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# Name: Patrick S. Caddarao Date Performed: Nov.

28, 2007
Section: 3 ChE A Group No. 2

Experiment # 2
Refractive Index
I. Introduction:
Refractometer is an optical instrument that measures the extent to which light is bent
when it moves from air into a sample. It is a unitless number, between 1.3000 to 1.7000 for most
compunds, and is normally determined to five digit precision. [1]

At the end of the experiment we are expected (a) to determine the indices of refraction of
the different proportions of liquids in a binary mixture. (b) to determine the specific and
molecular refractivities of each proportion of liquids in a binary mixture. And (c) to compare the
observed molecular refractions with calculated values.

II. Methodology:

Different proportions of methanol from Carl Zeiss 114648 made in West Germany and
reagent grade toluene by Fisher Scientific Analytical code: T/2300/17 Batch 0418049 had been
prepared for the determination of the refractive index using Abbe Refractometer by Merck KGaA
made in Darmstadt Germany. Refractive index was noted starting at 100% methanol and 0%
toluene mixture. A 10% increment of toluene and 10% decrement of methanol were used in the
proceeding proportions of mixtures. We ended up measuring the refractive index when we reach
the 100% pure toluene solution. The readings were taken when the demarcation line between the
light and dark intersects the cross hairs. The temperature of the binary mixture was noted every
readings. The sample were then transferred into a pycnometer to get exactly 25 ml of the solution
and weighted through an analytical balance. The density of the solution was calculated by the
(η 2 − 1)  1 
formula, mass/volume and the Rs and Rm were calculated using s R =   and
(η 2 + 2  ρ 
(η 2 − 1)  M 
Rm =   respectively, where M = (x1)(Mwt.1) +(x2)(Mwt.2).
(η 2 + 2  ρ 

46 1.4996 1. .5 y = -0.1328x + 1.32 0 0.9753 1.38 1. the refractive index decreases.42 Poly.1328x + 1.III.2 mole fraction of methanol Figure 1 Refractive index vs.4969[4].52 1.6 0.36 1.34 1.9753.44 Series1 1. The equation of the line y = -0. toluene has a greater refractive index than methanol that’s why refractive index decreases as mole fraction methanol increases.8 1 1. Results and Discussion Refractive index 1. Mole fraction of Methanol Figure 1 shows a second order polynomial series of relationship.328[3] and that of the toluene at 20 ◦C is 1. The true value of refractive index of methanol at 20 ◦C is 1.4 0.4996 and has a R2 = 0. As we compared to the true value of refractive index of the two.2955x 2 + 0.48 R2 = 0. (Series1) 1.54 1.2 0.2955x2 + 0. As the mole fraction of methanol increases (mole fraction of toluene decreases).4 1.

8 1 1.0938x + 0.9524.4 0.3 0. The equation of the line is y = -23. Specific Refraction 0.9936 0 0 0.4 0.25 Series1 0.3423 and has a R2 = 0.4 0. Mole fraction of Methanol Figure 2 shows a second order polynomial series of relationship.6 0.825x + 32.1 0. molecular refraction decreases. Molecular Refraction 35 30 25 20 Series1 15 Linear (Series1) 10 y = -23.825x + 32. specific refraction decreases. As the mole fraction of methanol increases. Mole fraction of Methanol Figure 3 shows a linear of relationship.167x 2 + 0.167x2 + 0.2 0.9524 0. (Series1) 0.3423 R2 = 0.2 mole fraction of methanol Figure 3 Molecular Refraction vs.15 0. As the mole fraction of methanol increases.792 and has a R 2 = .2 mole fraction of methanol Figure 2 Specific Refraction vs.2 Poly. The equation of the line is y = -0.05 0 0 0.792 5 R2 = 0.2 0.6 0.35 y = -0.8 1 1.0938x + 0.

9138 0.7217 40% 60% 1.000 + x) = 0.8085 0.5 60% 40% 1.3279 15.100 x = 2.0980 0.800 24. Sample Calculations: A.772 2 1.5 80% 20% 1.9127 0.494815 0.3933 10% 90% 1.5 70% 30% 1.9121 3.800 2 0. ◦ Mixture Ri Rs Rm ρ c Xi of methanol toluene methanol 100% 0% 1.0 0.3487 21.38834 0.0000 Table 1 Summary of Data obtained and calculated in the experiment Table 1 summarizes the data obtained in the whole experiment.0 0.3490 23.2749 8.9936.844 24. It shows that a decrease of mole fraction of methanol correspond to an increase of refractive index.000 + x) = 0.5 50% 50% 1.3034 13.3479 18.50485 0.34470 0.856 24.5 90% 10% 1.2237 0% 100% 1. Calculating proportions of methanol and toluene (1) 25 ml methanol + 0% toluene x = 0.8078 0.804 2 0.37124 0.9589 3.8582 3.43758 0.788 2 0. (η 2 − 1)  M  0.407435 0.1) +(x2)(Mwt.2890 0.836 24.6282 0.4492 0.500 + x) / (25.000 mL toluene (2) 25 ml methanol + 10% toluene x / (25.0 0.9894 0.3464 31.5845 0.2).35550 0.2937 11.7955 3.502845 0.6335 30% 70% 1.200 x = 3.812 2 0.500835 0.0000 3.125 mL toluene .0 0.0 0. specific refraction and molecular refraction.48795 0.3468 27.828 24.852 24. density.9053 0.2836 10.0 0.780 mL toluene (3) 25 ml methanol + 20% toluene (2.2790 9. Molecular refraction was determined by using the formula Rm =   where M (η 2 + 2  ρ  = average molecular weight = (x1)(Mwt.5263 20% 80% 1.

B. Calculating Mole Fraction of Methanol (2) 90% methanol + 10 % toluene nt = (25.0400 x 0.7780 = 9.6282 = 0.2) (1) Rs = (1. In Rm.3423 and has a R2 = 0. vs.000 g/mole 92. mole fraction of methanol indicates a linear relationship. Calculating Density ρ = (mass of pycnometer with mixture – mass of pycnometer) / 25 ml mixture using mixture no. Fraction of methanol and Rm vs.3555)2 – 1 1 (2) Rm = 0. mol fraction of methanol indicate? What are the practical uses of these graphs? The graph of Rs.9936. What do refraction graphs Rs.5428 + 0.825x + 32.0411 x 92.2790 D.0400] (1. The equation of the line in Rs.1300 ] (1.000 ml mixture)(0.8078 = 0. Vs.000 g/mole nt = 0.7720 = 8. mole fraction methanol indicates a second order polynomial series of relationship while the graph of Rm.5661 xi = 0.100)(0.000)/25.2749 x [ 32.3447)2 + 2 0.9589 + 0.5661 = 0.900)(0.0233 = 0.000= 0. Answer to Questions: 1.5428 / 0.2790 x [ 32. 2 of A ρ = (47.9524. As the mole fraction of methanol decreases specific refraction and molecular refraction increases because the refractive index of toluene has a higher value than methanol.9589 IV. vs.2749 (2) Rs = (1.167x2 + 0.1) +(x2)(Mwt. Vs. mol fraction of methanol can be use in testing products because at different . mol.0938x + 0.856 g/ml) 32. mole fraction methanol is y = -0.792 and has a R2 = 0.000 ml mixture)(0.3555)2 + 2 0. Graphs of Rm and Rs vs.3447)2 – 1 1 (1) Rm = 0.700-28. vs.788 g/ml C. molf fraction of methanol the equation of the line is y = -23.772 g/ml) + (25. Getting the Specific Refraction and Molecular Refraction of the substance (η 2 − 1)  1  (η 2 − 1)  M  Rs = 2   Rm = 2   (η + 2  ρ  (η + 2  ρ  Rm = RsM where: Rs = specific refraction η = the index of refraction ρ = density of the substance at a given temperature Rm = molecular refraction M = average molecular weight = (x1)(Mwt.

proportions there is a change on its value or a change on the effects of the medium where light is bent. 2. The temperature at which the index of refraction is determined is usually included in the symbol as the superscript. What are the practical uses of refractive index in chemical engineering? Give as many examples as you can.[2] hello (g) Another interesting application of molar refraction is connected with the subject of keto- enolic tautomerism. (f) The true value of refractive index of methanol at 20 ◦C is 1. adding up more toluene on the mixture would increase the refractive index of the whole mixture.. In the experiment we found out that refractive index decreases with increasing temperature. (a) It is used to identify a particular substance. in most cases we are expected to gather the data at the same temperature so that we could compare the values of refractive index.328[3] while on the experiment its 1.7918 g/ml[3] which would mean that the methanol we used was no longer pure. In what practical applications is (a) specific refractivity (b) molecular refractivity more useful? It would be more useful in determining the variation of a solution. to know its contents by comparing it to the true value and to indicate its composition. (c) As the mole fraction of methanol decreases specific refraction and molecular refraction increases.856 g/ml which is close to the true density of toluene that is 0. However. If the temperature changes. (d) The density of methanol is 0. or measure its concentration.3447 at 23. It is necessary to note the temperature at every reading because refractive index also depends on temperature. (b) The refractive index increases as density of the mixture increases.g.8669 g/cm 3 [3]. and consequently an approximate indication can be obtained whether one or the other predominates in the compound in its normal state. e. (c) The refractive index can be used to determine the sugar content of solutions.772 g/ml in the experiment which is lesser to the true density of methanol that is 0. (e) The density of toluene in the experiment is 0. (f) to provide some information concerning molecular structure particularly among terpene compounds.4969 [4] while on the experiment its . (b) It is used to measure the concentration of a solute in an aqueous solution. Why it is necessary to note the temperature at which the reading from the refractometer is obtained? Explain your answer. and the dispersive power of prisms. Conclusions: The following data were observed and therefore concluded in the experiment (a) refractive index increases as mole fraction of methanol decreases because toluene has a greater refractive index than methanol. (d) It is used to calculate the focusing power of lenses. confirm its purity. (g) The true value of refractive index of toluene at 20 ◦C is 1. V. [2] 3. the two should have different values of [R] since the enol-form contains a double bond.5 ◦C. nD20 4. refractive index also change. (e) Identify or confirm the identity of a sample by comparing its refractive index to known values.

Chapter 7. London. Samuel.3 http://www. the temperature difference is 3. Driscoll (ed. Academic Press. respectively. VI.co. D. The value of refractive index of methanol and toluene we got is close to the true value of refractive index.) (1991) Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II. 2008 [2]Glasstone. 2008 [4]W.diracdelta. E. However. Palik (ed. Science and Engineering Encyclopaedia version 2. McGraw-Hill Book Co.uccs.50485 at 24 ◦C. .htm. G. http://web.1. 2nd edition © 1946 [3] Dirac Delta Consultants Limited. References: [1] University of Richmond. © 1996 University of Richmond visited January 3.html © 2001-2008 visited Feb. 26.5 ◦C and 4 ◦C.edu/bgaddis/chem337/expts/nD/nD.) (1978) Handbook of the Optical Society of America. Textbook of Physical Chemistry.uk/science/source/m/e/methyl%20alcohol/source.