton-Raphson (NR)
method is versatile, reliable and accurate so
commonly used. NR method based power flow
simulations are performed for different operation
schemes of a big Industrial petrochemical complex
[5] and finally best operation configuration of the
system is indicated.
The power system model of an industrial complex is
presented here uses NR method based power flow
analysis simulation using ETAP software version
7.5.2. The acceptable voltage limits are as per the
standard IS-12360-2006. The power flow simulations
are carried out for identifying best operating
conditions provided under the guidelines of process
requirements. Then analysis is done based on various


The continuous process industrial complex has two
Islands, Island-I and Island-II. Both of these Islands
have their own power generation to cater the loads.
Figure 1 shows the Electrical Network of Continuous
Process Plant. Island-I has Installed generation
capacity of 450 MW and Peak Load of 350 MW. The
generation and peak load for Island-II is 750 MW and
340 MW respectively.
A. Island-I
This Island has installed generation capacity of Six
Steam Turbine generators (STG) 31.16 MW, nine
Gas Turbine generators (GTG) 32 MW at 11 kV and
on line generation of about 325 MW. This power is
step up to 33 kV through 53 MVA, 11kV / 33 kV
Main Step Up transformers (MSU). The distribution
of power is at 33 kV via five 33 kV switchboards
International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (p): 2320-2084, Volume-1, Issue-3, May-2013
Power Flow Analysis of a Continuous Process Plant: (A Case Study)

where the lumped loads are connected. Five grid
transformers 33 kV/ 132 kV are used for connection
of power to 132 kV Bus.

Fig.1: Electrical Network of Continuous Process Plant

B. Island-II
The Captive Power Plant (CPP) of Island-II consists
of six 125 MW GTGs, and two 25 MW STGs and on
line generation of about 710 MW. The Switchyard
arrangement for 220 kV is double bus bar system
with breaker and a half configuration. Each GTG is
connected via 14.5/220 kV, 161 MVA step-up
transformer to the double bus, 220 kV Outdoor
Switchyard. The 220 kV outdoor switchyard is
connected via eight 220/34.5 kV, 174 MVA Service
Transformers (ST) to 33 kV GIS Switchboards
located in two Main Receiving Substations (MRS)
MRS-1 and MRS-2. Each MRS contains two 33 kV
GIS Switchboards. The 33 kV Gas Insulated
Substation (GIS) Switchboards feed the Industrial
Load as well as CPP auxiliaries. Each MRS has two
switchboards where the lump loads are connected. All
ST are located near MRS and connected to
switchyard via 220 kV cables. MSU transformers are
located near GTG and connected to 220 kV
switchyard via short length of overhead bus. Island-I
and Island-II are interconnected via two
Interconnecting transformers (ICT) 132 kV/220 kV,
107 MVA located at Island-II.


A. Methodology
Electrical system network data is modeled in the
software for system analysis. Important inputs to an
effective system study are:

Identification of all loads specifically split of
motive and non-motive loads.
Power sources, including voltage and short
circuit levels and their operational
Generators, including MVA, voltage,
impedances and grounding methods.
Transformer sizes, their ratings, tap ratios,
voltages, impedances, connections and
grounding methods.
Protective devices and their ratings.
Sizes and types of overhead lines and
underground cables.
Future planned additions / provisions.
Grid interconnection provision.

B. Assumptions & Operating conditions for Power
Flow study

Following are the assumptions and network operating
conditions for the simulation and analysis carried out.

Load flow calculations are based on Newton Raphson
The acceptable voltage limits are as per the
standard IS- 12360-2006.
For Island-I, both STGs and GTGs are in
constant power mode with MW generation
of each STG and GTG is clamped at 16 MW
and 25 MW respectively.
In Island-II, both STGs are in constant
power mode and all GTGs are operating in
Swing mode.
All transformers are assumed to be at
nominal tap position.
According to design criteria, under normal
operating condition Bus couplers at 33kV
voltage level are considered as always ON.
To know the voltages and short circuit levels
below 33kV, a typical tree branch is
considered where voltage levels of 6.6kV
and 415V are included.
The lumped loads at 33 kV level are
modeled as consisting of 70% of motor load
and 30% constant impedance load at power
factor of 0.85 lag.
The lumped loads at 415 kV are modelled as
load consisting of 80% motor load and 20%
constant impedance load at power factor of
0.85 lag.
C. Voltage tolerences

Table I lists the voltage tolerances as per IS 12360-


Power flow analysis is one of the most common
computational procedures used in power system
analysis. Power flow calculation presents state of the
system for a given load and generation. These studies
help to analyze the steady state performance of the
power system under various operating conditions.
They are used to determine the circuit loading,
voltages at the various buses, reactive power flow,
International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (p): 2320-2084, Volume-1, Issue-3, May-2013
Power Flow Analysis of a Continuous Process Plant: (A Case Study)

system losses, and branch losses. The studies also
helps to identify critical conditions such as over
voltages, under voltages, operation near rated value
etc. and desired transformer tap settings. Power flow
studies and analysis of the continuous process plant
with CPP was performed to ensure the security of the
power system with respect to available generation
capacity and voltage profiles at various buses for
various operating conditions.

IS 12360-2006

The industrial load is a balanced three phase load. So,
balanced three phase power flow calculations are
carried out. Automatic tap changer settings and
reactive power limits are also taken into
consideration. Loading of STG is based low pressure
steam requirement in the different process plants.
There are hardly any variations in low pressure steam
requirements. So, all STGs of both the Islands run in
constant power mode.
The motivation behind this study was to identifying
best operating conditions provided under the
guidelines of plant/process requirements. This case
study is performed to find the tie line power flow and
variation of voltage magnitudes at different voltage
levels for said conditions.
Power flow analysis is performed for three different
operating configurations as per Table II. Case 1 is the
base case of the three cases studied. Here GTG from
each Island along with one STG of Island-I are
inoperative. Case 2 deals with the contingency when
one GTG of Island-II is out while the operating
configuration of Island-I is same as in first case. Case
3 is differs from base case when all STGs of Island-I
are in operation whereas one STG and one GTG from
Island-II is out of service. Table III gives the
summery of three power flow cases studied.




Following are the observations and findings of the
power flow simulations
Throughout the simulations the load
requirement of the Continuous Process Plant
is kept constant. So, the MW generation
remains around 629 MW.
Marginal increase in Reactive power
requirement with reduction in the number of
generating units.
STGs generation in both Islands is clamped
as per low pressure steam requirements. All
GTGs in Island-II are shares load equally.
System wise voltages variation at 220 kV,
132 kV and 33kV are seen in the range of
0.63% to 2.23 %, 132 kV is -0.42 % to 1.8%
and -0.5% to 1.81% respectively.
The voltage variation at 11kV, 6.6kV and
415V are in the range of -0.5% to -0.7%, -
0.1% to -1.1% and -1% to -3.1%
Average MW losses are observed nearly
around 0.40% MW generated MW.
International J ournal of Electrical, Electronics and Data Communication, ISSN (p): 2320-2084, Volume-1, Issue-3, May-2013
Power Flow Analysis of a Continuous Process Plant: (A Case Study)

Maximum Mvar losses are observed in the
range of 21% to 23 % of generated Mvar.
Power factor at 220 kV is about 0.85 lag as
the reactive power requirement for power
and the service transformers is included in
the modeled network.
Tie line power flow is from Island-II to
Island-I in both cases
Reactive power requirement is high due to
high values of service transformer %
impedances 24 %.


The power system network for continuous process
industrial complex was modeled and the simulations
were carried out for various generation configurations
while maintaining the loading conditions same. The
conclusions of power flow simulations are given as
No over voltages or under voltages were
observed in the network.
Being strong and compact redial distribution
network, the voltage control is managed by
controlling generator excitation voltages and
OLTC of the Service and interconnecting
Tie line power flow is from Island-II to
Island-I in all the cases as per the plant
operating philosophy.

Based on above work techno economic
feasibility for adding static VAR
compensators in the system for reducing
distribution losses and improving quality of
supply could be checked.


I wish to express my gratitude to V.G. Shanbhag, for
his support and guidance during completion of this
work. I also wish to express my special thanks to
Pradeep Teotia and others for their continuous
support throughout the work. I take this opportunity
to express deep sense of gratitude to all who has
supported me directly or indirectly for this work.


[1] IEEE 399-1997, IEEE Recommended Practice for Industrial
and Commercial Power Systems Analysis, The Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1998.
[2] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, Tata
McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2008.
[3] D P Kothari and I J Nagrath., Modern Power System
Analysis, Third Edition, Chapter No.6, Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishers, 2010
[4] Stott, B., Review of load-flow calculation methods,
Proceedings of the IEEE, 62, 1974.
[5] Serrican A., Ozdemir A., Ihan s., Load flow analyzes of power
system of PETKM Petrochemical Aliaga complex,
EUROCON 2009, IEEE, Conference Publications, May 2009
, Page(s): 470 474