Muslim Students’ Perceptions of Prejudice and Discrimination in American Academia: Challenges, Issues, and Obstacles and the Implications

for Educators, Administrators, and University Officials

By Mohamed S. Omeish B.S., 1989 George Washington University M.A., 1991 George Washington University

A dissertation submitted to the faculty of The Graduate School of Education and Human Development of The George Washington University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education

January 30, 1999

Dissertation Directed by Dr. Reynolds Ferrante Dissertation Committee Chairman

© COPYRIGHT BY MOHAMED SALEM OMEISH 1998 ALL RIGHTS RESEREVED

DEDCATION

I would like to dedicate this dissertation to the souls of men and women who have died for their people’s just causes; to all freedom fighters who are seeking better tomorrow for their people; to every caller for justice and equality; and to every believing man and woman

ABSTRACT

Muslim Students’ Perceptions of Prejudice and Discrimination in American Academia: Challenges, Issues, and Obstacles and the Implications for Educators, Administrators, and University Officials

The purpose of this research was to (a) study the Muslim students, as a minority group--a group that no longer is foreign to this society or academia, in spite of the prevalent prejudice and discrimination found in the media and elsewhere; (b) investigate their perceptions of prejudice and discrimination while attending colleges and universities; (c) explore their satisfaction with their academic experience; (d) determine the main concerns and issues of Muslim students in academia and the importance of such issues to them; and (e) provide educators and administrators with insights and guidelines when dealing with this unique group of students. The researcher selected three predominately white universities in the Washington metropolitan area as the sites from which the sample population (N=237) of the local participants was drawn. Another sample (N=232) was selected from among the participants of the MSA in national activities. The instrumentation of this study consists of four parts. The first part consists of basic demographics. The questionnaire's Part II was adopted from previous studies iv

measuring perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Parts III and IV, highlighting issues of concern and importance to Muslim students, were developed by the researcher. Descriptive statistics (including numbers, percentages, means, standard deviations) as well as inferential statistics (including one- and two-way ANOVA, independent t-test, and Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient test) were employed to report demographic data and to answer research questions and hypotheses. The findings indicate: (a) majority of Muslim students who participated in this study perceive that prejudice and discrimination is a common phenomena in their institutions of higher education; (b) majority of Muslim students who participated in the study were satisfied with their academic and intellectual development at the schools they attend; and (c) majority of Muslim students attach greater importance to matters of religious obligations and commitments than to other matters; thus, it is suggested that administrators, faculty, and university officials at institutions of higher education be considerate and attentive to the needs and concerns of the growing numbers of Muslim students in academia.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

B.S., 1989, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA M.A., 1991 George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA International Relief Organization, 1992-1998, Falls Church, Virginia, USA CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE: Reynolds Ferrante, Professor of Education Salvatore Rocco Paratore, Professor of Education Walter Brown, Assistant Professor of Education RESEARCH TOOL FIELD COMPLETED: Fall 1992 TIME IN PREPARATION: 1997-1998 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION PASSED: Spring 1993

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to say that, I owe it first and for most to Allah (God) Almighty for instilling in me the courage and patience to complete this dissertation. I then owe it to my family, starting with my parents for their continuing encouragement and persistence that I continue and complete what I have started. I am also grateful and indebted to my loving wife, Haifa. Her patience over the past seven years had made the difference in my persevering to continue the journey. I am also thankful to my brothers and sisters, especially Samar, for their assistance and support. I am also grateful to my advisor, Dr. Reynolds Ferrante, for his belief in me and his continuous support and encouragement. I have enjoyed his advisorship and mentor in my academic pursuit. I would like also to thank Dr. Parator for his time and willingness to advise me and answer my questions. I am also thankful to Dr. Greenberg who accompanied this dissertation up until his retirement from GWU in spring of 1998. I would like also to thank Drs. Brown, Nyang and Nimer for their time and efforts in the final oral defense. I would like also to thank the academic staff of the GSEHD at GWU. I owe it also to the many friends who have help me with their advice, support and efforts in completing the study, among them are: the team of the International Relief Organization, Dr. Ahmed Yousef, Dr. Anisa Abdelfatah, Sara Al-Dahir, Dr. Fatima AlMaadadi, Muhammad Qadir, and Fakhry & Sabeha Barazangi. vii

I also owe it to the many volunteers and officers of the Muslim Students’ Association of USA & Canada chapters and national officials who have helped with the distribution and collection of the survey, especially at GWU, GMU, and GU. Finally, I am grateful to those whom I have forgotten to mention their names or missed to acknowledge their contributions toward the completion of this dissertation.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................iv BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH...............................................................................vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...............................................................................vii Table of Contents................................................................................................ix List of Tables.....................................................................................................xii CHAPTER 1........................................................................................................1 Introduction .....................................................................................................1 Background......................................................................................................4 Islam, the Faith of Muslims..........................................................................4 The Pillars of Islam ......................................................................................5 The Pillars of Faith in Islam .........................................................................8 Muslims .......................................................................................................9 Prejudice and Racism .................................................................................13 Prejudice and Hostilities against American Muslims ..................................14 Statement of the Problem ...............................................................................15 Purpose of Study............................................................................................18 Need for the Study .........................................................................................19 Research Questions........................................................................................21 Research Hypotheses .....................................................................................21 Assumptions ..................................................................................................23 Limitations.....................................................................................................23 Definitions of Terms ......................................................................................24

CHAPTER 2......................................................................................................29 Literature Review...........................................................................................29 Muslims and Islam .....................................................................................30 Where Are the Muslims?............................................................................32 The American Muslims: The Immigrants ...................................................32 The American Muslims: The Indigenous Muslims......................................33 Demographics of American Muslims .........................................................35 ix

Prejudice and Discrimination .....................................................................37 Basic Concepts and Definitions of Prejudice ..........................................37 Historical Research on Prejudice and Discrimination..............................39 Forms and Sources of Prejudice..............................................................42 Religious Prejudice ................................................................................43 Racial Prejudice .....................................................................................47 Why Deal With Prejudice? .....................................................................50 Why Muslims Face Prejudice? ...............................................................55 The Media..............................................................................................56 Reports of Prejudice and Discrimination.................................................58 Muslim Students' Experience in American Academia.................................60 Muslim Students in Doctoral Research Studies...........................................66 Summary .......................................................................................................75

CHAPTER 3......................................................................................................77 Methodology..................................................................................................77 Population......................................................................................................78 Sample .......................................................................................................78 Instrumentation ..............................................................................................80 Reliability ......................................................................................................85 Data Collection Procedures ............................................................................86 Data Analysis.................................................................................................87 Summary .......................................................................................................88

CHAPTER 4......................................................................................................90 Findings.........................................................................................................90 Overview ...................................................................................................90 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents .............................................91 Analysis of Data/ Presentation of Findings................................................... 103 Research Question 1................................................................................. 103 Research Question 1.2.............................................................................. 109 Research Question 2................................................................................. 112 Research Question 2.1.............................................................................. 114 Research Hypothesis 1 ............................................................................. 121 Research Hypothesis 2 ............................................................................. 122 Research Hypothesis 3 ............................................................................. 123 Research Hypothesis 4 ............................................................................. 126 Research Hypothesis 5 ............................................................................. 127 Research Hypothesis 6 ............................................................................. 129 Research Hypothesis 7 ............................................................................. 133 x

Research Hypothesis 8 ............................................................................. 135 Research Hypothesis 9 ............................................................................. 137 Research Hypothesis 10 ........................................................................... 140 Research Hypothesis 12 ........................................................................... 147 Research Hypothesis 13 ........................................................................... 150 Research Hypothesis 14 ........................................................................... 151 Summary ..................................................................................................... 153 Summary of Demographics ...................................................................... 153 Summary of Research Questions Findings................................................ 154 Summary of Research Hypotheses Findings ............................................. 154

CHAPTER 5.................................................................................................... 157 Discussion of the Research Findings ............................................................ 157 Overview of the Study.............................................................................. 157 Conclusions ................................................................................................. 162 Research Questions .................................................................................. 162 Research Hypotheses................................................................................ 176 Summary of Conclusions ......................................................................... 186 Implications ................................................................................................. 188 Recommendations........................................................................................ 189 Recommendations for Future Research ........................................................ 191

Appendix A ..................................................................................................... 193

References ....................................................................................................... 198

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LIST OF TABLES Tables
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Groups Participating in the Study………………………….………… Students’ Choice of Survey Format…………………………………..

Page
79 86

Students’ Choice to Provide Contact Information …………………… 87 Participants' Gender by Groups…………………………….………… 91 Participants' Age Ranges by Groups…………………………………. 92

Participants' Educational Level by Groups…………………………… 93 Participants' GPA Ranges by Groups………………………………… 94 Participants' Place of Birth by Groups………………………………. Participants' Nationality by Groups…………………………………. Participants' Ethnicity by Groups…………………………………… Participants' Graduation Status from High School………………….. Participants' Housing Status…………………………………………. Participants' Marital Status…………………………………………... Participants' Contact Information Status…………………………….. Participants' Choice of Survey Format………………………………. Frequencies and Percentages of Local Participants' Responses to Part II of Questionnaire, Dealing with Feelings of Prejudice and Discrimination…….………………… Frequencies and Percentages of Local Participants' Satisfaction with Their Academic Experience……………………….. Local Participants' Choices of Issues of Importance/Concerns……… Frequencies and Percentages of Local Participants' Ranking of Issues of Importance/Concerns…………………………. 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102

107

17

111 113

18 19

119

xii

List of Tables (continued)
20 Analysis of Variance of Dimensions that Measure Feelings of Prejudice and Discrimination…………………………… Local and National Participants' Mean Scores Comparison Regarding Feelings of Prejudice and Discrimination………………………………………………………. Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus (Research Hypothesis 3)……………………… Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Place of Birth Dependent Variable: Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus (Research Hypothesis 3)……………………….. Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff (Research Hypothesis 3)……………. Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Place of Birth Dependent Variable: Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff (Research Hypothesis 3)………………………. Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: In-Class Discriminatory Experiences (Research Hypothesis 5)……………….

Page
121

21

122

22

124

23

125

24

125

25

126

26

128

27

Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Ethnicity Dependent Variable: In-Class Discriminatory Experiences (Research Hypothesis 5)………………………………… 129 Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus (Research Hypothesis 6)………..………………. 130 Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Educational Level Dependent Variable: Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus (Research Hypothesis 6)……………………….. Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: In-Class Discriminatory Experiences (Research Hypothesis 6)………………. Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Educational Level Dependent Variable: In-Class Discriminatory Experiences (Research Hypothesis 6)……………………………….. Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus (Research Hypothesis 7)……………………… Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Undergraduate Level Dependent Variable: Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus (Research Hypothesis 7)………………………..

28

29

131

30

132

31

132

32

134

33

135

xiii

List of Tables (continued)
34 Local and National Participants' Mean Scores Comparison Regarding Issues of Concerns and Importance…………

Page
137

35

Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: Religious Dimension (Research Hypothesis 9)……………………………………………… 138 Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Place of Birth Dependent Variable: Religious Dimension (Research Hypothesis 9)……………………………………….……..

36

139

37

Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: Social Dimension (Research Hypothesis 9)……………………………………………… 140 Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Place of Birth Dependent Variable: Social Dimension (Research Hypothesis 9)……………………………………….……..

38

140

39

Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: Religious Dimension (Research Hypothesis 10)……………………………………………… 142 Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Gender Dependent Variable: Religious Dimension (Research Hypothesis 10)……………………………………….…….. 143 Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: Social Dimension (Research Hypothesis 10)……………………………………………… 143 Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Gender Dependent Variable: Social Dimension (Research Hypothesis 10)……………………………………….…….. 144 Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: Academic Dimension (Research Hypothesis 10)……………………………………………… 145 Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Gender Dependent Variable: Academic Dimension (Research Hypothesis 10)……………………………………….…….. 145 Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: Social Dimension (Research Hypothesis 11)……………………………………………… 147 Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Ethnicity Dependent Variable: Social Dimension (Research Hypothesis 11)……………………………………….…….. 148 Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: Social Dimension (Research Hypothesis 12)……………………………………………… 149

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

xiv

List of Tables (continued)
48

Page

Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Educational Level Dependent Variable: Social Dimension (Research Hypothesis 12)……………………………………………… 149 Descriptive Statistics/Dependent Variable: Academic Dimension (Research Hypothesis 12)……………………………………………… 150 Two-Way ANOVA—Groups by Educational Level Dependent Variable: Academic Dimension (Research Hypothesis 12)…………………………………………….. 151 Descriptive Statistics (Research Hypothesis 14)……………………… 153 Correlations Test—Prejudice with respect to Satisfaction with Academic Experience…………………………………………… 153

49

50

51 52

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CHAPTER 1 Introduction Diversity and tolerance are essential elements influencing modern higher education institutions in accommodating and reconciling the hard issues surrounding race relations. However, if one looks deeper into these issues, the findings show that there is still a long way to go to attain the desired equal status for all races. Research studies affirm that "Most administrators and faculty are not trained in an environment that emphasizes cultural pluralism, and as well intentioned as they may be, they are likely to be ethnocentric" (Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998, p. 87). We are reminded by scholars that we have a problem when, "Seeing White people only as a norm by which to measure others is a narrow view that is acquired by living in a society that perpetuates White norms and by believing that what differs from these norms is a deviation" (Dutton, Singer, & Devlin, 1998, p. 42). These scholars point out that "Racial identity and acceptance are important for all races, especially in this increasingly multicultural society" (Dutton, Singer, & Devlin, 1998, p. 42). Moreover, "Despite decades of legal and educational reform, racism remains a serious social problem in the United States. Research findings have demonstrated that in the wake of the civil rights movement, racism has not declined but has merely changed forms" (Maluso, 1995, p. 50).

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2 According to Loo & Rolison, "despite civil rights legislation, the national goal of providing ethnic minorities with equal access to quality institutions of higher education and opportunities for academic success has yet to be realized" (1986, p. 58). Siggelkow also concurs with Loo & Rolison when he emphasizes the role of academia by saying that "Perhaps colleges and universities are no less racist than other societal institutions and the commercial world, but the potential for irreparable harm is far greater in higher education . . . Serious, unfinished business remains" (1991, p. 104). The race issue is very serious and one that academia must deal with and resolve to preserve the democratic values for which America stands. Dean Trueba, Dean of the School of Education at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, argues that the American society may lose its democratic values if it ignores the race issue or does not deal with it properly (1993). Trueba views the university as an institution with a vital role in healing the society's race and ethnic problems. Moreover, he says that "If the resolution of these conflicts is crucial for the survival of our democracy, the role of universities in maintaining democratic principles is also of paramount importance" (1993, p. 41). He goes on to say, "Universities are the main instrument that democratic societies use to generate and transmit new knowledge, and to inculcate democratic values and respect for ethnic and racial differences" (1993, p. 41). Trueba poses a critical question to educators and administrators a like, "What can modern universities do to heal America's racial and educational crises?" (1993, p. 52). He follows up his question with a reply that sums up the university's role. He says,

3 "academia has the potential, and the responsibility, to create a better understanding of the nature of race and ethnicity, to help solve racial and ethnic problems, and to develop the necessary knowledge and strategies to heal ethnic and racial hatred in democratic societies" (Trueba, 1993, p. 5). And because one of the goals of higher education institutions is to educate students and to promote their development, socially and academically, it is vital for these institutions to design environments that will provide opportunities, incentives, and reassurances for growth and development (Arnold & King, 1997; Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Huebner, 1989; Huebner & Lawson, 1990; Komives, Woodard, & Associates, 1996; Miller & Winston, 1991; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991; Rodgers, 1989; Rodgers, 1991). It is with these concerns of Trueba and other scholars in mind, that this study was originated. Research reveals that it is inevitable for minority students studying at predominantly white institutions to face prejudice and discrimination (Cabrera, Castaneda, Nora & Hengstler, 1992; Cabrera & Nora, 1994; Jacoby, 1991; Harris, 1995; Loo & Rolison, 1986; Miller & Winston, 1990; Nora & Cabrera, 1996; Prieto, 1995). Therefore, this study is an attempt to enrich scholarly research in the area of the study of Muslim students as a minority group within this truly diverse society--a society where every member should be respected for who he/she is, where every member in the society ought to enjoy the same rights and privileges. This study focuses on Muslim students, as a minority group. A group that no longer is foreign to this society or academia, in spite of all the prevalent prejudice and

4 discrimination found in the media and elsewhere (Haddad & Esposito, 1998; Kamalipour, 1997). This study included an investigation of Muslim students' perceptions of prejudice and discrimination while attending colleges and universities and an exploration of their satisfaction with their academic experience. Parallel to that, through the study the researcher sought to determine the main concerns and issues of Muslim students and the importance of such issues to them as they make their way through academia. This study was also intended to provide educators and administrators with insights and guidelines to use when interacting with this unique group of students. Background

Islam, the Faith of Muslims The understanding of Islam and Muslims is critical to the understanding of this study. To help the reader better understand the subjects of this study, the following background is provided. Islam is one of the three monotheistic religions. It emerged in the Arab peninsula, which we know as Saudi Arabia in 622 AD Like the other two of the three monotheistic faiths, Judaism and Christianity, Islam was revealed through a prophet who is known as the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him [PBUH]). Judaism is believed to be based on the teachings and laws of the Prophet Moses, while Christianity is said to take its social and moral codes from the teachings of the Prophet Jesus. All three religions are

5 believed to have their roots in the teachings of the Prophet of God, the patriarch Abraham. In keeping with a promise made to Abraham by God, each prophet is believed to be a blood descendant of Abraham. The Prophets Moses and Jesus are believed to have descended from Abraham’s son Isaac, born through his first wife Sarah, while the Prophet Muhammad is said to have descended from Abraham's son Ishmael, who was born through Abraham's wife Hajar. Ishmael is also believed to be the first member of the Arab nation since he and his mother Hajar settled in a previously uninhabited desert that became Mecca, and subsequently the site of the Kaba. Mecca is a place of Arab (and now Muslim) pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia (Gen.16 and 17, The Holy Qur'an, 2:124-130). In Arabic, the word Islam means "to submit," or "to surrender and obey." The Qur'an, the Muslim Holy Book, never uses the word Islam as we do, but says, "Al-Islam," or "The Islam," referring to a way of life that follows a distinct code of moral, social, and legal behaviors that were revealed by God through His various Prophets with a specific purpose or intention. This intention is understood in Al-Islam as God's desire to guide mankind to the best in this life and the next life (or afterlife) (Emerick, 1997; Rahman, 1988).

The Pillars of Islam Islam as mentioned above is considered by Muslims to be a comprehensive way of life, affecting every aspect of human existence. The "Pillars" of Islam are actions

6 which serve as the foundations of the faith and cover aspects of both belief and ritual worship. The first of these Pillars is the belief in the oneness of God. In Islam this oneness is called Tawhid, an Arabic word that means "One." It means that God is eternal and absolute, that He has no beginning and no end. That everything other than God was created by God and that God is without equals, rivals, sons, daughters, or fleshly manifestation. It is this belief about God that is central to the Muslim's faith and actions. Obedience to God emanates from this basic belief that is obligatory upon adherents of Islam. Muslims believe that God's laws take precedence over any cultural or habitual affectations that one might acquire in life. When habits or cultural behaviors are in conflict with God's guidance, they are not accepted as acts of faith (CIE, 1995; Emerick, 1997; Furuqi, 1979). The Holy Qur'an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) through inspiration, or rather Wahi which means "communication with God." It is said that this revelation began in the form of dreams and later came while the Prophet was awake. It was brought to the Prophet by an angel named Jibril, whom we know in English as Gabriel. This religious view is important to the understanding of the Pillars of faith because part of the belief in God's oneness is also the belief in His Prophets, whose exact names and numbers are unknown. Muslims believe that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was the last of these Prophets. A Muslim must accept the prophecies of Muhammad (PBUH) and follow their

7 guidance. Muslims must also obey the Prophet Muhammad's (PBUH) teachings and explanations of the Qur'an by following what is called the Sunnah of the Prophet, or "His way." John Esposito in Islam: The Straight Path (1991, p. 89) explains Tauhid, the first Pillar of Islam, as "acknowledgment of and commitment to Allah and His Prophet." The second Pillar of Islam is prayer. Five times a day Muslims turn towards the Kaba in Mecca and perform ritual prayers. The method or technique of prayer is based on the example of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) given during his lifetime. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) used to lead the congregation of Muslims in Mecca and Medina in prayer, thus demonstrating to them the way in which prayer should be performed. The prayer consists of reciting the first Surah of the Qur'an, Al-Fatihah, referred to as "the seven often repeated verses," followed by the recitation of a chosen verse or verses of the Qur'an and various praises to God. For each segment of the prayer, a Muslim adopts a distinguishing bodily position, beginning with standing and placing hands across the heart, and then bowing and kneeling. Muslims repeat these positions a prescribed number of times depending on which prayer is being performed. The five daily prayers are the morning prayer, Fajr, the noon prayer, Dhur, the afternoon prayer, Asr, the evening prayer, Maghrib, and the night prayer, Ishaa. To pray five times a day is an obligation that every Muslim must adhere to except those exempted by Islamic law (Zeno, 1996, p. 93-118). The third Pillar of Islam is Zakat, or the mandatory tax levied annually upon the Muslim's possessions. This tax is distributed to the poor (Holy Qur'an, 2: 43). It

8 provides a source of revenue for the Muslim State in the form of an income tax. It is seen as an act of worship where the rich and able is providing for the poor and the needy. The Islamic law provides others details for on how and what is subject to this taxation. The fourth Pillar is the Fast of Ramadhan. This obligatory fast commemorates the revelation of the Holy Qur'an. Muslims fast approximately 29 to 30 days of Ramadhan. The month of Ramadhan is determined by the lunar calendar. From the time of dawn to the end of daylight, Muslims not only abstain from water and food, but also from sexual intercourse, slander, profane speech, and other actions considered uncharacteristic of pious behavior or righteousness (Holy Qur'an, 2:185). The fifth Pillar of Islam is the pilgrimage, or Hajj. This is a journey that the Muslim is obliged to take to the site of the Kaba and to other religious sites in and around Mecca. There Muslims perform certain religious rituals and prayers as they were first performed by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers. This Pillar is only obligatory upon those who are able to afford the cost effort involved (Holy Qur'an, 2:196203).

The Pillars of Faith in Islam The Pillars of faith in Islam are distinguished from the pillars of religion because they focus on the system of belief rather than ritual worship and laws that govern these

9 actions, even though one cannot express true faith without submission to the law. The Pillars of Faith are: • To believe in Allah (God) in His Existence, His right to be worshipped, His Oneness, His Attributes, and His right to legislate • • To believe in angels To believe in the Holy Qur'an and the other Holy Books, (Torah, the Gospel of Jesus, the Psalms of David) • To believe in God's Messengers, of whom Adam was the first and the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was the last • • To believe in the Resurrection and the Day of Judgment To believe in Divine Preordainment Many scholars have written various explanations of these pillars, and this list of the Pillars of Faith are accepted as basic to belief in Islam by every sect and school of thought (Surty, 1996; Zeno, 1996).

Muslims Every court of Islam is bound to recognize as a Muslim in good standing every adult male and female who consciously and solemnly witnesses that , "there is no God but God and Muhammad is the Prophet of God." That person is entitled to all privileges and rights of a Muslim and bound by all the duties and obligations of Islamic law (CIE, 1995; Emerick, 1997; Faruqi,1979; Surty, 1996; Zeno, 1996).

10 When translated into Modern English, the word Muslim simply means "servant". From the meanings of this term we are able to understand that the Muslim perceives himself or herself as a person living in submission to a set of divinely revealed laws upon which social and moral codes that govern everyday life are established. Muslims come from various backgrounds, ethnicity, and socio-economic classes. Over 1.2 billion of the world's people are Muslims. Twenty-three percent are said to come from south Asia, 16.7% from Africa, 15% from Arab countries, 14.2% from southeast Asia, 4.2% from central Asia, 4.2% from China, 4.2% from Iran, 4.2% from Turkey, 1.7% from Europe, 1.3% from Afghanistan, 0.5% from North America, 0.25% from South America and 0.008% from Australia (CIE, 1995). The American Muslim community is also a diverse community. Forty-two percent are African American, 24.4% are south Asian, 12.4% are Arab, 5.2% are African, 3.6% are Iranian, 2.4% are Turk, 2.0% are southeast Asian, 1.6% are Caucasian, and 5.6% are undetermined. According to the most recent data, approximately 1 million Muslims live in California; 800,000 in New York; 420,000 in Illinois; 200,000 in New Jersey; 180,000 in Indiana; 170,000 in Michigan; 150,000 in Virginia; 140,000 in Texas; 130,000 in Ohio; and 70,000 in Maryland. Smaller Muslim communities are believed to exist that are not represented here, and whose numbers are not documented in any census to date (Nu'man, 1992). Texts of various slave documents support a theory that the first Muslims to come to America's shores came as slaves from Africa in 1717. Reports of Muslims in North

11

America prior to this are based on the history of a Muslim known as "Estevanico" who accompanied the Spanish explorer Marcos de Niza in 1539 in his exploration of what is now known as Arizona (Lovell, 1983; Muhammad, 1998). Although data on Muslims in the Americas in the days of European exploration are rare, if at all, there is greater evidence of Muslim presence during the colonization period when African Muslims were part of the captured slaves from the African continent (Austin, 1997; Muhammad, 1998; Poston, 1992). Just how many slaves were Muslims is unknown. The documents referred to here are unique in that they bear lists that include Muslim names such as Omar Ibn Said, Job bin Solomon, and Prince Omar. It is possible that many of the slave's names were misunderstood by their captors and may have been misspelled, or not written at all. In 1864 an amateur ethnologist by the name of Theodore Dwight wrote in the Methodist Quarterly Review of 1864, "Among the victims of the slave trade among us have been men of learning and pure and exalted characters, who have been treated like beast of burden by those amongst us who claim a purer religion." He is believed to have spoken of a Black slave named Ayub ibn Sulayman Diallo. He was an African Muslim Prince who became a victim of the slave trade in 1731 (Austin, 1997; Muhammad, 1998; Nyang, 1981). The first voluntary migration of Muslims to America spanned 37 years from 1875 to 1912. The majority of these immigrants were Arabs who were either fleeing

12 uncomfortable political situations, or seeking economic opportunities. These were primarily single males from the rural areas of Syria, Jordan, Palestine, and Lebanon. They were mostly unskilled and so they worked as peddlers, in mines, and in factories. Most of these men settled permanently in the United States, thus establishing Muslim communities in urban America. Another wave of Muslim immigration occurred from 1930-1938, but these immigrants were mostly the family members of the previous wave of Arab Muslim immigrants. It was not until after the Second World War, in response to the immense political upheavals that followed the war, that the United States saw an immigrant wave of Muslims from the Asian continent. Unlike the African slaves, or the previous Arab immigrants, these immigrants were mostly from the elite of their societies. They were well educated, and they avoided excessive absorption into the western culture. Additional waves continued to bring more and more Muslims to this land; the latest of which included refugees from Bosnia, Iraq, and Somalia (Ahmed, 1994; Albanese, 1981; Ba-Yunus; 1979; CIE, 1995; Elkholy, 1966; Emerick, 1997; Gaustad, 1993; Haddad, 1986; Kettani, 1986; Lindley, 1996; Mehdi, 1978; Meir & Firestone, 1992; Melton, 1989; Miller, 1976; Naff, 1980; Nu’man, 1992; Nyang, 1981; Nyang & Ahmad, 1985; Nyang, 1986; Philipp, 1980; Poston, 1992; Roof, 1993; Shulman, 1981; Winters, 1977).

13 Prejudice and Racism Prejudice, discrimination, and racism are ills that undermine the society's social fabric. These ills stem from attitudes people harbor. Scientists have found that attitudes "can influence a broad range of cognitive processes such as social inference, reasoning, perception, and interpretation, and can thereby influence behavior. In general people favor, approach, praise, and cherish those things they like, and disfavor, avoid, blame those things they dislike" (Pratkanis & Turner, 1993, p. 326). Pettigrew stated that prejudice can be seen as " 'an opinion for or against something without adequate basis.' Notice that this conception includes both irrationality ("an opinion ... without adequate basis") and emotional evaluation ("for or against something")"(1980, p. 820). Furthermore, Pratkanis and Turner discussed sources that influence the formation of attitudes. Among these sources are the "mass media, parental influence, socializing agents such as schools and religious organizations, important reference groups, total institutions such as prisons and cults, and observation of one's own behavior and direct experience with the attitude object" (1993, p. 326). In 1993 Wolford illustrated that "the effects of prejudice in American society, and throughout the world, are generally considered devastating, not only to the individuals who suffer injustice, humiliation, and violence as a result of discrimination based on prejudice but also to the integrity of society as a whole" (p. 1849). She also reported that "Newspapers and television news frequently report acts inspired by prejudice, such as 'hate crimes' against minorities. Violations of the civil rights of minorities sill occur,

14 leading to public outcries for examination and correction of the racial inequalities in American institutions and society" (1993, p. 1853-1854). She concluded with a very important note that "much more progress is clearly needed in studying ways to reduce prejudice and its devastating effects" (p. 1854). On another dimension, researchers further add that minority students at predominately white institutions find themselves in racial climates that may be intolerant to their ethnic background. This usually leads them to feelings of prejudice and alienation. And when students feel alienated, they will either resort to their subculture groups, if any exist, or they will leave their institutions (Cabrera, Castaneda, Nora, & Hengstler, 1992; Cabrera & Nora, 1994; Loo & Rolison, 1986; Nora & Cabrera, 1996; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991; Stabb, Harris & Talley, 1995). In either case, the minority students are at a disadvantage that may hinder their development and growth. Thus, according to research studies, creating and promoting environments that encourage tolerance and inclusiveness are best for students in general and minorities in particular (Arnold & King, 1997; Evans, Forney & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Huebner, 1989; Huebner & Lawson, 1990; Komives, Woodard & Associates, 1996; Miller & Winston, 1991; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991; Rodgers, 1989; Rodgers, 1991).

Prejudice and Hostilities against American Muslims American Muslims, as a community, have been through a history of misunderstanding and hostilities. Researchers trace the roots of these unfortunate

15 situations to a variety of categories. These categories include history, politics, education, and social standing (Faruqi, 1980; Faruqi, 1983; Fredrickson & Knobel, 1980; Glazer & Ueda, 1980; Haddad & Esposito, 1998; Kamalipour, 1997; Sarna, 1992; Mehden, 1983). Reports of prejudice and racism against Muslims in this country are on the rise. Organizations such as the Arab-American Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), and the American Muslim Council (AMC) report increased hostility and acts of discrimination against individuals of Arab/Muslim decent. These acts of hostility are found to increase around hostile times in the Middle East or home (Gulf War, Oklahoma Bombing, World Trade Center, and the crash of TWA Flight 800). These acts of hostility range from verbal assault to physical harm against individuals, communities, and places of worship (ADC, 1995; ADC, 1997, CAIR, 1995; CAIR 1996; CAIR 1997). CAIR along with other organizations, reported more than 300 incidents of various hate crimes toward Muslim residents in the United States after the Oklahoma Bombing, Gulf War, and the crash of TWA flight 800 (Abou El Fadl, 1986; ADC, 1996; ADC, 1997; AMC, 1993; CAIR, 1996; CAIR, 1997; Antoun, 1994; Zogby, 1993).

Statement of the Problem The Muslim community in the United States has grown in numbers in the past several years reaching about 6-8 million. It is projected that Islam will be the second largest faith by the beginning of the 21st century in the United States.

16 Muslims face a number of challenges living as a minority. They are faced with classical questions such as how to live an Islamic life while living in a nonIslamic society? And to what extent one can become involved? Furthermore, Muslims also face, with other religious groups in America, the challenges presented by the emergence of post-industrial society and its impact on culture and faith (Abd-al Ati, 1974; Albanese, 1981; Abugideiri, 1977; Ba-Yunus, 1974; Ba-Yunus, 1979; Idris, 1993; Lindley, 1996; Moore, 1994; Nasr, 1986; Nyang, 1986; Parker-Jenkins, 1992; Poston, 1992; Renard, 1979; Voll, 1991). Furthermore, Muslims in North America and specifically in the United States are faced with prejudice and discrimination at times hostilities. This makes Muslims, as a non-Muslim scholar describes it "feel they are living in a country that is hostile not only to their ethnic origins, but increasingly to Islam and Muslims in general. Their situation has been likened to being on a roller coaster on which they are forced to experience new heights of distortion and vilification" (Haddad, 1991, p. 223). Haddad goes on to say the "awareness that the truth about the Arab world, Islam, and Muslims is being distorted for political expediency by those in office" (p. 224). An example of this is when President Reagan, the night Libya was bombed by the U.S., said that there is a need to "respond to Qaddafi, terrorism, and the worldwide Muslim fundamentalist movement" (Esposito, 1996, p. 10). Similarly, other Administration officials spoke of the threat in the 20-century in which they include Islamic

17 fundamentalism as a major threat (Drinan, 1991; Esposito, 1996; Khan, 1998; Lovell, 1983; Meir & Firestone, 1992; Mehden, 1983). In addition, the media is reinforcing the "stereotyping of Islam and Arabs and their equation with radicalism and terrorism . . . The negative image of the Arab world and of Islam has been further distorted by those Western commentators who have in recent years portrayed Islam as a triple threat: a political, cultural, and demographic threat" (Esposito, 1996, p. 11). These dilemmas and challenges are causing Muslims to "wonder what the next chapter in their life in America will be as they struggle to define their future in an atmosphere of apparent continuing hostility towards Islam"(Haddad, 1991, p. 230). Thus, it is imperative for institutions of higher education to participate in preserving the democratic values of the society, among which are pluralism and diversity of the American society at large and in particular the campus environment. This task requires the understanding of the new developments, such as the make up of the American society, the changes in demographics and ethnic representation, and the different needs of the different students (Dutton, Singer, & Devlin, 1998; Huebner & Lawson, 1990; Trueba, 1993). To date, little or no research has been written about the problems, issues, and challenges that Muslim students face while attending highereducation institutions. One of the few examples, however, is an account of an Arab student's experience in Houston, Texas. "In 1989 a professor at Texas Southern pointed to the foreign

18 students in the class including Zayd and said, 'You come here to get an education which we taxpayers pay for.'..." (Antoun, 1994, p. 184). A second example of prejudice against Muslim students can be found in a study conducted at the University of Maryland at College Park. This study measured the attitudes of freshman students toward Arab students. The findings were statistically significant in showing the magnitude of prejudice held against Arabs in general and students in particular (Sergent, Woods, & Sedlacek, 1989). A third example is an article published in New Directions for Teaching and Learning, titled "Respect for Religious Differences: the Case of Muslim Students." In it the author identifies four areas of concerns to Muslim students that were expressed during interviews with four Muslim students, 2 males and 2 females of which 2 were undergraduates and the other 2 were graduates. These areas of concern were (a) misrepresentation of Islam by instructors, (b) instructional material offensive to Muslim students, (c) lack of respect to their own religion and/or religions in general, and (d) the failure on the part of the professors to accommodate students’ religious practices. (Speck, 1997).

Purpose of Study Social psychologists define prejudice as "the expression of negative attitudes toward certain groups and members of groups, gender, races, and religions" (Wolford, 1993, p. 1848). Among its effects are: "low self-esteem, demoralization, racial selfhatred, helplessness and lack of control, social ostracism, social avoidance, lack of

19 opportunities, and political under-representation" (Wolford, 1993, p. 1848). All of those effects are detrimental to the development and growth of a healthy campus environment conducive to learning and exchange of knowledge among students. The purpose of this research was to (a) study the Muslim students, as a minority group--a group that no longer is foreign to this society or academia, in spite of the prevalent prejudice and discrimination found in the media and elsewhere; (b) investigate their perceptions of prejudice and discrimination while attending colleges and universities; (c) explore their satisfaction with their academic experience; (d) determine the main concerns and issues of Muslim students in academia and the importance of such issues to them; and (e) provide educators and administrators with insights and guidelines when dealing with this unique group of students.

Need for the Study Research and studies regarding minority students always refers to such groups as African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian students. Little research has been conducted with reference to Muslim students' experience in higher-education institutions. This fact is acknowledged by scholars who consider the Islamic Student voice as one missing, yet one voice that needs to be recognized and studied (Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998, p. 286). Muslim students in research studies are almost always treated as foreign students and the focus of these studies is almost always on adjustment problems. These studies never classified Muslim students as a minority nor

20 as an indigenous group of students who are as American as every one else. Furthermore, little or no research studies have been conducted to examining Muslim students' perception of prejudice and discrimination in higher-education institutions. The lack of such studies could be explained in light of the fact that the word "Muslim" is a description of an adherent to the religion of Islam and not to an ethnic community or race. Although the above explanation might be true on one aspect; it falls short of recognizing that, to Muslims, Islam is an identity that surpasses race and color. Therefore, Islam has created what can be called or defined as "Islamic People." These people have the same belief system, share the same concerns, and aspire to a similar future but may be of different races or ethnic backgrounds. Furthermore, as Lovell (1983, p. 97) said, "Muslims in America are best defined as the type of minority that wants to maintain its group identity based on religion but that also wants to give full allegiance to society." Thus, when one speaks about Muslim students, one is referring to a group of students with a similar cultural and moral heritage, in spite of their diverse ethnic backgrounds. Therefore, the need for this study lies in the fact that (a) the number of Muslim students in academia is growing; (b) higher-education administrators, faculty, and staff need information based on scientific research about Muslim students' perceptions of prejudice and discrimination and their main needs and concerns in American academia; and (c) Muslim students have not been studied as an indigenous population, as other minorities have been.

21 Research Questions 1. Do Muslim Students perceive that they face prejudice and discrimination while attending college/university? 1.2 If perceptions of prejudice and discrimination are present, to what extent do they affect the Muslim students' satisfaction with their academic experience? 2. What are the perceived main issues/needs of Muslim students while attending college? 2.1 How important are these issues/needs to Muslim students?

Research Hypotheses 1. Muslim students, in different institutions, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. 2. Muslim students, locally and nationally, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. 3. Muslim students, both born in North America and not born in North America at each institution and nationally, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. 4. Muslim students, both males and females in each institution and nationally, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination.

22 5. Muslim students, when compared racially at each institution and nationally, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. 6. Muslim students, undergraduate and graduate at each institution and nationally, similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. 7. Muslim students, among the undergraduates at each institution and nationally, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. 8. Muslim students, locally and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly. 9. Muslim students, both born in North America and not born in North America at each institution and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly. 10. Muslim students, both males and females at each institution and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly. 11. Muslim students, when compared racially at each institution and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly. 12. Muslim students, undergraduate and graduate at each institution and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly. 13. Muslim students, among the undergraduates at each institution and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly.

23 14. There is no relationship between feelings of prejudice and discrimination and students’ satisfaction with their academic experience.

Assumptions 1. The issues of concern to the sample Muslim students should be representative of what other Muslim students on other campuses face, since the sample of Muslim students itself is of a diverse group. 2. The students should not have a problem answering the survey honestly, because the matter pursued is of importance to them. 3. Arabs and Muslims may be used interchangeably in the study when speaking about cases of prejudice, discrimination or racism. 4. Predominately white institutions are assumed for the national sample. 5. Muslim students are considered a minority group.

Limitations 1. The study will only concentrate on Muslim Students who are studying in the Washington Metropolitan area as the local sample.

24

2.

The students who will be surveyed are participants in the Muslim Students' Association Chapter's activities at a given university.

3.

The local sample will be selected from 3 pre-dominantly white four-year higher-education institutions in the Washington metropolitan area.

4.

The results regarding prejudice and discrimination will be institution specific and time specific (i.e., if perception of feelings of prejudice exists it could be specific to that institution at that particular time). And if at one point there were no perceptions of prejudice or discrimination, that does not mean that it could not exist in the future.

Definitions of Terms Satisfaction with Academic Experience Dimension. A measure of students' satisfaction with their academic experience is usually an outcome of the absence of feelings of alienation. Alienation Dimension. A measure of feeling of alienation is usually an outcome of feelings of prejudice and discriminations Allah: Literally, "The God". Muslims use this Arabic term as the proper name for God. Muslims view Allah as the Creator and Sustainer of everything in the universe, Who is transcendent, has no physical form, and has no associates who share in His

25 divinity. In the Qur’an, God is described as having at least ninety-nine Divine Names, which describe His attributes. Black Muslims. African-Americans who adhere to the teachings of the organization known as the Nation of Islam. So-called "Black Muslims" are not to be confused with Muslims (followers of universal Islam) of African-American or African origin. Likewise, the Nation of Islam, a nationalistic organization, is not to be confused with the mainstream, universal world religion Islam. Campus Racial/Ethnic Climate Dimension. A measure of the sense of global perception of prejudice and discrimination as observed by students based on race and ethnicity. Discrimination. The behavioral acceptance of rejection of a person based on his or her belonging to a particular racial or ethnic group. Eid. An Arabic term meaning "festivity" or "celebration." Muslims celebrate two major religious holidays, known as Eid al-Fitr (which takes place after Ramadhan), and Eid alAdha (which occurs at the time of the Hajj). Ethnocentrism. An attitude of uncritically assuming the superiority of the in-group culture. Halal. An Arabic term designating that, which is deemed lawful, or permissible. When describing food, it means that the food is prepared in Islamic manner. Halaqa. Literally means circle. It refers to a study circle where an individual learns about Islam.

26 In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Dimension. A measure of experiences and accounts of prejudice and discrimination inside the classroom. In-Group. The select group with which one identifies and in favor of which one is generally biased. Jihad. An Arabic word which is derived from the three-letter root j-h-d, and means "to exert oneself" or "to strive". Other meanings include endeavor, strain, effort, diligence, struggle. Usually understood in terms of personal betterment, jihad may also mean fighting to defend one's (or another's) life, property, and faith. Because jihad is highly nuance concept, it should not be understood to mean "holy war", a common misrepresentation. Muhammad. The prophet and righteous person believed by Muslims to be the final messenger of God, whose predecessors are believed to include the Prophets Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus and other. Born in 570 CE, Muhammad grew up to become a well-respected member of Maccean society. In 610 CE, he received the first of many revelations that would eventually form the content of the Qur’an. Soon after this initial event, he was conferred prophethood and began calling people to righteousness and belief in One God. Muhammad died in 632 CE, after successfully (re)establishing the religion known as Islam and providing Muslims with a model for ideal human behavior. Muslim. Literally (and in the broadest sense), the term means "one who submits to God." More commonly, the term describes any person who accepts the creed and the

27 teachings of Islam. The word "Muhammadan" is a pejorative and offensive misnomer, as it violates Muslims' most basic understanding of their creed--Muslims do not worship Muhammad, nor do they view him as the founder of the religion. The word "Moslem" is also incorrect, since it is a corruption of the word "Muslim." Out-Group. A group with which one does not identify and against which one is generally biased. Prejudice. An attitude toward members of some out-group (in this case the Muslims) in which the evaluative tendencies are predominately negative. Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff Dimension. A measure of students’ perception that faculty and staff harbors feelings of prejudice towards minority students. Qur'an. "The recitation" or "the reading", and refers to the divinely revealed scripture of Islam. It consists of 114 surahs (chapters) revealed by God to Muhammad over a period of 23 years. The Qur'an continues to be recited by Muslims throughout the world in the language of its revelation, Arabic, exactly as it was recited by Prophet Muhammad nearly fourteen hundred years ago. The Qur'an is viewed as the authoritative guide for human beings, along with the Sunnah of Muhammad. Translations of the Qur'an are considered explanations of the meaning of the Qur'an, but not the Qur'an itself. The spelling "Koran" is phonetically incorrect, the more accurate Qur'an should be used. Stereotype. A set of beliefs, often rigidly held, about the characteristics of an entire racial or ethnic group.

28 Sunnah. Literally, a habit, practice, customary procedure, action, norm, or usage sanctioned by tradition. More specifically, Sunnah refers to Prophet Muhammad's sayings, practices, and habits. The Hadith of the Prophet constitute a written record of his Sunnah. Tarbiyyah. It encompasses a number of meanings such as, education, nurturing, up bringing. It refers to the holistic education of a Muslim in reference to his or her faith and other aspect of life.

CHAPTER 2

Literature Review The review of literature begins with an introduction to Muslims. It covers the basic concept of who Muslims are; where these Muslims are to be found; Muslims of America, both immigrants and indigenous; and their demographics. Information on above concepts in this chapter will build on concepts introduced in the first chapter that discuss the faith of Muslims, pillars of Islam, and faith and its history. In addition, the review covers the concept of prejudice and discrimination. It provides an overview of the concept and its definition. An outline of historical development in the field of the study of prejudice and discrimination is followed by a discussion of forms and sources of prejudice with a focus on religious and racial prejudices. Also illustrated is, in order to preserve this society's democratic ideals, the need to address the issue of prejudice and discrimination. The reasons Muslims face prejudice and discrimination is explored. The media's negative depiction of Islam and Muslims is highlighted and reports on the status of the civil rights of Muslims in this country are cited. The final section of the review starts with an overview of the theoretical framework of the study. It outlines the three major student developmental theories and focuses on the person-environment school of thought theory, which suggests that the establishment of healthy educational and social environments on campuses leads to a 29

30

better developed and satisfied students. The review goes further to include research found about the study of students' perception of prejudice and discrimination. It is clear from research studies that there is a deficiency in the study of Muslim students'. Research also confirms that minority students at a predominately white institutions are more prone to face prejudice and discrimination. It then provides a survey of searches conducted using Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Chronicle of higher education, and Dissertation Abstract databases on the topic of Muslim students' experience in academia.

Muslims and Islam In order to speak about Muslims, one should give some background about who are the Muslims? Muslims get their name from the Religion they follow, Islam. Islam is an Arabic word defined in the New Dictionary of Religions as "the Name of the faith means 'submission [to God]', the adherent or Muslim being therefore 'one who submits himself to God' (Allah), i.e. surrenders himself unconditionally to the divine will." One becomes a Muslim simply by declaring the "Shahadah", the confession that there is no god worthy of Worship except the true God (Allah) and that Muhammad is His Messenger. This declaration then entitles a Muslim to the prescribed obligations and duties in Islam.

31 The simplicity on becoming a Muslim is beautifully described by Dr. Faruqi in his book Islam. He says “The reason why Islamicity is so simple to define, so simple to attain, an so simple to establish, is that Islam is neither an ethnocentric nor a sacramental religion. One does not have to be born a Muslim; nor does one have to have any Muslim parent, guardian, family or people. Every person in the world may become a Muslim if he or she chooses, by a personal decision alone. Initiation into Islam needs no sacramental ceremony, no participation by any clergy, and no confirmation by any organized body. Therefore, all people are absolutely equal in that the house of Islam may be entered by everyone after satisfying the simplest of requirements" (Faruqi, 1995, p. 5). God, in Islam, judges people by their actions and deeds, and the declaration of faith does not guarantee one salvation. The scale of virtue and righteousness is an infinite one and the Muslim should be always striving to attain the highest possible status. Furthermore, it is God alone who should be the judge of how good or evil one's actions were and it is He who will reward people accordingly (Albanese, 1981; CIE, 1995; Emerick, 1997; Faruqi, 1995; Meir & Firestone, 1992; Melton, 1989; Shulman, 1981). Muslims, like Christians and Jews, “are the Children of Abraham, since all trace their communities back to him. Islam’s historic religious and political relationship to Christendom and Judaism has remained strong throughout history. This interaction has been the source of mutual benefit and borrowing as well as misunderstanding and conflict” (Esposito, 1991, 3-4).

32 Where Are the Muslims? Muslims make up one-fifth of the World population today and they can be found on all of the continents. The original homeland of Islam is Arabia. Islam, since its revelation, spread to Asia, Africa, Europe, North and South America, and Australia. There are more than forty-four Muslim countries and significant Muslim minorities can be found in many parts of the World, such as the former Soviet Union, China, India, England, France, and United States. This makes Islam the second largest religion in the world (Ba-Yunus, 1979; CIE, 1995; Emerick, 1997; Esposito, 1991; Mead, 1995; Meir & Firestone, 1992; Melton; 1989, Philipp, 1980).

The American Muslims: The Immigrants Accounts of when Islam came to America differ. The earliest account goes back as far as 1717. Most of those slaves brought to the New World did not survive the encounter and those who did were most likely forced to abandon their faiths. Muslims from the Middle East first came in 1875. They were from what used to be Syria, which combines Syria of today, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine. They came as uneducated, unskilled laborers. This wave ended by the First World War. The second wave peaked in the 1930s and was halted due to the Second World War. Immigration laws of that era were discriminatory and "were designed to keep out people like Muslims" (Marty, 1986, p. 347).

33 The third wave of immigration was between 1947 and mid 1960’s. But this time the new influx of immigrants was different from their predecessors. The political situation in the homeland was not stable and persecution in some countries forced people to flee. The fourth wave started in 1967 and continues to the present time. The immigrants of this wave have been mainly educated, fluent in English, and Westernized. They were from a variety of nations, beyond the Middle East. They came to settle, establish communities and, participate in American affluence, and acquire higher education and superior technical training for specialized work opportunities (Ahmed, 1994; Albanese, 1981; Ba-Yunus; 1979; CIE, 1995; Elkholy, 1966; Emerick, 1997; Gaustad, 1993; Haddad, 1986; Kettani, 1986; Lindley, 1996; Mehdi, 1978; Meir & Firestone, 1992; Melton, 1989; Miller, 1976; Naff, 1980; Nu’man, 1992; Nyang, 1981; Nyang & Ahmad, 1985; Nyang, 1986; Philipp, 1980; Poston, 1992; Roof, 1993; Shulman, 1981; Winters, 1977).

The American Muslims: The Indigenous Muslims The largest single contingent of Muslims in America is African American . . . As indigenous Americans and ex-slaves, their move into the Islamic worldview has often been challenged as inauthentic. There remains an ongoing suspicion that these choices for Islam by up to four generations of African Americans continue to be protest against the abuses of Christianity. While this may have been a

34 primary impetus decades ago, it has long ceased to hold weight in current spiritual understandings and experience. African American Muslims, alongside their brothers and sisters from the Muslim world, have developed the necessary institutions and businesses for community in America (McCloud, 1993, p. 73). The indigenous movement is composed mostly of the Black Muslims. It has taken different shapes and turns. Some Black Muslim groups have disappeared or declined. Examples are the Moorish Science Temple, the Hanafi Muslims, and Darul Islam. Others have survived until this day. Examples are the American Muslim Mission (recently changed to the American Muslim Society), the Nation of Islam, and Ansarullah. For the most part Black Muslim movements have been seen as separatist and militant ones. They call for black salvation and freedom from "white man" domination. At times they have resorted to violence. The killing of Malcolm X is one example. The most influential among the Black Muslim movements has been the Nation of Islam, an organization that has undergone major transformations. These transformations took place after the death of its founder, the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, in 1975. It was under the leadership of Warith Deen Muhammad, Elijah’s Son, that the Nation of Islam changed its name to the World Community of Al-Islam in the West, then to the American Muslim Mission, and recently to American Muslim Society. Warith Deen also was instrumental in bringing the former Nation of Islam to orthodoxy. He abandoned the beliefs that his father taught. Some of these beliefs were

35 that Elijah is the Messenger of God and that God came to him in the form of a man called Fard Muhammad, who later disappeared mysteriously. The Nation of Islam ceased to view the white man as a devil and has agreed to pledge allegiance to the Constitution of the United States. The transformation that Warith Deen institutionalized has resulted in establishing him in a highly recognized position in the world of Islam. However, a loyal minister to Elijah Muhammad refused to give in to the new changes that were brought by Warith Deen Muhammad. This minister is Minister Louis Farrakhan. He continues to promote the teachings of Elijah about Black Nationalism, with its tone of racism (Flick, 1981; Jones, 1983; Kyle, 1993; Lincoln, 1983; Lovell, 1983; Mamiya, 1983; Mamiya, 1996; Mead, 1995; Meir & Firestone, 1992; Melton, 1989; Moore, 1994; Muhammad, 1998; Nu’man, 1992; Nyang, 1981; Waines; 1995; Williams, 1989).

Demographics of American Muslims There has been no systematic, statistically valid survey of Muslims in America, as Stone (1991) noted. The two most recent studies available were done ten years apart. Stone did the first study in the year 1980. At that time the Muslims were estimated to be about 3.3 millions. The number represented 1.5% of the United States population of the Year 1980 (Stone, 1991). The second study, done by Nu’man (1992) in 1991, reported the numbers of Muslims in America to be 5.2 million. Furthermore, the author says that the most

36 acceptable estimates for Muslim social scientists and researchers are between 5 million to 8 million. The difficulties of providing accurate estimates of the numbers of Muslims in the United States is caused by a number of factors. One factor is that religious affiliation of American has never been a subject studied in the United States Census of Population. And another is that when major surveys are conducted, they usually do not include Islam as a choice for religious preference. Therefore, the burden to provide such statistics falls upon the Muslim institutions (Nu’man, 1992). A number of authors and researchers other than Stone and Nu'man have provided other statistics about the Muslim population in the United States (CIE, 1995; Elkholy, 1966; Kettani, 1986; Meir & Firestone, 1992; Nu’man, 1994).

37

Prejudice and Discrimination

Basic Concepts and Definitions of Prejudice In reviewing the literature on the issues of prejudice and discrimination, we observe that these issues are not unique to any one society, group, or historical period in time. Throughout the recorded history of mankind the challenge to understand and overcome a tendency towards prejudicial behaviors such as stereotyping and discrimination has been present (Allport, 1979; Brown 1995; Young-Bruehl, 1996). Whether we are examining historical conflicts between people of diverse cultural and religious beliefs, or between groups that share similar cultures, values, and beliefs; researchers on these subjects have found that people generally judge others by group association, and then treat others according to their assessment of the groups characteristics. A synthesis of various definitions proposed by social psychologists is that a stereotype is "a set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people." Thus stereotyping is the application of beliefs about the attributes of a group to judge an individual member of that group (Banagi & Greenwald, 1994). Even when stereotypical characteristics are only perceived and are not based on reality, actual experience, or knowledge; stereotypes are traditionally used to distinguish "in-groups" from "out-groups." In-groups are characterized as possessing valuable traits and characteristics, while out groups are burdened by the assumed possession of traits or

38 characteristics that supposedly lack value, and may be assumed to be detrimental and even threatening to the dominating or popular ideals of a society (YoungBruehl, 1996). Allport suggests that prejudice be defined as "an aversive or hostile attitude toward a person who belongs to a group, simply because he, or she, belongs to that group, and is therefore presumed to have the objectionable qualities ascribed to the group" (1979, p. 7). This concept of prejudice which is categorized as a "motivational theory" is shared by others, (Bernard, 1957; Coser, 1956; Levine & Campbell, 1972). Research of the seventies and eighties that focus on cognitive processes in intergroup relations (Hamilton, 1981) emphasize the cognitive and perceptual processes and assume that "otherwise functional thought processes exacerbate intergroup conflict by illusorily generating the perception of differences between groups" (Rothbart, 1988, p. 93). Realistic conflict theories assume that competition is at the root of intergroup strife and that real differences between groups are generally the cause of dislike, more because we value our own characteristics rather than we do those of others (Sherif, Harvey, White, Hood, & Sherif, 1961). Many discussions of prejudice and discrimination are centered on characteristics of targeted groups that do not result from individual choice, i.e., skin color, race, ethnicity, or physical attributes such as handicaps and disabilities. These discussions are facilitated by a growing social repulsion toward biases that are based purely on what are

39 seen as coincidental acts of nature, or divinely ordained phenomena. This natural aversion is referred to as the norms of human heartedness, and rationality: There are fewer voices raised to defend a hierarchy of races. It has become almost an insult to say to someone, 'You are prejudiced.' There is a growing awareness of the harm that prejudice does both to the minority and the majority, and an increasingly troubled conscience regarding what remains to be done. We are moving toward a society in which the prejudiced person will be the nonconformist (Young-Bruehl,1996, p. 88). Discussions of prejudice and discrimination as they pertain to religious or other ideological groups are complicated by the issue of choice, and the fear that an out-group ideology may pose a threat to the continued dominance of an in-group ideal, or tradition. The use of the word "dominance" here is not intended to imply that dominating ideals are always dominant because they are the ideals that are shared by a majority of people in a given society. It has been shown that one ideal can dominate another simply because it reflects the sentiments of a perceived authority. Thus authority that is established through power of position as well as power in numbers can influence group attitude development (Asch, 1956).

Historical Research on Prejudice and Discrimination Academic research on prejudice began in the 1920s. According to Werner Bergman (1994) this research focused on three central issues: whether prejudices are

40 actually the result of an insufficient exertion of the abilities to understand; whether there is a correspondence between judgment and reality--expressed otherwise as the question of the defectiveness of prejudice; and whether prejudice results from the assertion of certain interests. Psychological research on prejudice and discrimination between 1920 and the late 1940s was almost exclusively preoccupied with direct and indirect measurements of attitudes. It was during this period that Emory Bogardus introduced the social distance scale, Harry C. Triandis and Leigh M. Triandis devised a 7-point behavioral distance scale, and H.H. Grace and H.H. Rimmer developed an 11-point behavioral distance scale. It was during this same period that Daniel Katz and Kenneth Braly developed the adjective checklist, Theodore W. Adorno devised fascism, anti-Semitism and ethnocentrism scales and Daniel J. Levinson and R. Nevitt Sanford introduced an antiSemitic scale. These scales represented approximately five different methods of attitude measurement: 1. Self-report measures where the test person is asked for oral or written agreement or disagreement with certain items using attitude scales or standardized questionnaires. 2. Techniques which measure attitude with reference to actual behavior, whereby the willingness to act or actual behavior can be measured. 3. Techniques that reveal attitudes through reaction to, or interpretation of semistructured stimulus situations.

41 4. Techniques that require the test person to solve objective problems. 5. Physiological techniques that measure involuntary physical reactions such as pupil reactions, or other reflexes that reveal positive or negative feelings toward certain statements (Bergmann, 1994). Criticism of these methods highlights the difficulty in measuring individual responses that can predict a certain behavior that is motivated by a distinguished attitude toward a specific target group. Specific criticisms question the reliability of result interpretation since test persons respond in socially desired directions and test situations deviate from real situations and refer to non-existent attitudes. The primary objection that touches nearly every method of measuring prejudice is centered on the reactive character of these methods. Test persons respond in a defined test situation and can adjust their behavior. Beginning in the late 1930s the focus of academic research on prejudice shifted from the measurement of attitudes to the development of theories on prejudice that are based on individual psychology, or personality theories. These theories sought to speak to the effective components of prejudice, seeking to clarify their function in the psychic stability of the individual. These theories are mostly built on the general assumption that prejudices are both the result and resolution of internal psychic conflict and are not dependent on close relations with targets of prejudice. There are two historical periods that impact the character of these theories. The period 1930 through the 1950s was preoccupied with the individual personality in

42 conflict, while the period 1950 through the 1960s saw the advent of group psychological theories. The theories from these two historical periods traced prejudice from specific forms of relations between the in group and the out-group. The 1960s and 1970s saw a shift in the interpretation of concepts of prejudice. Where previous theories assumed that prejudice was a psychological dysfunction born of internal conflict, through research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s assumed that prejudice should be seen as the normal cognitive processing of social perceptions (Bergmann, 1994; Brown 1995; Young-Bruehl, 1996).

Forms and Sources of Prejudice "Despite decades of legal and educational reform, racism remains a serious social problem in the United States. Research findings have demonstrated that in the wake of the civil rights movement, racism has not declined but has merely changed forms" (Maluso, 1995, p. 50). Therefore, in any discussion of prejudice it is important to identify the various forms and sources of prejudice as they have been identified through research in the field of social psychology, specifically in the area of attitude development. Gordon Allport (1979) among others, recognized and emphasized the importance of distinguishing between the various forms of prejudice in the course of research, saying, "without knowledge of the roots of hostility, we cannot hope to employ our intelligence effectively in controlling destructiveness" (1979, p. 17). Distinguishing one form of prejudice from another aids us in our search to understand the development of various

43 types of prejudiced attitudes, thereby facilitating our further development of methods through which these attitudes can be changed, prevented, or even eliminated. In reference to the specific discussion of Muslim student perceptions of prejudice in American academia, we are assisted in this discussion by the identification of various distinct forms of prejudice and their sources. Through this discussion it will be shown that various different forms of prejudice could impact Muslim students, even though they represent a single out-group. The various forms of prejudice that have been selected for this discussion are religious prejudice, and racial prejudice. This selection is not intended to represent all existing forms of prejudice. It is rather a selection of those forms of prejudice that appear to be relevant to the discussion of Muslim student-- perceptions of prejudice, keeping in mind that individual Muslim students depending on their age, weight, cultural habits, modes of dress, etc.--may be affected by more varied types of prejudices than are represented here.

Religious Prejudice Probably the oldest form of prejudice is religious prejudice. Before there was interaction between groups of various colors or races, there was internecine conflict within groups that shared a common racial ancestry. These conflicts were mostly the result of religious prejudices (Kung, 1986). Even the persecution of Jews which is commonly held to be the result of racial prejudice is believed by some to have originated

44 as religious prejudice. The enslavement of African Blacks by American slave owners was justified as being the fulfillment of a biblical scripture that says that Noah cursed his son Ham, condemning him and his descendants to forever be "servants of servants" (Allport, 1979, p. 17). It is generally, though not widely, believed that African people are the direct descendants of Ham, implying that Ham himself was black. There are historians and theologians who believe that black people are more likely the descendants of Noah's grandson Kush who was one of the sons of Ham, and the father of Nimrod the Hunter who ruled Babylon and Assyria and whose descendants inhabited North Africa, specifically Egypt (Genesis, 9:12). We read in the Bible in the Book of Psalms that during the plagues inflicted upon Egypt, God struck down the first born of the Kushites, "the beginning of their generative powers in Ham," (Psalms, 78:51). Nevertheless, this biblical justification clearly gives some indication of a religiously prejudiced attitude that seriously and negatively affected the fate of a large number of African Blacks, since it was the Bible, a religious book and an authoritative source, that supposedly identified African Blacks as the "cursed" children of Ham. We can assume that if this biblical scripture had been interpreted otherwise, or if it had not existed, the history of Blacks in America and the rest of the world might have been quite different. Other examples of religious prejudice include practices in the Crusades, the Inquisition, witch hunts, Western colonialism, Northern Ireland, the Middle East, and at times in places characterized by the total obliteration of native cultures (Batson & Burris, 1994).

45 In the Draft Platform for Action, the working document of the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women, religious traditions and dogma were targeted more often than other factors as "barriers" to women's full and equal participation in society (Platform for Action and the Beijing Declaration, UNDPI, 1996). Yet gender prejudice is usually discussed outside of the context of religion. This is perhaps due to the general belief that psychology and religion in both the popular and scientific mind are at odds with each other and that neither is able to describe the other (Hood, 1994). If Hood's assumption is correct that religion and science are incapable of describing one another, how do we then come to understand the role that religion plays in the development of group prejudices and individual attitude development within the context of secular scholarship and outside of theology? This is an important question because we may find clues to the elimination of other prejudices through our further understanding of religion and the way that religious values and beliefs influence human personality development and behaviors. Most of the world's religions have doctrines of universal peace and brotherhood that condemn prejudice and discrimination. These doctrines shaped the attitudes of the world's great contemporary humanitarians, such as Gandi, Martin Luther King Jr., Mother Teresa, and others. Yet, often people who uphold religious beliefs act in violation of religious ideals (Batson & Burris, 1994). According to Evans (1980), Gordon Allport did extensive research on religious attitude development. He traced the evolution of religious attitudes from childhood,

46 through adolescence, and then to adulthood and presented discussions his findings in a series of lectures that were published in 1950 in a book The Individual and His Religion. Allport observed that children are totally incapable of understanding the abstraction of theology, and so take family religion as a matter of course, like learning to speak English, or brush teeth, etc. Then, according to Allport, there is a period of questioning. The questioning is not of religion, but rather of what his or her parents have taught, and the way that he or she understood them. The child begins to question his or her own approach to the information, and Allport believes that this questioning process is an essential element of normal personality development. Allport finds that 60 percent of college students reported having very acute adolescent rebellion. Beyond adolescence the development of religious attitudes becomes very individualized and subject to any number of different influences (Evans, 1980). From other studies there emerged a distinction between two aspects of religion that appeared to impact the individual personality differently. One aspect reflects humanitarian concerns, while another reflects a more selfish aspect. Seeking to define this seeming contradiction Allport tested these dimensions using a scale for extrinsicness and one for intrinsicness. Allport defined extrinsic as something that the person uses for his or her own purposes: to make friends, influence people, sell insurance, develop prestige in the community, or signify wish fulfillment. Intrinsic attitude refers to the view that the individual serves religion. In extrinsic approach religion is used the same as memberships to clubs, sororities, fraternities, and lodges. When religion is used in this

47 manner an exclusionary point of view is adopted that can lead to prejudice because it is part of the fact that religion is perceived to be solely for his or her benefit. This is the religion of the majority according to Allport. The minority attitude is the intrinsic view. Allport says of those people holding the intrinsic view: "They have decided that the creeds and doctrines, including the doctrine of human brotherhood, are necessary for their value system, and they adopt for themselves the entire religious system, then live by it" (Evans, 1980, p. 36). Allport's tests indicated that the extrinsic attitude is correlated with prejudice, and the intrinsic with very low prejudice.

Racial Prejudice In the 1940s when academic research on the subject of prejudice was still in its infancy, a great deal of research was focused on racial prejudice. This may be due in part to the fact that racial prejudice as it has been experienced in America has been at times a very painful catalyst of historic events and changes both positive and negative, within the development of America as a nation. The reluctance to respond to the Holocaust in Europe is one example, and the enslavement of African Blacks is another. Allport (1979) suggests that the race concept of prejudice became popular because it had "the stamps of biological finality, and spared people the pains of examining the complex economic, cultural, political, and psychological conditions that enter into group relations" (1979, p. xvii).

48 Yet one might argue that the psychological, economic, cultural, and political conditions that result from discrimination against targeted groups are phenomena that are the result, rather than the cause, of racial prejudice. It would be difficult at any given time to conduct an analysis of American economic and political conditions without taking into consideration the fact that racial prejudice has played a significant role in the establishment of most American institutions (Handlin, 1957). These institutions exact a certain amount of control over the lives of both majority and minority group members and often dictate economic and social outcomes on society. Racial prejudice in America resulted from the ethnocentrism of American whites. Ethnocentrism may be defined as "the unquestioned belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group and the consequent inferiority of other groups" (Pettigrew, 1980, p. 821). This feeling of superiority among American whites grew from the attitudes of the English towards Black African peoples, from as early as the 16th century. The English saw Africa itself as a savage place where cannibalism, pagan rituals, and sexual promiscuity and immorality flourished. Therefore in this view Africans were considered to be "uncivilized." The black color of the African's skin is said to have conjured up all of the associations that blackness had with evil and filth that were already firmly established in European culture and society (Fredrickson & Dale, 1980). The English colonist of the New World in the early 17th century held similar views about Native American Indians. They were considered "savages" and "wild beasts." Their humanity also came into question. These stereotypes are believed to have

49 begun with the tall tales of European voyagers and explorers. Prior even to the settlement of Europeans in the New World, before there was any competition for food, water, wealth, or power, European whites held prejudiced attitudes against native American Indians that were based on negative stereotypes (Fredrickson & Dale, 1980). Anti-Semitism, which is considered a form of racial prejudice, seems to meet the observation of Allport that was mentioned earlier. It has been suggested that Jewish entrepreneurial talents threatened American whites because they symbolized competition that might result in the collapse of an already established socioeconomic and political order. To distance themselves socially from this newly arrived and seemingly aggressive group, "old stock" citizens began to close ranks under the banner of Anglo-Saxon superiority. Europeans who were not of Anglo Saxon origin were considered members of "sub-cultures." In this discussion of racial prejudice we must mention Darwinism since it was Charles Darwin's theory of "natural selection" and "survival of the fittest" that served the ethnocentric claims of American whites. Many believed that European immigrants represented the weak and failed of their own societies, and so these ignorant individuals were biologically inferior to the more successful American Anglo-Saxon whites (Fredrickson & Dale, 1980).

50 Why Deal With Prejudice? According to Loo and Ralison, "despite civil rights legislation, the national goal of providing ethnic minorities with equal access to quality institutions of higher learning has yet to be realized" (1986, p. 58). Some might argue that this is not a question of prejudice, but rather one of economy and test scores. The ongoing affirmative action debate is indicative of the sentiments that are circulating on the role that America's government and private institutions should play in the race/ethnic issue, particularly as it affects higher education. There are those who feel that affirmative action is itself a discriminatory practice that penalizes white students for being members of the white race (McGinnis, 1996). Others argue that only affirmative action can level the historic imbalances of racism (Franklin, 1993). Affirmative action may or may not be a solution to the problem of minority equality in academia, but as Dean Henry Trueba of the School of Education at the University of Wisconsin Madison argues, "America may lose its democratic values if it ignores the minority issue, or if it is not dealt with properly" (1993). It is Trueba's opinion that universities have a vital role to play in healing our society's racial and ethnic problems. Dean Trueba raises the issue of "properly" in his quote. It is the question of proper way or methodology that is at the core of academic research on prejudice and discrimination. As Allport says, "Without knowledge of the roots of hostility we cannot hope to employ our intelligence effectively in controlling destructiveness" (1979, p. 17).

51 Social psychologists have contributed a tremendous amount of information on how and why people develop prejudiced attitudes and behaviors. We have moved within this century from little or no understanding of prejudiced behavior to developing many new theories about it. Along with this progress, certain problems have evolved that are only now being observed and that must be resolved if academia is to play the important role in American social development that Dean Trueba foresees. Elisabeth Young-Bruehl presents an interesting analysis of psychological and sociological research on prejudice and discrimination. She writes: There is a one and many problem-an assumption that prejudice is one thing, a generalized attitude, even though it may have many causes, and the opposite assumption that prejudices can be defined by the group or kind of group they target. And there is a tendency to approach prejudice either psychologically or sociologically without consideration for the interplay of psychological and sociological factors (1996, p. 23). Young-Bruehl goes on to say, "In the broader social and political context where both academic and non-academic studies have appeared, this additional layer of complexity has turned studying prejudice into a matter of competition for scarce resources of public attention and concern" (1996, p. 23). In her first statement Young-Breuhl appears to be saying that there is still a lot of research and study to be done on the issues of prejudice and discrimination. In her second

52 statement she seems to be concerned that the integrity of academic research is threatened by a growing politicization of the issue. If we have understood Young-Bruehl correctly, and if she is correct in her assertion that the study of prejudice has become a matter of competition for public attention and concern, then the possibility exists that only those proposed studies that satisfy the popular or political sentiments that are deemed favorable at any given time will succeed in receiving funding or publicity. Should this happen, efforts to develop methods and policies that affect solutions to the race/ethnic issue will be limited and the discourse reduced to a single politicized voice. In his earlier statement Dean Trueba seemed to agree that the national discourse on prejudice and discrimination is at the core of America's democratic value system. Perhaps Trueba spoke not only to the possibility that academic life in America will become sterile and deprived of the contributions of our minorities, but also to the possibility that the academic processes themselves will become captured by an overwhelming political force that will control future research studies and their conclusions on any number of issues. The possibility that politicization of the race/ethnic issue could pose a problem for American academia is supported by at least one study that focuses on power differentials. A study was conducted that involved dominant and subordinate groups within a stable intergroup situation. Middle-class English Canadian undergraduates participated in a decision making study that asked how to distribute an extra course credit for taking part

53 in an experiment. The students were told that the study was being used to determine how individuals reach decisions in situations where they have little information on which to base such decisions. The undergraduates were randomly categorized into groups Z and W, using a coin toss. The students were then told that they would receive one credit for taking part in the study, but they had the chance to give and receive a second course credit that would exempt them from writing an essay for their introductory psychology course. In this way, the students were making decisions that involved the distribution of a valued resource (Bourhis, 1994). According to Bourhis (1994), individuals in the dominant group position used their power to discriminate against subordinate out-group members. Individuals in the equal-power group (50%) position also discriminated. Group members who were subordinate, but who had some power (30%), used the little power that they had to discriminate against out-group members. Only the "no" power group members refused to discriminate at all against out-group members. Bourhis states further that taken together these results suggest that usable "power is a necessary condition for effective intergroup discrimination" (1994, p. 200). If we apply the findings of Bourhis to the scenario previously suggested, where research and matriculation in American universities come under the control of one political or ideological group that lacks accurate or objective and scholarly information, we can assume that minority issues will be neglected. We can make this assumption since minority groups represent an out-group in the academic setting, while politicians

54 represent not only an in-group, but also a powerful authority. Politicization of the race/ethnic issue could possibly lead to a regression to past discriminatory practices, or to a too aggressive affirmative action program that might result in at least a perception of discrimination against majority white students. Neither of these situations presents a satisfactory answer to America's race/ethnic problem. The findings of the Bourhis study also seem to imply that usable power differs from non-usable power in its impact on decision making. Even groups that had very little usable power employed the little power that they had to discriminate. The study also implies that when information is restricted or limited, decision-makers make decisions based on the usable power variable only. In other words, they discriminate simply because they can. If we refer to the Sherif studies on intergroup conflict, we might say that they move to limit any threat of competition from outside groups by refusing to empower them. (Granberg & Sarup, 1992). Politicians certainly have usable power, and as a rule politicians and policymakers seldom are objective in their analysis or use of information. For these reasons academia must continue to deal with prejudice, advocate independence in research, and develop alternative sources of funding for research that will ensure credible studies and projects, and the integrity of information. Along with this, academia must advocate for diversity in education and work to develop programs that will ensure a continuous minority presence and contribution to American academia and the society overall.

55 Why Muslims Face Prejudice? Young-Breuhl in the Anatomy of Prejudice observes that "the last century has an internal coherence as an epoch of prejudices. It is the period in which ideologies of desire completely overshadowed ethnocentrisms and often mingled with ethnocentrisms, making them peculiarly deadly--as the ethnic conflict in the former Yugoslavia has become genocidal by being mingled with an anti-Muslimism that is horrifyingly similar to antisemitism" (1996, p. 30). Antisemitism is defined by Young-Breuhl as an "obsessive-prejudice," the sort of prejudice that people of rigid, super ego-dominated characters often display and the sort of prejudice that societies organized and functioning obsessively are riddled with. Obsessional prejudices are the prejudices toward which people who are given to fixed ideas and ritualistic acts gravitate and through which they can behave sadistically without being conscious of their victims. People in such a mind-set behave as though they are in a trance, and act ruthlessly. The obsessional prejudices feature conspiracies of demonic enemies everywhere, who are omnipresent social pollutants and filthy people and who must be eliminated, washed away, flushed away, fumigated, and demolished (YoungBreuhl, 1996). The literature to date on prejudice and discrimination meets Young-Breuhl's observation that Muslims in America are experiencing the same type of prejudice that Jews did in America after the Second World War. As with Judaism, Americans are confused as to whether Muslims are a religion or a race. Often Arabs who are both

56 Muslim and Christian are targeted for hate crimes against Muslims by those who believe that Islam and Muslims are a race. The American people know very little about the religion of Muslims and Islam and have been victimized by a media driven (Mehden, 1983), much the same way as Hitler did when he directed propaganda against the Jews. Today the media create images of terror, desires and conspiracies for world conquest, and sly and sophisticated monetary schemes that will cripple America like the oil crisis of the 1970s. All of the familiar Nazi techniques and methods that were used to poison the minds of the world against Jews, are now being used to poison the world's minds against Islam and Muslims.

The Media From its coverage of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to the oil crisis and to the Iranian Revolution in the 1970s to the Oklahoma City bombing of 1995, the American media have played a significant role in the development of prejudiced American attitudes towards Islam and Muslims. The negative images perpetuated by the media have mostly focused on Arab Muslims, although most Americans are not able to distinguish between Arab Muslims and other Muslims. In his analysis of American newspaper editorials from the year 1966 through 1974, Robert Trice observes that Arab issues were almost always connected to the issue of Israel, and that in this connection the Arab was usually vilified. In 1980 liberal

57 journalist Nicholas Von Hoffman exclaimed that "no religious, national, or cultural group has been so massively and consistently vilified [as the Arabs]" (Mehden, 1983, p. 27). So what made the media decide to target Muslims? There are several theories. There is of course the theory that because the media are liberal and pro-Israeli they tend to promote Israel over the Arabs. In so doing they vilify the Arabs and Islam, often portraying Arabs as terrorists (Lilienthal, 1978). The Iranian Revolution, which was a revolution that centered on the overthrow of an abusive and hated Iranian dictator, angered Americans because American hostages where taken. The visual imagery of the hostage situation was so vivid that the television show (Nightline) came into being that was dedicated solely to projecting images of the revolution into the American home. Little information was given as to how and why the events of the Iranian Revolution transpired as they did. Few people, especially television media people, knew anything about Iranian politics. There was no one who could put this powerful imagery into perspective for the average American, who was angry and frightened by the revolution, as we then understood it (Kamalipour, 1997). In a special report published by the Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) following the Oklahoma City bombing of the Murrah building, the Council documented the worst instances of biased media reporting. They included quotes linking Muslims and Arabs to the bombing on all of the major networks including PBS (CAIR, 1995).

58 There are many examples of biased media reporting: In a report by Anthony Mason on CBS Evening News, Steven Emerson said: "Oklahoma City, I can tell you, is probably considered as one of the largest centers of Islamic radical activity outside of the Middle East." Again on CBS News Steven Emerson is quoted as saying, "This was done with the intent to inflict as many casualties as possible. This is a Middle Eastern trait." Larry Johnson, a supposed security expert said on the PBS McNeil Lehrer Report, "This strike in the heart of America is probably the Pearl Harbor of terrorism." Several days later a white male suspect, who was not a Muslim, was arrested for the bombing, and has now been tried and convicted for the crime (CAIR, 1995).

Reports of Prejudice and Discrimination The Council on American Islamic Relations, a Muslim civil-rights group, annually documents the number of reported cases of prejudice and discrimination directed toward Muslims. After the Oklahoma City bombing, a study was conducted that sought to identify trends in discrimination and prejudice against Muslims. The finding showed that about two-thirds of all anti-Muslim incidents in the United States took the forms of bias, harassment, and intimidation. Victims came from various backgrounds, and seventy percent of these incidents occurred in a mosque. The perpetrators actually went to the Mosque to commit acts of hatred. The report goes on to say that Muslims were pursued by their attackers into the privacy of their homes and places of worship, rather than being attacked in random encounters or attacks. The majority of these acts

59 occurred in four States--California, New York, Texas, and Oklahoma. Most occurred within forty-eight hours of the Oklahoma City bombing (CAIR, 1995). As mentioned previously, regardless of their religious affiliation Arabs are subjected to prejudice, discrimination, and hate crimes in America. It is not clear whether Arabs are targeted because they are assumed to be Muslim, or whether Muslims are targeted because people generally believe that all Muslims are Arabs. In a report published by the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) in the section entitled "The Political and Cultural Context of Anti-Arab Discrimination," we find: Many Arab American problems are tied to major U.S. policy issues−i.e., U.S. Middle East policy, the Arab-Israeli conflict, concerns about international terrorism and current immigration debates. A direct correlation can be found between times of national crisis and the incidences of anti-Arab hate crimes and discrimination. Indeed, there was a significant surge in anti-Arab hate crimes following the U.S. bombing of Libya in the 1980's, as well as during the 1991 Gulf War and in the immediate aftermath of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. Although these crises were not Arab related, Arab Americans find themselves convenient scapegoats in the rush to pass legislation designed to allay the public's fears, regardless of the fact that such legislation essentially discriminates (ADC, 1997, p. 3).

60 Where Muslims may be affected by religious prejudices, Arabs are affected by racial prejudices and are often used as scapegoats to facilitate any number of political initiatives. Muslim students, who may or may not be Arab, are affected by both the prejudices held against Muslims due to their religion, as well the prejudices that are directed toward Arabs since Americans generally believe that Arabs are Muslims, even though there are Arab Christians and Jews who live in Arab countries.

Muslim Students' Experience in American Academia Institutions of higher education are concerned with the development of students, as they make their way through academia. Scholars group theories of student development into at least three major theoretical schools of thought. These schools of thought are: "(1) the cognitive-structural theories concerned with intellectual and moral development, (2) the psychosocial theories concerned with personal and life cycle development, and (3) the person-environment interaction theories that focus attention upon the ecology of student life" (Miller & Winston, 1991, p. 12). The cognitive-structural theories focus on process rather content. They are concerned with how people learn, think, reason, make decisions, take positions on ethical issues, and reach conclusions based on available information. These theories are concerned with how students learn and not what they learn. They seek to describe the process of change and focuses on cognitive structures that the individual constructs to

61 make sense of environments and the surrounding world. Major contributors to this field are Piaget, Perry, and Kohlberg. The psychosocial theories on the other hand are concerned with the content of what is learned. They consider individual development as a process in which one has to complete a developmental task that correlates to a chronological age in order to move to the next stage or phase. A deficiency in any of the developmental stages may hinder the individual's ability to develop and advance into the next phase or stage. Major contributors to this school of thought are Erikson, Havighurst, Chickering, Sanford, and Axelrod. The person-environment theories focus on behavior as a function of the interaction between the individual and the environment. They emphasize the importance of establishing a healthy environment for students' growth and development. They consist of a number of models, such as physical, human aggregate, perceptual and structural organizational models. The main components/factors of these models are heterogeneity/homogeneity, support/challenge balance, social support, social climate, and the physical environment. The concept central to all of the above factors is congruency. Researchers have found that for student development to progress in a normal and healthy manner, congruency must be present between the individual and his/her environment. Major contributors to this school of thought are Moos, Holland, Pace, Banning, King, Stern, and Lewin. Furthermore, even though these schools of thought approach development from a different angle, all of them are needed to approach development in a

62 holistic manner (Arnold & King, 1997; Evans, Forney & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Huebner, 1989; Huebner & Lawson, 1990; Komives, Woodard & Associates, 1996; Miller & Winston, 1991; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991; Rodgers, 1989; Rodgers, 1991). Another body of research as equally important to the study of Muslim students' experience in American academia, is the study of minority students at predominately white institutions. The research body in this area focuses on the experiences of minority students of African American, Hispanic, Asian Americans, and Native American origin. The major concern of these research studies is the role of the perceptions of prejudice and discrimination on students' retention, adjustment, and feelings of alienation in institutions of higher education. Researchers are in agreement that minority students are more prone to face prejudice and discrimination at predominately white institutions. They are also in agreement that different minority students have different needs and concerns (Cabrera, Castaneda, Nora, & Hengstler, 1992; Cabrera & Nora, 1994; Jacoby, 1991; Harris, 1995; Loo & Rolison, 1986; Miller & Winston, 1990; Nora & Cabrera, 1996; Prieto, 1995). Furthermore, little or no research has been written about the problems and concerns of Muslim students while attending American higher education institutions. A number of searches were conducted to identify relevant literature. The ERIC database was searched using different keywords. The words "Muslim students" and "prejudice, discrimination or stereotype" when combined, did not yield any references. However, when the keyword "Muslim student" alone was used one relevant reference was found. The reference is an article that was published in New Directions for Teaching and

63 Learning, titled "Respect for Religious Differences: The Case of Muslim Students." In this article the author identifies four areas of importance to Muslim students. The article is based on an interview of four Muslim students--two males and two females of whom two were undergraduates and the other two were graduates. These areas of concern were identified to be: 1) misrepresentation of Islam by instructors, 2) instructional material offensive to Muslim students, 3) lack of respect to their own religion and/or religions in general, and 4) the failure on the part of the professors to accommodate students' religious practices. (Speck, 1997). Although this study is a brief one, it is among the first to deal with such issues of concern to Muslim students. It presents concerns as evaluated by Muslim students themselves. It also provides some strategies to professors to deal with these issues in a manner acceptable and accommodating to Muslim students' needs. Another study was identified by using the keywords "Arab student." The study found deals with prejudice against Arab students. The study was conducted at the University of Maryland at College Park and dealt with measuring attitudes of freshman students regarding Arab students. The results indicated that students held more negative attitudes in response to situations involving an Arab individual than in response to identical situations involving a neutrally identified person. The researchers attributed prejudiced attitudes towards Arabs to ignorance, saying, "In general it is felt that most of the stereotypes that people in the U.S. have toward Arabs are derived from ignorance of Arab culture." (Sergent, Woods, & Sedlacek, 1989, p. 7). This study confirms other

64 studies that describe the challenges that face Muslims and Arabs in general. J. W. Wright (1994-95), in the Journal of Intergroup Relations, reported one such study. In that study the author speaks of the social distance, discrimination and political conflict in regard to Arabs. He cites an example by another researcher who notes that "antagonism toward Arabs in America is manifest in unfounded attitudes about Islamic states and Arab countries" and that people "persistently asserted that they did not like Arabs because they were 'barbaric, treacherous,' and 'Muslim.'" (Wright,1994-95). In another account, Antoun (1994) reports an incident about an Arab student’s experience in Houston, Texas. He writes: "In 1989 a professor at Texas Southern pointed to the foreign students in the class including Zayd and said, 'You come here to get an education which we taxpayers pay for.' " (Antoun, 1994). Furthermore, a search in The Chronicle of Higher Education database yielded a number of articles that have a relevance to the subject studied. The first of these articles is by Jack G. Shaheen, a professor of mass communications at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville. He is also an author of a book called TV Arab. In his article he emphasized the role of the academicians by saying, "Members of the academic community often play an important role in producing and critically analyzing portraits of various groups. But most have ignored the harm done by the Arab stereotypes." (1990, p. B1). However, he warns those who critically analyze portraits of various groups that they might "risk being accused of being prejudiced themselves or of promoting some hidden agenda. While researching the image, for example, I was characterized by some

65 academics as an 'anti-Israeli Arab lover' who engages in 'Arab propaganda.' " (Shaheen, 1990, B1). Understanding Shaheen's message and that of others like Esposito (1993), who wrote an article discussing the secular bias of scholars in reference to Islam and Muslims in which he tries to uncover such biases, Esposito warns: The less we know, the more we apparently tend to generalize and stereotype. Moreover, many scholars who analyze Islamic movements have had little or no actual contact with them. Islam is portrayed as a monolithic political and social force, just as Communism was depicted as monolithic by scholars, policy makers, and the news media during the cold war (1993, p. A44). More specific references that discuss incidents of prejudice and discrimination against Muslim students found that Muslim students' religious needs are overlooked or ignored (Leatherman, 1990) or that they were attacked and/or harassed as individuals or groups ("Assailants Beat," 1991; Heller, 1991; Leatherman, 1996; Shea, 1993; Wilson, 1991). These articles have one issue in common and that is: These students were attacked or harassed because they were thought to be either Arabs or Muslims. They also highlighted the prejudicial attitudes harbored by others towards these students, a situation that requires the attention of the academic community to intervene and put an end to such behavior.

66

Muslim Students in Doctoral Research Studies Previous research on the issues of concern to Muslim students and their encountering of prejudice and discrimination on the university campus has been limited to either: 1) the experience of the international student adjustment to a U.S. university campus or 2) the attitudes of non-Muslim students toward Islam, Muslims, and/or Arabs. Little research has been devoted to the particular needs of Muslim students in the areas of academic services, social services, and religious accommodations. Furthermore, a review of the literature shows that it is clear that no research has been performed on the subject of if and how Muslim students perceive prejudice and discrimination in academia or in the general college life atmosphere. A study focusing on the problems faced by Muslim students while studying on university campuses was conducted among the members of the Muslim Students Association of the San Francisco Bay Area. The Michigan International Student Problem Inventory was used to measure the concerns of the 79 Muslim student participants. Luna (1993) explores the question: What problems are perceived by Muslim students in adjusting to life in the United States in the areas of social adjustment, financial adjustment, academic adjustment and language adjustment? The second part of the survey attempts to ascertain whether or not Muslim students change their attitude toward the United States after enrolling in U.S. universities.

67 The researcher's findings reveal that the areas of concern among Muslim students did not correlate with previous studies carried out among the general university population. For instance, financial aid and academic achievement were ranked high among the general population where as religious services, social adjustment and then financial aid were the three areas of greatest concern for Muslim students. Analysis of individual responses reveal that the Muslim students often find themselves in uncomfortable social situations in which their peers immediately presuppose their feelings and beliefs based upon their religion. One student expressed the desire not to be labeled or considered an "ideologue." Furthermore, the media were identified as particularly biased. Finally, many students revealed that forums, such as the Muslim Students' Association, were among the very few public venues were they felt safe to express their views, get involved in larger university politics, and interact within the mores of Islamic dictates (Luna, 1993). Luna concludes that the necessary cultural orientation of Muslim students has not been met on University campuses. To this, she recommends that satisfactory orientation programs be offered to incoming college freshman. Also, trained counselors and academic advisors must offer special social services for their Muslim student population. Though the researcher demonstrates that social adjustment ranks high among the concerns of Muslim students, her research does not reveal the causes of the problems of adjustment. Furthermore, the area of greatest concern for the subjects is lack of religious services. Religious facilities to accommodate the unique needs of the Muslim student

68 remain absent from the majority of universities. However, it is unclear from the research conducted that a lack of services, whether unavailable or unattainable, may be due to lack of responsiveness on the part of the university administration. The conclusions of Luna's studies are supported by a more specific study carried out among Arab male students in 1989. Ibrahim Addou conducted research among 400 Arab male students in the Washington, D.C. area to see whether educational difficulties were related to selected factors, such as marriage, length of stay in the United States, and area of study. The instruments used were the Personal Data Inventory (PDI) and the Educational Difficulty Checklist (EDC). Addou's purpose was to determine the extent of difficulty of the subjects in the areas of English language proficiency, academic performance, and educational resources. The research reveals that difficulty did correlate with age, marital status, area of study and length of stay in the United States. Though not directly concerned with the issue of prejudice, the study reveals that the university administration did not provide programs that made the transition between foreign universities to the American system an easy one. Nor did there exist an adequate social atmosphere that enabled the new Arab male student to easily cope with American life, particularly for the unmarried students. Thus, social adjustment and academic facilities ranked high as areas of problem and difficulty for the international Muslim Arab student (Addou, 1989). Muslim students are particularly concerned with maintaining their identity in the often-hostile environment of university life. Universities, though incorporating aspects of

69 ethnic, racial and religious tolerance in curricula and administration, still remain largely secular and ambivalent to religious sentiment. A questionnaire designed to measure the extent of religiosity of Muslim students in universities and other factors, such as academic status, field of study, number of social science courses taken, length of stay in the United States, and sect of Islam, was distributed by Pouryousseffi (1984) to 182 Muslim students in Western Michigan University. Similar research had been conducted among Christian and Jewish students which suggest that the extent of religious attachment is diminished by these selected factors (other than the influence of sect). The highly secular state university environment, compounded with peer group influence to modify behavior to acceptable norms, causes many students to question their religion. In an environment in which rational and scientific deduction prevails, religious sentiment would be considered counteractive to the usual growth of awareness and reason that a university student would experience. Pouryousseffi proposes that the Muslim student would fall under these pressures and thus exhibit less religious affinity in the university atmosphere. His research reveals the contrary, however. Muslim students maintained a high index of religiosity in the belief dimension, but the ritual dimension of religion remained rather low. The overall decline of religiosity of Muslim students remained low, especially in comparison with research carried out among Christian and Jewish students. Of course, the main drawback of this study was that the research model was based upon studies for Christian and Jewish students. Islam, though an Abrahamic faith, starkly

70 contrasts with these two religions in the historical attitude toward reason and the methods of cultural expression, thus making the research method less applicable to the subjects. Very pertinent to this study is that although belief remained high, exercising this belief remained low. Unlike Jews and Christians, Muslims are required to pray five times a day. This multiple reaffirmation of faith is a key tenet of Islam. The Muslims, although expressing belief in God and Islam, were not exercising the Islamic rituals, which confirm this belief. Previous research already confirmed that social adjustment and religious facilities ranked high among concerns of Muslim students. Pouryousseffi (1984) does not suggest that lack of religious expression might be tied to lack of religious facilities provided by the university. Furthermore, his research does not discuss any of the factors that affect religiosity as they pertain specifically to the Muslim student. Within the theoretical framework of his discussion, issues of peer group pressure, the secular university environment, and change in attitude are all discussed. Yet for the Muslim student, the dimensions of prejudice, American ignorance of Islam, and conflict of cultures must be added. If taken from those perspectives, the issue of why religiosity is affected would be made clear. Furthermore, a study conducted by Hala El-Refaei (1993) at the University of Houston addressed the problem: What is the relationship between selected nonacademic factors and the social adjustment of Arab and non-Arab Muslim students attending an American university? A sample of 113 Muslim students was administered a

71 questionnaire concerned with demographic information, language proficiency, perception of American culture, satisfaction with the United States, and social adjustment. In regard to perceptions of American culture, 69% disagreed or strongly disagreed that Americans think highly of their (the Muslim student's) culture. Eighty percent felt that Americans do not know about their (the Muslim's) culture. Twenty-five percent felt that they had been discriminated against because of nationality. Ninety-five percent disagreed or strongly disagreed that American culture was like their own culture. Regarding social adjustment, homesickness, making personal friends with Americans, getting involved with social activities with Americans, discrimination, and finances were listed as the five most troublesome areas. Additional findings revealed that one of the most important concerns of the Muslim students was preserving their faith. El-Refaie (1993) recommends that the university administration become more literate about the foreign students in their universities. The international student should be educated on the extent of cultural diversity and cultural relativism in the United States. Ultimately, there must be some kind of adjustment in the teacher's education programs to promote multiculturalism. El-Refaie (1993) comes very close to discussing the issues of prejudice. Most students, though not directly experiencing prejudice, definitely feel ill-adjusted in American society. The reasons may be cultural isolation, ignorance of other cultures, or a sense of cultural superiority on the part of the majority population. It is unclear from the study if any of this sentiment resulted from specific instances of prejudice. Whether

72 the sentiment is a general view stemming from feeling out of place on the part of the Muslim student or lack of outreach on the part of the majority population is unclear. Research focusing on the non-Muslim student and Islam may provide some insight into this subject. The intellectual development and academic achievement of university students are intimately tied to the classroom environment and the type and quantity of interaction with the faculty. Ibtesam Halaweh (1996) conducted research on the perceptions of Muslim students toward social and faculty interaction, intellectual development, and personal growth in 1996 among 135 international Muslim students at Ohio University in Athens. Halaweh argues that formal and informal student-faculty interaction strongly correlate to the academic success of students. The atmosphere established by faculty, and peer group attitudes and interaction establish the classroom atmosphere, which enables or hinders student intellectual growth. Halaweh's purpose was to test these hypotheses on Muslim students. The instrument used covered the areas of: 1) personal information, 2) dependent variables (intellectual development and personal growth), and 3) independent variables (academic integration, peer relations, social integration, informal faculty relations, faculty concern, and student commitment). The results of the survey indicate that social and faculty interaction have an impact on student intellectual development and personal growth of the Muslim student. Halaweh recommends that "the university and the students should be responsible for the increase of these [student-faculty] interactions and facilitate

73 them." (1996, p. 67) It is unclear as to whether the research demonstrates unique methods of interaction needed by the Muslim student, usually within the context of cross-cultural communication. Also, the attitude of faculty members was not explored at all; only how the Muslim students "perceived" them was a research interest. Furthermore, two studies deal with the attitudes of non-Muslim students toward Islam, Arabs and Muslims. It was these attitudes, measured in a classroom setting, which contribute to the classroom atmosphere in which a Muslim student is to function and succeed. Belkeis Al-Tareb (1997) of Ball State University conducted research on "Attitudes Toward Muslims: Initial Scale Development." She developed the Attitude Toward Muslims Scale (ATMS) to ascertain the perception of non-Muslim students toward Middle Eastern Muslim students. Five focus groups were selected, three with college student members and two from community churches, totaling 35 people. The survey revealed that most participants were familiar with Malcolm X and Muslim athletes. Muslims were also seen as non-Caucasians, and no distinction was made between Arabs and Muslims. Muslims were seen as individuals who wore robes, had distinct names, were devout, and consisted of dominant males and subordinate females. Most groups saw Muslims as culturally different, foreign, and a group to be feared. The sources of information were movies, Nation of Islam, the oil crisis, and sports figures. This research, when linked with the following research, gives an insight into the attitudes that Muslim students encounter in university and non-university environments.

74 Awatef Siam (1993) of the University of Southern California distributed a questionnaire to students in (a) an Islam course through the Department of Religion and (b) a course on Muslim societies in the Department of Anthropology. She devised the questionnaire to deduce American students' perception of Islam and the Arab world, to detect reasons for their views, and to determine the effect of teaching on the perception of cultural differences. The findings of the student case studies indicate that the most negative perceptions of Islam and the Muslims came from the media. Those who indicated the media (television, radio, newspapers and magazines) as their source of information had a very negative image. Islam was described as hostile to the West and is a religion of violence. When history texts served as the source of Islamic education, the students carried a similar negative perception. This negative perception is due to the inaccuracy of reporting events in the Muslim world and the general ignorance about Islam and Muslims. Yet students who had personal contacts with Muslims had a more accurate view of Islam and the Arab world. The description of Islam provided by the media focused on (a) stereotyping and dehumanizing Arabs and Muslims and (b) inaccurate and distorted information. Siam (1993) then provided a thorough review of newspaper reports, articles, television programs, and educational literature to provide proof of her theory. Her research calls for a more balanced understanding of Islam and Muslim to be presented at universities. The teachers must realize that distorted images exist and must strive toward providing positive images within a realistic approach. Furthermore, for the

75 Muslim student, establishing an atmosphere where social inhibition can decrease so that positive interaction may occur will naturally diminish the majority of negative stereotypes. Non-Muslim students who had personal relationships with Muslim students reported a balanced view of Islam. If the university environment can facilitate such an atmosphere, by ensuring correct educational instruction and a relaxed social atmosphere where prejudice is not tolerated, then the Muslim student could easily adjust to the university setting. At present, as is evidenced by Siam's (1993) research, this environment does not exist.

Summary Academicians have a very important role to play in the shaping of the future of the democratic society in which we live. The literature reviewed clearly outlines the dangers of prejudice and discrimination. It highlights the fact that Muslims in general and American Muslims in specific are facing prejudice and discrimination inside and outside of academia. As educators we must strive to eradicate the genocidal campaign to defame and undermine the Muslim presence in North America; a campaign that is lead primarily by a bias media and ignorant individuals. Academia's role in the effort to halt prejudice and discrimination is inherent in its promotion of the entertainment and free exchange of ideas, and a peaceful and civilized exchange of information away from politics.

76 This society comprises of people of diverse and multicultural backgrounds and will remain this way. The challenge, however is to determine how a real and genuine progress can be made and maintained. This challenge remains to be met by everyone and especially educators, for they are the teachers of future generations of Americans!

CHAPTER 3

Methodology This chapter describes the methodology of the study. It is divided into sections describing the general research approach, the sample, and the instrumentation. A discussion of specific data collection procedures, statistical analysis, and a summary concludes the chapter. The study's focus is on Muslim students, as a minority group--a group that no longer is foreign to this society or academia, in spite of all the prevalent prejudice and discrimination found in the media and elsewhere (Haddad & Esposito, 1998; Kamalipour, 1997). This study included an investigation of Muslim students' perceptions of prejudice and discrimination while attending colleges and universities and an exploration of their satisfaction with their academic experience. Parallel to that, through the study the researcher sought to determine the main concerns and issues of Muslim students and the importance of such issues to them as they make their way through academia. This study was also intended to provide educators and administrators with insights and guidelines to use when interacting with this unique group of students.

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78 Population Muslim students who are attending institutions of higher education are the subjects of this study. No statistics regarding the numbers of Muslim students in higher education exist due primarily to two factors. First, not all the schools require students to declare a religious preference; and second, if students make such declarations, not all Muslim students declare theirs. However, according to unofficial estimates of the Muslim Students’ Association of United States & Canada’s (MSA), there are about 300 MSA chapters across the United States. On the average, these chapters have in their membership 30 students at small schools, and about 500 students at big schools. Unofficial estimates put the total number of Muslim Students in the United States at 30,000 to 40,000.

Sample The study focuses on Muslim students in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. These three institutions are designated as the local sample and they will be referred to as Grp 1, Grp 2, and Grp 3. The three schools have active MSA chapters and hold weekly Friday prayers service in addition to other activities. These schools also represent a variety of four-year higher education institutions. Grp 1 is a private, predominately white, non-religious school with an active Muslim population of about 200 students. Grp 2 is a private,

79 predominately white, religious school with an active Muslim population of about 50 students. Grp 3 is a public, predominately white school with an active Muslim population of about 200 students. An additional sample in this study is drawn from among the 600 students attending the MSA's 1997 annual national conference and from the 200 subscribers to the MSA chapters’ leadership e-mail list (MSA-ORG). The additional sample was used for comparison and validation purposes with the local sample. (See Table 1 for groups participating in the study.)
Table 1: Groups Participating In the Study
Number of Participants Groups Grp 1 Grp 2 Grp 3 National Total Cumulative Percent

Percent

Valid Percent

95 98 44 232 469

20.3 20.9 9.4 49.5 100.0

20.3 20.9 9.4 49.5 100.0

20.3 41.2 50.5 100.0

The sample type is what is known as "availability sampling" or "convenience sample" as defined by McMillan and Schumacher. According to these scholars, "this form of sampling is the most common type in educational research [and] involves using whatever subjects are available to researcher. This may, for example be a class of students or a group of subjects gathered for a meeting" (1989, p. 161). McMillan & Schumacher list two major limitations with the above sample type. These limitations are:

80 1) the sample may not be representative of the larger population, and 2) there may be a bias to the available sample (i.e., volunteers vs. non-volunteers) (1989). The study should avoid such limitations, first, by the fact that the surveyed students come from both local and national samples, which in turn are representative of the population. Second, although the sample is a volunteer sample, in the case of Muslim students, those who participate in MSA activities are by default a volunteer group of students because not all Muslim students at a university are members of MSA. Thus, this should minimize the effect of the above-mentioned limitations.

Instrumentation The survey research method is employed to collect data. A questionnaire was developed by the researcher (see Appendix A). An optional incentive of a chance to win free software was offered for the completion of the questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of four parts.

Part I The first part contains demographic data, such as gender, school, year in school, grade point average (GPA), age, martial status, ethnic background, nationality, etc. The participants were required to check the appropriate items.

81 Part II The second part consists of 13 items. The first 8 items measure perceptions of prejudices, item 9 and 10 measure feelings of alienation, and items 11 through 13 measure satisfaction with academic experience. All items were measured using a fivepoint Likert scaling technique. The scale ranges are "strongly agree" as 1, "agree" as 2, "undecided" as 3, "disagree" as 4, and "strongly disagree" as 5. For content and construct validity, items in Part II are based on a series of studies done at Arizona State University that measure perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. These measures are divided into three dimensions: (a) Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus, (b) Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff, and (c) In-Class Discriminatory Experiences. Researchers used a fourth dimension as a measure of Feelings of Alienation. They hypothesized that if students experience prejudice and discrimination, students then would feel alienated and do not belong in their institutions. Moreover, researchers also included a fifth dimension that measures students' satisfaction with their academic experience (Cabrera & Nora, 1994). Campus Racial/Ethnic Climate Dimension. This dimension measures the students' sense of global (the general atmosphere on a university campus) perception of prejudice and discrimination based on race and ethnicity. It is concerned with whether students have observed discriminatory words or gestures. The four indicators designated are: (a) I have observed discriminatory words, behaviors or gestures directed at minority students at this institution, (b) I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among

82 students, (c) I have encountered racism while attending this institution, and (d) I have heard negative words about people of my own race or ethnicity while attending classes (Cabrera & Nora, 1994). Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff Dimension. This dimension deals with students’ perception that faculty and staff harbors feelings of prejudice towards minority students. The two indicators designated are: (a) I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among faculty at this institution, and (b) I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among academic staff at this institution (Cabrera & Nora, 1994). In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Dimension. This dimension uncovers experiences and accounts of prejudice and discrimination inside the classroom. The two indicators designated are: (a) I have been discouraged from participating in class discussions, and (b) I have been singled out in class and treated differently than other students (Cabrera & Nora, 1994). Alienation Dimension. Feeling of alienation is usually an outcome of feelings of prejudice and discriminations. The two indicators designated to measure feelings of alienation are: (a) Being a student at this institution is a pleasant experience, and (b) I feel I belong at this institution (Cabrera & Nora, 1994 & 1996). Satisfaction with Academic Experience Dimension. Satisfaction with students' academic experience was measured with three items on the questionnaire. These items are: (a) I am satisfied with the extent of my intellectual development since attending this institution, (b) My academic experience has had a positive influence on my intellectual

83 growth and interest in ideas, and (c) I am satisfied with my academic experience at this institution (Cabrera & Nora, 1996). The results are also compared with student’s GPA to determine whether any relationship exists between feelings of prejudice and discrimination on the one hand and satisfaction level regarding academic experience, on the other hand.

Part III The Literature review suggests that a number of issues concern Muslim students. These issues can be grouped into three dimensions: (a) Religious Dimension, (b) Social Dimension, and (c) Academic Dimension. (Abdul-Rauf, 1993; Addou, 1989; Barazangi, 1991; El-Refaie, 1993; Haddad & Lummis 1987; Luna, 1993; Speck, 1997). The third part consists of 19 items. For content validity, these items were developed, in addition to the review of the literature and feedback by a panel of experts, by conducting a survey of more than 200 college students across the United States and Canada. These students were asked to list the 3 most important issues/concerns that they consider important while attending college.

Issues that are of concern/importance to Muslim students. 1. Place for observance of daily/Friday prayer (s) on campus 2. Halal meals served on campus 3. Availability of scholarship fund

84 4. Interest free loans 5. No classes on Eid Holidays 6. Concerned/bothered with interaction with the opposite sex in class/campus 7. Social/peer support group on campus 8. Advisor/Imam/chaplain on campus 9. Islamic Tarbiyyah Program/Halaqa 10. Dealing with prejudice and discrimination on campus 11. Clarifying misinformation about Islam to peers/campus community 12. Academic achievement 13. Having a Muslim student association on campus 14. Preserving one’s own Islamic identity 15. Making Da’wah to non-Muslims 16. Muslim room-mate 17. Unity of Muslim students on campus 18. Observing Islamic dress code 19. Adjustment to college/university life These issues then were grouped and combined by the researcher as follows: Religious Dimension items (1, 2, 5, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, and 18), Social Dimension items (7, 8, 13, and 16), and Academic Dimension items (3, 4, 6, 12, and 19).

85 Students participating in this study were asked to choose the 5 most important issues in their opinion. They were given the chance to write-in any issue that they might feel left out by the researcher. There were no write-in issues that were added.

Part IV In Part IV, students were asked to rank all of the 19 issues in accordance to their importance, as they perceive them. A five-point Likert scale ranges were used as follows: "extremely important" as 1, "very important" as 2, "important" as 3, "less important" as 4, and "not important" as 5. In this section students were given the choice to rank issues, as they perceive their importance.

Reliability Reliability is the level of internal consistency of a measuring device. The Cronbach Alpha is usually used to assess the reliability of a questionnaire. It is the most appropriate technique for survey research in which ranges of answers are possible for each item (McMillan & Schumacher, 1989, p. 248). The reliability coefficient for Part II of the questionnaire, which measure feelings of prejudice and discrimination, alienation and satisfaction with academic experience, is (α = .87). It should be noted that items 9 to 13 in Part II were re-coded to be consistent with the rest of the items. Moreover, the reliability coefficient for Part IV of the questionnaire, which record the importance level

86 of the different issues of concerns and importance, is (α = .89). Both levels of reliability indicate a high level of internal reliability.

Data Collection Procedures MSA chapters at Grp 1, Grp 2, and Grp 3 were contacted to arrange for survey distribution during each chapter's main events, such as the Friday prayer service and general body meetings. The researcher went to these events and made brief presentations about the study's purpose and significance. The actual data collection took place during the fall of 1997. Data entry and coding took place during the 1998 Spring semester. Data analysis was conducted and completed during the month of June 1998. Students were given the choice to fill an actual printed form or send in an e-mail version (See Table 2). They were also given the choice to include their contact information for drawing purposes (See Table 3).

Table 2: Students' Choices of Survey Format Number of Participants Choice Written Format E-mail Format Total 365 104 469 Valid Percent 77.8 22.2 100.0 Cumulative Percent 77.8 100.0

Percent 77.8 22.2 100.0

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Table 3: Students' Choice to Provide Contact Information Number of Participants Choice Yes No Total 345 124 469 Valid Percent 73.6 26.4 100.0 Cumulative Percent 73.6 100.0

Percent 73.6 26.4 100.0

Data Analysis The data analysis generated by the responses were performed using the SPSS/PC for Windows, version 8.0, statistical package software. Demographic information was analyzed using descriptive statistics, such as frequencies. Research Questions 1, 1.2, 2, and 2.2, measuring perceptions of prejudice and discrimination and issues of concerns and importance to Muslim students, were analyzed by using descriptive statistics-including frequencies of numbers and percentages, means, and standard deviation--for responses assigned to each item by participating students. Inferential statistics, including one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Sheffe-post-hoc comparisons, were used to answer research hypothesis 1. An independent t-test was used to answer research questions 2 and 8, comparing both local and national samples. Two-way analysis of variance was employed to answer research hypotheses 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. It compared each of the different institutions with the national sample, using the independent variables, gender, place of birth,

88 educational level, and ethnicity in reference to the dependent variables, perceptions of prejudice and discrimination dimensions and issues of importance dimensions. Research hypothesis 14 was answered using the Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient test to uncover any relationship between feelings of prejudice and discrimination and satisfaction with academic experience. The 0.05 level of significance, unless otherwise indicated, was used in hypothesis testing as the level accepted and commonly used for statistical analysis in the social sciences.

Summary The researcher selected three predominately white universities in the Washington metropolitan area as the sites from which the sample population of the local participants were drawn. Another sample was selected from among participants in national activities of the national MSA. The purpose was to measure Muslim students' perceptions of prejudice and discrimination and also to determine the important issues and concerns to Muslim students. The instrumentation of this study consists of four parts. The first part consists of basic demographics. The questionnaire's Part II was adopted from previous studies measuring students' perceptions of prejudice and discrimination, feelings of alienation, and satisfaction with academic experience. Parts III and IV, highlighting issues of concern and importance to Muslim students, were developed by the researcher, utilizing

89 information collected from prior literature review, panel of experts, and empirical research conducted by the researcher. Descriptive statistics (including numbers, percentages, means, standard deviations) as well as inferential statistics (including one- and two-way ANOVA, independent t-test, and Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient test) were employed to report demographic data and to answer research questions and hypotheses.

CHAPTER 4

Findings

Overview The purpose of this research was to (a) study the Muslim students, as a minority group--a group that no longer is foreign to this society or academia, in spite of the prevalent prejudice and discrimination found in the media and elsewhere; (b) investigate their perceptions of prejudice and discrimination while attending colleges and universities; (c) explore their satisfaction with their academic experience; (d) determine the main concerns and issues of Muslim students in academia and the importance of such issues to them; and (e) provide educators and administrators with insights and guidelines when dealing with this unique group of students. This chapter presents demographic characteristics of respondents, analysis of the data and presentation of findings, and a summary.

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Demographic Characteristics of Respondents The following section presents demographic characteristics of students who participated in the study: Gender The total number of local and national participants were 469. The breakdown of these numbers is as follows (N=466): Locally, male participants were 131 (55.5%), and female participants were of 105 (44.5%). Nationally, male participants were 142 (61.7%) and female participants were 88 (38.3%). The total of local male participants were 273 (58.6%). The total of female participants were females 193 (41.4%). For a breakdown by each school, see Table 4. Table 4 Participants' Gender by Groups
Local Gender N Male 64 Female 30 12.7 50 21.1 25 10.6 105 44.5 88 38.3 27.1 48 20.3 19 8.1 131 55.5 142 61.7 GRP 1 % N GRP 2 % N GRP 3 % N Total % National N %

92 Age: Ages of participants are grouped into three ranges. The first range is 20 years of age or younger, the second is 21 years of age to 24 years, and the third range is 25 years of age or older. The age ranges of the participants are: The first range is 110 (47.4%) locally and 82 (37.1%) nationally; the second range is 67 (28.9%) locally and 90 (40.7%) nationally; and the third range is 55 (23.7%) locally and 49 (22.2%) nationally. The total age ranges are: the first age range is 192 (42.4%); the second age range is 157 (34.7%); and the third age range is 104 (23%). For a breakdown by each school, see Table 5.

Table 5 Participants' Age Ranges by Groups
Age Range GRP 1 N Under 20 yrs Between 21-24 25 & Older 29 12.5 16 7 10 4.3 55 23.7 49 22.2 38 26 % 16.4 11.2 N 56 25 GRP 2 % 24.1 10.8 N 16 16 Local GRP 3 % 7 7 N 110 67 Total % 47.4 28.9 National N 82 90 % 37.1 40.7

93 Educational Level Participants' educational level is as follows: 173 (74.6%) local undergraduates and 59 (25.4%) local graduates; 150 (66.1%) national undergraduates and 77 (33.9%) national graduates. In addition, there are 323 (70.4%) local and national undergraduates and 136 (29.6%) local and national graduates. For breakdown by each school, see Table 6.

Table 6 Participants' Educational Level by Groups
Local Educational Level Undergraduate Graduate 31 13.4 14 6 14 6 59 25.4 77 33.9 GRP 1 N 61 % 26.3 N 82 GRP 2 % 35.3 N 30 GRP 3 % 12.9 N 173 Total % 74.6 National N 150 % 66.1

GPA The GPA is reported in a range format: The first range is below 2.0, the second range is between 2.0 and 2.5; the third range is between 2.6 and 3.0; the fourth range is between 3.1 and 3.5; and the fifth range is above 3.5. Participants' GPA ranges are as follows: The first range is none for local participants and only 4 (1.9%) from national participants; the second range is 17 (7.5%) local and 19 (9%) national; the third range is

94 32 (14.1%) local 28 (13.3%) national; the fourth range is 88 (38.8%) local and 70 (33.2%) national; and the fifth range 90 (39.6%) local and 90 (42.7%) national. The overall totals are as follows: The first range 4 (0.9%), the second range 36 (8.2%), the third range 60 (13.7%), the fourth range 158 (36.1%), and the fifth range 180 (41.1%). For a breakdown by each school, see Table 7.

Table 7 Participants' GPA Ranges by Groups
Local GPA N Below 2.0 Between 2.0 - 2.5 Between 2.6 - 3.0 Between 3.1 - 3.5 Above 3.5 0 GRP 1 % 0 N 0 GRP 2 % 0 N 0 GRP 3 % 0 N 0 Total % 0 National N 4 % 1.9

7 10

3.1 4.4

10 22

4.4 9.7

0 0

0 0

17 32

7.5 14.1

19 28

9 13.3

34 39

14.98 17.2

39 22

17.2 9.7

15 29

6.6 12.8

88 90

38.8 39.6

70 90

33.2 42.7

Born In North America Participants were asked about whether they were born in North America or not born in North America. Eighty-one (34.5%) of local participants were born in North America, and 154 (65.5%) were not. And 104 (46%) of national participants were born in North America, and 122 (54%) were not. The overall totals are 185 (40.1%) were born

95 in North America and 276 (59.9%) were not. For a breakdown by each school, see Table 8. Table 8 Participants' Place of Birth by Groups
Local Place of Birth Born In North America Not Born In North America GRP 1 N 28 % 11.9 N 27 GRP 2 % 11.5 N 26 GRP 3 % 11.1 N 81 Total % 34.5 National N 104 % 46

66

28.1

71

30.2

17

7.2

154

65.5

122

54

Nationality Participants were asked about their nationality, whether they are American, Canadian, or other. One hundred thirty (55.6%) local participants were American and 134 (58.5%) national participants were American. None of the local participants were Canadian and 39 (17%) of the national participants were Canadian. One hundred four (44.4%) local participants and 56 (24.4%) national participants were neither American nor Canadian. The total numbers of participants who were American citizens were 264 (57%). The total number of Canadian participants was 39 (8.4%), and the total number of other participants was 160 (34.5%). For a breakdown by each school, see Table 9.

96 Table 9 Participants' Nationality by Groups
Local Nationality N US Citizen Canadian Citizen None of the Above 35 0 59 GRP 1 % 15 0 25.2 N 59 0 37 GRP 2 % 25.2 0 15.8 N 36 0 8 GRP 3 % 15.4 0 3.4 N 130 0 104 Total % 55.6 0 44.4 National N 134 39 56 % 58.5 17 24.4

Ethnicity of Participants Participants were asked about their ethnicity. Three (1.3%) local participants and 5 (2.2%) national participants were African American. Seventy (29.7%) local participants and 124 (54.1%) national participants were from Indian or Pakistani origin (Indo-Pak). One hundred-seven (45.3%) local participants and 77 (33.6%) national participants were Arabs. Nineteen (8.1%) local participants and 8 (3.5%) national participants were Asian. Ten (4.2%) local participants and 6 (2.6%) national participants were White American. Twenty-seven (11.4%) local participants and 9 (3.9%) national participants were other ethnicity. For a breakdown by each school, see Table 10.

97 Table 10 Participants' Ethnicity by Groups
Local Ethnicity N African American Indo-Pak Arab Asian White American 0 24 54 12 GRP 1 % 0 10.2 22.9 5.1 N 1 27 41 5 GRP 2 % .4 11.4 17.4 2.1 N 2 19 12 2 GRP 3 % .9 8.1 5.1 .9 N 3 70 107 19 Total % 1.3 29.7 45.3 8.1 National N 5 124 77 8 % 2.2 54.1 33.6 3.5

2

.9

5

2.1

3

1.3

10

4.2

6

2.6

Other

3

1.3

18

7.6

6

2.5

27

11.4

9

3.9

Graduated from High School in North America Participants were asked whether they graduated from high school in North America or not. One hundred thirty seven (62.3%) local participants and 148 (68.8%) national participant graduated from high school in North America. Eighty-three (37.7%) local participants and 67 (31.2%) national participants on the other hand did not graduate from high school in North America. The overall totals are as follows: 285 (65.5%) who graduated from high school in North America vs. 150 (34.5%) who did not. For a breakdown by each school, see Table 11.

98

Table 11 Participants' Graduation Status from High School
Grad. H.S. In North America Did Did Not Local GRP 1 N 40 49 % 18.2 22.3 N 65 25 GRP 2 % 29.6 11.4 N 32 9 GRP 3 % 14.6 4.1 N 137 83 Total % 62.3 37.7 National N 148 67 % 68.8 31.2

Live on Campus Participants were asked whether they lived on campus. Forty-two (18.7%) of local participants lived on campus, and 183 (81.3%) did not. Fifty-six (25.1%) of national participants lived on campus, and 167 (74.9%) did not. The overall totals are as follows: 98 (21.9%) lived on campus, and 350 (78.1%) did not. For a breakdown by each school, see Table 12.

99

Table 12 Participants' Housing Status
Live On Campus Yes Local GRP 1 N 18 % 8 N 3 GRP 2 % 1.3 N 21 GRP 3 % 9.3 N 42 Total % 18.7 National N 56 % 25.1

No

73

32.4

89

39.6

21

9.3

183

81.3

167

74.9

Marital Status Participants were asked about their marital status. Participants were asked to choose one of the following options: single, married, or other. Two hundred seven (87.7%) local participants were single, 28 (11.9%) were married, and 1 (0.4%) was other. On the other hand, 175 (77.8%) national participants were single, 44 (19.6%) were married, and 6 (2.7%) were other. The overall totals are as follows: 382 (82.9%) were singles, 72 (15.6%) were married, and 7 (1.5%) were other. For breakdown by each school, see Table 13.

100

Table 13 Participants' Marital Status
Local Marital Status Single Married Other GRP 1 N 80 14 0 % 33.9 5.9 0 N 88 10 0 GRP 2 % 37.3 4.2 0 N 39 4 1 GRP 3 % 16.5 1.7 0.4 N 207 28 1 Total % 87.7 11.9 0.4 National N 175 44 6 % 77.8 19.6 2.7

Provided Contact Information on Survey Participants were given the choice to provide their contact information since a drawing was offered. One hundred sixty five (69.6%) local participants did leave some sort of contact information, and 72 (30.4%) local participants chose not to do so. One hundred seventy nine (77.5%) national participants chose to provide contact information, and 52 (22.5%) national participants chose not to do so. The overall totals were, 344 (73.5%) participants chose to leave contact information and 124 (26.5%) chose not to do so. For a breakdown by each school, see Table 14.

101

Table 14 Participants' Contact Information Status
Local Contact Information Provide Did Not GRP 1 N 58 37 % 24.8 15.6 N 78 20 GRP 2 % 32.9 8.4 N 29 15 GRP 3 % 12.2 6.3 N 165 72 Total % 69.6 30.4 National N 179 52 % 77.5 22.5

Survey Format Participants were given the choice to either fill surveys manually or to submit them electronically via e-mail. There were 185 (78.1%) local participants who filled the survey manually, and 52 (21.9%) who submitted it electronically. On the other hand, 180 (77.9%) national participants filled the survey manually, and 51 (22.1%) who submitted it electronically. The overall participants who filled the survey manually were 344 (73.5%) vs. 124 (26.5%) who submitted it electronically. For a breakdown by each school, see Table 15.

102

Table 15 Participants' Choice of Survey Format
Local Survey Format Written E-mail GRP 1 N 67 28 % 28.3 11.8 N 75 23 GRP 2 % 31.7 9.7 N 43 1 GRP 3 % 18.1 .4 N 185 52 Total % 78.1 21.9 National N 180 51 % 77.9 22.1

103

Analysis of Data/ Presentation of Findings This section presents an analysis of data, provides answers to research questions, and tests the hypotheses. Research Question 1 Do Muslim Students perceive that they face prejudice and discrimination while attending college/university? Findings Part II, items 1 to 10, of the questionnaire provides answers to research question one of the study (See Table 16.) There are four dimensions by which the respondents give their opinion about their perception of prejudice and discrimination (Part II of the questionnaire). These four dimensions are, Campus Racial/Ethnic Climate (Part II, items 1-4), Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff (Part II, items 5-6), In-Class Discriminatory Experiences (Part II, items 7-8), and Feelings of Alienation (Part II, items 9-10). Campus Racial/Ethnic Climate Statement 1: (I have observed discriminatory words, behaviors, or gestures directed at minority students at my college/university.) Forty-eight percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that they have observed discriminatory words, behaviors, or gestures directed at minority students at their

104 colleges/universities, and 37.3% either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement. Statement 2: (I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among students.) Thirty-eight percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that they feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among students, and 38% either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement. Statement 3: (I have encountered racism while attending my college/university.) Thirty-seven percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that they have encountered racism while attending college/university, and 40.1% either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement. Statement 4: (I have heard negative words about people of my own race or ethnicity while attending classes.) Forty-seven percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that they have heard negative words about people of their own race or ethnicity while attending classes, and 38.1% either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement. Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff Statement 5: (I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among faculty at my college/university.) Twenty-eight percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that they feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among faculty at their college/university, and 43.3% either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement.

105 Statement 6: (I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among academic staff at my college/university.) Twenty-six percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that they feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among academic staff at their college/university, and 43.8% either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement. In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Statement 7: (I have been discouraged from participating in class discussions.) Twelve percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that they have been discouraged from participating in class discussion, and 74.5% either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement. Statement 8: (I have been singled out in class and treated differently than other students.) Fifteen percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that they have been singled out in class and treated differently than other students, and 73% either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement. Feelings of Alienation Statement 9: (Being a student at this institution is a pleasant experience.) Sixtyseven percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that being a student at their institution is a pleasant experience, and 12.9% either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement. Statement 10: (I feel I belong at my college/university.) Sixty-four percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that they feel they belong

106 at their college/university, and 12.7% who either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement.

107 Table 16
Frequencies and Percentages of Local Participants' Responses to Part II of Questionnaire, Dealing with Feelings of Prejudice and Discrimination Strongly Agree Statement 1. I have observed discriminatory words, behaviors or gestures directed at minority students at my college/university. 2. I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among students. 3. I have encountered racism while attending my college/university. 4. I have heard negative words about people of my own race or ethnicity while attending classes. 5. I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among faculty at my college/university. 6. I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among academic staff at my college/university. 7. I have been discouraged from participating in class discussions. N 32 % 13.6 N 82 Agree % 34.7 Undecided N 34 % 14.4 Disagree N 58 % 24.6 Strongly Disagree N 30 % 12.7 2.9 1.3 x

SD

19 24 27

8.1 10.3 11.4

70 62 83

29.9 26.5 35.2

56 54 36

23.9 23.1 15.3

67 63 63

28.6 26.9 26.7

22 31 27

9.4 13.2 11.4

3.0 3.1 2.9

1.1 1.2 1.2

19

8.2

47

20.2

66

28.3

72

30.9

29

12.4

3.2

1.1

16

6.8

45

19.1

71

30.2

78

33.2

25

10.6

3.2

1.1

13

5.5

15

6.4

32

13.6

77

32.6

99

41.9

4.0

1.1

(table continues...)

108

Table 16
Frequencies and Percentages of Local Participants' Responses to Part II of Questionnaire, Dealing with Feelings of Prejudice and Discrimination Strongly Agree Statement 8. I have been singled out in class and treated differently than other students. 9. Being a student at this institution is a pleasant experience. 10. I feel I belong at my college/university. 59 25 92 39 55 23.3 18 7.6 12 5.1 1.8 .36 N 15 59 % 6.4 25.2 N 20 98 Agree % 8.5 41.9 Undecided N 28 47 % 12 20.1 Disagree N 71 24 % 30.3 10.3 Strongly Disagree N 100 6 % 42.7 2.6 3.9 2.2 1.2 1.0 x

SD

109 Research Question 1.2 If perceptions of prejudice and discrimination are present, to what extent do they affect the satisfaction of Muslim students with their academic experience? Findings Reference to academic experience is found in Part II of questionnaire, items 11 to 13. These items measure the students' own satisfaction with their academic experience. (See Table 17.) Satisfaction with Academic Experience Statement 11: (I am satisfied with the extent of my intellectual development since attending my college/university.) Sixty-six percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that they are satisfied with the extent of their intellectual development since attending their college/university, and 13.6 percent either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement. Statement 12: (My academic experience has had a positive influence on my intellectual growth and interest in ideas.) Seventy-three percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that their academic experience has had a positive influence on their intellectual growth and interest in ideas, and 9.8% either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement. Statement 13: (I am satisfied with my academic experience at my college/university.) Sixty-four percent of students from all the local institutions agreed or strongly agreed that they are satisfied with their academic experience at their

110 college/university, and 17.5% who either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement. It is worth mentioning that the GPA scores among the local participants as well as the national participants are high. Ninety-three percent of local participants have a GPA of either 2.6 or higher, compared to 89.2% of the national participants. (See Table 7.)

111 Table 17: Frequencies and Percentages of Local Participants' Satisfaction with Their Academic Experience
Statement Strongly Agree N 11. I am satisfied with the extent of my intellectual development since attending my college/university. 12. My academic experience has had a positive influence on my intellectual growth and interest in ideas. 13. I am satisfied with my academic experience at my college/university. 44 % 18.7 N 111 Agree % 47.2 Undecided N 48 % 20.4 Disagree N 24 % 10.2 Strongly Disagree N 8 % 3.4 1.5 .50 x SD

61

25.8

111

47

41

17.4

20

8.5

3

1.3

1.7

.44

55

23.5

95

40.6

43

18.4

33

14.1

8

3.4

1.6

.50

112 Research Question 2 What are the perceived main issues/needs to Muslim students while attending college? Findings The top 10 issues that were chosen by participants (from three local universities) from among the 19 issues (see Table 18) that were listed in the questionnaire are:

Rank Issue

(number refers to order on issues list)

% 75.0 54.0 41.0 40.0 36.0 34.0 27.0 27.0 27.0 22.0

N 178 129 97 94 85 80 64 64 64 52

1. Place for observance of daily/Friday prayer(s) on campus (1) 2. Clarifying misinformation about Islam (11) 3. Having a Muslim student association on campus (13) 4. No classes on Eid Holidays (5) 5. Halal meals served on campus (2) 6. Unity of Muslim students on campus (17) 7. Academic achievement (12) 8. Availability of scholarship fund (3) 9. Preserving one’s own Islamic identity (14) 10. Making Da’wah to non-Muslims (15)

113

Table 18 Local Participants' Choices of Issues of Importance/Concerns
Chosen by Issues of Importance/Concerns N 1. Place for observance of daily/Friday Prayer (s) on campus 2. Halal meals served on campus 85 3. Availability of scholarship fund 64 4. Interest free loans 41 5. No classes on Eid Holidays 94 6. Concerned/bothered with interaction with the opposite sex in class/campus 7. Social/peer support group on campus 23 8. Advisor/Imam/chaplain on campus 49 9.Islamic Tarbiyyah Program/Halaqa 42 10. Dealing with prejudice and discrimination on campus 11. Clarifying misinformation about Islam to peers/campus community 12. Academic achievement 64 13. Having a Muslim student association on campus 14. Preserving one’s own Islamic identity 64 15. Making Da’wah to non-Muslims 52 16. Muslim room-mate 14 6 22 27 97 27 41 37 129 18 16 54 21 10 13 40 6 17 27 36 178 % 75

(table continues...)

114 Table 18 Local Participants' Choices of Issues of Importance/Concerns
Chosen by Issues of Importance/Concerns N 17. Unity of Muslim students on campus 80 18. Observing Islamic dress code 22 19. Adjustment to college/university life 22 9 10 34 %

Research Question 2.1 How important are these issues/needs to Muslim students? Findings In Part IV, local participants were asked to rank the 19 issues/concerns that fall in three major dimensions: the Religious, Social, and Academic Dimensions. The Likert scale was used. The scale is coded according to the format: "Extremely Important," "Very Important," "Important," "Less Important," and "Not Important." Extremely Important, Very Important, and Important were coded as 1, 2, and 3, respectively. (See Table 19.) The Religious Dimension Issue 1: (Place for observance of daily/Friday prayer(s) on campus.) Ninetyseven percent of participating students from the 3 local institutions feel that it is

115 extremely important, very important, or important to have a place for observance of daily/Friday prayer(s) on campus. Issue 2: (Halal meals served on campus.) Eighty-three percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to have Halal meals served on campus. Issue 5: (No classes on Eid Holidays). Eighty-two percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to have no classes on Eid Holidays. Issue 9: (Islamic Tarbiyyah Program/Halaqa). Eighty-four percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to have Islamic Tarbiyyah program/Halaqa. Issue 10: (Dealing with prejudice and discrimination on campus.) Eighty-five percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to deal with prejudice and discrimination on campus. Issue 11: (Clarifying misinformation about Islam to peers/campus community.) Ninety-six percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to clarify misinformation about Islam to peers/campus community.

116 Issue 14: (Preserving one’s own Islamic identity.) Ninety-five percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to preserve one's own Islamic identity. Issue 15: (Making Da’wah to non-Muslims.) Eighty-eight percent of participating students from the three local institutions feels that it is extremely important, very important, or important to make Da'wah to non-Muslims, inviting them to Islam. Issue 17: (Unity of Muslim students on campus.) Ninety-two percent of participating students from the three local institutions regard the unity of Muslim students on campus as either extremely important, very important, or important. Issue 18: (Observing Islamic dress code.) Seventy-five percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to observe their Islamic dress code (especially for female Muslim students). Social Dimension Issue 7: (Social/peer support group on campus.) Eighty-two percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to have social/peer support group on campus. Issue 8: (Advisor/Imam/chaplain on campus.) Eighty-five percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to have an advisor/Imam/chaplain on campus.

117 Issue 13: (Having a Muslim student association on campus.) Ninetyfive percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to have a Muslim student association on campus. Issue 16: (Muslim room-mate.) Sixty-seven percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to have a Muslim roommate. Academic Dimension Issue 3: (Availability of scholarship fund.) Eighty-six percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to have scholarship funds available. Issue 4: (Interest-free loans). Eighty percent of participating students from the three local institutions feel that it is extremely important, very important, or important to have interest-free loans. Issue 6: (Concerned/bothered with interaction with the opposite sex in class/campus.) Fifty-four percent of participating students from the three local institutions concerned/bothered with interaction with the opposite sex in class/campus. Issue 12: (Academic achievement.) Ninety-six percent of participating students from the three local institutions regard academic achievement as either extremely important, very important, or important.

118 Issue 19: (Adjustment to college/university life.) Eighty-nine percent of participating students from the three local institutions regard the adjustment to college/university life as either extremely important, very important, or important.

119 Table 19
Frequencies and Percentages of Local Participants' Ranking of Issues of Importance/Concerns Extremely Important N % 187 82 Very Important N % 18 7.9 Less Important N % 2 .9 Not Important N % 5 2.2

Issues of Importance/Concerns 1. Place for observance of daily/Friday prayer(s) on campus 2. Halal meals served on campus

Important N % 16 7

x

SD

1.3

.8

67 3. Availability of scholarship fund 74 4. Interest-free loans 82 5. No classes on Eid Holidays 83 6. Concerned/bothered with interaction with the opposite sex in class/campus 7. Social/peer support group on campus 48 8. Advisor/Imam/chaplain on campus 65 9.Islamic Tarbiyyah Program/Halaqa 67 10. Dealing with prejudice and discrimination on campus 74 36

29.4 32.9 37.4 37.9 16.4

60 46 42 49 30

26.3 20.4 19.2 22.4 13.7

62 73 51 47 53

27.2 32.4 23.3 21.5 24.2

30 25 30 28 52

13.2 11.1 13.7 12.8 23.7

9 7 14 12 48

3.9 3.1 6.4 5.5 21.9

2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 3.2

1.2 1.1 1.7 1.2 1.4

21.9 29.7 30.6 34.1

59 58 59 52

26.9 26.5 26.9 24

73 63 57 59

33.3 28.8 26 27.2

34 20 23 22

15.5 9.1 10.5 10.1

5 13 13 10

2.3 5.9 5.9 4.6

2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3

1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2

(table continues...)

120 Table 19
Frequencies and Percentages of Local Participants' Ranking of Issues of Importance/Concerns Extremely Important N % 150 66.7 Very Important N % 40 17.8 Less Important N % 4 1.8 Not Important N % 5 2.2 x SD

Issues of Importance/Concerns 11. Clarifying misinformation about Islam to peers/campus community 12. Academic achievement

Important N % 26 11.6

1.6

.9

137 13. Having a Muslim student association on campus 14. Preserving one’s own Islamic identity 151 15. Making Da’wah to non-Muslims 85 16. Muslim room-mate 57 17. Unity of Muslim students on campus 125 18. Observing Islamic dress code 65 19. Adjustment to college/university life 57 141

62.3 63.8 68.6 39.5 26.1 56.6 29.3 26.1

45 48 45 52 36 56 46 56

20.5 21.7 20.5 24.2 16.5 25.3 20.7 25.7

28 21 13 52 53 23 56 82

12.7 9.5 5.9 24.2 24.3 10.4 25.2 37.6

6 7 5 13 44 9 25 19

2.7 3.2 2.3 6 20.2 4.1 11.3 8.7

4 4 6 13 28 8 30 4

1.8 1.8 2.7 6 12.8 3.6 13.5 1.8

1.6 1.6 1.5 2.1 2.8 1.7 2.6 2.3

.9 .9 .9 1.2 1.4 1 1.4 1

121 Research Hypothesis 1 Muslim students, in different institutions, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Findings Significance was found only on the first dimension, Campus Racial/Ethnic Climate, which combines the first four items in Part II of the questionnaire. xGRP 1 = 3.1,

xGRP 2 = 2.8, xGRP 3 = 3.0 (F = 3.2, p= .044 <.05). (See Table 20). However, the Scheffe's
test of post hoc was not significant; indirectly the existing differences are other than between pairs of groups.

Table 20
Analysis of Variance of Dimensions that Measure Feelings of Prejudice and Discrimination

Statement

Group

N

Mean

SD

F

P

Pairwise Comparison Sig. None

Campus Racial/Ethnic Climate

GRP 1 93 GRP 2 96 GRP 3 43

3.1 2.8 3.0

.9 .9 1.0

3.2

.044*

* Denotes significance at .05 level

122

Research Hypothesis 2 Muslim students, locally and nationally, have the same perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Findings An independent t-test was applied to compare mean scores of the local and national participants. The results did not yield any significant difference; i.e. both groups of students showed similar perceptions. (See Table 21.) Table 21
Local and National Participants' Mean Scores Comparison Regarding Feelings of Prejudice and Discrimination

Statement 1. I have observed discriminatory words, behaviors or gestures directed at minority students at my college/university. 2. I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among students. 3. I have encountered racism while attending my college/university. 4. I have heard negative words about people of my own race or ethnicity while attending classes. 5. I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among faculty at my college/university. 6. I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among academic staff at my college/university.

Groups Local National Local National Local National Local National Local National Local National

N 236 230 234 231 234 229 236 231 233 228 235 228

x
2.9 2.7 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2

SD 1.3 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1

t 1.682

P .93

.750 .401 -.096

.454 .689 .923

-.725

.469

-.047

.962

(table continues...)

123 Table 21
Local and National Participants' Mean Scores Comparison Regarding Feelings of Prejudice and Discrimination

Statement 7. I have been discouraged from participating in class discussions. 8. I have been singled out in class and treated differently than other students. 9. Being a student at this institution is a pleasant experience. 10. I feel I belong at my college/university.

Groups Local National Local National Local National Local National

N 236 231 234 231 234 231 236 230

x
4.0 4.0 3.9 3.8 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4

SD 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1

t -.544 .852 -.079 -1.159

P .586 .394 .937 .247

Research Hypothesis 3 Muslim students, both born in North America and not born in North America at each institution and nationally, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Findings A two-way ANOVA was conducted to determine if Muslim students who were born in North America differ with others who were not born in North America, regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination. Statistically significant results were found in two dimensions of the prejudice and discrimination scale. The first dimension is Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus. This dimension consists of 4 items (see Chapter Three). Significance was found among those students who were born in North America and those who were not in all of the groups other than the GRP 2 group. It is noticeable

124 that in all of the groups other than the GRP 1 group, students who were not born in North America perceive more prejudice and discrimination under this dimension.

xBN = 3.0, xNB = 2.9, (F = 4.11, P = .043 <.05). (See Tables 22 and 23.)
The second dimension that yielded significant results was, Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff. This dimension consists of 2 items (see Chapter 3). An interaction between the groups and place of birth was found to be significant in this dimension. It is found that in the first two groups (GRP 1 and GRP 2), students who were born in North America had a lower mean score where in the other two groups (GRP 3 and National) the opposite is true. xBN-GRP 1 = 3.2 and xBN-GRP 2 = 2.9 vs. xNBN -GRP 3 = 3.1 and xNBN -NAT = 3.1 (F = 2.81, P = .039 <.05). No pairwise comparison was found. (See Tables 24 and 25.)
Table 22: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus Groups Grp 1 Place of Birth Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Grp 2 Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Grp 3 Born In North America Not Born In North America Total National Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Total Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Mean 2.9911 3.2266 3.1549 2.7885 2.7929 2.7917 3.0962 2.7500 2.9643 3.0898 2.7149 2.8873 3.0328 2.8579 2.9284 Std. Deviation 1.0682 .9147 .9642 .8908 .9217 .9088 1.1115 .9618 1.0586 .9535 .9216 .9528 .9842 .9404 .9611 N 28 64 92 26 70 96 26 16 42 103 121 224 183 271 454

125

Table 23: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Place of Birth Dependent Variable: Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS BIRTH_P GROUPS * BIRTH_P Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 17.036 3893.327 6.947 3.702 6.387 401.388 4311.750 418.423
a

df 7 1 3 1 3 446 454 453

Mean Square 2.434 3893.327 2.316 3.702 2.129 .900

F 2.704 4326.051 2.573 4.113 2.366

Sig. .009 .000 .054 .043* .070

* p<.05 a. R Squared = .041 (Adjusted R Squared = .026)

Table 24: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff Groups Grp 1 Place of Birth Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Grp 2 Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Grp 3 Born In North America Not Born In North America Total National Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Total Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Mean 3.1786 3.4365 3.3571 2.8846 3.0571 3.0104 3.5000 3.1176 3.3488 3.4709 3.0826 3.2612 3.3470 3.1605 3.2357 Std. Deviation 1.0560 1.0568 1.0575 .7656 1.0445 .9760 1.1662 1.2934 1.2176 .9747 1.0111 1.0111 1.0061 1.0546 1.0382 N 28 63 91 26 70 96 26 17 43 103 121 224 183 271 454

126

Table 25: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Place of Birth Dependent Variable: Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS BIRTH_P GROUPS * BIRTH_P Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 18.653 4753.218 6.910 2.857 8.885 469.629 5241.500 488.282
a

df 7 1 3 1 3 446 454 453

Mean Square 2.665 4753.218 2.303 2.857 2.962 1.053

F 2.531 4514.061 2.187 2.714 2.813

Sig. .015 .000 .089 .100 .039*

* p < .05 a. R Squared = .038 (Adjusted R Squared = .023)

Research Hypothesis 4 Muslim students, both males and females in each local institution and nationally, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Findings A two-way ANOVA test did not yield any significance on all of the four dimensions. There was no significant difference in the perception of male and female students regarding prejudice and discrimination.

127

Research Hypothesis 5 Muslim students, when compared racially at each institution and nationally, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Findings A two-way ANOVA yielded a significant result on the In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Dimension. There was an interaction between groups and ethnicity. This is clear from the mean scores. All ethnic groups mean scores were above 3.0 except for GRP 3 where the White American mean score was xGRP 3-White-American = 2.2, which indicates a high level of feelings of prejudice and discrimination under this dimension. No pairwise comparison was found. (See Tables 26 and 27.)

128
Table 26: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Groups Grp 1 Ethnicity Indo-Pak Arab Asian White-America Other Total Grp 2 Indo-Pak Arab Asian White-America Other Afro-American Total Grp 3 Indo-Pak Arab Asian White-America Other Afro-American Total National Indo-Pak Arab Asian White-America Other Afro-American Total Total Indo-Pak Arab Asian White-America Other Afro-American Total Mean 3.8750 3.9907 4.2083 5.0000 4.6667 4.0316 3.9038 3.9250 4.0000 4.0000 3.7059 3.0000 3.8777 4.0526 4.5000 5.0000 2.1667 3.5833 3.2500 3.9886 4.1000 3.7532 3.6875 4.5833 3.5556 3.9000 3.9565 4.0412 3.9098 4.0741 4.0000 3.7286 3.6250 3.9590 Std. Deviation .9470 1.1180 .7525 .0000 .5774 1.0206 1.1491 1.0288 .7071 .9354 .9852 . 1.0205 1.1534 .5641 .0000 1.6073 2.0104 .3536 1.2781 .9311 1.1966 .9234 .4916 1.2105 1.1402 1.0460 .9835 1.1150 .8169 1.2649 1.2268 .9543 1.0576 N 24 54 12 2 3 95 26 40 5 5 17 1 94 19 12 2 3 6 2 44 125 77 8 6 9 5 230 194 183 27 16 35 8 463

129
Table 27: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Ethnicity Dependent Variable: In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS ETHNIC GROUPS * ETHNIC Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 34.282 a 7256.780 1.162 4.630 28.490 482.439 7773.500 516.720 df 22 1 3 5 14 440 463 462 Mean Square 1.558 7256.780 .387 .926 2.035 1.096 F 1.421 6618.424 .353 .844 1.856 Sig. .098 .000 .787 .519 .029*

* p < .05 a. R Squared = .066 (Adjusted R Squared = .020)

Research Hypothesis 6 Muslim students, undergraduate and graduate at each local institution and nationally, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Findings A two-way ANOVA yielded significant results on two of four dimensions that measure discrimination and prejudice. The first dimension that yielded a significant result was on the Racial/Ethnic Climate Dimension. There was an interaction between groups and educational level (graduate and undergraduate). The interaction can be seen in GRP 2 and GRP 3 where in the GRP 2 group, the undergraduate scored a lower level of mean compared to a higher level of mean in GRP 3 group and vice versa for the

130 graduate students, xUndergrad-GRP 2 = 2.7 and xGrad-GRP 2 = 3.2 vs. xUndergrad -GRP 3 = 3.1 and xGrad-GRP 3 = 2.5. (See Tables 28 and 29.)

Table 28: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus Groups Grp 1 Educational Level Undergraduate Graduate Total Grp 2 Undergraduate Graduate Total Grp 3 Undergraduate Graduate Total National Undergraduate Graduate Total Total Undergraduate Graduate Total Mean 3.0254 3.4355 3.1667 2.7094 3.3036 2.7979 3.1917 2.4615 2.9709 2.9082 2.9123 2.9096 2.9066 3.0296 2.9435 Std. Deviation .9477 .9789 .9729 .8845 .8388 .8990 1.0207 .9566 1.0468 .9656 .9405 .9549 .9539 .9755 .9610 N 59 31 90 80 14 94 30 13 43 147 77 224 316 135 451

131
Table 29: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Educational Level Dependent Variable: Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS LEVEL GROUPS * LEVEL Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 19.225 a 3907.442 6.766 .882 11.577 396.333 4323.000 415.558 df 7 1 3 1 3 443 451 450 Mean Square 2.746 3907.442 2.255 .882 3.859 .895 F 3.070 4367.533 2.521 .986 4.314 Sig. .004 .000 .057 .321 .005*

* p < .05 a. R Squared = .046 (Adjusted R Squared = .031)

The second dimension that showed significance was the In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Dimension. The significance was among the educational level of participants, xUndergrad = 3.9 and xGrad = 4.2 (F = 6.42, P = .012 <.05). (See Tables 30 and 31.)

132
Table 30: Descriptive Statistics Table 30: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Dependent Variable: In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Std. Std. Deviation Groups Educational Level Mean Deviation Groups Educational Level Mean Grp 1 Undergraduate 3.8525 1.0776 Grp 1 Undergraduate 3.8525 1.0776 Graduate 4.4194 .7968 Graduate 4.4194 .7968 Total 4.0435 1.0235 Total 4.0435 1.0235 Grp 2 Undergraduate 3.8437 1.0421 Grp 2 Undergraduate 3.8437 1.0421 Graduate 4.3077 .8046 Graduate 4.3077 .8046 Total 3.9086 1.0214 Total 3.9086 1.0214 Grp 3 Undergraduate 4.1000 1.1173 Grp 3 Undergraduate 4.1000 1.1173 Graduate 3.7500 1.5902 Graduate 3.7500 1.5902 Total 3.9886 1.2781 Total 3.9886 1.2781 National Undergraduate 3.8800 1.0940 National Undergraduate 3.8800 1.0940 Graduate 4.1169 .9244 Graduate 4.1169 .9244 Total 3.9604 1.0436 Total 3.9604 1.0436 Total Undergraduate 3.8863 1.0776 Total Undergraduate 3.8863 1.0776 Graduate 4.1667 .9831 Graduate 4.1667 .9831 Total 3.9693 1.0572 Total 3.9693 1.0572

N N

61 61 31 31 92 92 80 80 13 13 93 93 30 30 14 14 44 44 150 150 77 77 227 227 321 321 135 135 456 456

Table 31: Two-Way ANOVA-- Groups by Educational Level Dependent Variable: In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS LEVEL GROUPS * LEVEL Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 13.920 a 7184.430 .883 7.084 5.953 494.650 7693.000 508.570 df 7 1 3 1 3 448 456 455 Mean Square 1.989 7184.430 .294 7.084 1.984 1.104 F 1.801 6506.877 .267 6.416 1.797 Sig. .085 .000 .849 .012* .147

* p < .05 a. R Squared = .027 (Adjusted R Squared = .012)

133

Research Hypothesis 7 Among the undergraduates at each institution and nationally, Muslim students have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Findings A two-way ANOVA yielded significant results on the Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus Dimension. The significance was found among the different levels of school years. The seniors showed the lowest of means. The following are the mean scores:

xFreshman = 3.0, xSophomore = 2.9, xJunior = 3.1, xSenior = 2.7 (F = 3.75, P = .011 <.05). No
pairwise comparison was found. (See Tables 32 and 33.)

134
Table 32: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus Groups Grp 1 School Year Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Total Grp 2 Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Total Grp 3 Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Total National Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Total Total Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Total Mean 3.3214 3.2500 3.1389 2.5294 3.0254 2.6176 2.6842 2.9659 2.5455 2.7094 3.3000 2.5000 2.8125 3.3750 3.2054 3.0921 2.9130 3.1275 2.6343 2.9082 3.0458 2.8796 3.0789 2.6833 2.9061 Std. Deviation .8573 1.1426 .7775 .9474 .9477 .8711 .9784 .9490 .7345 .8845 1.0328 1.0607 .8260 1.1750 1.0542 .9726 1.0434 .9197 .9287 .9656 .9495 1.0322 .8890 .9471 .9567 N 14 10 18 17 59 17 19 22 22 80 10 2 4 12 28 19 23 51 54 147 60 54 95 105 314

135
Table 33: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Undergraduate Level Dependent Variable: Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS SCHOOL_Y GROUPS * SCHOOL_Y Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 23.978 a 2651.771 6.444 9.898 7.636 262.501 2938.250 286.479 df 15 1 3 3 9 298 314 313 Mean Square 1.599 2651.771 2.148 3.299 .848 .881 F 1.815 3010.386 2.439 3.745 .963 Sig. .032 .000 .065 .011* .471

* p < .05 a. R Squared = .084 (Adjusted R Squared = .038)

Research Hypothesis 8 Muslim students, locally and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly. Findings Independent t-tests were performed to detect the presence of any significant differences among the mean scores of the different issues of concern to Muslim students locally (3 universities combined) and nationally. Seven out of 19 issues were found to be significant. These issues were: -P4q2: Halal meals served on campus, xLocal = 2.4, xNational = 2.6, (t = -2.010, p= .045 <.05)

136 -P4q5: No classes on Eid Holidays, xLocal = 2.2, xNational = 2.5, (t = -1.998, p= .046 <.05) -P4q9: Islamic Tarbiyyah program/ Halaqa, xLocal = 2.3, xNational = 2.1, (t = 2.289, p= .023 <.05) -P4q11: Clarifying misinformation about Islam to peers/campus community,

xLocal = 1.6, xNational = 1.8, (t = -2.314, p= .021 <.05)
-P4q12: Academic achievement, xLocal = 1.6, xNational = 1.9, (t = -3.109, p= .002 <.05) -P4q13: Having a Muslim student association on campus, xLocal = 1.6,

xNational = 1.9, (t = -2.089, p= .037 <.05)
-P4q19: Adjustment to college/university life, xLocal = 2.3, xNational = 2.7, (t = -2.010, p= .045 <.05) Although significance exists, all of the above mean scores fall between either 1 = "Extremely Important", 2 = "Very Important" and 3 = "Important." Therefore, all participants agree on their importance. Furthermore, for the most part, the local participants attributed more importance to the above issues than the national participants. (See Table 34.)

137 Table 34:
Local and National Participants' Mean Scores Comparison Regarding Issues of Concerns and Importance

Issues 2. Halal meals served on campus 5. No classes on Eid Holidays 9. Islamic Tarbiyyah program/ Halaqa 11. Clarifying misinformation about Islam to peers/campus community 12. Academic achievement 13. Having a Muslim student association on campus 19. Adjustment to college/university life * p < .05

Groups Local National Local National Local National Local National Local National Local National Local National

N 228 218 219 222 219 221 225 220 220 221 221 223 218 219

x
2.4 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.6 1.8 1.6 2.0 1.6 1.8 2.3 2.7

SD 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1

t -2.010 -1.998 2.289 -2.314

P .045* .046* .023* .021*

-3.109 -2.089

.002* .037*

-3.876

.000*

Research Hypothesis 9 Muslim students, both born in North America and not born in North America at each institution and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly. Findings A two-way ANOVA yielded significant results on the Religious and Social Dimensions that measure the importance of these issues of concern. The significance was found among the different groups, and in particular with the GRP 2 group. GRP 2 showed lower mean scores than participants in other categories of this study, a fact that

138 shows participants at GRP 2 attach a greater degree of importance to both Dimensions measured than do other groups in the study. xGRP 1 = 2.1, xGRP 2 = 1.9, xGRP 3 = 2.2, xNAT = 2.1 (F = 2.683, p= .046 <.05) (See Tables 35 and 36.) xGRP 1 = 2.4, xGRP 2 = 2.0, xGRP 3 = 2.3, xNAT = 2.3 (F = 3.113, p= .026 <.05). No pairwise comparison was found. (See Tables 37 and 38.)

Table 35: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: Religious Dimension Groups Grp 1 Place of Birth Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Grp 2 Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Grp 3 Born In North America Not Born In North America Total National Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Total Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Mean 2.1282 2.1015 2.1097 1.9795 1.8291 1.8719 2.1312 2.2178 2.1654 2.0915 2.0996 2.0959 2.0862 2.0389 2.0582 Std. Deviation .7746 .6479 .6851 .8095 .6251 .6815 .6323 .7127 .6582 .8235 .7517 .7839 .7851 .7026 .7368 N 28 63 91 27 68 95 26 17 43 103 120 223 184 268 452

139
Table 36: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Place of Birth Dependent Variable: Religious Dimension Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS BIRTH_P GROUPS * BIRTH_P Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 4.882a 1914.720 4.350 4.157E-02 .490 239.968 2159.570 244.850 df 7 1 3 1 3 444 452 451 Mean Square .697 1914.720 1.450 4.157E-02 .163 .540 F 1.290 3542.708 2.683 .077 .302 Sig. .253 .000 .046* .782 .824

* p < .05 a. R Squared = .020 (Adjusted R Squared = .004)

Table 37: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: Social Dimension Groups Grp 1 Place of Birth Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Grp 2 Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Grp 3 Born In North America Not Born In North America Total National Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Total Born In North America Not Born In North America Total Mean 2.3631 2.3639 2.3637 2.1093 2.0102 2.0387 2.2949 2.3865 2.3298 2.3045 2.2787 2.2907 2.2834 2.2366 2.2559 Std. Deviation .8365 .7936 .8025 .8957 .7906 .8185 .6224 .8304 .7004 .8118 .7946 .8009 .8020 .8029 .8019 N 28 61 89 27 67 94 26 16 42 103 119 222 184 263 447

140
Table 38: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Place of Birth Dependent Variable: Social Dimension Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS BIRTH_P GROUPS * BIRTH_P Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 6.277a 2274.803 5.968 5.603E-02 .253 280.552 2561.632 286.829 df 7 1 3 1 3 439 447 446 Mean Square .897 2274.803 1.989 5.603E-02 8.424E-02 .639 F 1.403 3559.546 3.113 .088 .132 Sig. .202 .000 .026* .767 .941

* p < .05 a. R Squared = .022 (Adjusted R Squared = .006)

Research Hypothesis 10 Muslim students, both males and females at each institution and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly. Findings A two-way ANOVA yielded significant results on all of the dimensions. The first of these dimensions is the Religious Dimension. The significance was between the males and females, xMale = 2.1 and xFemale = 2.0, (F = 4.247, p = .040 < .05). Female participants, overall, attached more importance to issues of importance listed under the Religious Dimension than male participants. (See Tables 39 and 40.) The second dimension is the Social Dimension. The significance was among the groups as well as between the females and males. The groups mean scores, xGRP 1 = 2.3,

141

xGRP 2 = 2.0, xGRP 3 = 2.3, xNAT = 2.3 (F = 3.126, p= .026 <.05), and the gender
mean scores are, xMale = 2.3, xFemale = 2.1, (F = 4.528, p= .034 <.05). No pairwise comparison was found. (See Tables 41 and 42.)

Table 39: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: Religious Dimension Groups Grp 1 Gender Male Female Total Grp 2 Male Female Total Grp 3 Male Female Total National Male Female Total Total Male Female Total Mean 2.1496 2.0286 2.1097 1.9140 1.8339 1.8719 1.9746 2.2938 2.1560 2.1889 1.9141 2.0848 2.1181 1.9608 2.0523 Std. Deviation .6211 .8052 .6851 .7156 .6542 .6815 .3948 .7762 .6535 .8143 .6996 .7827 .7380 .7245 .7357 N 61 30 91 45 50 95 19 25 44 141 86 227 266 191 457

142
Table 40: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Gender Dependent Variable: Religious Dimension Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS GENDER GROUPS * GENDER Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 9.686a 1924.943 4.105 2.243 3.337 237.145 2171.773 246.830 df 7 1 3 1 3 449 457 456 Mean Square 1.384 1924.943 1.368 2.243 1.112 .528 F 2.620 3644.609 2.591 4.247 2.106 Sig. .012 .000 .052 .040* .099

* p < .05 a. R Squared = .039 (Adjusted R Squared = .024)

Table 41: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: Social Dimension Groups Grp 1 Gender Male Female Total Grp 2 Male Female Total Grp 3 Male Female Total National Male Female Total Total Male Female Total Mean 2.4299 2.2333 2.3637 2.0182 2.0567 2.0387 2.4630 2.2273 2.3260 2.3729 2.1477 2.2868 2.3321 2.1477 2.2540 Std. Deviation .8211 .7614 .8025 .7921 .8486 .8185 .5225 .7883 .6924 .8066 .7741 .8001 .8004 .7906 .8006 N 59 30 89 44 50 94 18 25 43 139 86 225 260 191 451

143
Table 42: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Gender Dependent Variable: Social Dimension Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS GENDER GROUPS * GENDER Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 9.974a 2291.295 5.895 2.846 1.234 278.446 2579.715 288.421 df 7 1 3 1 3 443 451 450 Mean Square 1.425 2291.295 1.965 2.846 .411 .629 F 2.267 3645.383 3.126 4.528 .654 Sig. .028 .000 .025* .034* .581

* p < .05 a. R Squared = .035 (Adjusted R Squared = .019)

The third dimension is the Academic Dimension. The significance in this dimension was between males and female, a situation in which female participants having lower mean scores in general. xMale = 2.5, xFemale = 2.3, (F = 4.983, p= .026 <.05). (See Tables 43 and 44.)

144
Table 43: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: Academic Dimension Groups Grp 1 Gender Male Female Total Grp 2 Male Female Total Grp 3 Male Female Total National Male Female Total Total Male Female Total Mean 2.5593 2.1833 2.4326 2.2227 2.3459 2.2876 2.5974 2.3580 2.4614 2.5248 2.3442 2.4552 2.4867 2.3211 2.4166 Std. Deviation .8436 .6058 .7886 .7836 .7160 .7472 .7227 .7274 .7269 .7137 .6719 .7019 .7629 .6785 .7322 N 59 30 89 44 49 93 19 25 44 137 86 223 259 190 449

Table 44: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Gender Dependent Variable: Academic Dimension Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS GENDER GROUPS * GENDER Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 7.495 2622.124 1.989 2.629 2.876 232.674 2862.293 240.169
a

df 7 1 3 1 3 441 449 448

Mean Square 1.071 2622.124 .663 2.629 .959 .528

F 2.029 4969.857 1.257 4.983 1.817

Sig. .050 .000 .289 .026* .143

* p < .05 a. R Squared = .031 (Adjusted R Squared = .016)

145 Research Hypothesis 11 Muslim students, when compared racially at each institution and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly. Findings A two way ANOVA yielded significant results on the Social Dimension. The significance was found among groups. The mean scores are, xGRP 1 = 2.4, xGRP 2 = 2.0,

xGRP 3 = 2.3, xNAT = 2.3 (F = 3.116, p= .024 <.05). The outstanding group was the GRP 2
with a mean score of xGRP 2 = 2.0, which shows that this group attaches more importance to social needs than the other groups. No pairwise comparison was found. (See Tables 45 and 46.)

146
Table 45: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: Social Dimension Groups Grp 1 Ethnicity Indo-Pak Arab Asian White-America Other Total Grp 2 Indo-Pak Arab Asian White-America Other Afro-American Total Grp 3 Indo-Pak Arab Asian White-America Other Afro-American Total National Indo-Pak Arab Asian White-America Other Afro-American Total Total Indo-Pak Arab Asian White-America Other Afro-American Total Mean 2.4028 2.3940 2.0152 2.7500 2.5556 2.3633 1.9951 2.0325 2.7417 2.0667 1.9529 1.3333 2.0319 2.3289 2.1212 2.5000 2.5000 2.6000 2.1667 2.3260 2.3413 2.2587 2.0208 2.3889 2.0556 2.0667 2.2859 2.2989 2.2383 2.1720 2.3542 2.1419 2.0000 2.2527 Std. Deviation .7754 .7999 .5188 1.7678 1.3878 .7980 .8788 .8527 .6149 .7322 .7185 . .8203 .7559 .5582 .7071 .6009 .9321 .2357 .6924 .8395 .7804 .7109 .7354 .6972 .6932 .8021 .8327 .7959 .6400 .7955 .8187 .5976 .8013 N 24 50 11 2 3 90 27 39 4 5 17 1 93 19 11 2 3 6 2 43 121 75 8 6 9 5 224 191 175 25 16 35 8 450

147
Table 46: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Ethnicity Dependent Variable: Social Dimension Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS ETHNIC GROUPS * ETHNIC Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 13.477 a 2283.603 6.113 1.478 5.887 274.829 2571.910 288.306 df 22 1 3 5 14 427 450 449 Mean Square .613 2283.603 2.038 .296 .420 .644 F .952 3548.017 3.166 .459 .653 Sig. .526 .000 .024* .807 .820

* p < .05 a. R Squared = .047 (Adjusted R Squared = -.002)

Research Hypothesis 12 Muslim students, undergraduate and graduate at each institution and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly. Findings A two-way ANOVA yielded significant results on the Social Dimension and the Academic Dimension. The significance in Social Dimension was found among groups. The mean scores are, xGRP 1 = 2.4, xGRP 2 = 2.1, xGRP 3 = 2.3, xNAT = 2.3 (F = 2.687, p= .046 <.05). The outstanding group was the GRP 2 with a mean score of xGRP 2 = 2.1, which means that this group attaches more importance to social needs than the other groups. No pairwise comparison was found. (See Tables 47 and 48.)

148
Table 47: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: Social Dimension Groups Grp 1 Educational Level Undergraduate Graduate Total Grp 2 Undergraduate Graduate Total Grp 3 Undergraduate Graduate Total National Undergraduate Graduate Total Total Undergraduate Graduate Total Mean 2.2922 2.5060 2.3602 2.0442 2.1250 2.0547 2.3056 2.3731 2.3260 2.2984 2.2502 2.2821 2.2335 2.3069 2.2547 Std. Deviation .7243 .8675 .7742 .8460 .6322 .8188 .6697 .7687 .6924 .8165 .7694 .7994 .7988 .7807 .7935 N 60 28 88 80 12 92 30 13 43 146 75 221 316 128 444

Table 48: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Educational Level Dependent Variable: Social Dimension Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS LEVEL GROUPS * LEVEL Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 6.140a 2257.135 5.043 .113 .984 272.774 2536.049 278.914 df 7 1 3 1 3 436 444 443 Mean Square .877 2257.135 1.681 .113 .328 .626 F 1.402 3607.790 2.687 .180 .524 Sig. .203 .000 .046* .672 .666

* P < .05 a. R Squared = .022 (Adjusted R Squared = .006)

149 The other significance was in the Academic Dimension and it is an interaction between groups and educational level. It is noted that graduate students at GRP 1, GRP 2, and GRP 3 had a higher mean score than the National. The undergraduates had a lower mean than the graduates except for the National where the opposite is true. In another sense, all of the local groups' undergraduates attached more importance to the Academic Dimension than their graduates except for the National where the opposite is true. No pairwise comparison was found. (See Table 49 and 50.)

Table 49: Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: Academic Dimension Groups Grp 1 Educational Level Undergraduate Graduate Total Grp 2 Undergraduate Graduate Total Grp 3 Undergraduate Graduate Total National Undergraduate Graduate Total Total Undergraduate Graduate Total Mean 2.3280 2.6534 2.4352 2.2392 2.7708 2.3093 2.4183 2.5536 2.4614 2.4845 2.3818 2.4498 2.3867 2.4977 2.4191 Std. Deviation .7392 .8341 .7822 .7502 .4624 .7393 .6317 .9187 .7269 .6897 .6812 .6870 .7139 .7359 .7213 N 59 29 88 79 12 91 30 14 44 145 74 219 313 129 442

150

Table 50: Two-Way ANOVA--Groups by Educational Level Dependent Variable: Academic Dimension Source Corrected Model Intercept GROUPS LEVEL GROUPS * LEVEL Error Total Corrected Total Type I Sum of Squares 7.099 2586.642 1.404 .747 4.949 222.352 2816.093 229.451
a

df 7 1 3 1 3 434 442 441

Mean Square 1.014 2586.642 .468 .747 1.650 .512

F 1.979 5048.766 .913 1.457 3.220

Sig. .056 .000 .434 .228 .023*

* p < .05 a. R Squared = .031 (Adjusted R Squared = .015)

Research Hypothesis 13 Muslim students, among the undergraduates at each institution and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly. Findings A two-way ANOVA test did not yield any significance on all of the three dimensions. There was no significant difference in ranking issues of concern and importance.

151

Research Hypothesis 14 There is no relationship between feelings of prejudice and discrimination and students’ satisfaction with their academic experience. Findings The Pearson Correlation test showed a significant relationship on all of the prejudice and discrimination measures with respect to the satisfaction of students with their academic experience as follows: • Racial/Ethnic Climate of Campus with respect to Satisfaction with Academic Experience: r = -.15 (p = .001 <.01). • Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff with respect to Satisfaction with Academic Experience: r = -.27 (p = .000 < .01) • In-Class Discriminatory Experiences with respect to Satisfaction with Academic Experience: r = -.28 (p = .000 <.01). • Feelings of Alienation with respect to Satisfaction with Academic Experience: r = .60 (p = .000 <.01). For the first three dimensions a negative correlation was the case, which can be understood as that the more prejudice students experience, the lower the satisfaction with their academic experience will be. Moreover, for the last dimension, the opposite is true: The less the feeling of alienation, the higher is the satisfaction with academic experience among students. (See Tables 51 and 52.)

152
Table 51: Descriptive Statistics Std. Deviation .9619 1.0390 1.0574 .9511 .9122

Mean Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Feelings of Alienation Academic Performance 2.9268 3.2299 3.9582 2.2925 2.2852

N 461 461 466 465 464

Table 52: Correlations Test--Prejudice with respect to Satisfaction with Academic Experience Prejudiced Racial/Ethnic Attitudes of In-Class Academic Climate on Faculty and Discriminatory Feelings of Staff Campus Experiences Alienation Performance Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Feelings of Alienation Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Academic Performance Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N 1.000 . 461 .662** .000 454 .416** .000 459 -.297** .000 458 -.151** .001 457 .662** .000 454 1.000 . 461 .502** .000 459 -.377** .000 458 -.268** .000 457 .416** .000 459 .502** .000 459 1.000 . 466 -.320** .000 463 -.282** .000 462 -.297** .000 458 -.377** .000 458 -.320** .000 463 1.000 . 465 .604** .000 461 -.151** .001 457 -.268** .000 457 -.282** .000 462 .604** .000 461 1.000 . 464

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

153

Summary The purpose of this chapter is to present the findings related to each of the research questions and hypotheses. The data collected for this study was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Demographic statistics (including numbers, percentages, means, standard deviations) as well as inferential statistics (including one- and two-way ANOVA, independent t-test and Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient test) were employed to report demographic data and to answer research questions and hypotheses.

Summary of Demographics The total number of participants was 469 students out of which 51 % were from local participants. There were 60% males vs. 40% females participating in the study where 42% were either 20 years old or under and where 70% were undergraduates. And close to 77% of participants had a GPA of 3.1 or higher. Moreover, 60% were US citizens (Canadian citizens were close to 10%) out of which 40% were American born and close to 70% did graduate from high school in North America. Indo-Pak and Arabs make up for 80% of the participants of which the remaining 20% made up of Asian, White-American, African American and others. Eighty-five

154 percent of participants were single and only 22% of all participants lived on campus and did submitted their survey forms by e-mail. Summary of Research Questions Findings 1. Muslim students participating in this study feel that they face prejudice and discrimination while attending institutions of higher education. 2. In spite of feelings of prejudice and discrimination, the majority of Muslim students were satisfied with their academic experience. 3. Observance of religious obligations was among the most selected issues of concern by Muslim students. 4. Muslim students ranked all of the issues of concern as either important, very important, or extremely important. Summary of Research Hypotheses Findings 1. There was a significant difference among students from the different institutions regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination. 2. There was no significant difference between local and national participants regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination. 3. There was a significant difference between participants who were born in North America and those who did not at each institution and nationally regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination.

155 4. There was no significant difference between males and females, at each institution and nationally, regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination. 5. There was a significant difference among the ethnicity of participants at each institution and nationally regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination. 6. There was a significant difference between undergraduate and graduate participants at each institution and nationally regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination. 7. There was a significant difference among the undergraduates at each institution and nationally regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination. 8. There was a significant difference between local and national participants in ranking issues of concern and importance. 9. There was a significant difference between participants who were born in North America and those who did not at each institution and nationally in ranking issues of concern and importance. 10. There was a significant difference between males and females at each institution and nationally in ranking issues of concern and importance. 11. There was a significant difference among the ethnicity of participants at each institution and nationally in ranking issues of concern and importance. 12. There was a significant difference between undergraduate and graduate participants at each institution and nationally in ranking issues of concern and importance.

156 13. There was no significant difference among undergraduates at each institution and nationally in ranking issues of concern and importance. 14. There was a significant relationship between feelings of prejudice and discrimination and the satisfaction of students with their academic experience.

CHAPTER 5

Discussion of the Research Findings This chapter provides an overview of the study, including discussion of findings, conclusions, implications, and recommendations for future research. The conclusions and implications are based on the findings of the study as outlined in Chapter 4. Recommendations are suggested on how to overcome obstacles in the way of Muslim students in American academia and on how to encourage better accommodation of this unique, but integral group of students.

Overview of the Study Diversity and tolerance are essential elements influencing modern higher education institutions in accommodating and reconciling the hard issues surrounding race relations. However, if one looks deeper into these issues, the findings show that there is still a long way to go to attain the desired equal status for all races. Research studies affirm that "Most administrators and faculty are not trained in an environment that emphasizes cultural pluralism, and as well intentioned as they may be, they are likely to be ethnocentric" (Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998, p. 87). We are reminded by scholars that we have a problem when, "Seeing White people only as a norm by which to measure others is a narrow view that is acquired by living in a society that perpetuates 157

158 White norms and by believing that what differs from these norms is a deviation" (Dutton, Singer, & Devlin, 1998, p. 42). These scholars point out that "Racial identity and acceptance are important for all races, especially in this increasingly multicultural society" (Dutton, Singer, & Devlin, 1998, p. 42). Moreover, "Despite decades of legal and educational reform, racism remains a serious social problem in the United States. Research findings have demonstrated that in the wake of the civil rights movement, racism has not declined but has merely changed forms" (Maluso, 1995, p. 50). According to Loo & Rolison, "despite civil rights legislation, the national goal of providing ethnic minorities with equal access to quality institutions of higher education and opportunities for academic success has yet to be realized" (1986, p. 58). Siggelkow also concurs with Loo & Rolison when he emphasizes the role of academia by saying that "Perhaps colleges and universities are no less racist than other societal institutions and the commercial world, but the potential for irreparable harm is far greater in higher education . . . Serious, unfinished business remains" (1991, p. 104). The race issue is very serious and one that academia must deal with and resolve to preserve the democratic values for which America stands. Dean Trueba, Dean of the School of Education at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, argues that the American society may lose its democratic values if it ignores the race issue or does not deal with it properly (1993). Trueba views the university as an institution with a vital role in healing the society's race and ethnic problems. Moreover, he says that "If the resolution of these

159 conflicts is crucial for the survival of our democracy, the role of universities in maintaining democratic principles is also of paramount importance" (1993, p. 41). He goes on to say, "Universities are the main instrument that democratic societies use to generate and transmit new knowledge, and to inculcate democratic values and respect for ethnic and racial differences" (1993, p. 41). Trueba poses a critical question to educators and administrators a like, "What can modern universities do to heal America's racial and educational crises?" (1993, p. 52). He follows up his question with a reply that sums up the university's role. He says, "academia has the potential, and the responsibility, to create a better understanding of the nature of race and ethnicity, to help solve racial and ethnic problems, and to develop the necessary knowledge and strategies to heal ethnic and racial hatred in democratic societies" (Trueba, 1993, p. 5). And because one of the goals of higher education institutions is to educate students and to promote their development, socially and academically, it is vital for these institutions to design environments that will provide opportunities, incentives, and reassurances for growth and development (Arnold & King, 1997; Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Huebner, 1989; Huebner & Lawson, 1990; Komives, Woodard, & Associates, 1996; Miller & Winston, 1991; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991; Rodgers, 1989; Rodgers, 1991). It is with these concerns of Trueba and other scholars in mind, that this study was originated. Research reveals that it is inevitable for minority students studying at predominantly white institutions to face prejudice and discrimination (Cabrera,

160 Castaneda, Nora & Hengstler, 1992; Cabrera & Nora, 1994; Jacoby, 1991; Harris, 1995; Loo & Rolison, 1986; Miller & Winston, 1990; Nora & Cabrera, 1996; Prieto, 1995). Therefore, this study is an attempt to enrich scholarly research in the area of the study of Muslim students as a minority group within this truly diverse society--a society where every member should be respected for who he/she is, where every member in the society ought to enjoy the same rights and privileges. This study focuses on Muslim students, as a minority group. A group that no longer is foreign to this society or academia, in spite of all the prevalent prejudice and discrimination found in the media and elsewhere (Haddad & Esposito, 1998; Kamalipour, 1997). This study included an investigation of Muslim students' perceptions of prejudice and discrimination while attending colleges and universities and an exploration of their satisfaction with their academic experience. Parallel to that, through the study the researcher sought to determine the main concerns and issues of Muslim students and the importance of such issues to them as they make their way through academia. This study was also intended to provide educators and administrators with insights and guidelines to use when interacting with this unique group of students. The researcher selected three predominately white universities in the Washington metropolitan area as the sites from which the sample population of the local participants was drawn. Another sample was selected from among the participants of the MSA in national activities. The purpose is to measure perceptions of prejudice and discrimination and also to determine the important issues of concern to students.

161 The instrumentation of this study consists of four parts. The first part consists of basic demographics. The questionnaire's Part II was adopted from previous studies measuring prejudice and discrimination, feelings of alienation, and satisfaction of academic experience. Parts III and IV, highlighting issues of concern and importance to Muslim students, were developed by the researcher, utilizing information collected from prior literature review and empirical research conducted by the researcher. Descriptive statistics (including numbers, percentages, means, standard deviations) as well as inferential statistics (including one- and two-way ANOVA, independent t-test, and Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient test) were employed to report demographic data and to answer research questions and hypotheses.

162

Conclusions

Research Questions 1. Do Muslim Students perceive that they face prejudice and discrimination while attending college/university? Findings • Muslim students participating in this study feel that they face prejudice and discrimination while attending institutions of higher education. Discussion "Muslims in America are best defined as the type of minority that wants to maintain its group identity based on religion but that also wants to give full allegiance to society" (Lovell, 1983, p. 97). Thus, when one speaks about Muslim students, one is referring to a group of students with a similar cultural and moral heritage, and diverse ethnic backgrounds. The measurement of perceptions of prejudice and discrimination was evaluated in three dimensions. These dimensions are 1) Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus, 2) Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff, and 3) In-Class Discriminatory Experiences. Campus Racial/Ethnic Climate Dimension. This dimension measures the students' sense of global (the general atmosphere on a university campus) perception of prejudice and discrimination based on race and ethnicity. It is concerned with whether

163 students have observed discriminatory words or gestures. The four indicators designated are: (a) I have observed discriminatory words, behaviors or gestures directed at minority students at this institution, (b) I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among students, (c) I have encountered racism while attending this institution, and (d) I have heard negative words about people of my own race or ethnicity while attending classes (Cabrera & Nora, 1994). Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff Dimension. This dimension deals with students’ perception that faculty and staff harbors feelings of prejudice towards minority students. The two indicators designated are: (a) I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among faculty at this institution, and (b) I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among academic staff at this institution (Cabrera & Nora, 1994). In-Class Discriminatory Experiences Dimension. This dimension uncovers experiences and accounts of prejudice and discrimination inside the classroom. The two indicators designated are: (a) I have been discouraged from participating in class discussions, and (b) I have been singled out in class and treated differently than other students (Cabrera & Nora, 1994). Alienation Dimension. Feeling of alienation is usually an outcome of feelings of prejudice and discriminations. The two indicators designated to measure feelings of alienation are: (a) Being a student at this institution is a pleasant experience, and (b) I feel I belong at this institution (Cabrera & Nora, 1994 & 1996).

164 Muslim students participating in this study showed a high level of feelings of prejudice and discrimination on all of the three dimensions measuring prejudice while attending universities and colleges. This is consistent with research studies that minority students are prone to face prejudice and discrimination when they attend predominately white institutions (Cabrera & Nora, 1994 & 1996). It is also consistent with reports that highlight rising number of incidents of discrimination and harassment against Arabs and Muslims in general (ADC, 1997; CAIR, 1997). Moreover, research indicates that the American people know very little about the religion of Muslims and about Islam, and have been victimized by media driven propaganda, creating images of terror, desires, and conspiracies for world conquest, and sly and sophisticated monetary schemes that will cripple America like the oil crisis (AlTareb, 1997; El-Refaei, 1993; Luna, 1993; Mehden, 1983; Siam, 1993; Speck, 1997). The above research findings should bring to the attention of educators and university officials the dilemma of Muslim students in American academia. On the one hand, the majority of Muslim students are citizens of this country, and this goes unnoticed by educators and university officials. And on the other hand, there is a void in research when it comes to studies regarding Muslim students as a minority group with its own unique characteristics and needs.

165

1.2

If perceptions of prejudice and discrimination are present, to what extent do they affect the Muslim students' satisfaction with their academic experience?

Findings • In spite of feelings of prejudice and discrimination, the majority of Muslim students were satisfied with their academic experience.

Discussion Satisfaction with Academic Experience Dimension. Satisfaction with students' academic experience was measured with three items on the questionnaire. These items are: (a) I am satisfied with the extent of my intellectual development since attending this institution, (b) My academic experience has had a positive influence on my intellectual growth and interest in ideas, and (c) I am satisfied with my academic experience at this institution (Cabrera & Nora, 1996). The fact that a majority of Muslim students feel satisfied with their academic experience is consistent with the findings that minority students tend to adjust to campus environments more than white students and tend to develop their own subcultures where they find their own tolerant environments (Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Loo & Rolison, 1986; Cabrera & Nora, 1996). Satisfaction with their academic experience

166 can also be seen in the fact that Muslim students are encouraged by their religious heritage to be open and receptive to others. It is important to note that a majority of these students come from families in which both parents have at least a college education and are well-to-do for the most part (Haddad, 1986 & 1991). In addition to their satisfaction with their academic experience, Muslim students participating in this study have high GPA scores. Seventy-seven percent of students participating have a GPA of 3.1 or higher.

2.

What are the perceived main issues/needs to Muslim students while attending college?

Findings • Observance of religious obligations was among the most selected issues of concern by Muslim students. Discussion A number of doctoral dissertations were conducted to determine the needs and concerns of international Muslim students. Research found that there are four areas of concern to international Muslim students. These areas are: religious services, social adjustment, academic achievement, and financial aid (Addou, 1989; El-Refaei, 1993; Halaweh, 1996; Luna, 1993; Pouryousseffi, 1984). Moreover, another study appeared in New Directions for Teaching and Learning, titled "Respect for Religious Differences: The Case of Muslim Students." In this article

167 the author identifies four areas of importance to Muslim students. The article is based on an interview of four Muslim students--two males and two females of whom two were undergraduates and the other two were graduates. These areas of concern were identified to be: 1) misrepresentation of Islam by instructors, 2) instructional material offensive to Muslim students, 3) lack of respect to their own religion and/or religions in general, and 4) the failure on the part of the professors to accommodate students' religious practices. (Speck, 1997). These concerns for the international Muslim students were never addressed in light of a comprehensive approach where both international and American Muslim students were included, however. In addition to the review of the literature and feedback by a panel of experts, the researcher conducting a survey of more than 200 college students across the United States and Canada. These students were asked to list the 3 most important issues/concerns that they consider important while attending college. Sixty-one (31 %) students replied to the above request. These issues of concern/importance (not ranked in any particular order) are: 1. Place for observance of daily/Friday prayer(s) on campus. All Muslims are required to perform five obligatory daily prayers in addition to Friday Prayer (usually conducted at noontime). 2. Halal meals served on campus. Muslims are required by their faith to eat meals that are free of pork, ham, lard or any related substance. In addition, some may choose to

168 eat meat or poultry that are killed in a specific way in accordance to the Islamic dietary code. 3. Availability of scholarship fund. As with any other student group, Muslim students are concerned with the availability of scholarship funds to make their way through college. 4. Interest-free loans. Although, this issue was grouped under the Academic Dimension, it is important for a Muslim not to engage in any financial transaction that bears any interest charges for religious reasons. 5. No classes on Eid Holidays. Muslims celebrate two main holidays where they are requested to perform special congregational prayers on those days. The first of these holidays is Eid al-Fitr, commemorating the end of the fasting of the month of Ramadhan, and the second is Eid al-Adha, commemorating the end of the pilgrimage season. 6. Concerned/bothered with interaction with the opposite sex in class/campus. Some Muslim students may feel bothered with the fact that they have to interact with the opposite sex. Once reaching the age of puberty, Muslims are encouraged to minimize interaction with the opposite sex of unrelated individuals. They are also encouraged to minimize eye contact with the opposite sex. Such behavior is based on a sense of personal modesty and is not meant to show disrespect to others.

169 7. Social/peer support group on campus. As research indicates, the presence of a peer group makes the strange environment of a college campus a more friendly welcoming one (Evans, Forney, Guido-DiBrito, 1998). 8. Advisor/Imam/chaplain on campus. In many universities, the presence of an advisor who plays the role of a chaplain can enhance and cater to the religious needs of students. For Muslim students, the availability of such opportunity helps them organize for their religious services and represent them in campus ministry. 9. Islamic Tarbiyyah Program/Halaqa. Muslim students are concerned with learning about their faith while attending college. The availability of such study circles provides an opportunity for such an experience. 10. Dealing with prejudice and discrimination on campus. Research shows that the Muslim image is mutilated and denigrated by the media and by ignorant individuals or groups. Muslim students see dealing with stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination very important matters. 11. Clarifying misinformation about Islam to peers/campus community. While attending colleges, Muslim students may encounter events in which Islam is misrepresented. Such events could be a lecture organized by a student group, a course taught by a faculty member, a text book that is sold in the book store, or a book on library shelf. 12. Academic achievement. Muslims are encouraged by their Islamic teachings to excel in what they do, including achieving academic success.

170 13. Having a Muslim student association on campus. Muslim students, for the most part, are used to having MSA chapters on campuses. The MSA plays an important role in providing for religious and social needs of the Muslim student. Researchers found that "cohesive and satisfying social environments are more likely to develop in smaller groups" (Huebner & Lawson, 1990, p. 133). 14. Preserving one’s own Islamic identity. Muslim students are very much concerned with the preservation of their own Islamic identity. As reported by researchers, Muslims want to be part of the society in which they live. At the same time, however, they want to observe their Islamic duties without either compromise or assimilation (Haddad, 1998; Lovell, 1983). 15. Making Da’wah to non-Muslims. The process of inviting others to know about Islam and its teachings is a noble act for a Muslim. Muslims believe in the right of everyone to choose his or her own faith. They also believe that there is no compulsion in religion. 16. Muslim roommate. Muslim students, who choose to live on campus, prefer to have a Muslim roommate who understands their own background. Such a choice makes it easy for a Muslim student to observe religious duties, such as the daily prayer and the fast of the month of Ramadhan. Muslims also are required to refrain from any intoxicating substances and are requested to avoid gatherings where alcoholic beverages are served.

171 17. Unity of Muslim students on campus. Muslims are requested by their faith to cooperate and work together for the overall good of society. Muslim students on campus perceive this issue as an important way to presenting Islam to others and to clarifying misconceptions and misrepresentations of Islam. 18. Observing Islamic dress code. Muslim students may choose to dress in a manner that fulfills their religious obligation. This is more visible when it comes to female students who are required to cover their hair and dress modestly. 19. Adjustment to college/university life. As indicated by research studies, adjustment to college life depends on a number of factors, among which are social climate, existing environments, and support/challenge balance (Huebner & Lawson, 1990). These issues then were grouped and combined by the researcher as follows: Religious Dimension items (1, 2, 5, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, and 18), Social Dimension items (7, 8, 13, and 16), and Academic Dimension items (3, 4, 6, 12, and 19). Students participating in this study were then asked to select the 5 most important issues in their opinion. The following are the 19 issued as ranked by participants: Rank Issue (number refers to order on issues list) % 75.0 % 54.0% 41.0% 40.0% 36.0% N 178 129 97 94 85

1. Place for observance of daily/Friday prayer(s) on campus (1) 2. Clarifying misinformation about Islam (11) 3. Having a Muslim student association on campus (13) 4. No classes on Eid Holidays (5) 5. Halal meals served on campus (2)

172 Continued, Rank Issue (number refers to order on issues list) % 34.0% 27.0% 27.0% 27.0% 22.0% 21.0% 18.0% 17.0% 16.0% 10.0% 09.0% 09.0% 06.0% N 80 64 64 64 52 49 42 41 37 23 22 22 14

6. Unity of Muslim students on campus (17) 7. Academic achievement (12) 8. Availability of scholarship fund (3) 9. Preserving one’s own Islamic identity (14) 10. Making Da’wah to non-Muslims (15) 11. Advisor/Imam/chaplain on campus (8) 12. Islamic Tarbiyyah Program/Halaqa (9) 13. Interest free loans (4) 14. Dealing with prejudice and discrimination on campus (10) 15. Social/peer support group on campus (7) 16. Observing Islamic dress code (18) 17. Adjustment to college/university life (19) 18. Muslim room-mate (16) 19. Concerned/bothered with interaction with the opposite sex in class/campus (6)

05.0%

13

Issues were regrouped in accordance to the three defined dimensions: Religious, Social, and Academic.

173 Religious Dimension Rank Issue (number refers to order on issues list) % 75.0 % 54.0% 40.0% 36.0% 34.0% 27.0% 22.0% 18.0% 16.0% 09.0% N 178 129 94 85 80 64 52 42 37 22

1. Place for observance of daily/Friday Prayer (s) on campus (1) 2. Clarifying misinformation about Islam (11) 4. No classes on Eid Holidays (5) 5. Halal meals served on campus (2) 6.Unity of Muslim students on campus (17) 9. Preserving one’s own Islamic identity (14) 10. Making Da’wah to non-Muslims (15) 12. Islamic Tarbiyyah Program/Halaqa (9) 14. Dealing with prejudice and discrimination on campus (10) 16. Observing Islamic dress code (18)

Social Dimension Rank Issue (number refers to order on issues list) % 41.0% 21.0% 10.0% 06.0% N 97 49 23 14

3. Having a Muslim student association on campus (13) 11. Advisor/Imam/chaplain on campus (8) 15. Social/peer support group on campus (7) 18. Muslim room-mate (16)

174 Academic Dimension Rank Issue (number refers to order on issues list) % 27.0% 27.0% 17.0% 09.0% N 64 64 41 22

7. Academic achievement (12) 8. Availability of scholarship fund (3) 13. Interest-free loans (4) 17. Adjustment to college/university life (19) 19. Concerned/bothered with interaction with the opposite sex in class/campus (6)

05.0%

13

It should be noted that four of the top five issues chosen by participants fall under the Religious Dimension. This is consistent with research findings that concluded that Muslim students value their religious commitment highly (El-Refaie, 1993; Luna, 1993; Pouryousseffi, 1984; Speck, 1997). Moreover, as noted earlier in the study, universities for the most part are secular institutions, a fact that do affects the religiosity of the individual. If they have to deal with an environment that is challenging them all the time, Muslim students will be placed under unnecessary stress and hardship. Research indicates that a "certain amount of challenge is deemed necessary for growth and development. Environments that are too challenging, however, tend to be perceived as overwhelming and may produce illness. . . , exit from the environment . . . , dissatisfaction . . . , greater stress and strain . . . , or difficulty in learning" (Huebner & Lawson, 1990, p. 131)

175

2.1

How important are these issues/needs to Muslim students?

Findings: Muslim students ranked all of the issues of concern as important, very important or extremely important. Discussion The scale used to rank the above issues, are as follows: "extremely important" as 1, "very important" as 2, "important" as 3, "less important" as 4, and "not important" as 5. Muslim students perceived all of the 19 issues as important, very important, or extremely important issues/concerns. It also should be noted that for a Muslim, the division between what is secular and what is religious might be mixed. Muslims view their existence as a continuous act of worship that encompasses all forms of societal and individual needs. In other words, a Muslim is requested by his/her faith to have in mind that all actions are done to fulfill his/her mission in life. This is also consistent with research studies that outlined Muslim students' needs and concerns (Addou, 1989; El-Refaie, 1993; Halaweh, 1996; Luna, 1993; Pouryousseffi, 1984; Speck, 1997).

176

Research Hypotheses

1.

Muslim students, in different institutions, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination.

Findings • There was a significant difference among students from the different institutions regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination. Discussion Participants showed agreement on all of the dimensions measuring perceptions of prejudice and discrimination except the first dimension. Students from GRP 2 felt a greater sense of prejudice and discrimination than did students at GRP 1 and GRP 3. It is not known if this sentiment by GRP 2 students can be explained by the type of institution in which they are enrolled or with the demographic make-up of GRP 2. Prior research focused on single institutions as sites for conducting studies of the same nature rather than multiple institutions at the same time. There will be a need to do further research to investigate whether minorities face more prejudice in public institutions of higher education than they do at other types of institutions.

177

2.

Muslim students, locally and nationally, have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination.

Findings • There was no significant difference between local and national participants regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination. Discussion The local sample (the combination of the three local schools) was compared with the national sample (the combination of students from different types of institutions) regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination. The researcher did not find any significant difference. The fact that both samples had similar results validates the theory that minority students are prone to face prejudice and discrimination if they attend predominately white institutions (Cabrera, Castaneda, Nora, & Hengstler, 1992; Cabrera & Nora, 1994; Jacoby, 1991; Harris, 1995; Loo & Rolison, 1986; Miller & Winston, 1990; Nora & Cabrera, 1996; Prieto, 1995). It is also consistent with the researcher's assumption that both samples are similar in their perceptions, since both samples come from similar backgrounds and go to similar type of schools.

178

3.

On a number of selected demographic characteristics, Muslim students at each institution and nationally have similar feelings regarding perceptions of prejudice and discrimination.

Findings • There was a significant difference between participants who were born in North America and those who were not, among participants from different ethnic backgrounds, between graduates and undergraduates, and among undergraduate participants, at each institution and nationally regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination. • There was no significant difference between males and females at each institution and nationally regarding their feelings of prejudice and discrimination. Discussion Students who were not born in North America felt overall a greater sense of prejudice and discrimination on two of the dimensions measuring perceptions of prejudice and discrimination than students born in North America. Students from GRP 1 and GRP 2, however, who were born in North America felt a greater sense of prejudice and discrimination on the Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff Dimension than their counter part.

179 Research reveals that although minority students are prone to face prejudice and discrimination at predominately white institutions, international students are more prone to experience prejudice and discrimination due to a number of factors, such as language barriers and different cultural expectations (Jacoby, 1991; Miller & Winston, 1990; Nora & Cabrera, 1996; Stabb, Harris, Talley, & 1995). It should also be noted that research indicates that formal and informal studentfaculty interaction strongly correlates with the academic success of students. The atmosphere established by faculty, and peer group attitudes and interaction establish the classroom atmosphere, which enables or hinders student intellectual growth (Halaweh, 1996). Moreover, comparing Muslim students ethnically, findings show that except for white America Muslim students, Muslim groups were similar in their perceptions. White American students at GRP 3 showed a somewhat higher level of perceptions of prejudice and discrimination under the In-Class Discriminatory Experience Dimension and a slightly higher, although not significant, level of feelings of alienation than did students at GRP 1 and GRP 2. This finding is also consistent with other research supporting that white American students, due to their lack of experience with issues related to prejudice and discrimination, may hold stronger feelings of perception of prejudice and discrimination directed against them (Nora & Cabrera, 1996). It is also important to note that in-class discriminatory experiences by students, minorities and whites, are believed to "contribute the most to students alienation" (Cabrera & Nora, 1994, p. 406).

180 Furthermore, undergraduate students showed a higher level of perceptions of prejudice and discrimination than graduate students under the Racial/Ethnic Campus Climate Dimension and In-Class Discriminatory Experience Dimension. The study found that undergraduate students from GRP 2 showed a higher level of perceptions of prejudice and discrimination under the Racial/Ethnic Campus Climate Dimension than did students from GRP 1 and GRP 3. Research indicates that because undergraduates are usually less experienced and new to campus environments than graduate students, they are more vulnerable to incidents involving prejudice and discrimination than are graduate students (Evans, Forney & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991). It was also found that among the undergraduate students, seniors had the highest level of perceptions of prejudice and discrimination under the Racial/Ethnic Campus Climate Dimension. Prior research was concerned mainly with freshmen perceptions, thus, further research is needed to clarify such a finding. It was also found that GRP 3 graduate students reported a higher level of perceptions of prejudice and discrimination under the In-Class Discriminatory Experience Dimension than did students at GRP 1 and GRP 2. The reasons, may be, for graduate students to feel that they are the object of prejudice or discrimination could be attributed to the fact that graduate instruction usually takes place on a more personal level where faculty members are in direct or close contact with students due to small class room arrangements which may result in quicker misunderstandings in the interpretation

181 of faculty's actions on the part of graduate students also the lack of faculty's orientation in understanding the needs of the diverse student body could be seen as a discriminatory actions on the students part. And when perceptions of both males and females were compared, the study found no gender difference in perceptions of prejudice and discrimination.

4.

Muslim students, locally and nationally, rank issues of concern and importance similarly.

Findings • There was a significant difference between local and national participants in ranking issues of concern and importance. Discussion Unlike their agreement on their perception of prejudice and discrimination, local and national participants had a number of disagreements on the ranking of 7 of the 19 issues of concern to Muslim students. However, the disagreements are not on whether these issues are important but, rather, on how important these issues are for them. Therefore, whatever is the out come of the disagreement, both groups agree on the importance of these issues and this is consistent with research findings (El-Refaie, 1993; Luna, 1993; Pouryousseffi, 1984; Speck, 1997).

182 The local participants attributed more importance to the following issues than the national participants: • • • • • Halal meals served on campus (issue 2) No classes on Eid Holidays (issue 5) Clarifying misinformation about Islam to peers/campus community (issue 11) Having a Muslim student association on campus (issue 13) Adjustment to college/university life (issue 19). Students from the national sample attributed more importance to the following issue than students from the local sample: • Islamic Tarbiyyah Program/Halaqa (issue 9) As stated above, both groups agreed on the importance of these issues. Therefore, the extent of the difference dedicated is not attributed to any particular findings or research studies.

5.

On a number of selected demographic characteristics, Muslim students at each institution and nationally rank issues of concern and importance similarly.

Findings • There was a significant difference between males and females, and between participants' educational level in ranking issues of concern and importance.

183 • There was no significant difference between participants who were born in North America and those who were not, among participants from different ethnic backgrounds, among undergraduates, and at each local institution and nationally in ranking issues of concern and importance. Discussion In ranking issues of concern, Muslim students showed a difference along demographic lines in the way they attributed importance to these issues. Gender is one example. Female Muslim students attributed more importance than males to issues falling under all of the dimensions: Religious, Social, and Academic Dimensions. However, the disagreements between female Muslim students and male Muslim students are not on whether these issues are important or not but rather, on how important these issues are for them. One explanation of such a finding could, first, be related to the fact the females mature earlier than males. Second, such a view is consistent with realities on campuses where, according to MSA, more female students than males are assuming campus leadership positions across the country. And third, female Muslim students have to commit to the wearing of the headscarf at an early age, a practice that makes them aware of their Islamic identity and visible to the public as being Muslims. The researcher found that undergraduate students attributed more importance to issues falling under the Academic Dimension than did graduate students. It was also observed the students from GRP 2 attributed more importance overall to issues falling

184 under the Academic Dimension than did students from GRP 1 and GRP 3. However, both graduate and undergraduate students had similar ranking for issues falling under the Religious Dimension as well as issues falling under the Social Dimension. Regardless of their place of birth, ethnicity, and undergraduate level, participants displayed similar patterns in ranking these issues of concern and importance. It should be also noted that students from GRP 2 attributed more importance to issues falling under the Social Dimension than did students from GRP 1 and GRP 3. Despite the fact that the researcher found that there were a number of occasions in which students' preferences differed on how important are those issues, the main and important point remains that all of the students are in agreement on the importance of such issues. Such agreement raises an important question: How can institutions of higher education provide a climate for Muslim students by which they can practice their beliefs and attain their educational goals without hardship and strain? Research indicates that accommodating environments can produce a desired development or change, whereas poor environments can produce dissatisfaction, stress, and psychological disorder (Arnold & King, 1997; Evans, Forney & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Huebner, 1989; Huebner & Lawson, 1990; Komives, Woodard, & Associates, 1996; Miller & Winston, 1991; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991; Rodgers, 1989; Rodgers, 1991).

185 6. There is no relationship between feelings of prejudice and discrimination and students’ satisfaction with their academic experience. Findings • There was a significant relationship between feelings of prejudice and discrimination and the satisfaction of students with their academic experience. Discussion The three dimensions that make up the scale for measuring perceptions of prejudice and discrimination are: (a) Racial/Ethnic Climate on Campus, (b) Prejudiced Attitudes of Faculty and Staff, and (c) In-Class Discriminatory Experiences. (Items explaining these dimension were discussed earlier.) The dimension measuring satisfaction of students with their academic experience is the Satisfaction with Academic Experience Dimension. Satisfaction with students' academic experience was measured with three items on the questionnaire. These items are: (a) I am satisfied with the extent of my intellectual development since attending this institution, (b) My academic experience has had a positive influence on my intellectual growth and interest in ideas, and (c) I am satisfied with my academic experience at this institution (Cabrera & Nora, 1996). The study found that there exists a reciprocal relationship, in spite of its weakness, between feelings of prejudice and discrimination and satisfaction with the academic experience. This finding is consistent with research findings that "minority

186 students who perceived higher levels of discrimination on campus and in classrooms were less likely to experience academic and intellectual development" (Nora & Cabrera, 1996, p. 133). Therefore, it is important for institutions of higher education to work to reduce or minimize levels of prejudice and discrimination and in so doing, allow for academic and intellectual development to flourish.

Summary of Conclusions 1. A majority of Muslim students, locally and nationally, perceive that they experience prejudice and discrimination while attending institutions of higher education in United States. 2. In spite of Muslim students' perception of prejudice and discrimination, the majority were satisfied with their academic and intellectual development. 3. In their selection of issues of concern and importance, Muslim students chose mostly issues related to religious practices. 4. In their ranking of issues of concern and importance, Muslim students tend to either consider them as important, very important, or extremely important. 5. Muslim students, not born in North America, had overall a higher level of perceptions of prejudice and discrimination while attending institutions of higher education than did students not born in North America.

187 6. Muslim students, born in North America and attending GRP 1 and GRP 2, perceive that faculty and academic staff harbored feelings of prejudice and discrimination towards minority students. 7. White American Muslim students attending GRP 3 felt that they either were discouraged from participating in class discussions or singled out in class and treated differently from other students. 8. Undergraduate Muslim students in general and GRP 2 students in particular had a higher level of perception of prejudice and discrimination while attending institutions of higher education than did graduate students. 9. Graduate Muslim students at GRP 3 felt that they either were discouraged from participating in class discussions or singled out in class and treated differently from other students. 10. Muslim students who were seniors had a higher level of perception of prejudice and discrimination while attending institutions of higher education than did other undergraduate students. 11. Muslim students, locally and nationally, agree on the importance of issues of concern in spite of their differences in attributing levels of importance. 12. Female Muslim students attributed more importance to all of the issues of concern and importance than did male Muslim students. 13. Undergraduate Muslim students attributed more importance to issues relating to academic dimension than did graduate students.

188 14. Place of birth, ethnicity, and undergraduate level did not affect the ranking of Muslim students to issues of concern and importance. 15. The higher the level of prejudice and discrimination experienced by Muslim students, the lower was the satisfaction of Muslim students with their academic and intellectual development.

Implications The study is the first to examine directly Muslim student perceptions of prejudice and discrimination as Muslim students make their way through academia. The finding that majority of Muslim students perceive that prejudice and discrimination are well and alive in institutions of higher education is in concurrence with other research findings that found non-white students are prone to experience prejudice and discrimination in predominantly white colleges and universities. The fact that Muslim students were examined, as a distinct group, makes the study's findings valuable contribution to academic research in the field of non-white American students’ studies. Moreover, Islam and Muslims are not and should not be considered as foreign phenomenon in American life in general and into American academia in particular. In many respects, Muslims have religious beliefs and practices that have much in common with the religious beliefs and practices of other Americans. In this regards, for Muslim students issues related to religious aspects and practices are central to their day-to-day life and should not be separated from other activities and events.

189 Furthermore, this is the first study to take in to consideration the growing numbers of American-born Muslim students in academia and to examine their needs and concerns. It is also note worthy that, unlike other studies, this study has examined a wide range of backgrounds of Muslim students' demographic characteristics and geographic spread.

Recommendations In light of the findings and implications of this study, the following are recommendations for faculty, educators, and university officials: 1. Institutions of higher education need to assess and evaluate their existing environments in relation to minority students in general and to Muslim students in particular. This assessment should consider the status of Muslim students and the specific programs and efforts undertaken by the institution in promoting friendly environment for Muslim students. 2. Institutions of higher education, in cooperation with national Muslim organizations, need to devise orientation programs for students, faculty members, and academic staff regarding Muslim faith and cultures. Institutions should make it a requirement for faculty, academic staff and university officials to attend such orientations. 3. Institutions of higher education should include Muslim representatives in university bodies, committees, and forums. These arrangements should be made public to insure proper follow up and implementation.

190 4. Institutions of higher education should accommodate Muslim holidays and religious services into the university/college calendar of events and programs. Institutions should make it a point to include Muslim holidays on schools calendar and advise faculty and academic staff to make special efforts to accommodate students who need to observe these holidays or any other religious services. 5. Institutions of higher education should accommodate Muslim students in housing and dietary needs in university/college services. Muslim students’ need for privacy and modesty should be respected. It is also important to insure that dining arrangements are compatible with Islamic injunctions and students are accommodated for during the fasting month of Ramadhan. 6. Institutions of higher education should involve top officials, including the university president, in overseen the process of inclusion of Muslims student, faculty and staff in the university/college system. 7. Institutions of higher education should include in their recruitment efforts faculty and university officials from Muslim background. Institutions should allow for a certain threshold in their recruitment plans comparable to numbers of Muslim students on campus. 8. Institutions of higher education should, in cooperation with national Muslim organizations, evaluate courses and textbooks that provide information about Islam and Muslims to insure accuracy of information provided. Institutions should insure that contents are not defamatory, stereotyping, or misrepresenting Muslims and Islam.

191 9. Institutions of higher education should establish standing committees of university officials, faculty and students from the different cultural backgrounds as the campus environment team to develop strategies that prevent instances of racial, sexual, religious, or political intolerance on campus.

Recommendations for Future Research Based on the results of this study, several recommendations for further research are suggested: 1. It is recommended that a study be initiated to verify the demographics of American Muslim students in American academia 2. It is recommended that a comparison be done on Muslim Students' experience in community colleges with their experience in private or public four-year institutions 3. It is recommended that a study be initiated to document incidents of prejudice or discrimination involving Muslim students 4. It is recommended that a comparison of Muslim students' perceptions of the freshmen year in college with their experience in high schools 5. It is recommended that a comparison of the African American Muslim students experience with the rest of the African American student population 6. It is recommended that a study be initiated to examine religious trends among Muslim students

192 7. It is recommended that a study be initiated to assess the impact of Muslim student societies on students' behavior and outlook in colleges and universities 8. It is recommended that a research be conducted to examine the extent of religious accommodation for Muslim students in public, liberal and religious colleges and universities. 9. It is recommended that research be conducted to compare the experiences of religious groups (Muslim, Christian, and Jewish) on campus with respect to their experiences in dealing with prejudice and discrimination in colleges and universities.

APPENDIX A Survey Questionnaire

193

194

Bism Allah al-Rahman al-Raheem

Fill & Win a Free copy of the Alim Software (retails @ $99)

Fall 1997 Dear Muslim Student: Assalamu Alaykum I am writing to ask you to help me in completing this important survey as part of my doctoral study. My dissertation topic is about Muslim students’ perception of prejudice and discrimination in academia. The study also deals with the important issues and concerns that face the Muslim student while pursuing his/her higher education. Your participation is very important to the success of this research. I hope that the findings will find its way to university officials and administrators. This will definitely help all of us improve the status of the Muslim student. In appreciation for your time and concern, a drawing will take place to award one of you a copy of Alim Software (retailed at $99) donated by TransCom International (developers of Discover Islam Posters). If you are a winner, I will notify you as soon as the drawing takes place. Please provide me with your contact information in the optional section (page 4). Thank you for your time and concern. To obtain a copy of the results, please contact researcher at (703) 820-7900 or via e-mail, mohameds@gwis2.circ.gwu.edu. Yours truly,

M. Salem
Mohamed Salem Omeish

Ps.

This survey is printed free of charge by International Graphics of Beltsville, Maryland.

195

The Muslim Student Survey Questionnaire
• Please Answer All Questions

Part I (Please mark your answer with a ü)
Sex M___ F___ Born in North America Yes_____ NO_____

Year in School: Undergraduate: Freshman _____ Sophomore _____ Junior ______ Senior ______ Graduate: Masters _____ Doctoral _____ Name of School: _________________________________ State: _____________________________ Do you live on campus? YES __ NO __ Did you graduate from high school in North America? Yes __ NO __ GPA Age Below 2.0 ____ 2.0 - 2.5 _____ _________ 2.6 - 3.0 _____ 3.1 - 3.5 _____ Above 3.5 _____ Married _____ Other_____ Asian_____

Marital Status Single _____

Ethnic Background:

Afro-American ______ Indo-Pak _____ Arab _____ White-American ______ Other ________ US Citizen __________ Canadian Citizen __________

Nationality:

Non-US Citizen _________ Non-Canadian Citizen_________ Scale

Part II
There is no right or wrong answer Please circle number corresponding to your answer using scale above 1. I have observed discriminatory words, behaviors or gestures directed at minority students at my college/university. I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among students. I have encountered racism while attending my college/university. I have heard negative words about people of my own race or ethnicity while attending classes. I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among faculty at my college/university. I feel there is a general atmosphere of prejudice among academic staff at my college/university. I have been discouraged from participating in class discussions. I have been singled out in class and treated differently than other students. Being a student at this institution is a pleasant experience. I feel I belong at my college/university.

1=Strongly Agree 2=Agree 3=undecided 4=disagree 5=Strongly disagree

1 2 3 4 5

2. 3. 4.

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

5.

1 2 3 4 5

6.

1 2 3 4 5

7. 8. 9. 10.

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

196

Scale 1=Strongly Agree; 2=Agree; 3=undecided; 4=disagree; 5=Strongly disagree

11.

I am satisfied with the extent of my intellectual development since attending my college/university. My academic experience has had a positive influence on my intellectual growth and interest in ideas. I am satisfied with my academic experience at my college/university.

1 2 3 4 5

12.

1 2 3 4 5

13.

1 2 3 4 5

Part III
There is no right or wrong answer;

Please read first and then choose only 5 issues

Please þ only 5 Issues you consider important
r Place for observance of daily/Friday Prayer (s) on campus r Halal meals served on campus r Availability of scholarship fund r Interest free loans r No classes on Eid Holidays r Concerned/bothered with interaction with the opposite sex in class/campus r Social/peer support group on campus r Advisor/Imam/chaplain on campus r Islamic Tarbiyyah program/Halaqa r Dealing with prejudice and discrimination on campus r Clarifying misinformation about Islam to peers/campus community r Academic achievement r Having a Muslim student association on campus r Preserving one’s own Islamic identity r Making Da’wah to non-Muslims r Muslim room-mate r Unity of Muslim students on campus r Observing Islamic dress code r Adjustment to college/university life

If there are other issues that are not listed above that you feel are important, Please list any ones below, keeping the combined total of circled and listed items to five (5).

• _______________________________________ ‚ _______________________________________ ƒ _______________________________________ „ _______________________________________ … _______________________________________

197

Part IV

Scale
1=Extremly Important 2=Very Important 3=Important 4=Less Important 5=Not Important

There is no right or wrong answer

Please read first and then rank all of the following issues using scale above
Please circle number corresponding to your choice
Please Circle

Issues
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Place for observance of daily/Friday Prayer(s) on campus Halal meals served on campus Availability of scholarship fund Interest free loans No classes on Eid Holidays Concerned/bothered with interaction with the opposite sex in class/campus Social/peer support group on campus Advisor/Imam/chaplain on campus Islamic Tarbiyyah program/Halaqa Dealing with prejudice and discrimination on campus Clarifying misinformation about Islam to peers/campus community Academic achievement Having a Muslim student association on campus Preserving one’s own Islamic identity Making Da’wah to non-Muslims Muslim room-mate Unity of Muslim students on campus Observing Islamic dress code Adjustment to college/university life

Rank (1 to 5)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5

If you wrote-in any issue(s) in Part III, please re-write them below and rank them as well

• ____________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 ‚ ____________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 ƒ ____________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 „ ____________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 … ____________________________ 1 2 3 4 5

Optional

(contact information)

Name: ________________________________________________________________________________ E-Mail:______________________________________ Phone(_______)____________________________ Address : ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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