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Solar Power

Solar radiation energy represents the largest amount of energy current reaching the earth's
telluric ecosystem. 100,000 trillion watts of solar energy hit the ground and undergo conversion to
other forms of energy (Stanftbrd University 2009. p.2). This resource is vast as it is almost 6500
times the global consumption of energy used by humans (13.7 trillion watts) (Alamoud 2010, p.7).
Currently, the application of this form of energy represents less than 1% of the potential it holds in
electricity production under renewable sources. Solar energy requires high capital cost in
investment, intermittency and modest conversion technologies making it unwieldy to initiate use
in the form of energy. The greatest challenge in solar technology is in the discovery of new solar
energy mechanisms that are more efficient and less capital intensive.
In definition, solar radiation is an electromagnetic waste released by the sun that
originates from the fusion reaction converting hydrogen molecules into helium molecules. The
sun releases 3.89x10^26 nuclear energy per second from its core. The nuclear energy is
convened to thermal energy and radiated towards the earth's surface in the form of electromagnetic
radiation. The fluidity of energy is divided into three categories: - Ultraviolet radiation (UV) which
is less than 10% of the total, visible light that is 39% of the total and infrared radiation that
constitutes 52% of the total (Timilisina & Narbel 2011. p.3). Radiation that is able to reach the
surface of the earth is affected by a number of factors. These factors include the inclination of the
earth's axis and the atmosphere, which causes reflection, and absorption of the radiation. The
yearly average of solar energy reaching the surface is 170 Watts per square meter on water
bodies and 180 watts per square meter for the Landmasses (Timilisina & Narbel 2011. p.3).
Seventy five percent of this radiation is direct light that is propagated by air, moisture, clouds
and aerosols The universal energy potential ranges from 2.5 to 80 trillion watts with the bottommost
estimates highlighting 18% oft he final current primary energy consumption. The amount
represents more than 10% of the estimated universal consumption of 2030. The solar energy market
share is significantly low. Developed countries have progressively invested in solar mechanisms
with projections with 2030 projections estimated at 13.6GW (80% from photovoltaic and the rest
from solar geothermal energy) (Alamoud 2010. p.7).

Solar Energy in Saudi Arabia and its Manufacturing Sector
Saudi Arabia is one of the largest lands mass in the universe with direct normal
irradiation (DNI). This refers to the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface. Saudi Arabia has
deployed photo voltaic (PV) and (CSP) concentrated solar power in the production of energy (Alamoud
2010, p.9). This is all in an effort to conserve the present fuel reserves and to increase energy production
in the country. Extreme summer temperatures are a constraint to the production using DNI as the
technology decreases production in high temperatures. Cooling mechanisms for the technology are an
extra capital cast constraining solar energy tapping. CSP is applied in Saudi Arabia for both electricity
production and thermal capabilities. Using current statistics. Saudi Arabia's is anticipated to expand from
40GW up to 120GW between 2014 and 2028 (Shelby & Agonigo 2009, p.1). With the average
Arabian temperatures of 30c, it is estimated a 10% reduction in PV efficiency. Power reduction is
dependent on the temperature and the cell type provided by the respective supplier.
Saudi Arabia and its Large area have a monthly high temperature that varies from 40

c in Riyadh in the
summer months of June, July, August and September. It is less than 30C in Abha at the same period
(Saleh 2008. p.11). Large fins to act as cooling systems are applied to assist in solar production. Air
ducts are also attached on the PV panels on the backside to increase cooling efficiency. This highlighted
more than 10% reduction in panel temperature. The total amount of energy loss calculated in the Riyadh
region was 16.5% without any cooling systems present (Shelby & Agonigo 2009. p.11). Use of water
as a cooling method is a constraint in Saudi Arabia due to the dry nature of the country.
The National Solar Systems (NSS) is an example of a manufacturing, company that has
integrated the use of solar power in the manufacturing process. The company is located in the
Dammam Industrial city in Saudi Arabia. The solar company uses solar energy in the manufacture of
solar systems. The company has a two mega-watt plant in KAUST that is used to power the assembling
of water heaters and cathode protection (Sala 2008. p. 1). Saudi Arabia also uses solar heating in the
desalination of seawater. Solar heaters are placed to heat water into vapor form then cool to pure water.
This is the Arabian countrys initiative in finding water security.

Solar Energy Globally in the Manufacturing sector
China. Japan. USA. Taiwan and Germany lead the globe in the production of solar energy.
China and Taiwan are the major solar producing countries with 60% market share (Fridley 2010, p.1).
Most of the solar produced in these countries is used locally. In company statistics, according to solar
energy, the Intel Company uses most solar energy in production. The company uses 1.4 billion
kilowatt hours per year (Fridley 2010, p.1). This is an equivalence of 180000 homesteads and 140000
vehicles. The solar energy powers 50% of the energy required by the company Kohl's department
stores and whole foods rank second and third respectively. Dell Inc. ranks fourth with its main head
quarters already running on 100% solar energy. (Fridley 2010, p.1).
Scholars estimate that a 4% cover of the global deserts with solar panels is enough to power the
whole universe. The global pricing of solar power by end of year 2010 was 18 cents per kilowatt-
hour. Compared to coal and natural gas, the price is three times higher. This fact lags the transition
from fossil fuels to solar energy. Europe's Saharan desert project is the largest solar project estimated at
550 billion dollars to tap into the desert's solar radiation to power 85% of Europe. (Fridley 2010. p.1)

Wind power
Wind power generally refers to the energy from atmospheric air that is mobile. This is created
by solar energy absorbed differently by the surface transformed through connective methods arising
from the heat differences to air motion. There are many forms of winds and their strength and capabilities
vary with the geographical nature of an area. Wind power is dependent on the velocity of air, density
of air and volume of air. Wind power makes use of turbines to convert the energy to electrical power.
Wind power does not require any petroleum to blaze hence does not emit any pollutant
Wind Power in Saudi Arabia and its Manufacturing Sector
Wind power in Saudi Arabia has been identified in five location by the meteorological department
recorded in its 2009 report. The five locations include Dhahran. Gizan, Al-wahj, Yanbo and Jeddah. All
these location are located on the coastal lines, Yanbo and Dhahran have the greatest electricity output at
82602 MW and 68947 MW respectively and are the only functioning locations (Rehman 2008. p.1). The
main barrier to the application of wind power in energy production is the high cost of capital investment.
Wind power in Yanbo will result in a mean reduction of green house gases by 26087 tons annually. On the
other hand, wind power in Yanbo will result mean reduction of green house gases by 21533 tons annually
(Rehman 2008, p.1). Green house reduction is attributed to the application of 1500, 1000 and 600 kW wind
parks. The corresponding cut in economic cost from use of wind power in Saudi Arabia is estimated to be
at $407.797 annually (Rehman 2008, p.1).
Saudi Arabia has a full load of five wind hours. The presence of the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean
far south boosts the region with high-speed monsoon winds that are tapped for wind power. Eighteen
percent of the output electrical power generated is used in the manufacturing sector. This results in an
annual decrease of $73403.46 in operational costs from manufacturing companies. The numerical
amount of wind power used by the companies is 27800 mega-watts (Rehman 2008, p.1).

Wind Power Globally and in the Manufacturing Sector
When wind power is mentioned, the first country to come into mind is Denmark. Denmark
is the Saudi Arabia of wind power. In November 2013, the amount of energy generated by Denmark
surpassed the local consumption rate. Power generated was more than power consumed. The Danish
produces 18 GW of electricity by 2013 that is more than 50% of the turbine capacity (Kalmikov &
Dykes 2011, p.4). The second largest wind generating country is Germany, USA, China and Portugal
follow in closely behind. Denmark aims at 100% renewable energy production by the year 2050. Most of
the electricity produced is for export to Sweden and Norway. Wind power is stored chemically through
electrolysis to facilitate production of green hydrogen. Motorola mobility is an example of a
manufacturing company that will attain 25% of power used in production from wind power by end year
2014. Google and Wal-Mart are other companies that will at min 25% functionality from wind power by
2016. It is estimated that wind energy will save the Google $1 billion annually (Kalmikov & Dykes
2011, p.4).
Bio-fuels
A bio-fuel is defined as a fuel containing energy from carbon fixation produced from
living organism. The fuel is produced by conversion of biomass to energy. There are three
different methods of biomass conversion namely thermal, chemical and biochemical conversion.
The conversion of biomass can produce energy in any form of matter be it liquid, gas or solid.
Bio-ethanol is produced through the fermentation process of starch and carbohydrates. Ethanol is
mostly applied in automobile engines that use gasoline to reduce vehicle carbon emissions and
increase octane power. In 2010, bio-fuel product accounted for 2.7% of the global energy
consumption. The energy is mostly applied in transport through combination of bio-diesel and
ethanol.


Bio-Fuels in Saudi Arabia and ifs Manufacturing Sector
Currently Saudi Arabia is at a beginner's stage in the bio- fuel industry. In January 2014, (SABA
project) Saudi Arabia Bio- refinery from Algae was initiated to identify hyperactive producers of bio-
fuels in the Arabian coastal shoreline. The main aim of the project is the construction of an algae based
processing plant. The plant will be producing an average amount of 30,000 tons of algae (Turniwa 2011,
p.1). Jeddah based Middle East Environment Protection (MEEP) and then India-based Bio-max Fuels is
another joint venture that aims in the production of bio-fuel energy from cooking oil. The plant venture
aims at the production of 25,000 metric tons of bio-fuel energy. (Tumiwa 2011, p.1).

Bio-Fuels Globally and in the Manufacturing Sector
The market leaders for bio-fuel in the globe are Brazil and the United States of America. The USA
main bio-fuel is bio-diesel and ethanol that are produced from corn. The USA is the largest ethanol
producer but Brazil leads in general bio- fuel production. The two countries produce 70% of the global
ethanol applied in the energy sector. 70% of the global production amounted to 13.5 billion gallons
(UNICTAD 2008). Bio-diesel is practically present in all countries with oil seeds. Brazil is the first country
to attain a sustainable economy based on the use of bio-fuels. Brazil's sugarcane ethanol is referred as the
most efficient alternative fuel. Biofuels in Brazil are used to produce power in the form of heat. Sugar cane
ethanol has led to a 6.1% reduction of green house gases globally (UNICTAD 2008). This is due to the
combination of bio-diesel and ethanol in automobile engines to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide
emissions. Combination of ethanol and bio diesel is the major use of bio-fuel as engine additives.
Biomass
Biomass refers to plant and animal organic material. The energy gotten from the sun is stored in these
organic materials then later converted in heat energy during combustion. Combustion though is not the
only means of releasing biomass energy. Stored organic waste produce landfill gases such as methane
commonly referred to as biogas. Biomass combustion does not emit carbon dioxide or sulfur. The down
side of biomass is that a notable amount of carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere when plants
grow naturally. The environmental impact of biomass is dependent on the type of biomass and the manner
of getting energy from the biomass. The only limitations to the use of biomass are kick of adequate land
and occurrence of land sinks.
Biomass in Saudi Arabia and its manufacturing sector
The main source of biomass in Saudi Arabia is the public solid waste, Sewage and Industrial waste
(Jurgenson 2013, p.4). In Saudi Arabia, biomass is the fourth important energy source after oil, natural gas
and coal. Biomass is competitive in the country with sources and pricing being abundant and favorable
respectively. Biomass in the Kingdom costs $101 per mega watt-hour. This highlights a 57.23% reduction
in pricing when compared to solar and tidal energy (Jurgenson 2013, p.4). Physical wastes to energy
technologies are used to convert biomass to pure hydrogen, liquid bio-fuels or syngas. All the stated
products of biomass can be directly applied in the production of electricity. Biomass conversion into
renewable energy reduces the amount of Arabian waste material by 39%. Saudi Arabia uses aerobic
digestion of biomass to get renewable energy. The gross energy from biomass obtained per day is 196.7
kilojoules. Out of the 196.7 kilojoules of energy, 75% is in the form of methane gas.
The average cost of solid waste and sewage management in manufacturing companies in Saudi Arabia
amounts to 28% of the production budget (King Saud University 2013, p.27). The operational and
maintenance expense of running a biogas plant amounts to 20% of the amount used in solid waste
management. (King Saud University 2013. p.27) Aramco Gulf Operations Company and Al Khajfi
Operations are examples of Saudi Arabian companies that have incorporated biomass to the production
process. The energy is mostly used for heating purposes and represents 15% of the revenue for the
companies (King Saud University 2013. p.27). This is joined to operational cost reduction, solid waste
reduction and the selling of methane tanks.
Biomass use globally and in the Manufacturing Sector
Biomass globally accounts for 10% of the total global energy according to the International
Energy Agency. The percentage is inefficient old methods used in cooking and heating mostly in
developing nations. The world Energy statistics rated 3% of all the energy used
in the United States to have been from biomass. Out of the 3% of biomass, 5% was organic wood material.
Garbage waste represented 12% of the total biomass energy produced. The United States has eighty
biomass-to-energy producing facilities that generate 7000-mega watt of electricity for 1.3 million
homesteads. This is a representation of fourteen times the amount of wind and solar energy produced in the
nation.
Biomass energy in the United Kingdom is a manufacturing company that centers on biomass
wood pellets and heating systems. Biomass heating systems are 90% efficient. The use of biomass in
manufacturing will reduce GIHG emissions by 45%.
Nuclear energy

Nuclear energy refers to power generated from decaying isotopes. The energy released can be in
the form of kinetic energy or nuclear radiation. These form of energy are absorbed by the immediate
surroundings creating a temperature difference. This temperature difference allows the incorporation of a
device/heat engine to be placed between the two temperature regions and convert heat into energy.
Thermoelectric radio generators generate electricity from this heat difference. The devices use the Seebeck
Effect. The effect states that. "A potential difference will be created across the juncture of two unlike
metals whenever there is a temperature difference applied across the juncture. This potential difference will
act as a current source if it is connected to a circuit." Thermoelectric generators have a 6-8% efficiency
showing more than 90% of nuclear energy is lost during the conversion process (Ervin 2009, P.4). An
additional efficient method would be absorbing the energy to steam water for steam turbines. Steam
turbines have an efficiency rate of 30-40% in range with use of steam heated to 600 F.
Limitations in nuclear energy are that nuclear materials are not that abundant in nature. This highlights that
the use of natural decaying isotopes is not sufficient for a power plant.

Nuclear Energy in Saudi Arabia
The Saudi government initiated the nuclear project in 2009 with the first nuclear construction
starting in 2016 (Saleh 2008, p.14). The Saudi government appointed Finland and Swiss based
Consultancy to map out a nuclear strategy for the Kingdom. The resulting strategy suggests construction of
16 nuclear facilities by 2032. The 16 nuclear plants will he responsible for producing 20% of the local
energy requirements and will cost over 180 billion dollars. The nuclear energy target is 18 GW by 2016
(Stephenson & Tynan 2009, p.21). The Saudi program is rated as the second most urbanized project in the
Arab region. The first rated project is the United Arab Emirates. It is important to highlight that the Saudi
nuclear capabilities are not war based but energy oriented.


Nuclear Energy Globally

There is a global acceptance of nuclear energy. The energy is scaled at 73% positivism in the clean
and secure energy coalition (Hill 2010, p.2). Nuclear power plants produce no green house gases or
controlled air pollutants. The nuclear power plants generated 16% of the global electricity in 2006 with 31
countries actively investing in this form of energy (Pratte 2007, p.14). The United States has the highest
number of power plants with 64 sites. The nuclear power is used to heat 35 boiling reactors and 69
pressure reactors. It is responsible for generating 20% of the local electricity.
Nuclear power is economically competitive at 1.82 cents per kWh (Pratte 2007, p.14). This makes
the form of energy cheaper and safer than coal and natural gas. The form of energy requires little land as
compared to hydroelectricity, biomass and windmills. Nuclear power saves around 2.6 billion metric tons
of carbon dioxide emissions annually (Pratte 2007, p.14). A nuclear power plant is also safer than other
energy power plants such as ethanol plants. Currently nuclear energy is the safest method of generating
power in accordance to the green house gases effect.
Nuclear energy is used in the metal industry to inspect metal parts for impure trace elements and in
the smelting process. The radioactive energy is able to identify leakages and monitor the rate of metal
corrosion. The radioactive energy is also used in the development of sensitive gauges that base their
readings on the breadth and density of materials. The vehicle industry uses nuclear energy to inspect the
quality of various types of metals used on vehicles. Mineral deposits of natural gas, petroleum and coal are
quantified and located by the radioactivity of nuclear energy. Aircraft builders, tin manufacturers and road
constructors use nuclear energy to gauge the density of the surfaces and to locate flaws.



Geothermal Energy
Geothermal energy refers to stored thermal energy in the earth. Thermal energy is the factor used
to establish the temperature of matter. Heat from the Earth is 80% decaying matter heat and 20%
radioactive heat from the initial formation of the earth (Hashem 2012, p.1). A heat gradient between the
surface of the Earth and the core pulls a continuous drift of thermal energy from the core to the surface.
The thermal energy is in the form of heat. The temperature at the core of the planet is around 4000 c
(Hashem 2012. p.1). The high temperatures in the core lead to melting of rocks and plasticity resulting in
pipes and vent gaps that head upwards to the surface. The heat that reaches the surface is around 400c
(Hashem 2012, p.1).
Geothermal power production does not make use of fuel. As with other renewable energy sources,
the initial capital in putting up a geothermal power plant is high. Drilling into the Earth's surface is over
half the initial set up costs and every set up has a minimum of 20% failure rate. An average geothermal
plant would generate over 4.5 MW and the average expenditure in construction is $10 million (Kagel.
Bates & a1 ell 2008. p.1).
The power is referred to as renewable energy as the heat extraction tapped is less than a tenth of
the total heat dissipated from the earth's core. The limitation of the form of energy is the drilling factors and
local depletion. Drilling has to he thoroughly calculated to prevent ground tremors or imbalance of the
surrounding ecosystems. Local depletion is normal even though the supply of geothermal energy is
globally renewable. This is associated with the constant shifts of tectonic matter in below the Earth's
surface. Drilling into the Earth's surface leads to emission of green house gases that escape into the air.
Such GHG include carbon dioxide, Methane, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia (Kagel. Bates &
Gawel12008. p.1). The global release of green house gases is at average 122 kilograms per megawatt hour
(Kagel. Bates & yee112008. p.1).
Underground water from drilling is also environmentally hostile due to trace elements such as Mercury
and Boron.

Geothermal Energy in Saudi Arabia and its Manufacturing Sector
Saudi Arabia is one of the most active nations in the geothermal energy industry. The country is
bestowed with numerous geothermal locations on the South Western parts. This is affiliated with the
numerous tectonic activities around the Red Sea. The Jizan region of Saudi Arabia is one of the geothermal
areas with surface temperature hitting temperatures between 46c and 75 c. Al Khouba region is the
promising geothermal region with estimates of 17.847 megawatts per square meters (Hashem 2012., p.1).
The Saudi Kingdom has many sites under research for geothermal capabilities. The kingdom is estimated
to become a geothermal powerhouse by 2040 but currently no actual geothermal electricity of geothermal
heating is present.
The Saudi Kingdom has applied geothermal energy in the desalination of water in the manufacturing
process. Water desalination refers to any process used to remove or reduce the trace amounts of salinity
(salts) in saline water. The Saudi Kingdom does not use the geothermal energy to power processes in the
manufacturing sector but to clear water used in the manufacturing sector. The saline water is heated to
water vapor and then condensed to give pure water. Water desalination using geothermal energy removes
the need for thermal storage of water and increase the manufacturing process efficiency by 17% (Hashem
2012, p.1). Geothermal desalination is also economically competitive as compared to other renewable
sources.
Geothermal Energy Globally and M the Manufacturing Sector
According to the Geothermal Development Associates (GDA), in August 2013. 11765 Megawatts of
geothermal power was being generated globally estimated to grow to 12000 mega watts by end of that year
(Ben 2013. p.11). There are 11766 megawatts of planned increase of geothermal power that are currently in
the first stages of construction. The United States has the highest installed megawatt capabilities in the world
with 3389 mega watt production (Ben 2013, p.11). The GDA estimates the Philippines to overtake the
Unites States in geothermal power production by 2032. This is affiliated with the big number of planned
geothermal stations already under construction in the Philippines. An example of a manufacturing company
that uses geothermal energy in production is Ormat in the United States. The company's production rate
ranges from 250kW to 130 MW generated from steam water (Ben 2013, p.I5). The company uses
geothermal energy to produce energy required by the factory and for sale. The company uses Twenty seven
percent of electricity produced while 73% is sold.

Hydrogen and fuel cells
Scholars have classified hydrogen as the simplest occurring element. Hydrogen exists in combined
elements, as it does not occur in nature. Hydrogen is high in energy and hydrogen-burning engines do not
emit environmentally unfriendly gases. A chemical reaction between an oxidizing agent like oxygen and
hydrogen is used in fuel cell to generate electromotive force. A hydrogen fuel cell gives an efficiency of
between 40 to 60 percent in power generation (Ramsden, Steward & Harrison 2010 p.31). The power
efficiency is estimated to increase to 85 percent if the waste heat is retained and used. The fuel cell makes
use of a cathode, anode and an electrolyte to facilitate movement of charges between the two nodes. The
movement of charges creates direct electric current that is tapped for use. The current global fuel cell market
is low at 30 gig watts (Ramsden, Steward & Harrison 2010 p.31). The limitation of hydrogen fuel cells to
solar and wind is that like petroleum products, an individual has to seek supply from a company. Hydrogen
fuel cell energy cannot he generated personally with generators.

Hydrogen and fuel cells in Saudi Arabia and its manufacturing sector
According to the Environmental expert survey of 2014, there exists ten fuel cell companies in Saudi Arabia.
Out of these ten companies, none is in the manufacturing sector. All the ten companies focus on the
production of hydrogen based fuel cells. The fuel cell industry in Saudi Arabia is high with international
companies dominating the industry. Apart from production of fuel cells, the minor application of the
technology is in the back up generation and mobility of factory vehicles. Most factory go-carts and forklifts
use hydrogen fuel cells in their functionalities in the Kingdom. London Arab news informed that Toyota
recently collaborated with Saudi's Fuel Cell Energy Inc. to research on more efficient fuel cells to be
incorporated into the Toyota car engines. (Babelli 2012, p.5). This was a bold move as the car company
shifts from the electric battery to the cheaper and efficient hydrogen fuel cell.
Hydrogen and Fuel cells globally and the Manufacturing sector
The Energy government (EEER) situated in the United States placed 63% of the hydrogen and fuel cell
produced was used in the automobile industry (Morgan 2009, p.16). Membrane electrodes have been used
cutting automotive costs by 35% since 2008 while replicating the durability twice. The automotive cost was,
as a survey of factory vehicles as there is no commercial fuel cell vehicle. The average mileage for a fuel
cell is 400 kilometers without refueling. The average durability for a fuel cell was 120000 kilometers (King
Abdul-Aziz University for Science and Technology 2009, p.15), General motors in the United States
estimated that per mile of travel by a vehicle running on compressed hydrogen, the vehicle used 40% less
energy and produced 45% less green house gases (Tromly 2013, p.1). The survey was down with
comparison to the average diesel engine. The major limitation of this form of renewable energy is that it can
never become competitive with other sources of renewable energy. New improvements in the technology
mean the cost of hydrogen vehicles is decreasing but the current cost still too high. This was according to the
CEO of General motors, Daniel Akerson.



Conclusion
Electrical energy is economically indispensable as it is the main ingredient towards economic growth.
Industries and governments require this source most to attain maximum productivity. Renewable sources of
energy are a step towards future electrical production sustainability. Fossil fuels signify an old age of energy
generation. Unredeemable and environmentally unfriendly through the emission of green house gases. The
Saudi example of the oil reduction and the rapid population growth stresses the need for a shift to modern
renewable sources of energy. The African sub Saharan desert has the solar capabilities to power the whole
planet. This represents a global reduction of operational costs and a fully green energy production.
Unfortunately, such statistics are only written in paper rather than actualized. Norway sets a perfect example
in the capabilities of renewable energy attaining all of its domestic electricity needs from hydro electricity.
The limitations on renewable sources are addressable and the capabilities of renewable sources axe
unimaginable.
Subsidies in the growing energy sources such as solar power should be implemented to increase its
competitive position in the energy market, transformation of the transport sector into using more efficient
bio fuels. Pricing of hydrogen engines and bio-fuel engines should also be subsidized to gain competitive
position against the fossil fuel engines. Each country is geographical different having its own set of energy
advantages. Saudi Arabia has high solar capabilities just as Scotland has high tide capabilities. Each country
should carry intensive research on the existent sources of renewable energies present and invest in the
sources. Incorporation of renewable sources into the production process should be a global priority. This
will all be in an effort of global economic growth and a greener planet.