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Tips for Writing Objectives

What are instructional objectives?
Instructional objectives are specific, measurable, short-term, observable student behaviors.
An objective is a description of a performance you want learners to be able to ehibit before you consider them
competent. !"ote from:$
An objective describes an intended result of instruction% rather than the process of instruction itself. !"ote from:$
Why have objectives? !Available:'objectives.htm$
(o provide direction to instruction.
(o provide #uidelines for assessment.
(o convey instructional intent to others.
Types of objectives
Cognitive: understandin#s% awarenesses% insi#hts !e.#.% )*ist and eplain...)$. (his includes information recall%
conceptual understandin#% and problem&solvin#.
Psychomotor: special skills !e.#.% )dissect a fro# so that the followin# or#ans are clearly displayed...)+ )take a
replicable blood pressure readin# by appropriately usin# a sphy#momanometer)$.
ffective: attitudes% appreciations% relationships.
Tips for !riting objectives
How specific and detailed should objectives be?
It depends on what they are used for, -bjectives for se.uencin# a unit plan will be more #eneral than for
specifyin# a lesson plan.
/on0t make writin# objectives tedious% trivial% time&consumin#% or mechanical. 1eep them simple% unambi#uous%
and clearly focused as a #uide to learnin#.
(he purpose of objectives is not to restrict spontaneity or constrain the vision of education in the discipline+ but to
ensure that learnin# is focused clearly enou#h that both students and teacher know what is #oin# on.
2press them in terms of student performance% behavior% and achievement% not teacher activity.
(hree components of an instructional objective:
3. Identify the type of activity in which competence is re.uired !e.#.% )/issect...)$.
4. 5pecify the criteria or standards by which competence in the activity will be assessed !e.#.% )a fro# so that
the followin# or#ans are clearly displayed...)$.
3. *ist any conditions or circumstances re.uired for students to meet the objective !e.#.% )...#iven two class
periods workin# with the materials at your lab station)$.
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"n !riting objectives, ans!er the #uestion$ "What should the participants be able to do?"
a. -bjectives must be clear and attainable.
b. 7ocus on knowled#e/skill ac.uisition or reinforcement.
c. A recommended wordin# format is: )At the completion of this activity% participants should be able to...) (his phrase is
followed by a specific performance verb and the desired learnin# outcome.
889ords or phrases such as know, think, appreciate, learn, comprehend, remember, perceive, understand, be
aware of, be familiar with, have knowledge of, grasp the significance, are %OT measurable and should be avoided.
Writing Objectives for &esson Plans 'sing (loom)s Ta*onomy and ssociated ction or Performance +erbs
&earning level ssociated action verbs
1nowled#e define% describe% state% list% name% write% recall% reco#ni:e%
label% underline% select% reproduce% outline% match
;omprehension identify% justify% select% indicate% illustrate% represent% name%
formulate% eplain% jud#e% contrast% classify
Application predict% select% assess% eplain% choose% find% show%
demonstrate% construct% compute% use% perform
Analysis analy:e% identify% conclude% differentiate% select% separate%
compare% contrast% justify% resolve% break down% critici:e
5ynthesis combine% restate% summari:e% precise% ar#ue% discuss%
or#ani:e% derive% select% relate% #enerali:e% conclude
2valuation jud#e% evaluate% determine% reco#ni:e% support% defend%
attack% critici:e% identify% avoid% select% choose
Parts of a performance objective$ ,-This is !hat " e*pect for your objectives.-/
-bjective: The students will be able to tell and record time on a digital clock and analog clock to the hour and half hour by
writing the times in a story.
(he students will be able to tell and record time on a digital clock
and analog clock to the hour and half
by writin# the times correctly in a story.
Audience: 5tandard
introduction for an objective.
<int: 7ocus on what the students
must do not the teacher.
<int: =ust specify observable and measurable
;ondition to be met by the students in order to
demonstrate that the objective has been achieved.
<int: /escribes the circumstances% situation or settin#.
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(ehavior0ction +erb that is
measurable and can be assessed.
9hat is the learner to do>
Content- description of the
subject matter to be learned.
Objectives could include more criteria or parts$ !88I do not require all of these parts.**)
(C1s of Writing Objectives Available: http$00!!!.uams.edu0oed0teaching0objectives.htm
-udience: (he who. "The student will be able to"
(-(ehavior$ 9hat a learner is epected to be able to do or the product or result of the doin#. (he behavior or
product should be observable.
C-Condition: (he important conditions under which the performance is to occur.
1-1egree: (he criterion of acceptable performance. <ow well the learner must perform in order for the
performance to be considered acceptable.
The follo!ing are %OT observable or measurable objectives
ppreciate the beauty of a circuit
Aeally understand relativity theory
Be familiar with the law
!nderstand the process of osmosis
"njoy speakin# 7rench
Change the spark plu#s on an en#ine
#earn about erosion
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