UNDERSTANDING THE CORE TOOLS FOR TS 16949

PPAP-FMEA-MSA-SPC-Control Plans-APQP-IATF Manuals- Customer Specific Requirements
Information provided courtesy of REW Group, Inc.
I. Advanced Produc !ua"#$ P"ann#n% &AP!P'(SECOND
EDITION
Purpose: To establish ui!elines for pro!uct an! process !e"elopment# concept throuh pro!uction
launch
I)*oran A+*ec+:
PHASE 1., Plan & Define Program: This phase listens to the "oice of the customer# re"ie$s
pre"ious similar pro%ects an! $arrant& histor&# collects information about the pro!uct
an! starts !e"elopin specific plans' This phase en!s $hen all in"ol"e! parties are
a$are of their responsibilities'
PHASE -., Product Design and Start of Process Design: This phase co"ers the actual !esin of
the pro!uct an! launches lon lea! time process !e"elopment issues such as special
toolin# ne$ equipment' This phase en!s $hen the !esin an! necessar& material
specifications are complete an! lon-term processin equipment has been launche!'
PHASE .., Prototype BuildProcess Design: This phase co"ers the !esin an! !e"elopment of
processes' It starts $ith blue prints that can (ic( off toolin# encompasses the
!e"elopment of all processes an! support s&stems' It en!s $hen actual pro!uct is
manufacture!'
PHASE 4., Eng!"fg Signoff: This phase starts $ith the manufacturin of pro!uct i'e' protot&pes#
pilots an! pro!uction' It en!s $ith the appro"al of the PPAP submission an! the start-
up of pro!uction'
PHASE /., Production Start: This phase is the on-oin pro!uction life of a pro!uct'
)esin*process chanes an! continuous impro"ement hihlihts this phase' It en!s at
the en! of pro!uction for the pro!uct'
Pa%e 1 o0 1.
II. Produc Par A**rova" Proce++ &PPAP' 1 4
2
Ed##on
Purpose: To establish a uniform +st piece an! pro!uction process appro"al s&stem'
Important aspects3
 The 14 items that coul! be in a PPAP file ,PPAP# p +-.
 The 1. times !urin the life of a pro!uct that a PPAP miht be require! ,PPAP# p ++-+/.
 The / le"els of submission ,PPAP# p +0.
 The chanes to the customer specific sections an! the ne$ in!ustr& specific sections
NOTE: Each customer $ill pro"i!e further ui!ance on the use of this s&stem' An& question
on specific use shoul! be a!!resse! to &our customer part appro"al authorit&'
Pa%e - o0 1.
III. Produc Par A**rova" Proce++ &PPAP'
PRODUCTION PART APPRO5AL CHEC6LIST
Customer 1ame )ate P*1 Re" Submission 2e"el
Su7)#ed Rea#ned
+' All customer an! supplier !esin recor!s ,e': CA)*CAM math !ata# part
!ra$ins# specifications. inclu!in !etail !ra$ins
3' An& authori4e! enineerin chane !ocuments not &et incorporate! in the !esin
recor! but incorporate! in the part'
/' Enineerin appro"al $hen so require! on the customer5s part !ra$in or
specification'
6 )esin FMEA# if !esin responsible
7' Process flo$ !iarams'
8' Process Failure Mo!e an! Effects Anal&sis &Proce++ F8EA'
0' Control plans that inclu!e all pro!uct an! process-relate! Sinificant or 9e&
characteristics' Control plan for :families; of similar parts are acceptable if the
ne$ parts ha"e been re"ie$e! for commonalt&'
NOTE: Certain customers require control plan appro"al prior to submission' See
customer-specific appen!ices'
-' Measurement s&stem "ariation ,<ae R = R. stu!ies for all equipment use! for
the statistical stu!ies for ne$ or mo!ifie! aes# measurement an! test
equipment'
>' )imensional results reference! to the part !ra$in requirements or a chec(e!
print $here the results are leibl& $ritten on a part !ra$in ,inclu!in cross-
section# tracins or s(etches as applicable'.
+?' Material# performance an! !urabilit& test results as specifie! on the controllin
!ocuments
++' Initial process stu!& results sho$in conformance to customer requirements for
9e&# Sinificant# Safet&# Critical an! Compliance-relate! characteristics $ith
supportin !ata such as control charts'
+3' Qualifie! laborator& !ocumentation# lab scope for all testin
+/' Appearance Appro"al Report ,AAR.
+6' Sample pro!uct
+7' Sample parts or as aree! to in the control plan' Master samples to be retaine! b&
the supplier'
+8' Chec(in ai!s ,fi@ture# mo!els# templates# m&lars# etc'. specific to the part bein
submitte!'
+0' Recor! of compliance $ith customer specific'
+-' Pro!uct part submission $arrants' ,Aul( material chec(list# if applicable.
Noe3 P"ace c2ec9 over nu)7er #0 docu)en #+ ava#"a7"e. C#rc"e )#++#n% or
noncon0or)#n% #e)+ #nd#ca#on a noncon0or)ance.
Pa%e . o0 1.
:2en Su7)#++#on #+ Re;u#red
Pro!uction part appro"al is al$a&s require! before the first pro!uct pro!uction shipment in the
follo$in situations'
+' A ne$ part or pro!uct
3' Correction of a !iscrepanc& on a part pre"iousl& submitte!'
/' Enineerin chane to !esin recor!s# specifications or materials for
pro!uction pro!uct*part number,s.'
6' Pro!uct mo!ifie! b& an enineerin chane'
7' A!!itionall& for bul( materials:
• Process technolo& ne$ to the orani4ation# not pre"iousl& use! for
this pro!uct'
A!!itionall&# suppliers must notif& the customer an! submit for part appro"al before the first
pro!uction shipment in the follo$in situations unless the responsible part appro"al acti"it& has
specificall& $ai"e! this requirement for the sub%ect part' If the customer $ai"es a formal
submission# all items in the PPAP file must be re"ie$e! an! up!ate!# as necessar& to reflect the
current process' The PPAP file must contain the name of the responsible part appro"al acti"it&
person rantin the $ai"er an! the !ate'
NOTE3 The customer has the final $or!B
Cu+o)er No#0#ca#on: The orani4ation shall notif& the authori4e! customer representati"e of an&
planne! chanes to the !esin# process or site'
+' Cse of other construction or material than $as use! in the pre"iousl& appro"e! part or
pro!uct'
3' Pro!uction from ne$ or mo!ifie! toolin or replacement tools ,e@cept perishable tools.#
!ies# mol!s# patterns# etc' inclu!in a!!itional or replacement toolin'
/' Pro!uction follo$in the upra!e or rearranement or e@istin toolin or equipment'
6' Pro!uction from toolin an! equipment transferre! to a !ifferent plant site or from an
a!!itional plant site'
7' Chanes of supplier for parts# non-equi"alent materials# or ser"ices ,e'' heat-treatin#
platin.
8' Pro!uct pro!uce! after the toolin has been inacti"e for "olume pro!uction for +3 months
or more'
0' Pro!uct an! process chanes relate! to components of the pro!uction pro!uct
manufacture! internall& or manufacture! b& suppliers'
-' Chanes in test inspection metho!s D ne$ technique ,no effect on acceptance criteria.
>'
A!!itionall& for bul( materials:
• 1e$ source of ra$ material from ne$ or e@istin supplier'
• Chane in pro!uct appearance attributes
Pa%e 4 o0 1.
Re0er o $our AIAG<PPAP )anua" and an$ cu+o)er re;u#re)en+ 0or record reen#on =
Su7)#++#on.
Re;u#red Su7)#++#on Leve"+
PPAP manual# pae +0# allo$s the customer to specif& ho$ much !ocumentation is require!' If
no le"el of submission is require!# the PPAP manual requires that 2e"el / be the !efault le"el'
,2e"el / all !ocumentation an! samples' Some customers are specif&in !efault le"el as 6.'
Leve"+ o0 PPAP Su7)#++#on3
Leve" 1 Earrant Fnl& ,an! for !esinate! appearance items# an Appearance
Appro"al Report. submitte! to the customer'
Leve" - Earrant $ith pro!uct samples an! limite! supportin !ata submitte! to
the customer'
Leve" . Earrant $ith pro!uct samples an! complete supportin !ata submitte!
to the customer'
Leve" 4 Earrant an! other requirements as !efine! b& the customer'
Leve" / Earrant $ith pro!uct samples an! complete supportin !ata re"ie$e! at
the orani4ation5s manufacturin location'
NOTE3 Rear!less of the submission le"el# the supplier PPAP file must ha"e all require! items
,inclu!in retaine! samples.'
Pa%e / o0 1.
I5. Poen#a" Fa#"ure 8ode and E00ec Ana"$+#+ &F8EA' 1 4TH
Ed##on >une -,,4
Purpose: A FMEA is a s&stematic approach to:
+' Reconi4e an! e"aluate potential failure mo!es'
3' I!entif& actions that coul! eliminate potential failure mo!es from occurrin'
/' )ocument this process of estimatin ris( an! then re!ucin ris('
Important aspects:
T$o t&pes of FMEAs !escribe!
+' )esin ,)FMEA# pp' /-36.
3' Process ,FMEA# pp' 37-67.
NOTE3 )esin ,if !esin-responsible supplier. an! process FMEAs are part of the PPAP
submission pac(ae'
C2an%e+ #n 2e 4
2
Ed##on
+' Clearl& state! that the :threshol!; metho! for establishin recommen!e! actions is not
recommen!e!'
3' Intro!uce! the concepts of usin Severity X Occurrence# an! Severity X Detection use!
for establishin recommen!e! actions'
Pa%e 6 o0 1.
CP 1umber: I-6
CP 1ame: 9itchen F"er"ie$
)epartment G: 9
)ept' 1ame: 9itchen
POTENTIAL
Fa#"ure 8ode and E00ec+ Ana"$+#+
&Proce++ F8EA'
Machine G: AT>-08
Process 1umber: ?/?
Process 1ame: Coo( patties
Part G: 6++
Part 1ame: Hamburer*Cheeseburer
Friinal FMEA )ate: 7*3-*>7
Re"ise! FMEA )ate:
FMEA Re"' G: +
C2aracer#+#c Poen#a" Poen#a" E00ec&+' S C Poen#a" Cau+e&+'? O
Curren Proce++
Conro"+ D R
Reco))ended
Ac#on&+'
Re+*on+#7#"#$
Ac#on Re+u"+
ID?Na)e Fa#"ure 8ode o0 Fa#"ure e
v
"
a
+
+
8ec2an#+)&+' o0
Fa#"ure
c
c
e

P
N
= Tar%e
Co)*"e#on
Dae
Ac#on+
Ta9en
Sev Occ De RPN
?+?-3 - Patt&
!iameter
)iameter
I/'837
Scrap $hen re%ecte!
at FP ?6?
0 Po$er input hih 7 Failure Mo!e:
+??J automatic at
FP ?6?
Failure Cause:
Computer control of
po$er input'
/ +?7 Computer
control po$er
input
See
character-
istic +?/
Re!uce
Fcc of
input
hih
0 3 / 63
Squishe! !urin
han!lin
6 Failure Mo!e: +??J
automatic inspection
at FP ?6?
/ -6 )e"elop = test
han!lin
instructions
Carne# Inc'
+?*+*>7
0 6 / -6
)iameter
K/'-07
Har!er to assemble
at FP ?8?# Har!er to
$rap at FP +/?
/ Flattene! !urin
han!lin
3 Failure Mo!e: +??J
automatic inspection
at FP ?6?
/ +- 1one
?+/CC-/ -
Patt&
temperature
Patt&
temperature I
+87LF
Foo! poisonin +? C
C
Heat suc(e! out of
rill $hen !oc( !oor
is raise!
8 Failure Cause: This
cause eliminate! so
none nee!e!'
+? 8?? Place $all
bet$een !oc(
an! (itchen
Mones = Sons
0*3?*>7
Auilt'
1o
loner a
cause of
failure
+? ? +? ?
Po$er input lo$ 0 Failure Mo!e: N-bar
= R 8*+?? burers
Failure Cause: see
Characteristic +?/
+? 0?? Computer
control +?/
Re!uce
Fcc
+? 3 7 +??
Select a
statistical chart
to re"eal tren!s
M' Rea
8*+?*>7
Contact
thermo-
couple
purchase
! = N-
bar = R
chart
establish
e!
+? 0 7 /7?
Patt&
temperature
K+07LF
Cnhapp& customer
because burnt
burer'
Hih utilit& bills
0 Po$er input hih 7 Failure Mo!e: N-bar
= R 8*+?? burers
Failure Cause: see
characteristic +?/
+? /7? Computer
control +?/
Re!uce
Fcc
0 3 7 0?
Nu)7er3 TS Han!out Q37 I++ue Dae3 March +# 3??/
Rev#+#on No3 7 Rev#+#on Dae3 ?8*/?*+? Pa%e @ o0 1.
5. 8ea+ure)en S$+e) Ana"$+#+ &8SA' 1 42 Ed##on
:2en u+ed3 Phase /'? an! 6'? of the APQP process'
Pur*o+e3 To establish a uniform metho! to un!erstan! $hat measurement s&stem
anal&sis is an! to qualif& all measurement s&stems for use in manufacturin
,<ae R = R.'
I)*oran a+*ec+3
Four !ifferent metho!s of ho$ to con!uct <ae R = R stu!ies:
+' Rane Metho! ,"ariable auin. - ,MSA# pp' +?3.
3 operators - 7 parts
3' A"erae = Rane Metho! ,"ariable auin. - ,MSA# pp' +?/-+?8.
/ operators - +? parts
/' A1FOA Metho! ,MSA# pp' +3/-+3>.
PAttribute <ae Stu!& ,short metho!.
3 operators - 3? parts-This metho! of Anal&sis $as remo"e! from the 6
th
e!itionQ
6' Attribute ae Stu!& ,lon metho!. - ,MSA# pp' +/+-66# Ma%or chanes to this
metho!.
• 1e$ metho!# 7? parts# / operators# / repetitions -67? trials
• Fl! metho! - parts# run throuh ae 3? times- +8? trials
Conen+3
C2a*er 13 Formulas an! approaches for calculatin linearit&# bias# stabilit& ,6
th

e!ition chane!*a!!e! a!!itional statistical calculations.
 Relationship bet$een process capabilit& ,Cp. = ae error ,<R=R.
 Approach to !estructi"e testin = inline test stan!s ,lea( testers.
 A!!itional sections on theor& = statistical application
 Intro!uction# Aasic Terms
Section C D Measurement Strate& an! Plannin
Section ) D Measurement Source )e"elopment ,purchasin*selection of aes.
Section E D Measurement Issues
Section F D Measurement Cncertaint&
Section < - Measurement Problem Anal&sis
C2a*er II: <eneral Concepts D Assessin Measurement S&stems
<eneral acceptance criteria for <R=R stu!&
 C2a*er III: Recommen!ations for Replicable Measurement S&stems
Section A E@amples of Test Proce!ures
Section A Oariable Measurement S&stem Stu!& <ui!elines
Pa%e 4 o0 1.
<ui!elines for )eterminin Stabilit&
Aias Stu!& D In!epen!ent Sample Metho!
2inearit& Stu!& D Control Chart Metho!
Repeatabilit& = Repro!ucibilit& Stu!ies ,/ metho!s.
Attribute Measurement Stu!ies ,Section C.
 C2a*er I5: Fther Measurement Concepts an! Practices
1on-Replicable Measurement S&stems ,Section A.
Stabilit& Stu!ies ,Section A.
Oariabilit& Stu!ies ,Section C.
Reconi4in the Effects of E@cessi"e Eithin D Part Oariation ,Section ).
A!!itional treatment DA"erae an! Rane metho! ,Section E.
<ae Performance Cur"e ,Section F.
Re!ucin Oariation Throuh Multiple Rea!ins ,Section <.
Poole! Stan!ar! )e"iation Approach to <RR ,Section H.
 A**end#ce+
Pa%e 9 o0 1.
5I. Sa#+#ca" Proce++ Conro" &SPC' <<<SECOND EDITION
Purpose: To establish a uniform ui!eline on ho$ SPC chartin shoul! be accomplishe! an!
ho$ to con!uct process capabilit& stu!ies'
Important aspects:
 Con!uctin process capabilit& stu!ies ,SPC# pp' +>#3?# +-7-+>?.
 Oarious metho!s of chartin
+' N = R
3' N = S
/' Me!ian charts
6' Charts for in!i"i!uals
7' Attribute charts# p# np# c# an! u
The SPC manual ties into t$o other manuals:
+' PPAP D establishes minimum Cp( le"els
3' TS +8>6>:3??>:
Sections -'+'+# -'+'3# Aasic Statistical Tools
Section -'3'/'+ Capabilit& Stu!ies
Pa%e 1, o0 1.
5II. Conro" P"an 8e2odo"o%$ &Sec#on 6.,A AP!P 8anua"'
Purpose: To establish a uniform metho! of !efinin a process an! the (e& control points for the
pro!uct that are pro!uct characteristics or process characteristics'
Important aspects:
 The form presente! on pae /6 in the APQP manual is the minimum amount of
information that must be !ispla&e! ,APQP# p //.' This metho! of creatin a control plan
is require! b& TS +8>6># 0'7'+'+ an! anne@ A'
 Fther formats such as )CP an! For! Motor Co' ,Appen!i@ <. can be utili4e! since the&
pro"i!e more information'
 Complete instructions on ho$ to complete a control plan are pro"i!e! ,APQP# pp' /8-67.'
Pa%e 11 o0 1.
Protot&pe Pre-launch  Pro!uction
Conro" P"an
Friinal Control Plan )ate:
CP 1umber:
Part G:
Part 1ame:
AP Chane )ate:
Co' 1ame*Co!e:
Plant Appro"al )ate:
9I-6
6++
Hamburer*Cheeseburer
/*+7*>+
Aest Aurer MC67A
3*8*>7
CP Na)e3
6e$ Conac?Te"3
Core Tea)3
6#c2en Overv#eB
>o2nn$ C. Goode
///<1-1-
A. ToddA 8. DanA L. :#+eA R. Pec9
Friinal Control Plan )ate:
Re"ise! Control Plan )ate:
Control Plan Re"ision G:
Cust' En' App' )ate:
Customer QA Appro"al )ate:
Fther App' )ate:
3*8*>7
3*8*>7
Part* Process Machine Characteristics Special Metho!s Control Reaction
Process 1ame*Fperator )e"ise# Mi 1o' Pro!uct Process Char
Pro!*Proc E"aluation
Sample Metho! Plan
1umber )esc Tools for Mf' Class
Specifications
Tolerance
Measurement
Tolerance
Si4e Freq
?+? Place patties in
cooler to tha$
AT>-06 ?+/CC-3 Patt& temp /7LF
R7L*-?L
AT>-06 +?? Cooler temp /7LF
R7L*-?L
AT>-06 +?+ Tha$ time 6- hr
S +3
?3? Place patties on
con"e&or
AT>-08 +?3 Patt& place
on con"e&or
IS 93?-+
?/? Coo( patties AT>-08 ?+?-3 Patt&
!iameter
/'07
S ?'+37
37TC-
7?6>?
Automatic
laser
micrometer
30SC66?/
+??J
at FP
6?
+??J )iameter K /'-07:
+??J automatic inspection at
FP?6?
)iameter K /'-07:
+' Chec( incomin stoc(
3' Chec( the controller'
/' Sen! u*s to soup (itchen
,see 93.
)iameter I /'837:
+??J+??J automatic
inspection at FP ?6?
Po$er input hih:
Computer control of po$er
input
)iameter K/'837:
+' Chec( incomin stoc('
3' Chec( the controller'
/' Sen! u*s to soup (itchen
,see 93.
Po$er input hih:
See characteristic +?/
)iameter I/'837:
+??J automatic inspection at
FP ?6?
)iameter I/'837:
+' Chec( incomin stoc('
3' Chec( the controller'
/' Sen! u*s to soup (itchen
,see 93.'
AT>-08 ?+/CC-/ Patt& temp CC +0?LF
S7L
37SC-
83-38
Contact
thermocoupl
e 37SC-
66??
8 e"er&
+??
pcs
Patt& temp I+87LF:
N-bar = R 8*+?? burers
Po$er input lo$:
See characteristic +?/
Patt& temp I +87LF:
+' Chec( an! as
appropriate fi@ the control
an! parallel
thermocouples'
3' If the temperature is still
lo$# calibrate per IS/?-8'
/' Scrap burers ma!e at
the improper po$er input'
-*3>*>7 +://:?7PM Pae + of 7
Pa%e 1- o0 1.
5III. IATF 8anua"+
IATF Gu#dance o 2e Iner*rea#on o0 ISO?TS 16949
This manual pro"i!es interpretation to the TS clauses in the stan!ar!' Oer& little if an& interpretation is
pro"i!e! for the ISF clauses'
E@amples of some of the "aluable clauses:
+'3 E@clusions can onl& be ma!e for the pro!uct !esin portion of clause 0'/# but $hen an
orani4ation !oes not !o other thins li(e ser"icin it is state! that &ou can use the
lanuae :not applicable at this time';
7'6'+'+ Qualit& Fb%ecti"es in the business plan' It clearl& reinforces that this is the onl& part of
the business plan that is au!itable'
-'+'+ Statistical (no$le!e pro"i!es some a!!itional (no$le!e as to $hat a compan& coul!
!o'
AUTO8OTI5E CERTIFICATION SCHE8E FOR ISO?TS 16949<<<<.
rd
Ed##on Oco7er 1A -,,4
This manual in "er& simple terms outlines the thir! part& au!it process that is to be super"ise! b&
the IAFA ,$hich $as establishe! b& IATF.'
It clearl& lists the orani4ations responsibilit& to pro"i!e a!equate information for the thir! part&
reister to prepare properl& to con!uct a "alue a!!e! au!it' It pro"i!es a list of requirements for
the Stae + an! Stae 3 au!its
CUSTO8ER SPECIFIC RE!UIRE8ENTS
Sections a"ailable on ###.iatfglo$aloversigt%.org $ebsite'
Most of the $orl! car manufacturers ha"e poste! their requirements at this site' Hea"&
truc( manufacturers such as Ool"o Truc( ha"e not !one so' Their o$n $eb sites ha"e
their specific requirements'
Pa%e 1. o0 1.

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