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DuctConstructionandDesign

ImpactsOnEnergyUse
FactorsthatImpactEnergyuse
Whattopay
attentiontofor
savingenergy
inductsystems
Layout
Insulation
Lowpressure
drops
Airtightness
Coils
Heatrecovery
Fans
Controls
Fanenergyuse
Fanenergyuse,ventilationlosses
Fanenergyuse
Fouling
Therightamountofair,totherightplace,
attherighttemperature,andhumidity,and
attherighttime
Fanenergyuse,convectiveandconductionlosses
Fanefficiencyandsystemeffect
Conductionlosses
FactorsthatImpactEnergyuse
Whattopay
attentiontofor
savingenergy
inductsystems
Layout
Insulation
Lowpressure
drops
Airtightness
Coils
Heatrecovery
Fans
Controls
Fanenergyuse
Fanenergyuse,ventilationlosses
Fanenergyuse
Fouling
Therightamountofair,totherightplace,
attherighttemperature,andhumidity,and
attherighttime
Fanenergyuse,convectiveandconductionlosses
Fanefficiencyandsystemeffect
Conductionlosses
LoweringthePressureDrop
DuctDesignBasics
Duct
Fittings
DuctDesignBasics
Oneoftenmisunderstoodideaisthecritical
legorcriticalpath.
Allotherpathsareoverpressurizedbydesign
Unlessallpathsarethesame(greatbutnotlikely)
Symmetryisideal moreonthislater
Thepointisthatfittingsusedinthenon
criticalpathswillnotimpacttheenergy
requiredforthesystemunless,byusingthe
fitting,thecriticalpathchanges.
DuctDesignBasics
Fittingsandlayoutchangeswill
notimpactthefanunlessthey
impactthecriticalpath
DuctDesignBasics
Changingafittingorlayoutcanresultin
changingthecriticalpath
Duct
Therealityisthatpressuredropsarefairly
insignificantinthestraightsectionsofduct
Howevertherearesomegoodguidelinesto
follow
Therearesomemisconceptionsaswell
Duct
Roundductshouldbethebasisofdesign
Systemsshouldbedesignedinroundandthen
convertedwherenecessary
Fornonroundductkeeptheaspectratioas
closeto1:1aspossible
Thisimpactscostandpressuredrops(energy)
Misconceptions
Foragivenfootprintroundducthasless
resistance(pressuredrop)thansquareduct.
Isthistrue?Letsdoanexamplecalculation
1600CFM,compare12inchroundto12x12
rectangular
Misconceptions
Firstconverttherectangulartotheequivalent
round(SMACNADuctDesignorASHRAE
handbook)
12x12rectangular=13.1inchround
Pleasenotethatequivalentareaisnotacorrect
waytoconvert
250 . 0
625 . 0
) (
) ( 3 . 1
b a
ab
D
e

Misconceptions
Velocityfortheroundduct
V=Q/A=1600/.785(ft
3
/min,ft
2
)=2037fpm
Velocityforsquareduct
V=Q/A=1600/1(ft3/min,ft2)=1600fpm
Misconceptions
Pressuredropfor100feetof12inchround@
1600CFM~0.5
Pressuredropfor100feetof12x12inch
rectangular@1600CFM~0.3in.w.g.
Thatsalmost40%lessfriction
Misconceptions
Whataboutflatoval?
Oval24x12in.~17.7in.round
Rectangular24x12in.~18.3in.round
250 . 0
625 . 0
55 . 1
P
AR
D
e

Misconceptions
VelocityintheOval@1600CFM
V=Q/A=1600/1.79=896FPM
VelocityinRectangular
V=Q/A=1600/2=800FPM
Pressuredropfor100feet
Oval~0.066
Rect~0.057
14%lessfrictionbutactuallyinsignificant
Fittings
Fittingsarewherethemajorityofpressure
lossesoccur.
Selectingtheproperfittingsintheproper
placescanhaveasignificantimpactonenergy
use,andevencostimpact
Rememberourdiscussiononthecriticalpath?
Fittings
Tovaneornottovane
Oftenspecificationsrequiretheuseofturning
vanesinallmiteredelbows
Thisisokbutonelbowsatlowvelocity,or
notonthecriticalpaththiscouldbewasting
moneywithoutaddingbenefit
Specificationsshouldindicatethenumberof
splittervanesrequired(ifrequired)theseare
notturningvanes.
PressureLoss
Toevaluatethepressurelost(used)asair
movesthroughafittingyoushouldfirst
determinethevelocitypressureV
P
V
P
(in.w.g.)whichisasquarefunctionofV
V(fpm)
2
4005

V
V
P
ElbowComparison
ExampleScenario
Asdesignedtheplansindicatethata24x12
radiusedelbow(r/w=1.5)beused.Becauseof
fieldconditionsthatradiusedelbowwillnot
fit.Thecontractorisfacedwithfindingan
acceptablealternativethatfits
Thedesignerwantstoknowwhattheimpact
ofchangingtheelbowhasonthesystem
ExampleScenario
Itisfairlycommonforcontractorstosimply
findanelbowthatfits.Becauseofjob
scheduletheyareoftenreluctanttosendan
RFIaboutthesekindsofsituations.
Manytimesspecificationsarewrittentoforce
aparticulartypeofelbowtobeused.
FittingComparison
Velocity(fpm) 2000 4000
Elbow C P (in. w.g.) P (in. w.g.)
radiusedthroatheel,r/w=1.5 0.2 0.05 0.20
squarethroatradheel 1.38 0.34 1.38
miterednovanes 1.27 0.32 1.27
miteredvanes(single@3.25) 0.33 0.08 0.33
radiusedthroatheel,r/w=1.0 0.25 0.06 0.25
miteredvanes(single@1.5) 0.11 0.03 0.11
LowVelocity
Velocity(fpm) 800 1000 1200
Elbow C P (in. w.g.) P (in. w.g.) P (in. w.g.)
radiusedthroatheel,r/w=1.5 0.2 0.01 0.01 0.02
squarethroatradheel 1.38 0.06 0.09 0.12
miterednovanes 1.27 0.05 0.08 0.11
miteredvanes(single@3.25) 0.33 0.01 0.02 0.03
radiusedthroatheel,r/w=1.0 0.25 0.01 0.02 0.02
miteredvanes(single@1.5) 0.11 0.00 0.01 0.01
Layout
Ductlayouthasanimpactontheenergyuse
ofasystem.
Routingofductsinthemostdirectway
Reducesthenumberoffittings(losses)
Reducesthesurfaceareawhichreducesleakage,heat
loss/gain
Symmetry
Reducesoverpressurization
Layout
Canbehardtobalance
theserunsespeciallyif
theyhavealowerflow
rate(overpressurized).
Mayhaveissueswith
noiseaswell.
Highflow(atthisend)
requiresahigh
pressure,largerfan
Layout
Itisbesttohavethefanascentrallylocatedas
possible,orasclosetothehighestairflow
requirementsaspossible.
Sometimesthisisnotpossiblebecauseof
noiseconcernsfromtheequipment,orsimply
thephysicallayoutofthebuilding
Layout
Thisapproachisbetterbecauseit
canreduce/eliminateover
pressurization,andismucheasier
tobalance
Layout
Muchtoughertobalance
Overpressurized
Layout
Physicalsymmetryisnotrequired,youwant
pressuresymmetry.
Havingphysicalsymmetrymakesiteasierto
havepressuresymmetry.
Ifsymmetryisimpossiblethentrytoplacethe
fanclosesttothehighestflowareas
Layout
Trickyspot
SystemEffect
Fieldmeasurementsoffanperformanceoften
indicatelowervaluesthanmanufacture's
ratings.
Arethemanufacturerslying?No.
Threemaincausestolowerfieldvalues
Improperoutletconditions
Nonuniforminletflow
Swirlatthefaninlet
SystemEffect
OutletConditions
Fansforductedsystems,testedtoAMCA210
orASHRAE51,haveoutletductinplace
For100%recoveryuse100%effectivelength
SystemEffect
EffectiveLength
Dependsonvelocity
IfV<=2500fpm
IfV>2500fpm
600 , 10
o o
e
A V
L
3 . 4
o
e
A
L
SystemEffect
Using60x30inchduct
@30,000CFM
V=2400fpm
Le=10ft.
@50,000CFM
V=4000fpm
Le=16ft.
Using60x50inchduct
@30,000CFM
V=1440fpm
Le=12.7ft.
@50,000CFM
V=2400fpm
Le=13ft.
SystemEffect
Nonuniforminletflow
Majorimpactonfanperformance
Createsanewfancurve
Useinletduct3to8diameters
Dependsonvelocitybutlosseswithoutanyinlet
ductcanadd3.5inchesofpressureloss
SystemEffect
Inletconditions
Abruptinletsactuallyreducetheeffectiveinlet
areabecauseofvenacontractaeffect
SystemEffect
Ifductisntusedtryusingabellmouthor
othersmoothinlet
Idealusesa
smoothinlet
withstraight
sectionofduct
Agoodoptionat
leastprovidesa
smooth
transitioninto
thefan
SystemEffect
Avoid
Inletboxesarenotideal
butwillreducesystem
effect
SystemEffect
Swirl
Inthedirectionofthe
impellerreducesthe
pressure/volumecurve
Oppositethedirectionof
theimpelleractually
increasesthe
pressure/volumecurve
slightlybutgreatly
increasesthepower
consumed
SystemEffect
Toaddressswirlyoucanincreasetheinlet
ductlength,orusevanestocorrectthespin
SystemEffect
Thebestwaytoeliminateorreducesystemeffect
istoprovidespace.Thebettertheinletand
outletconditionsthebetterthefanwillperform.
Evenprovidingductlengthsof25%oftheideal
lengthcanresultin80%gains,50%lengthsshow
upto90%gains
Leaveroomforexpansion,asequipment
becomesmoreefficientittypicallyincreasesin
size
SystemEffect
Adequatespacenot
provided
Lessthanidealinletand
outletconditions
Detaileddiscussionon
Systemeffectcanbe
foundinChapter6of
SMACNAsDuctDesign
Guide
AirTightness/Leakage
DuctLeakage
AccessoryLeakage
EquipmentLeakage
AirTightness/Leakage
DuctLeakage Asthetermshouldimplyis
theleakageofairfromtheduct
AccessoryLeakage Leakageofairfrom
accessories(dampers,accessdoors)
EquipmentLeakage Leakageofairfrom
equipment(AHU,VAV)
SystemLeakageisthecombinationofthe
above
AirTightness/Leakage
Costforairleaks Itisdifficulttoputanexact
costonleakagebecauseitdependsonenergy
costs,wheretheleakoccurs,environmental
conditions,evenaltitude.Itissafetosaythat
leakagedoesnotprovideabenefitandshould
bereducedasappropriatefortheapplication
AirTightness/Leakage
Avoidarbitrary%todesignaspassfailforduct
tests.Itisperfectlyacceptabletodesignwith
a%ofleakage,butthisshouldbeconverted
toaleakageclassforductfieldtests.
Usingaleakageclassprovidesawayto
determinepass/failforportionsofductandat
differentpressures
AirTightness/Leakage
Ifyouendupwithleakageclassesbelow3you
arenotaskingforgoodductyouareasking
forhighperformanceductwhichwilllikely
haveacostimpact.
Contractorsnotawareofthisrequirementare
likelytohavedifficultypassingaleakagetest
withtheselowerleakagerates
Makesuretoprovideallowancefor
accessoriesiftheyareincludedinthetest
Misconceptions
Leakagetestsprovidetheactualleakagerate
underoperatingconditions
Nottrue,traditionaltestswouldtypicallyprovide
ratesthatarehigherthanactualleakageunder
operatingconditionsbecausetheleakageis
measuredatahigherpressurethanoperating
pressure.
Misconceptions
Valuesforlowleakagedampersshould
providebetterperformanceforleakagetests
Thisdependsonwhatkindofleakageisbeing
referenced
Mostdamperleakageratesrefertotheleakage
acrosstheblade(s)whenthedamperisclosed
Thesevaluesdonotrepresentsleeveleakage
whichistheleakageofairfrominsidethesystem
tooutsidethesystem
Recommendations
RequirethatallductbesealedtoSealClassA
Becarefulnottocreateapass/failsolowthat
meetingitwouldrequirevoidinglistingsor
warranties leakageclassisbestforduct
Testsomeportionoftheduct
10 20 100
Focusoncriticalareas
Testearlyintheprocess
Insulation
Mostcodesrequiresomeoftheductworkto
beinsulated.
Insulationreducestheeffectsofheatgain/loss
astheductmovesconditionedair.
Internallinerscanprovidethermalresistance
Becarefulaboutthroughmetal
Consultthemanufacturersdatafor
performance,makesuretouseinstalled
values
Insulation
75of24roundduct@6,500CFM
V=2070fpm
Desiredoutlettemp120F
Airtempwhereductrunislocated65
Thetemprequiredatthestartoftheduct123F
Theheatlossis26,000Btu/hour
7,643watts(76 100wattlightbulbs)
Insulation
75of24roundduct@6,500CFM
withR6(2inchesofinsulation)
V=2070fpm
Desiredoutlettemp120F
Airtempwhereductrunislocated65
Thetemprequiredatthestartoftheduct121F
Theheatlossis5,800Btu/hour
1,700 watts(17 100wattlightbulbs)
78%reduction inheatloss
Insulation
Remembertoaccountfortheweightof
insulationwhenspecifyingductconstruction
1in.w.g.=5.2lbs./ft
2
Ductlinerprovidesthermalbenefit,main
purposeissoundattenuation
Becarefulofthroughmetal(condensation)
Summary
Provideproperinletandoutletconditionsfor
thefan Spaceinthemechanicalroom
Useaductlayoutthatisefficient(direct)with
asfewfittingsaspossible
Fittingchoicesareimportantinthecritical
path.Otherpathsarenotsocritical
SpecifysealclassAforductsandfittings
Insulate
Tools
Leakageapp
www.smacna.org/dalt
Free
DuctDatabase
SMACNADuctDesignManual
ASHRAE~$160
AppStore($9.99)
Resources
AIRWAYS EfficientairductsystemsinEurope
ASHRAEHandbook2009Chapter21,DFD
AMCAPublication201,203
Eurovent2/21996
SMACNAHVACSystemsDuctDesign
SMACNAHVACAirDuctLeakageTestManual
THANKYOU
Questions?