What is Science?

Caesar Saloma National Institute of Physics College of Science UP Diliman caesar.saloma@gmail.com www.science.upd.edu.ph

STS Clas s Lecture 1s t s emes ter SY 2008-2009

The Philippines
Area: Population: 300,000 km2 (72nd) 90,500,000 (2008 estimate; 12th) 88,574,614 (2007 census) 76,498,735 (2000 census) GDP (2006 nominal): $117.562B (47th)
Republic of China (Taiwan) Area: 36,188 km2 (137th) Population: 22,911,292 (2007 estimate; 47th) GDP (nominal): $364.563B (14th)
Sourc e: www.wikipedia.org

Density: 290/ km2 (32nd) Per capita: $1,352 (117th)

Density: 633/ km2 (14th) Per capita: $15,482 (37th)

U SD per barrel (las t 2 4 months ending 1 0 J une 2 0 0 8 )

The Filipinos
Happiness Assessments (1-10) HDI (Dec 2007): 90th

Gini Coefficient (0 - 1): Inequality of wealth distribution

Japan (0.249), P hilippines (0.445), Nam ibia (0.707)

Wages & Productivity

www.econom ist.com

The Cost of Doing Business

Source: www.econom ist.com

What is science?
 Goal of science: To make sense of the physical world.

Objective of scientific research: To extend human knowledge of the physical, biological, or social world beyond what is already known.

Keywords: Intersubjective testability, reliability, definiteness and precision, coherence (systematic), comprehensiveness (scope).

www.s c ienc ec artoons plus .c om

What is a scientific theory? • Criterion of the scientific status of a theory:
falsifiability, refutability or testability (Popper 1953).
Karl Raimund P opper (1 9 0 2 -1 9 9 4 )

Every good scientific theory is a prohibition: it forbids certain things to happen. The more a theory forbids, the better it is.

All laws and theories are conjectures, or tentative hypotheses.

Source: K Popper, “Science: Conjectures and Refutations,” (Lecture given in Sum m er 1953)

Refutation of a scientific theory
Test for scientific correctness: experimental validation.
There is no science without measurement.

Dualism. Connection between the brain and the mind.

www.ec onomis t.c om

Role of a scientist in society
 To contribute new knowledge that improves our understanding of the physical world (technical competence). To mentor the future generations of scientists (guidance & supervision).

www.phys ic s today.org

T he P hilippine Star (9 N ov 2 0 0 6 )

Measures of scientific productivity
     Scientific publications in high impact peer-reviewed journals Citations Ability to attract research funding (grants) Number of PhD graduates trained successfully Patents (novel and non-obvious)

Elements of a good scientific paper
     Originality Novelty Technical quality Scientific impact Clarity, conciseness, self-contained

Scientific Breakthroughs in 2007 (NATURE 450, 27 Dec 2007)

Scientific Breakthroughs in 2006 (SCIENCE 314, 22 Dec 2006)
“ A 3D space with a trivial fundamental group must be a hypersphere - the boundary of a ball in 4D space.” Poincaré 1904
G regori P erelman

2

3

4. Neither fish nor fowl

5. See-through clothes

6. Cure for age-related m acular degeneration

9 8

10. Sperm cell control by Piwi genes

Research and Innovation
Research is generation of new knowledge Innovation is the application of new knowledge. Technology improves through innovation.

www.apple.com

Science, Technology & the Economy

The Business Cycle (Joseph Schumpeter, 1883-1950)

www.econom ist.com

(1) A normal, healthy economy is constantly “disrupted” by technological innovation. (2) Business cycles are unique, driven by entirely different clusters of industries (3) Economic waves are shortening, from 50 - 60 years to around 30 - 40 years.

What technology will drive the next wave?

Research & Development: Expenditure
2005 R&D Spending (30 OECD countries): $771.5B (2.25% of total GDP) Annual R&D growth rate shrank by more than half to 2.2% in 2001-05 compared with 1995-2001. Annual growth rates in America, Japan, EU: 2.9% China's R&D spending: 1/2 of EU (annual growth rate of 18% since 2000) Businesses paid for 68% of R&D in the OECD.

R&D spending in the Philippines: 0.15% GDP (2001), 0.12% (2002), 0.1% (2006)

Sourc e: T he E c onomis t

Research & Development: Pay-off

Sourc e: T he E c onomis t

Economic and scientific wealth

Sourc e: T he E c onomis t

Source: D King, Nature (London) 430, 311 (2004)

Higher Education in the Philippines
Total (SY 2003-2004): 1,538 Universities and Colleges
Number of State Universities & Colleges SY 1990-1991 81 SY 2003-2004 111 (37% increase) 175 (including LUC’s) Number of Private Universities & Colleges SY 1990-1991 412 (non-sectarian) + 225 (sectarian) SY 2002-2003 SY 2003-2004 991 (ns) 325 (s) 1033 (ns) + 330 140% increase 44% increase (s)

College Graduates (SY 2002-2003): 401,787 (SUCs: 145,172 ) (24.96% from NCR) Enrollment (SY 2003-2004): 2,420,856 (829,181)

Source: www.ched.gov.ph

Higher Education: Its most serious challenge

MA/MS (SY 2004-05): 30.6% PhD: 9.1%

Faculty in AY 2000-01 (Total: 93,884) SY 2009-2010 MA/MS: 60% PhD: 18%

Sources: www.ched.gov.ph ; www.ncsb.gov.ph

Role of a university in civil society

 

To train technically competent and self-assured PhD graduates. To render sound and reliable scientific and technical advice to civil society.

What makes a university great?

2006 Rankings of Philippine Universities (Times Higher Education) 299 392 484 500
Sourc e: M E ns erink, Sc ienc e 3 1 7 , pp. 1 0 2 6 -1 0 2 8 (2 0 0 7 )

University of the Philippines De La Salle University Ateneo de Manila University University of Santo Tomas

Best Universities in the World

Largest Universities
University of Rome (180,000 students) National Univ of Mexico (200,000+) Anadolu University, Turkey (530,000) Univ of the Philippines System (SY 2005-06) 49,146 (10,352 graduate students) UP Diliman (SY 2005-06) 23,912 (6,543 graduate students)
Source: www.econom ist.com

The Cost of Higher Education

Tuition Fee Per Annum
US Private 4-year College (1971-72) - USD 840 US Private 4-year College (2002-03) - USD 18,273

Source: www.econom ist.com

Education as An Investment

Sourc e: www.ec onomis t.c om

US Academic Median Salaries (in USD) 2005 2006
Male Fem ale 74,832 57,270 78,382 (104,964) 60,809 (78,658)

SC I E N C E 3 1 4 (3 N ov 2 0 0 6 )

Knowledge-based Economy

Source: www.econom ist.com

The College of Science
since 6 October 1983

CO NSTITUENT UNITS (11) Nat’l Inst of Geological Sciences Nat’l Inst of Mol Bio & Biotech The Marine Science Institute Nat’l Institute of Physics Natural Sciences Research Inst Institute of Biology Institute of Mathem atics Institute of Chem istry Inst of Env Sci & Meteorology Materials Science Program Science & Society Program

 

Mission (1) To generate new scientific knowledge that improves our understanding of how Nature works (research and development). (2) To train the next generations of Filipino scientists and researchers (mentoring).

PHD FACULTY (2S, SY 07-08): 144 Professors: 53 Associate Professors: 51 Assistant Professors: 36 Instructor 7: 4 No. of Regular Faculty Items: 257

GRADUATES (SY 83-84 to SY 07-08) PhD: 323 MS: 1,154 BS: 5,905

The UPD Land Use Plan

Approval of UP Board of Regents: 23 June 1994

The National Science Complex
Established on 8 December 2006 (PGMA Executive Order 583)
 The College operates the National Science Complex (21.9 hectares) which is located in the southeast sector of UP Diliman. The Complex provides an enabling and nurturing environment for scientists, researchers, and students in the basic and applied sciences and mathematics. It also offers technical support to other government agencies and the private sector particularly the small and medium-scale enterprises.

BS DEGREE PRO GRAMS (7) Biology (IB), C hem istry (IC), Mathem atics (IM), Geology (NIGS), Molecular Biology & Biotechnology (NIMBB), Physics (NIP), Applied Physics (NIP)

MS DEGREE PRO GRAMS (13) Biology (IB), Microbiology (IB) Chem istry (IC), Mathem atics (IM), Applied Mathem atics (IM), Geology (NIGS), Marine Science (MSI) Molecular Biology & Biotechnology (NIMBB), Physics (NIP), Meteorology (IESM), Environm ental Science (IESM), Materials Science (MSEP), Chem ical Education (IC)

PHD DEGREE PRO GRAMS (9) Biology (IB), C hem istry (IC), Mathem atics (IM), Geology (NIGS), Marine Science (MSI) Molecular Biology & Biotechnology (NIMBB), Physics (NIP), Meteorology (IESM), Environm ental Science (IESM), Materials Science (MSEP)

Quality of CS Undergraduate Students
1st Sem, SY 2007-2008
Internal External Scholarships Scholarships Courses UP CHEDOblation Varsity Dependent TOTAL DOST OWWA NSP Others TOTAL Chemistry 2 1 2 5 40 1 3 13 57 Physics 3 2 1 6 30 1 4 3 38 MBB 11 11 28 1 29 Math 5 2 3 10 51 1 15 67 Applied Physics 2 4 6 33 2 35 Geology 1 2 3 12 1 1 2 16 Biology 2 2 1 5 25 1 7 33 TOTAL 25 8 13 46 219 3 12 41 275
UPCAT (August 2006) No. of UP Applicants: 71,478 CS Applicants: 2356 (3.3%) CS Q ualifiers: 815 (1.14%) CS Absorption Capacity: 485 (UPD: 3820) CS Freshm an Enrollm ent: 396 (1501)

UPCAT (August 2007) No. of Applicants: 68,108 UP Q ualifiers: 12,234 (17.9%) UPD Q ualifiers: 3826 (5.6%) CS Q ualifiers: 428 (0.628%)

PHILIPPINE SCIENCE HIGH SCHO O L SYSTEM Cam puses: 8 (Main cam pus: Dilim an, Q .C.) Student Population: 2821 (AY 2004-2005) Freshm an intak e: 240 (Main) + 90 X 7 Source: www.wik ipedia.org

College of Science: Freshmen Per Year

QUOTA FOR FRESHMEN PER ACADEMIC YEAR Chemistry: 90

STUDENT POPULATION PER SEMESTER (SY 07-08) Institute of Chemistry PhD: 10.5 MS: 100 BS: 276.5

AVERAGE ENRO LLMENT (SY1983-84 to SY 2007-08) PhD: 144.9 MS: 449.8

BS: 1401.3

NEW STUDENTS PER YEAR (since SY 90-91) PhD: 25.7 MS: 135.1 BS: 381.9 (since SY 83-84)

PHILIPPINE SCIENCE HIGH SCHO O L SYSTEM Cam puses: 8 (Main: Dilim an, Q .C.) Student Population: 2821 (SY 2004-05) Freshm an intak e: 240 (Main) + 90 x 7

Graduates Per Year PhD: 12.92 (50.3% of new entrants) MS: 46.16 (34.2%) BS: 236.2 (61.8%)

College of Science: Advanced Manpower Development
80 70
PhD graduates MS Graduates

Graduates

60 50 40 30 20 10 0
83-84 84-85 85-86 86-87 87-88 88-89 89-90 90-91 91-92 92-93 93-94 94-95 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08

GRADUATES (April 1984 to April 2008) PhD: 323 MS: 1,154 BS: 5,905 Graduates Per Year PhD: 12.92 MS: 46.16

BS: 236.2

GRADUATES (May 2007-April 2008) PhD: 19 (+47%) MS:77 (+66.8%) BS:251 (+6.3%)

Schoolyear
200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
95-96 90-91 91-92 92-93 93-94 94-95 96-97 06-07 97-98 98-99 07-08 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06

NewPhDstudents

NewMSstudents

New Students

PHD FACULTY (2S, SY07-08): 144 Professors: 53 + (2) Associate Professors: 51 + (1) Assistant Professors: 36 + (1) Instructor 7: 4 No. of Regular Faculty Item s: 257

AVERAGE ENRO LLMENT (SY1983-84 to SY 2007-08) PhD: 144.9 MS: 449.8

BS: 1401.3

NEW STUDENTS PER YEAR PhD: 25.7 MS: 135.1 BS: 381.9 (from SY83-84)

Schoolyear

ISI Publication Output

No. of Regular Faculty Items: 258 PhD Faculty: 146 Professors: 58 Associate Professors: 54 Assistant Professors: 34 Instructors: 141

Publications in ISI-indexed Journals

Indonesia Philippines Vietnam Malaysia Thailand Singapore Hong Kong Harvard Univ Taiwan Korea Russia Italy China Canada France Germany Japan England
0 60000 20000 40000 70000 50000 30000 80000 10000

No. of ISI Publications in 2003

The Marine Science Institute
www.msi.upd.edu.ph

CRTR: C oral Reef Targeted Research Sponsors: Global Environm ental Facility, W orld Bank , Univ o f Q ueensland, US National O ceanic and Atm ospheric Adm inistration

Sourc e: www.gefc oral.org

Complex adaptive systems

New Scientist (22 Sept 2003)

Proceedings of the National Academ y of Sciences USA Volum e 100, pp 11947-11952 (14 O ctober 2003) Spek trum Der W issenschaft (Nr 6/2003)

W ired (January 2004)

NATURE Science News Update (23 Sept 2003)

Photonics Research

Photonics Spectra [1 ] A ugus t 2 0 0 2

MRS Bulletin [2 ] D ec ember 2 0 0 4 Materials Res earch Society

Las er Focus World [3 ] January 2 0 0 6

Photonics Spectra [4 ] February 2 0 0 6

GI T I maging &Micros copy [4] M arc h 2 0 0 6

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

V Daria, J Miranda, C Salom a , Applied O ptics 41, pp 4157-4161 (10 July 2002) V C em ine, B Buenaobra , C Blanca, C Salom a, O ptics Letters 29, 2479-2481 (1 Nov 2004) S Marcos, M Soriano, C Salom a, O ptics Ex press 13, p 8766 (31 O ct 2005) C Blanca, V C em ine, V Sastine, C Salom a, Applied Physics Letters 87, 231104 (5 Dec 2005) G Bautista, C Blanca, S Delica , B Buenaobra, C Salom a O ptics Ex press 14, 1021 (6 Feb 2006)

Photonics Spectra [5 ] A pril 2 0 0 6 U S P atent 7 ,2 3 5 ,9 8 8 (2 6 June 2 0 0 7 ) I nventors : C Saloma, V D aria, J M iranda

One of most exciting research in imaging in 2006
Optical Society of America

Optics & Photonics News D ec ember 2 0 0 6 Optical Society of America

Issue: Faculty Salary
Professor 12 (UP) PhP 397,488 pre-tax (USD 9,033.82) Associate Professor 7 315,516 Assistant Professor 7 269,700 Instructor 1 165,612 (USD3,763.91)
Source: UP Accounting O ffice

Tax: PhP30T + 30% of excess of PhP250,000 Minimum Wage (US Federal): USD12,355 (USD5.85/hr)

SCIENCE Vol 314 (3 Nov 2006)

US Academic Median Salaries (in USD) 2005 2006
Male Fem ale 74,832 57,270 78,382 (104,964) 60,809 (78,658)

Source: 2005 UP Ad-hoc Com m ittee

Cost of Higher Education
2004 Tuition Fee (in pesos per unit credit)
Ateneo de Manila University De La Salle University University of Santo Tomas Ateneo de Davao University of San Carlos (Cebu) St Louis University (Baguio) UP Diliman & Manila UPLB UP Visayas, Baguio, Mindanao 2,200 1,700 900 603 538 580 300 250 200

Source: 2005 UP Ad-hoc Com m ittee

Tuition Fee Per Annum
US Private 4-year College (1971-72) - USD 840 US Private 4-year College (2002-03) - USD 18,273 Georgetown University - USD 45T (2006)

Source: www.econom ist.com

The National Science Complex: Phase I

I ns titute of C hemis try

N ational I ns titute of P hys ic s I ns titute of M athematic s

Asia on the rise

NATURE 447, p 885 (21 June 2007) Asia Pacific share of world’s ISI publications: 15% (1990) to 25% (2006) Asia Pacific is strong in the physical sciences.
www.vis c otek.c om

ISI publications (2006): Europe, Asia-Pac ~ US Chemistry: Europe ~ Asia-Pac, US Engineering: Europe ~ Asia-Pac, US Photonics: Asia-Pac, Europe, US

Weakness: Asia Pac papers are less cited.

D. King, Nature 430, p 311 (11 July 2004)

How many PhD’s do we need in the Philippines?

Sourc e: D King, “T he s c ientific impac t of nations ,” N ature (L ondon) 4 3 0 , pp. 3 1 1 -3 1 7 (2 0 0 4 )

Philippines (Population: 87.9 M)

- 26,508 PhDs 7,564 PhDs - 13,454 PhDs

(Germany, 1 PhD per 3,316) (Japan, 1 PhD per 11,621) (US, 1 PhD per 6,533)

Philippines (2003): 1,374 PhDs (Natural Sciences, Eng’g, Agriculture, Mediicine, SocSci & Humanties)
Source: Compendium of S&T Statistics, DOST (June 2007)

Why are Filipinos poor? Why is Philippine society (perceived to be) corrupt?

Source: The Econom ist

LAST SLIDE

Contributions of Science to Society

The Nobel Prize
 The Nobel Prize is the first international award given yearly since 1901 for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace. The prize consists of a medal, a personal diploma, and a prize amount. In 1968, the Sveriges Riksbank (Bank of Sweden) instituted the Prize in Economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize. In the beginning, more than three prize winners could share a Nobel Prize. Amended in 1968, restricting the number of prizewinners to only three. Previously, a person could be awarded a prize posthumously if the nomination was made before February 1 of the same year. Since 1974, the Prize may only go to a deceased person who has been named as prize winner for the year (usually in October) but who dies before the Prize Award Ceremony on December 10.

Source: www.nobel.se

Nationalities (Nobel Prize in Physics)
1980 - 2007

United States Germany France Netherlands Switzerland Russia UK, Japan, Canada, Sweden

42 10 4 3 2 3 1 each

Since 1980, 66.7% of Nobel Laureates are based in the US. 1USD = PhP56.3

Private Sector: R&D Spending

www.econom ist.com

Top 10 Organizations Receiving Most U.S. Patents in 2005
1. International Business Machines Corp. (USA) 2. Canon K.K. (Japan) 3. Hewlett-Packard Co. (USA) 4. Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (Japan) 5. Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (Korea) 6. Micron Technology, Inc. (USA) 7. Intel Corp. (USA) 8. Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan) 9. Toshiba Corp. (Japan) 10. Fujitsu Ltd. (Japan) 2941 1828 1797 1688 1641 1561 1549 1271 1258 1154 (1 in 2004) (3) (4) (2) (6) (5) (7) (8) (9) (1)

Source: www.uspto.gov

Patents & Technology

Approx. Cost Per Patent (2004) IBM - USD1.7 Million HP - USD1.9 Million Microsoft - USD 11.1 Million

Source: The Econom ist

Top 10 Universities Receiving U.S. Patents in 2005
Rank in 2005/No. of Patents
1 2 3 4 390 136 101 90 90 5 6 77 71 71 7 8 9 64 57 43 43 10 41 University of California Massachusetts Institute of Technology C alifornia Institute of Technology Stanford University University of Tex as University of W isconsin John Hopk ins University University of Michigan University of Florida C olum bia University Georgia Institute of Technology University of Pennsylvania C ornell University

Rank in 2004/No. of Patents
(1) (3) (2) (6) (4) (8) (5) (7) (13) (10) 19) (24) (16) (424) (132) (135) (75) (101) (64) (94) (67) (41) (52) (37) (32) (40)

Source: www.uspto.gov

Energy

Source: www.economist.com

Energy

USD per barrel (last 24 m onths ending 10 June 2008)
Sourc e: www.marketwatc h.c om

Energy

Source: www.econom ist.com

Summary

  

Science is fun. Science is a human enterprise. Science is a human tradition (worldview) Science drives technological innovation.