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Part 2 Part 2

Based on material provided by Professor Michael Negnevitsky

Andrew Kusiak

Intelligent Systems Laboratory

2139 SeamansCenter

TheUniversity of Iowa

IowaCity, Iowa 52242 - 1527

andrew-kusiak@uiowa.edu

http://www.icaen.uiowa.edu/~ankusiak

Tel: 319 - 335 5934 Fax: 319 - 335 5669

Outline Outline

Mamdani Mamdani fuzzy inference fuzzy inference

Sugeno Sugenofuzzy inference fuzzy inference

Case study Case study

Summary Summary

Mamdani Mamdani fuzzy inference fuzzy inference

The The Mamdani Mamdani fuzzy inference involves four steps: fuzzy inference involves four steps:

Fuzzification Fuzzificationof the input variables of the input variables

Rule evaluation Rule evaluation

Aggregation of the rule outputs Aggregation of the rule outputs

Defuzzification Defuzzification

Consider a simple two Consider a simple two- -input one input one- -output application that output application that

includes three rules: includes three rules:

Rule: 1 Rule: 1 Rule: 1 Rule: 1

IF IF x x is is A A3 3 IF IF project_funding project_funding is is adequate adequate

OR OR y y is is B B1 1 OR OR project_staffing project_staffing is is small small

THEN THEN z z is is C C1 1 THEN THEN risk risk is is low low

Rule: 2 Rule: 2 Rule: 2 Rule: 2

IF IF x x is is A A2 2 IF IF project_funding project_funding is is marginal marginal

AND AND y y is is B B2 2 AND AND project_staffing project_staffing is is large large

THEN THEN z z is is C C2 2 THEN THEN risk risk is is normal normal

Rule: 3 Rule: 3 Rule: 3 Rule: 3

IF IF x x is is A A1 1 IF IF project_funding project_funding is is inadequate inadequate

THEN THEN z z is is C C3 3 THEN THEN risk risk is is high high

Step 1: Step 1: Fuzzification Fuzzification

The first step is to take the crisp inputs, The first step is to take the crisp inputs, x x1 and 1 and y y1 1

( (project funding project funding and and project staffing project staffing), and determine ), and determine

the degree to which these inputs belong to each of the the degree to which these inputs belong to each of the

appropriate fuzzy sets. appropriate fuzzy sets.

Crisp Input

y1

0.1

0.7

1

0

y1

B1 B2

Y

Crisp Input

0.2

0.5

1

0

A1 A2 A3

x1

x1 X

(x =A1)

=0.5

(x =A2)

=0.2

(y =B1)

=0.1

(y =B2)

=0.7

Project

funding

Project

staffing

Inadequate Marginal Adequate Small Large

Step 2: Rule Evaluation Step 2: Rule Evaluation

The second step is to take the The second step is to take the fuzzified fuzzified inputs, inputs,

( (x x= =A A1) 1)

=0.5, =0.5,

( (x x= =A A2) 2)

=0.2, =0.2,

( (y y= =B B1) 1)

=0.1 and =0.1 and

( (y y= =B B2) 2)

= =

0.7, and apply themto the antecedents of the fuzzy 0.7, and apply themto the antecedents of the fuzzy

rules. If a given fuzzy rule has multiple antecedents, rules. If a given fuzzy rule has multiple antecedents,

the fuzzy operator (AND or OR) is used to obtain a the fuzzy operator (AND or OR) is used to obtain a

single number single number that represents the result of the that represents the result of the

antecedent evaluation. This number (the truth value) antecedent evaluation. This number (the truth value)

is then applied to the consequent membership is then applied to the consequent membership

function. function.

To evaluate the disjunction of the rule antecedents, To evaluate the disjunction of the rule antecedents,

we use the we use the OR fuzzy operation OR fuzzy operation. Typically, fuzzy . Typically, fuzzy

expert systems make use of the classical fuzzy expert systems make use of the classical fuzzy

operation operation union union: :

A A

B B

( (x x) = ) =max max [ [

A A

( (x x), ),

B B

( (x x)] )]

Similarly, in order to evaluate the conjunction of the Similarly, in order to evaluate the conjunction of the

rule antecedents, we apply the rule antecedents, we apply the AND fuzzy operation AND fuzzy operation

intersection intersection: :

A A

B B

( (x x) = ) =min min [ [

A A

( (x x), ),

B B

( (x x)] )]

Mamdani Mamdani s s rule evaluation rule evaluation

A3

1

0

X

1

y1

0

Y

0.0

x1

0

0.1

C1

1

C2

Z

1

0

X

0.2

0

0.2

C1

1

C2

Z

A2

x1

Rule 3:

A1

1

0

X

0

1

Z x1

THEN

C1 C2

1

y1

B2

0

Y

0.7

B1

0.1

C3

C3

C3 0.5 0.5

OR

(max)

AND

(min)

OR THEN Rule 1:

AND THEN Rule 2:

IF x isA3(0.0) y isB1(0.1) z isC1(0.1)

IF x isA2(0.2) y isB2(0.7) z isC2(0.2)

IF x isA1(0.5) z isC3(0.5)

R1: R1: IF IF project_funding project_funding is isadequate adequate

OR OR project_staffing project_staffing is issmall small

THEN THEN risk risk is islow low

R3: R3: IF IF project_funding project_funding is isinadequate inadequate

THEN THEN risk risk is ishigh high

R2: R2: IF IF project_funding project_funding is ismarginal marginal

AND AND project_staffing project_staffing is islarge large

THEN THEN risk risk is isnormal normal

Now the result of the antecedent evaluation can be Now the result of the antecedent evaluation can be

applied to the membership function of the applied to the membership function of the

consequent. consequent.

The most common method of correlating the rule The most common method of correlating the rule

consequent with the truth value of the rule consequent with the truth value of the rule

antecedent is to cut the consequent membership antecedent is to cut the consequent membership

function at the level of the antecedent truth. This function at the level of the antecedent truth. This

method is called method is called clipping clipping. Since the top of the . Since the top of the

membership function is sliced, the clipped fuzzy set membership function is sliced, the clipped fuzzy set

loses some information. However, clipping is still loses some information. However, clipping is still

often preferred because it involves less complex and often preferred because it involves less complex and

faster mathematics, and generates an aggregated faster mathematics, and generates an aggregated

output surface that is easier to output surface that is easier to defuzzify defuzzify. .

While clipping is a frequently used method, While clipping is a frequently used method, scaling scaling

offers a better approach for preserving the original offers a better approach for preserving the original

shape of the fuzzy set. shape of the fuzzy set. The original membership The original membership

function of the rule consequent is adjusted by function of the rule consequent is adjusted by

multiplying all its membership degrees by the truth multiplying all its membership degrees by the truth

value of the rule antecedent value of the rule antecedent. This method, which . This method, which

generally loses less information, can be useful in generally loses less information, can be useful in

fuzzy expert systems. fuzzy expert systems.

Clipped and scaled membership functions Clipped and scaled membership functions

Degree of

Membership

1.0

0.0

0.2

Z

Degree of

Membership

Z

C2

1.0

0.0

0.2

C2

Clipped Scaled

Step 3: Aggregation of the rule outputs Step 3: Aggregation of the rule outputs

Aggregation is the process of unification of the Aggregation is the process of unification of the

outputs of all rules. We take the membership outputs of all rules. We take the membership

functions of all rule consequents previously clipped or functions of all rule consequents previously clipped or

scaled and combine theminto a single fuzzy set. scaled and combine theminto a single fuzzy set.

The input of the aggregation process is the list of The input of the aggregation process is the list of

clipped or scaled consequent membership functions clipped or scaled consequent membership functions, ,

and the output is one fuzzy set for each output and the output is one fuzzy set for each output

variable. variable.

Aggregation of the rule outputs Aggregation of the rule outputs

0

0.1

1

C1

C z is 1(0.1)

C2

0

0.2

1

C z is 2(0.2)

0

0.5

1

C z is 3(0.5)

Z Z Z

0.2

Z 0

C3

0.5

0.1

Clipped membership functions

Step 4: Step 4: Defuzzification Defuzzification

The last step in the fuzzy inference process is The last step in the fuzzy inference process is

defuzzification defuzzification. Fuzziness helps us to evaluate the . Fuzziness helps us to evaluate the

rules, but the final output of a fuzzy systemhas to be rules, but the final output of a fuzzy systemhas to be

a crisp number. The input for the a crisp number. The input for the defuzzification defuzzification

process is the aggregate output fuzzy set and the process is the aggregate output fuzzy set and the

output is a single number. output is a single number.

There are several There are several defuzzification defuzzificationmethods, but methods, but

probably the most popular one is the probably the most popular one is the centroid centroid

technique technique. It finds the point where a vertical line . It finds the point where a vertical line

would slice the aggregate set into two equal masses. would slice the aggregate set into two equal masses.

Mathematically this Mathematically this center center of gravity (COG) of gravity (COG) can be can be

expressed as: expressed as:

( )

( )

=

b

a

A

b

a

A

dx x

dx x x

COG

Centroid Centroiddefuzzification defuzzificationmethod finds a point method finds a point

representing the centre of gravity of the fuzzy set, representing the centre of gravity of the fuzzy set, A A, ,

on the interval, on the interval, ab ab. .

A reasonable estimate can be obtained by calculating A reasonable estimate can be obtained by calculating

it over a sample of points. it over a sample of points.

(x)

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

160 170 180 190 200

a b

210

A

150

X

Center Center of gravity (COG): of gravity (COG):

4 . 67

5 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 0

5 . 0 ) 100 90 80 70 ( 2 . 0 ) 60 50 40 30 ( 1 . 0 ) 20 10 0 (

=

+ + + + + + + + + +

+ + + + + + + + + +

= COG

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0 20 30 40 50 10 70 80 90 100 60

Z

Degree of

Membership

67.4

Mamdani Mamdani- -style inference, requires finding the style inference, requires finding the

centroid centroidof a two of a two- -dimensional shape by integrating dimensional shape by integrating

across a continuously varying function. In general, across a continuously varying function. In general,

this process is not computationally efficient. this process is not computationally efficient.

Michio MichioSugeno Sugenosuggested to use a single spike, a suggested to use a single spike, a

singleton singleton, as the membership function of the rule , as the membership function of the rule

consequent. A consequent. A singleton singleton, or more precisely a , or more precisely a fuzzy fuzzy

singleton singleton, is a fuzzy set with a membership function , is a fuzzy set with a membership function

that is unity at a single particular point on the that is unity at a single particular point on the

universe of discourse and zero everywhere else. universe of discourse and zero everywhere else.

Sugeno Sugeno fuzzy inference fuzzy inference

Sugeno Sugeno- -style fuzzy inference is similar to the style fuzzy inference is similar to the

Mamdani method. Mamdani method. Sugeno Sugenohas modified a rule has modified a rule

consequent. Instead of a fuzzy set, he used a consequent. Instead of a fuzzy set, he used a

mathematical function of the input variable. The mathematical function of the input variable. The

format of the format of the Sugeno Sugeno- -style fuzzy rule style fuzzy ruleis is

IF IF x x is is A A

AND AND y y is is B B

THEN THEN z z is is f f ( (x, y x, y) )

where where x x, , y y and and z z are linguistic variables; are linguistic variables; A A and and B B are are

fuzzy sets on universe of discourses fuzzy sets on universe of discourses X X and and Y Y, ,

respectively; and respectively; and f f ( (x, y x, y) is a mathematical function. ) is a mathematical function.

The most commonly used The most commonly used zero zero- -order order Sugeno Sugenofuzzy fuzzy

model model applies fuzzy rules in the following form: applies fuzzy rules in the following form:

IF IF x x is is A A

AND AND y y is is B B

THEN THEN z z is is k k

where where k k is a constant. is a constant.

In this case, the output of each fuzzy rule is constant. In this case, the output of each fuzzy rule is constant.

All consequent membership functions are represented All consequent membership functions are represented

by singleton spikes. by singleton spikes.

A3

1

0

X

1

y1

0

Y

0.0

x1

0

0.1

1

Z

1

0

X

0.2

0

0.2

1

Z

A2

x1

IF x isA1(0.5) z isk3(0.5) Rule 3:

A1

1

0

X

0

1

Z x1

THEN

1

y1

B2

0

Y

0.7

B1

0.1

0.5 0.5

OR

(max)

AND

(min)

OR y isB1(0.1) THEN z isk1(0.1) Rule 1:

IF x isA2(0.2) AND y isB2(0.7) THEN z isk2(0.2) Rule 2:

k1

k2

k3

IF x isA3(0.0)

Sugeno Sugeno- -style rule evaluation style rule evaluation

Sugeno Sugeno- -style style aggregation of the rule outputs aggregation of the rule outputs

z is k1(0.1) z is k2(0.2) z is k3(0.5)

0

1

0.1

Z 0

0.5

1

Z 0

0.2

1

Z k1 k2 k3 0

1

0.1

Z k1 k2 k3

0.2

0.5

Weighted average (WA): Weighted average (WA):

65

5 . 0 2 . 0 1 . 0

80 5 . 0 50 2 . 0 20 1 . 0

) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (

3 ) 3 ( 2 ) 2 ( 1 ) 1 (

=

+ +

+ +

=

+ +

+ +

=

k k k

k k k k k k

WA

0 Z

Crisp Output

z1

z1

Sugeno Sugeno- -style style defuzzification defuzzification

How to make a decision on which method How to make a decision on which method

to apply to apply Mamdani Mamdani or or Sugeno Sugeno? ?

Mamdani Mamdani method is widely accepted for capturing method is widely accepted for capturing

expert knowledge. It allows us to describe the expert knowledge. It allows us to describe the

expertise in more intuitive, more human expertise in more intuitive, more human- -like like

manner. However, manner. However, Mamdani Mamdani- -type fuzzy inference type fuzzy inference

entails a substantial computational effort. entails a substantial computational effort.

Sugeno Sugeno method is computationally effective and method is computationally effective and

works well with optimization and adaptive works well with optimization and adaptive

techniques, which makes it very attractive in control techniques, which makes it very attractive in control

problems, particularly for dynamic nonlinear problems, particularly for dynamic nonlinear

systems. systems.

Building a fuzzy expert system: A case study Building a fuzzy expert system: A case study

A service A service center center keeps spare parts and repairs failed keeps spare parts and repairs failed

ones. ones.

A customer brings a failed itemand receives a spare A customer brings a failed itemand receives a spare

of the same type. of the same type.

Failed parts are repaired, placed on the shelf, and Failed parts are repaired, placed on the shelf, and

thus become spares. thus become spares.

The objective here is to advise a manager of the The objective here is to advise a manager of the

service service center center on certain decision policies to keep on certain decision policies to keep

the customers satisfied. the customers satisfied.

Process of developing a fuzzy expert system Process of developing a fuzzy expert system

1. Specify the problemand define linguistic variables. 1. Specify the problemand define linguistic variables.

2. Determine fuzzy sets. 2. Determine fuzzy sets.

3. Elicit and construct fuzzy rules. 3. Elicit and construct fuzzy rules.

4. Encode the fuzzy sets, fuzzy rules and procedures 4. Encode the fuzzy sets, fuzzy rules and procedures

to performfuzzy inference into the expert system. to performfuzzy inference into the expert system.

5. Evaluate and tune the system. 5. Evaluate and tune the system.

Step Step 1 1: Specify the problem and define : Specify the problem and define

linguistic variables linguistic variables

There are four main linguistic variables: average There are four main linguistic variables: average

waiting time (mean delay) waiting time (mean delay) m m, repair utilisation , repair utilisation

factor of the service centre factor of the service centre , number of servers , number of servers s s, ,

and initial number of spare parts and initial number of spare parts n n. .

Linguistic variables and their ranges Linguistic variables and their ranges

LinguisticVariable: Mean Delay, m

LinguisticValue Notation Numerical Range(normalised)

VeryShort

Short

Medium

VS

S

M

[0, 0.3]

[0.1, 0.5]

[0.4, 0.7]

LinguisticVariable: Number of Servers, s

LinguisticValue Notation Numerical Range(normalised)

Small

Medium

Large

S

M

L

[0, 0.35]

[0.30, 0.70]

[0.60, 1]

LinguisticVariable: Repair Utilisation Factor,

LinguisticValue Notation Numerical Range

Low

Medium

High

L

M

H

[0, 0.6]

[0.4, 0.8]

[0.6, 1]

LinguisticVariable: Number of Spares, n

LinguisticValue Notation Numerical Range(normalised)

VerySmall

Small

Rather Small

Medium

Rather Large

Large

VeryLarge

VS

S

RS

M

RL

L

VL

[0, 0.30]

[0, 0.40]

[0.25, 0.45]

[0.30, 0.70]

[0.55, 0.75]

[0.60, 1]

[0.70, 1]

LinguisticVariable: Mean Delay, m

LinguisticVariable: Number of Servers, s

LinguisticVariable: Repair Utilisation Factor,

LinguisticVariable: Number of Spares, n

Step Step 2 2: Determine fuzzy sets : Determine fuzzy sets

Fuzzy sets can have a variety of shapes. However, Fuzzy sets can have a variety of shapes. However,

a triangle or a trapezoid can often provide an a triangle or a trapezoid can often provide an

adequate representation of the expert knowledge, adequate representation of the expert knowledge,

and at the same time, significantly simplifies the and at the same time, significantly simplifies the

process of computation. process of computation.

Fuzzy sets of Fuzzy sets of Mean Delay m Mean Delay m

0.1 0

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Mean Delay (normalized)

S VS M

Degree of

Membership

Fuzzy sets of Fuzzy sets of Number of Servers s Number of Servers s

0.1 0

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

M L S

Degree of

Membership

Number of Servers (normalized)

Fuzzy sets of Fuzzy sets of Repair Utilisation Factor Repair Utilisation Factor

0.1 0

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Repair Utilization Factor

M H L

Degree of

Membership

Fuzzy sets of Fuzzy sets of Number of Spares n Number of Spares n

0.1 0

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

S RS VS M RL L VL

Degree of

Membership

Number of Spares (normalized)

Step Step 3 3: Elicit and construct fuzzy rules : Elicit and construct fuzzy rules

To accomplish this task, we might ask the expert to To accomplish this task, we might ask the expert to

describe how the problemcan be solved using the describe how the problemcan be solved using the

fuzzy linguistic variables defined previously. fuzzy linguistic variables defined previously.

Required knowledge also can be collected from Required knowledge also can be collected from

other sources such as books, computer databases, other sources such as books, computer databases,

flow diagrams and observed human behaviour. flow diagrams and observed human behaviour.

The Fuzzy Associative Memory The Fuzzy Associative Memory

(FAM) square (FAM) square

m

s

M

RL

VL

S

RS

L

VS

S

M

VS S M

L

M

S

k dimensional cubefor k variables

No of

servers

Delay

No of

spares

Rule Base 1 Rule Base 1

1. If (utilization_factor is L) then (number_of_spares is S)

2. If (utilization_factor is M) then (number_of_spares is M)

3. If (utilization_factor is H) then (number_of_spares is L)

4. If (mean_delay is VS) and (number_of_servers is S) then (number_of_spares is VL)

5. If (mean_delay is S) and (number_of_servers is S) then (number_of_spares is L)

6. If (mean_delay is M) and (number_of_servers is S) then (number_of_spares is M)

7. If (mean_delay is VS) and (number_of_servers is M) then (number_of_spares is RL)

8. If (mean_delay is S) and (number_of_servers is M) then (number_of_spares is RS)

9. If (mean_delay is M) and (number_of_servers is M) then (number_of_spares is S)

10. If (mean_delay is VS) and (number_of_servers is L) then (number_of_spares is M)

11. If (mean_delay is S) and (number_of_servers is L) then (number_of_spares is S)

12. If (mean_delay is M) and (number_of_servers is L) then (number_of_spares is VS)

3 +3x3 rules

Cube FAM of Rule Base 2 Cube FAM of Rule Base 2

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VL L M

H

S

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS M

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

S S VS L

s

L

VS S M

m

M

H

VS VS VS

L

VS S M

S

m

VS VS VS M

S S VS L

s

S VS VS

M

VS S M

m

VS S M

m

S

RS S VS M

M RS S L

s

S

M M S M

RL M RS L

s

3x3 =27 rules

Rule table 2 Rule table 2

Rule m s n Rule m s n Rule m s n

1 VS S L VS 10 VS S M S 19 VS S H VL

2 S S L VS 11 S S M VS 20 S S H L

3 M S L VS 12 M S M VS 21 M S H M

4 VS M L VS 13 VS M M RS 22 VS M H M

5 S M L VS 14 S M M S 23 S M H M

6 M M L VS 15 M M M VS 24 M M H S

7 VS L L S 16 VS L M M 25 VS L H RL

8 S L L S 17 S L M RS 26 S L H M

9 M L L VS 18 M L M S 27 M L H RS

Therules constructed froma3-dimensional cube

(3x3x3 =27 rules)

Step Step 4 4: Encode the fuzzy sets, fuzzy rules : Encode the fuzzy sets, fuzzy rules

and procedures to perform fuzzy and procedures to perform fuzzy

inference into the expert system inference into the expert system

One may choose one of two options: One may choose one of two options:

Build the systemusing a programming language Build the systemusing a programming language

such as C/C++or Pascal, or such as C/C++or Pascal, or

Apply a fuzzy logic development tool such as Apply a fuzzy logic development tool such as

MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox or Fuzzy MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox or Fuzzy

Knowledge Builder. Knowledge Builder.

Step Step 5 5: Evaluate and tune the system : Evaluate and tune the system

The last, and the most laborious, task is to evaluate The last, and the most laborious, task is to evaluate

and tune the system. We want to see whether the and tune the system. We want to see whether the

fuzzy systemmeets the requirements. fuzzy systemmeets the requirements.

Several test situations depend on the mean delay, Several test situations depend on the mean delay,

number of servers and repair utilisation factor. number of servers and repair utilisation factor.

The Fuzzy Logic Toolbox can generate surfaces The Fuzzy Logic Toolbox can generate surfaces

useful in analysis of the system useful in analysis of the system s performance. s performance.

Three Three- -dimensional plot of Rule Base 1 dimensional plot of Rule Base 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

number_of_servers mean_delay

n

u

m

b

e

r

_

o

f_

s

p

a

r

e

s

Three Three- -dimensional plot of Rule Base 1 dimensional plot of Rule Base 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

utilization_factor mean_delay

n

u

m

b

e

r

_

o

f

_

s

p

a

r

e

s

Three Three- -dimensional plot of Rule Base 2 dimensional plot of Rule Base 2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

number_of_servers mean_delay

n

u

m

b

e

r

_

o

f

_

s

p

a

r

e

s

Three Three- -dimensional plot of Rule Base 2 dimensional plot of Rule Base 2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.3

0.4

utilization_factor mean_delay

n

u

m

b

e

r

_

o

f

_

s

p

a

r

e

s

0.5 However, even now, the expert might not be However, even now, the expert might not be

satisfied with the systemperformance. satisfied with the systemperformance.

To improve the systemperformance, we may use To improve the systemperformance, we may use

additional sets additional sets Rather Small Rather Small and and Rather Large Rather Large

on the universe of discourse on the universe of discourse Number of Servers Number of Servers, ,

and then extend the rule base. and then extend the rule base.

Modified fuzzy sets of Modified fuzzy sets of Number of Servers Number of Servers

0.1 0

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Number of Servers (normalized)

RS M RL L S

Degree of

Membership

Cube FAM of Rule Base 3 Cube FAM of Rule Base 3

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

S S VS

S S VS

VL L M

VL RL RS

M M S

RL M RS

L M RS

H

S

M

RL

L

RS

s

L

VS S M

m

M

H

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

VS VS VS

S S VS

S S VS

L

VS S M

S

M

RL

L

RS

m

s

S VS VS

S VS VS

RS S VS

M RS S

M RS S

M

VS S M

m

VS S M

m

S

M

RL

L

RS

s

S

M

RL

L

RS

s

Three Three- -dimensional plots for Rule Base 3 dimensional plots for Rule Base 3

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

number_of_servers mean_delay

n

u

m

b

e

r

_

o

f

_

s

p

a

r

e

s

Three Three- -dimensional plots for Rule Base 3 dimensional plots for Rule Base 3

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.3

0.4

utilization_factor mean_delay

n

u

m

b

e

r

_

o

f

_

s

p

a

r

e

s

0.5

Tuning fuzzy systems Tuning fuzzy systems

1. 1. Review model input and output variables, and if Review model input and output variables, and if

required redefine their ranges. required redefine their ranges.

2. 2. Review the fuzzy sets, and if required define Review the fuzzy sets, and if required define

additional sets on the universe of discourse. additional sets on the universe of discourse.

The use of wide fuzzy sets may cause the fuzzy The use of wide fuzzy sets may cause the fuzzy

systemto performroughly. systemto performroughly.

3. 3. Provide sufficient overlap between neighbouring Provide sufficient overlap between neighbouring

sets. It is suggested that triangle sets. It is suggested that triangle- -to to- -triangle and triangle and

trapezoid trapezoid- -to to- -triangle fuzzy sets should overlap triangle fuzzy sets should overlap

between 25% to 50% of their bases. between 25% to 50% of their bases.

4. 4. Review the existing rules, and if required add new Review the existing rules, and if required add new

rules to the rule base. rules to the rule base.

5. 5. Examine the rule base for opportunities to write Examine the rule base for opportunities to write

hedge rules to capture the pathological behaviour hedge rules to capture the pathological behaviour

of the system. of the system.

6. 6. Adjust the rule execution weights. Most fuzzy Adjust the rule execution weights. Most fuzzy

logic tools allow control of the importance of rules logic tools allow control of the importance of rules

by changing a weight multiplier. by changing a weight multiplier.

7. 7. Revise shapes of the fuzzy sets. In most cases, Revise shapes of the fuzzy sets. In most cases,

fuzzy systems are highly tolerant of a shape fuzzy systems are highly tolerant of a shape

approximation. approximation.

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