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Service Training July 2002

ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROLS


Nigel Wilkinson
C-9 ENGINE
SYSTEMS AND CONTROLS
SLIDES AND SCRIPT
AUDIENCE
Level II--Service personnel who understand the principles of engine systems operation, diagnostic
equipment, and procedures for testing and adjusting.
CONTENT
This presentation is designed to prepare a service technician to identify the components, explain their
function, and service the C-9 Engine in all machine and industrial applications.
OBJECTIVES
After learning the information in this presentation, the serviceman will be able to:
1. Locate and identify the major components in the C-9 engine systems.
2. Explain the functions of the major components in the C-9 engine systems.
3. Trace the flow of fuel and oil through the fuel system.
4. Trace the flow of current through the engine electrical system.
PREREQUISITES
Interactive Video Course "Fundamentals of Electrical Systems" (CD ROM) TEMV9002
Service Technician Workbench Tutorial (CD ROM included with STW software) NEHS0812
Caterpillar Machine Electronics Course (Five Modules) SEGV3001 - SEGV3005
Caterpillar HEUI HI300B Fuel System (CD ROM) RENR1392
Prior training in systems operation and testing and adjusting procedures for electronic engines should be
completed before participating in this training session. Additionally, the participants should have PC
skills including training in the current Windows operating system and the most current Electronic
Technician (ET) software.
Three serviceman's handouts are provided with this STMG. However, as this publication is available
electronically, it can be printed in color and used selectively or totally, in the class as a handout. This
feature will enable the student to follow the presentation and make notes in the book.
This publication is not available in paper form and is only available from the intranet at this time.
Estimated Time: 8 Hours
Visuals: 72 Electronic Slides
Date: 07/2002
2002 Caterpillar Inc.
SUPPLEMENTARY TRAINING MATERIAL
Brochure "Service Technician Workbench" NELG5028
Brochure "Caterpillar Electronic Technician" NEDG6015
Service Technician Workbench Tutorial (Included with STW software) NEHS0812
Caterpillar HEUI Fuel System (Interactive CD ROM) RENR1392
RECOMMENDED C-9 ENGINE TOOLING
Software and Manuals
Caterpillar Service Tool Software/Getting Started Guide - Service Technician Workbench NEHS0796
or Caterpillar Service Tool Software/Getting Started - Caterpillar Electronic Technician JEBD3003
Caterpillar Service Tool Software/Users Manual- Communication Adapter II NEHS0758
Mechanical Tools
C-9 Tool Kit (contains all C-9 special tools) 196-3165
Engine Turning Tool 9S-9082
Engine Turning Tool (for tractors) 208-0888
Electronic Tools
Laptop computer
Communication Adapter II (Group) 171-4400
Cable, PC to Communication Adapter 96-0055
Cable, Communication Adapter to Machine 160-0133
Caterpillar Digital Multimeter 146-4080
Three Pin DT Breakout Harness 7X-6370
Cable Probes 7X-1710
Auxiliary ECM Power Supply Harness 167-9225
Timing Calibration Probe (Magnetic Pickup) 6V-2197
Timing Calibration Probe Adapter Sleeve 7X-1171
Timing Calibration Probe Cable 7X-1695
REFERENCES
Systems Operation Testing and Adjusting "C-9 Industrial Engines" SENR9598-02
Systems Operation Testing and Adjusting "C-9 Engine for Caterpillar Built Machines" SENR9501
Troubleshooting Manual "C-9 Engine for Caterpillar Built Machines" D6R Tractor SENR9503
Disassembly and Assembly "C-9 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines" SENR9502
Specifications Manual "C-9 Engines for Caterpillar Built Machines" SENR9500
Diagnostic Cables and Harnesses NEHS0822
C-9 Engine - 3 -
07/02
C-9 Engine - 4 -
07/02
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS OPERATION
Introduction ......................................................................................................................5
Lab Exercise ...................................................................................................................23
SYSTEM POWER SUPPLIES
Introduction ....................................................................................................................27
ECM Power Supply .......................................................................................................28
Injector and Compression Brake Power Supply ............................................................32
Hydraulic Pump Control Valve Power Supply ...............................................................33
Analog Sensor Power Supply ........................................................................................34
Digital Sensor Power Supply .........................................................................................35
Air Intake Heater Power Supply.....................................................................................36
Service Tool Power Supply.............................................................................................37
Lab Exercise ...................................................................................................................38
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
Introduction.....................................................................................................................41
Fuel Injection .................................................................................................................44
Fuel Injection Control System .......................................................................................46
SYSTEM CALIBRATIONS
Introduction.....................................................................................................................53
Speed/Timing Sensor Calibration ..................................................................................53
Injector Calibration ........................................................................................................58
Pressure Sensor Calibration ...........................................................................................60
Oil Grade Detection........................................................................................................61
Engine Warnings and Derates.........................................................................................63
Lab Exercise ...................................................................................................................64
ELECTRONIC SENSORS AND SYSTEMS
Introduction ....................................................................................................................67
Injector and Compression Brake Systems ......................................................................68
Speed/Timing Sensors ....................................................................................................69
Analog Sensors and Circuits ..........................................................................................72
Digital Sensors and Circuits ...........................................................................................86
Engine Shutdown Systems .............................................................................................89
Cold Starting Aids .........................................................................................................90
Data Link Circuits ..........................................................................................................93
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................96
Lab Exercise ...................................................................................................................97
SLIDE LIST .........................................................................................................................98
STUDENT HANDOUTS ....................................................................................................99
C-9 Engine - 5 -
07/02
Introduction
Manual contents
Introduction
- Use System
Operation manual
for reference
INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS OPERATION
Introduction
This presentation describes the C-9 Engine Structure, Air Intake and
Exhaust, Cooling, Lubrication, Electrical and Fuel Systems.
Each portion of the training manual is followed by a lab exercise to
reinforce the location and function of each component.
The training manual is laid out as follows:
Introduction to Systems Operation
System Power Supplies
Electronic Control System
System Calibrations
Electronic Sensors and Systems
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The Systems Operation portion of the Systems
Operation Testing and Adjusting manual for C-9 Industrial Engines
(SENR9598-02) can be used to supplement the Slide/Text information.
A separate publication, Caterpillar C-9 Hydraulic Electronic Unit
Injection (HEUI) Fuel system CD ROM (RENR1392) should also be used
to describe the HEUI fuel system in detail.
C-9 Engine - 6 -
07/02
1
Cylinder and valve
location
8.8 liters displacement
Inlet and exhaust
valve arrangement
The C-9 engine has an in-line six cylinder arrangement. The engine has a
bore of 112 mm (4.4 in) and a stroke of 149 mm (5.9 in). The engine
displacement is 8.8 liters.
Note the arrangement of the inlet and exhaust valves for identification
purposes.
C-9 Engine - 7 -
07/02
1 2 3 4 5 6
EXHAUST
VALVES
INLET
VALVES
CYLINDER AND VALVE LOCATION
FIRING ORDER 1 5 3 6 2 4
BORE 112 MM (4.4 IN)
STROKE 149 MM (5.9 IN)
2
Major components
ECM
This view of an industrial engine, shows some of the major components
of the engine.
The major fuel system and electronic components are mounted on the left
hand side of the engine.
Note the ECM on the lower right hand side.
The Systems Operation portion of the Systems Operation Testing and
Adjusting manual for C-9 Industrial Engines (SENR9598-02) can be used
to locate the various components. Otherwise the appropriate Service
Manual for the application should be used.
C-9 Engine - 8 -
07/02
3
C-9 Engine - 9 -
07/02
HEUI system
schematic
Similar to other HEUI
systems
Some system
differences
- New HEUI hydraulic
pump
- No jumper tubes
- Two hydraulic oil
temperature sensors
- Water in fuel and
fuel pressure
sensors available
This visual is taken from the Caterpillar HEUI HI300B Fuel System CD
RENR1392. This CD will supply all the information on the HEUI fuel
system, electronics and related diagnostics.
This HEUI system is very similar to the 3408E, 3412E and 3126 HEUI
systems. There are a number of features which differ from other engines.
The hydraulic pump is a completely new design.
There are no jumper tubes on the injectors. Oil under pressure is fed
directly from the cylinder head to the injectors.
There are two Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensors installed on the engine.
Optional water in fuel and fuel pressure sensors may be installed in the
fuel supply system.
See also Student Handout No. 1 for a dedicated fuel supply system
diagram.
4
C-9 Engine - 10 -
07/02
HEUI system
hydraulic pump
Transfer pump
mounted on rear of
HEUI pump
This view shows a cutaway of the HEUI pump.
The hydraulic pump is a high pressure, variable delivery piston pump.
This pump provides the hydraulic power to actuate the injectors.
The fuel system transfer pump is mounted on the rear of the hydraulic
pump and will deliver 450 100 kPa (65 1.5 psi).
This pump is fully described in the CD RENR1392 (described on the
previous page).
5
Cross flow cylinder
head
- Improves emissions
and fuel
consumption
The C-9 engine has a cross flow cylinder head. This feature allows for
improved emissions and fuel consumption by improving the combustion
airflow through the engine.
C-9 Engine - 11 -
07/02
6
Air intake and exhaust
system schematic
Air intake heater
The air to air aftercooler is used in most applications, the exception is the
marine engine. By cooling the precharge air, this component increases
the mass flow of air through the engine, thus allowing more horsepower.
The air intake heater is used to aid starting and reduce white smoke in
cold conditions.
In most applications, the air intake heater has replaced the ether aid. In
extreme cold (Arctic) conditions, it is possible to use the ether aid in
conjunction with the air intake heater. At this time however, C-9 engines
are noT being built with an ether aid.
C-9 Engine - 12 -
07/02
AIR
INLET
EXHAUST
OUTLET
EXHAUST
MANIFOLD
EXHAUST
VALVE
INLET
VALVE
COMPRESSOR
SIDE
TURBINE
SIDE
TURBOCHARGER
INTAKE
HEATER
AIR TO AIR
AFTERCOOLER
AIR INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM
7
Turbocharger
components
The turbocharger is conventional and may be equipped with a Wastegate
(next page).
C-9 Engine - 13 -
07/02
AIR
INLET
COMPRESSOR
HOUSING
COMPRESSOR
WHEEL BEARING
OIL
OUTLET
PORT
TURBINE
HOUSING
BEARING TURBINE
WHEEL
EXHAUST
OUTLET
EXHAUST INLET
OIL
INLET
PORT
TURBOCHARGER
8
Turbocharger
wastegate
Wastegate bypasses
exhaust around the
turbocharger
Some C-9 applications are equipped with a turbocharger wastegate.
If the engine is required to respond rapidly at low rpm, it may be
necessary to optimize the turbocharger for this speed. In this case, the
turbocharger may develop excessive boost at rated speed and load.
The wastegate redirects a portion of the exhaust gasses past the
turbocharger which effectively limits turbocharger speed and boost. This
feature also limits cylinder pressure, thus protecting the engine from
undue stress.
The wastegate is preset at the factory and no adjustments can be made.
C-9 Engine - 14 -
07/02
9
Valve train
Camshaft mounted
high in the block
The C-9 Camshaft is mounted high up in the block to reduce the size of
the pushrods and therefore reduces the reciprocating mass of the valve
mechanism. This feature improves the ability of the engine to sustain an
overspeed without damage.
C-9 Engine - 15 -
07/02
PUSH ROD
LIFTER
ROCKER ARM
BRIDGE
VALVE
SPRING
VALVE SYSTEM COMPONENTS
10
Air intake heater and
temperature sensor
Heater controlled by
ECM
System warns of high
air intake temperature
The air intake system has a heater and a temperature sensor. The Air
Intake Temperature Sensor is used by the ECM in conjunction with the
Coolant Temperature Sensor to calculate the need for air intake heating.
The ECM controls the heater through a relay mounted above the intake
manifold.
The Intake Temperature Sensor is also used by the ECM to warn the
operator of excessive air intake temperatures.
This view shows a Challenger C-9 installation. Other C-9 applications
will vary slightly in the sensor installation.
The Service Manual, Systems Operation section, describes the various
modes of operation of this system. A description of the operation is also
included with the Electronic Sensors and Systems portion of this STMG.
C-9 Engine - 16 -
07/02
11
Lubrication system
schematic
The lubrication system is conventional with the exception of the oil cooler
which is recessed (as shown on the next page) into the cylinder block.
C-9 Engine - 17 -
07/02
OIL FILTER
OIL COOLER
HEUI PUMP
TO
TURBOCHARGER
C-9 LUBRICATION SYSTEM
12
Lubrication system
cross section
Oil cooler recessed
The lubrication oil supply system is shown here in this cross sectional
view of the cylinder block.
Note the oil cooler recessed into the block. This feature reduces the
overall width of the engine and reduces the possibility of leaks.
C-9 Engine - 18 -
07/02
13
Cooling system
schematic
Water pump is belt
driven
The system is conventional with a full flow by-pass outlet thermostat.
The water pump is belt driven by a pulley from the crankshaft.
C-9 Engine - 19 -
07/02
CYLINDER
HEAD
CYLINDER
BLOCK
OIL
COOLER
WATER
PUMP RADIATOR
BYPASS
HOSE
EXPANSION TANK
WATER TEMPERATURE
REGULATOR HOUSING
COOLING SYSTEM
14
Fractured rod
Use care when
handling mating
surfaces
Fractured rod
manufacturing
process
This visual shows the fractured rod. The rod is deliberately fractured
during the manufacturing process in order to provide a mating surface that
does not allow fretting or sideways movement between the two halves of
the rod.
NOTE: Care should be taken to avoid damage to the mating faces during
handling. The rod must be replaced if there is any damage to the mating
surfaces. If the surfaces are damaged, bearing crush will be insufficient
which can cause the bearing to spin in its bore.
The fracture process involves the following steps:
The bolt holes are fully drilled, and tapped prior to fracture.
The fracture process begins with rough boring the crank end prior to
fracture (approximately. 1 mm undersize).
A laser (or "V" broach) is then used to etch a "V" notch for
initiating the crack split line.
A wedge is used in a hydraulically activated expanding mandrill to
force apart the rod and cap at the split line.
C-9 Engine - 20 -
07/02
15
After the rod is split, the bolts are inserted and the cap reassembled.
The bolts are tightened to about 90% of final torque, backed off,
and the cap removed.
The joint is then cleaned to remove any chips that may have broken
off, before the cap and rod are reassembled and the bolts re-
tightened down again. This procedure is performed twice.
Once tightened, the cap is not separated from the rod again during
the rest of the machining process. (Note: A fixture or torque gun
would be required to loosen the bolts prior to dispatch, or during
piston sub-assembly).
The advantages associated with fracturing the split are primarily reduced
machining operations. Some examples are as follows:
No machining of joint faces necessary.
No deburring of joint face edges due to perfectly matched joint
faces.
Elimination of dowels or fitted bolts (fracture surface results in a
perfectly mated joint).
Near net shape forgings (may eliminate the need for additional
balance machining).
Single clamping fixture required for machining bolt holes (no
separate cap and rod machining - same for bearing tab slots).
The majority of the benefits with fractured split rods lie in the
manufacturing process. There are other benefits such as virtual
elimination of fretting on the joint face, with the rod being able to accept
higher loads, due to perfectly matched surfaces. In addition, one of the
reported benefits of fractured split rods is that they tend to have a higher
processing quality than conventional rods due to the reduced machining
steps and controlled machining process. From a cost standpoint, this
feature can result in a part cost that is significantly reduced.
C-9 Engine - 21 -
07/02
Crankshaft oil flow
Oil flow to rod
bearings
Related failure
analysis publications
This visual shows the path of oil flow from the main bearings to the rod
bearings.
It can be seen that three main bearings (1, 4 and 7) do not feed any rod
bearings. Two more main bearings (2 and 6) supply oil to one rod bearing
each. Main bearing numbers 3 and 5 supply oil to two rod bearings each.
This information is important if a bearing failure analysis is performed.
For additional information in bearing failure analysis, please refer to the
following AFA (Applied Failure Analysis) publications:
STMG Engine Bearings (SERV8001)
Engine Bearing Failure Analysis (SEBV0544)
C-9 Engine - 22 -
07/02
OIL GALLERY
MAIN
BEARINGS
(7)
ROD BEARINGS (6)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6
CRANKSHAFT OIL FLOW
16
Viscous crankshaft
vibration damper
The viscous crankshaft vibration damper is also used to reduce crankshaft
torsional vibrations. This damper uses a heavy ring enclosed within a
casing and suspended by a viscous oil to oppose torsional vibration
forces.
C-9 Engine - 23 -
07/02
CRANKSHAFT
WEIGHT
CASE
VISCOUS VIBRATION DAMPER
17
Lab exercise
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The following exercises will reinforce the
material introduced in the preceding pages and will allow questions to be
answered.
Lab Exercise:
The following exercise will reinforce the material introduced in the
preceding slides and will allow questions to be answered.
At this time, it is recommended that each component be located on the
machine and the function of each component reviewed with the students.
A list of the components follows on the next page.
If an engine is available out of a machine, component identification will
be easier because some components are difficult to see.
Some additional (used/defective) components available for examination
on a table will be helpful.
The Systems Operation portion of the Systems Operation Testing and
Adjusting manual for C-9 Industrial Engines (SENR9598-02) can be used
to supplement the Slide/Text information.
C-9 Engine - 24 -
07/02
Electrical Component List
ECM and 70 Pin Connectors (2)
Timing Calibration Installation Location
Timing Calibration Connector
Speed Timing Sensors
Coolant Temperature Sensor
Inlet Air Temperature Sensor
Atmospheric Pressure Sensor
Turbocharger Outlet Pressure Sensor
Oil Pressure Sensor
Hydraulic Oil Temperature Sensors
Fuel Temperature Sensor
Machine Interface Connector
Engine and Machine Ground Bolts
Service Tool Connector
Throttle Position Sensor
Shutdown Switches
Battery Disconnect Switch
Mechanical (Fuel Delivery) Component List
Primary Filter and Water Separator
Water in Fuel Sensor (if installed)
Secondary Filter
Priming Pump
Transfer Pump
Pressure Regulator Valve
Injectors (6)
Cylinder Head Fuel Passage
ECM Fuel Cooling Passage and Connectors (if installed)
Mechanical Component List
Thermostat
By-pass hose
C-9 Engine - 25 -
07/02
INSTRUCTOR NOTES
C-9 Engine - 26 -
07/02
Seven system power
supplies
SYSTEM POWER SUPPLIES
Introduction
The C-9 HEUI system has seven power supplies with various voltages as
shown.
EXTERNAL POWER SUPPLY
ECM power supply (machines) 24 Volts
Challenger Tractors and some industrial engines 12 Volts
Air intake heater (machines) 24 Volts
Service Tool Power Supply 24 Volts
INTERNAL POWER SUPPLIES
Injector and compression brake power supplies 70 Volts
Pump control valve PWM
Analog sensor power supply 5 Volts
Digital sensor power supply 8 Volts
These power supplies are described in detail in the following section.
C-9 Engine - 27 -
07/02
C-9 HEUI
SYSTEM POWER SUPPLIES
ECM
Injectors and Compression Brake
Pump Control Valve
Analog Sensors
Digital Sensors
Air Intake Heater
Service Tool
18
C-9 Engine - 28 -
07/02
24 Volt power supply
Power supply
components
Power supply
diagnostic message
J2 J1
6 DRIVERS
3 RETURNS
ENGINE RETARDER
SOLENOIDS
ECM
TIMING CALIBRATION
CONNECTOR
GROUND
BOLT
20 AMP
BREAKER
MAIN
POWER
RELAY
KEY START
SWITCH
24 V
20 AMP FUSE
CRANK WITHOUT INJECT PLUG
DISCONNECT SWITCH
ECM Power Supply
The power supply to the ECM and the system is provided by the 24 Volt
machine battery. The principle components in this circuit are:
- Battery
- Key Start Switch
- Main Power Relay
- 20 Amp Breaker
- 20 Amp Fuse
- Ground Bolt
- ECM Connector (P1/JI)
If the supply voltage exceeds 32.5 Volts or is less than 9.0 Volts, a
diagnostic message is logged. (See the Troubleshooting Guide for
complete details on voltage event logging.)
19
C-9 Engine - 29 -
07/02
ECM power supply
circuit
ECM switched
connection
- Energizes ECM
48
52
53
70
ECM (C-9)
24 VOLTS DC
(+)
(-)
ENGINE BLOCK
GROUND BOLT
15 AMP
CIRCUIT BREAKER
BATTERY
R
C
S
B
ST
OFF
ON
KEY SWITCH
P1 J1
(-) BATTERY
(-) BATTERY
(-) BATTERY
61
63
65
(+) BATTERY
(+) BATTERY
(+) BATTERY
(+) SWITCHED POWER
(+) BATTERY SUPPLY WIRES
INPUT SIGNAL WIRES TO ECM
OUTPUT SIGNAL WIRES FROM ECM
SENSOR SUPPLY VOLTAGE
SIGNAL PLUS
SIGNAL MINUS
(-) BATTERY / SENSOR RETURN
WIRE FUNCTION COLOR CODE
FUSE
20 A
DISCONNECT
SWITCH
ECM POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT
This schematic shows the principle components for a typical C-9 power
supply circuit. Battery voltage is normally connected to the ECM.
However, an input from the key start switch turns the ECM ON.
Note the seven power connections on the ECM. There are three wires
permanently connected to the ECM battery positive and three to the
battery negative. This feature is used to reduce the amperage on the
individual pins. The actual current draw with the engine stopped with the
key off is very small.
There is also a switched connection from the battery positive (ECM
pin 70). The purpose of the "switched power" connection is to energize or
"wake up" the ECM. The key switch circuit energizes the whole ECM
from "sleep mode," which in turn activates power supplies, sensors,
actuators, injectors, data links etc.
20
Battery disconnect
switch
Wiring harness
bypass
The battery disconnect may be either on the positive or the negative cable
depending on the application. The relevant Troubleshooting Guide will
show the location and the polarity of the switch.
The machine wiring harness can be bypassed for troubleshooting
purposes. These steps are described in the Troubleshooting Guide
procedure. A breakout harness can be used and is referenced under "C-9
Recommended Tooling" at the front of this book.
The supply voltage may be conveniently checked using the ET Status
Screen display.
NOTE 1: The Challenger Tractor engine and some industrial engines
may have a 12 Volt power supply.
NOTE 2: The Wire Function Color Code is shown here for the first time
and is used through the presentation.
C-9 Engine - 30 -
07/02
C-9 Engine - 31 -
07/02
P1/P2 70 pin ECM
connectors
P1/J1 machine
interface connector
13
23
31
39
47
57
70
1
14
24
32
40
48
58
1
14
2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13
58 59 60 61 62 63 65 66 67 68 69 70
24
40
48
23
31
47
57
36
>PEI<
ECM SIDE
HARNESS SIDE
ECM CONNECTOR (P1)
There are two 70 pin connectors which identify the ADEM III ECM. The
previous ADEM II ECM used a pair of 40 pin connectors.
The 70 pin ECM connectors are vital parts of all the power supplies (and
sensor circuits). This illustration shows one of the two ECM 70 pin
connectors, P1. The pins highlighted in this connector are for the ECM
power supply circuit.
The C-9 Engine does not have a separate machine interface connector.
The P1/J1 connector performs this function and transmits the power
supply from the machine wiring to the engine wiring harnesses.
The Troubleshooting Guide identifies the relevant pins for each circuit in
this manner. This feature greatly simplifies troubleshooting by easily
identifying the connections in the circuit.
21
C-9 Engine - 32 -
07/02
70 volt power supply
Power supply wires
are paired
Injectors and brake
solenoids are
switched on return
side
2
1
ECM
20
36
44
21
37
45
28
38
46
29
39
47
65
54
67
66
55
68
BRAKE RETURN CYL 1
INJECTOR/BRAKE CYL 1
INJECTOR RETURN CYL 1
BRAKE RETURN CYL 2
INJECTOR/BRAKE CYL 2
INJECTOR RETURN CYL 2
BRAKE RETURN CYL 3
INJECTOR/BRAKE CYL 3
INJECTOR RETURN CYL 3
BRAKE RETURN CYL 4
INJECTOR/BRAKE CYL 4
INJECTOR RETURN CYL 4
BRAKE RETURN CYL 5
INJECTOR/BRAKE CYL 5
INJECTOR RETURN CYL 5
BRAKE RETURN CYL 6
INJECTOR/BRAKE CYL 6
INJECTOR RETURN CYL 6
BRAKE
SOLENOID
CYL. 6
12
1
18
11
2
17
10
3
16
9
4
15
8
5
14
7
6
13
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
P300 J300 P2 J2
2
1
INJECTOR
SOLENOID
CYL. 6
J306 P306
BRAKE
SOLENOID
CYL. 5
INJECTOR
SOLENOID
CYL. 5
J305P305
BRAKE
SOLENOID
CYL. 4
INJECTOR
SOLENOID
CYL. 4
J304P304
BRAKE
SOLENOID
CYL. 3
INJECTOR
SOLENOID
CYL. 3
J303 P303
BRAKE
SOLENOID
CYL. 2
INJECTOR
SOLENOID
CYL. 2
J302 P302
BRAKE
SOLENOID
CYL. 1
INJECTOR
SOLENOID
CYL. 1
J301P301
INJECTOR AND COMPRESSION BRAKE
SOLENOID CIRCUITS
Injector and Compression Brake Power Supply
The injector and compression brake solenoids are supplied with power
from the ECM at 70 Volts. For this reason, precautions must be observed
when performing maintenance around the valve covers.
If an open or a short circuit occurs in an injector or compression brake
component, the ECM will disable that circuit. The ECM will periodically
try to actuate that circuit to determine if the fault is still present and will
disconnect or reconnect the injector/compression brake as appropriate.
The power supply wires are paired for each injector and brake solenoid.
Individual return circuits are provided which contain the solenoid drivers.
An 18 pin (P300/J300) connector is used to connect the main engine
wiring harness to the injector harness within the valve cover.
NOTE: If an injector is replaced, it must be calibrated. Also if an
ECM is replaced and injector calibration or copy configuration is not
performed, a fault message will be generated. (The Copy
Configuration function will transfer all calibrations to the new ECM.)
22
C-9 Engine - 33 -
07/02
Pump control valve
signal
System tested using
ET
+ CONTROL VALVE
- CONTROL VALVE
61
62
P2 J2
A
B
J500 P500
PUMP CONTROL
VALVE
SUPPLY
RETURN
ECM (C-9 HEUI)
PUMP CONTROL VALVE
POWER SUPPLY
Hydraulic Pump Control Valve Power Supply
The ECM supplies a PWM signal through the J2/P2 connector to the
Pump Control Valve (also known as the injection actuation pressure
control valve).
The Pump Control Valve and its power supply can be tested on the engine
using ET and the Hydraulic Injection Actuation Pressure Test. Using the
test, the pressure can be adjusted manually with the ET service tool from
minimum to maximum. Therefore, this function can be used to verify the
operation of the control valve, the power supply from the ECM, and the
hydraulic system.
There is no voltage specification for the Pump Control Valve Power
Supply. Current flow may vary between 250 and 1000 mA.
23
C-9 Engine - 34 -
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Analog power supply
Four power supply
terminals
Power supply
protection
Analog return
C
B
A
ENGINE OIL PRESSURE SIGNAL
ANALOG SENSOR RETURN 3
ANALOG SENSOR POWER (+5V) 3
J201/P201
24
42
41
ENGINE OIL PRESSURE SIGNAL
ANALOG SENSOR RETURN 3
ANALOG SENSOR POWER (+5V) 3
C
B
A
FUEL PRESSURE SIGNAL
ANALOG SENSOR RETURN 1
ANALOG SENSOR POWER (+5V) 1
J209/P209
18 FUEL PRESSURE SIGNAL
C
B
A
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE SIGNAL
ANALOG SENSOR RETURN 1
ANALOG SENSOR POWER (+5V) 1
J203/P203
14
3
2
C
B
A
HYDRAULIC OIL PRESSURE SIGNAL
ANALOG SENSOR RETURN 1
ANALOG SENSOR POWER (+5V) 1
J204/P204
40
27
TURBO OUTLET PRESSURE SIGNAL
HYDRAULIC OIL PRESSURE SIGNAL
C
B
A
TURBO OUTLET PRESSURE SIGNAL
ANALOG SENSOR RETURN 3
ANALOG SENSOR POWER (+5V) 3
J200/P200
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE SIGNAL
ANALOG SENSOR RETURN 1
ANALOG SENSOR POWER (+5V) 1
ECM
P2 J2
ANALOG SENSOR
POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT
5 0.5 VOLTS
Analog Sensor Power Supply
The Analog Sensor Power Supply provides power to all the active analog
sensors (pressure and temperature sensors). The ECM supplies 5.0 0.5
Volts DC (Analog Supply) through the J2/P2 connector to each sensor. A
power supply failure will cause all active analog sensors to fail. This
failure could be caused by a short in a sensor. An open circuit in the
common lines close to the P2/J2 connector can also cause multiple
failures. Unlike previous EUI/HEUI engines, the C-9 uses four individual
ECM analog power connections from the J1/P1 connector (two supply
and two return).
The Analog Sensor Power Supply is protected against short circuits. A
short in a sensor or a wiring harness will not cause damage to the ECM.
NOTE: When checking the analog power supply voltage, always use
the analog return for the measurement and not the frame ground. A
difference can occur between the measurements of analog power
supply and system voltage. The analog power supply is held to close
tolerances.
24
C-9 Engine - 35 -
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Digital power supply
Power supply
protection
Digital power supply
voltage check
Digital return
ECM (C-9 HEUI)
+ V DIGITAL SUPPLY
- V DIGITAL RETURN
4
5
DIGITAL SENSOR
POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT
P1 J1
A
B
C
J405 P405
A
B
C
+V DIGITAL
DIGITAL RETURN
SIGNAL
FAN
SPEED SENSOR
THROTTLE
POSITION SENSOR
+V DIGITAL
DIGITAL RETURN
SIGNAL
8 0.5 VOLTS
Digital Sensor Power Supply
The ECM supplies power at 8 0.5 Volts through the J1/P1 connector to
the Throttle Position Sensor circuit.
Like the Analog power supply, this circuit is protected against short
circuits, which means that a short in the sensor will not cause damage to
the ECM.
Some other C-9 applications may use this power supply to power fan
speed or exhaust temperature sensors for example.
NOTE: It is necessary when checking this system power supply
voltage to use the digital return for the measurement and not the
frame ground. A difference between these values can occur if an
incorrect ground is used.
25
C-9 Engine - 36 -
07/02
Uses coolant and
intake temperature
sensors as references
Modes of operation
24V
1
2
B A
AIR INTAKE
HEATER RELAY
AIR INTAKE
HEATER LAMP
J501/P501
J648
P648
850-BU 12
AIR INTAKE
HEATER RELAY
ECM
AIR INTAKE HEATER CIRCUIT
AIR INTAKE
HEATER
J2/P2
Air Intake Heater
The Air Intake Heater is used to improve the cold start ability of the
engine.
The heater is controlled by the ECM using inputs from the Air Intake
Temperature and Coolant Temperature Sensors. The ECM sends a signal
to the relay which controls the supply of current to the heater element.
There are a various modes of operation depending on temperatures and
other conditions. These parameters and the defaults are fully described in
the C-9 Troubleshooting Guide and later in this presentation in the section
"Electronic Sensors and Systems."
26
C-9 Engine - 37 -
07/02
Communication
adapter uses power
from ECM
Circuit is energized
with the keyswitch
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
SERVICE TOOL
CONNECTOR
J63
70
65
8
9
34
50
BAT + (SWITCHED)
BAT -
CAT DATA LINK +
CAT DATA LINK -
CAN DATA LINK -
CAN DATA LINK +
P1 J1
ENGINE ECM
8
7
CAT DATA LINK +
CAT DATA LINK -
8
7
CAT DATA LINK +
CAT DATA LINK -
TRANSMISSION ECM
CATERPILLAR
MONITORING SYSTEM
TYPICAL SERVICE TOOL POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT
DATA LINKS
Service Tool Power Supply
In the past, the ECAP (Electronic Analyzer Programmer) Service Tool
drew it's power from the Service Tool Connector. In the same way, when
using ET, the Communicator Adapter II also requires a power supply.
This power is taken from pins A and B on the Service Tool Connector.
This illustration shows the path of the current from the ECM to the
Service Tool Connector. This power supply requires the engine keyswitch
to be ON.
Pin 70 on the J1/P1 connector, is the same terminal which is used by the
Keyswitch to turn on the ECM.
27
Lab exercise
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The following exercises will reinforce the
material introduced in the preceding pages and will allow questions to be
answered.
Lab Exercise:
Remove and install the following components on an engine in accordance
with service manual procedures:
Pressure sensor
Temperature sensor
Throttle position sensor
Speed/timing sensors
ECM
Test the following power supply circuits on an engine in accordance with
the appropriate service manual procedures:
ECM power supply
HEUI pump control valve power supply
Analog sensor power supply
Digital sensor power supply
Intake heater power supply
Service tool power supply
C-9 Engine - 38 -
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C-9 Engine - 39 -
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INSTRUCTOR NOTES
C-9 Engine - 40 -
07/02
Control system
components:
ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM
Introduction
This section of the presentation explains the C-9 Electronic Control
System including the following components:
- ECM
- Personality Module
- Timing Wheel
Also covered are the following subsystems and related procedures:
- Timing Control
- Fuel Quantity Control
- Speed Control
- System Calibrations
NOTE: There is no separate Cold Mode on the C-9 engine.
C-9 Engine - 41 -
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ELECTRONIC CONTROL
SYSTEM
28
ECM:
- Governor
- Fuel system
computer
- Injection timing
controller
Communicates with
Cat Monitoring system
Recognized by 2
70 pin connectors
70 pin connector
designations
Same ECM used in all
C-9 applications
Personality module
contains application
software
The principle component in the HEUI system, the Electronic Control
Module (ECM) is mounted on the left hand side of the engine.
The ECM is the brain of the engine, it functions as the governor and fuel
system computer. The ECM receives all the signals from the sensors and
energizes the injector solenoids to control timing and engine speed. The
ECM also communicates with the instrument display system, usually the
Caterpillar Monitoring System through the Cat Data link.
This ECM is known as the ADEM III and is the third generation of ECMs
in a series. It can be easily recognized by the two 70 pin connectors
(previous ecms had two 40 pin connectors). NOTE: The right
hand connector is designated as J1/P1 and the left hand connector is
designated as J2/P2.
This ECM is used in all C-9 engine applications. The ECM can be moved
from one application to another. However, a password is required to
activate the ECM when a different application software is installed.
The Personality Module contains the software with all the fuel setting
information such as: horsepower, torque rise and air/fuel ratio rates,
pressure, and temperature warning trip points. These settings determine
how the engine will perform in a specific application.
C-9 Engine - 42 -
07/02
29
Software updated by
flash programming
only
Upgrading personality
module software
ECM is fuel cooled in
most machine
applications
ECM is sealed, no
access necessary
This view shows a cutaway of an ADEM III ECM (note the two 70 pin
connectors). The Personality Module is an integral part of the ECM and
no access panel is provided, therefore Flash Programming is the only
method used to update the software on the C-9. This method requires
electronic reprogramming of the Personality Module software.
Upgrading the software is not a routine task, but might be performed for
reasons of a product update, a performance improvement or a product
problem repair. Also possible is an application change where an ECM is
moved to a different type of machine powered by a C-9 engine.
This ECM is currently fuel cooled in all machine applications except
Track-Type Tractors. Future On-highway Truck applications will not be
fuel cooled. Generally speaking, compared with On-highway Trucks,
machines do not have large quantities of cool air flowing around the
engine due to the low ground speed. Therefore fuel cooling on machines
is necessary to protect the ECM where there are high engine compartment
temperatures.
NOTE: The ECM is sealed and needs no routine adjustment or
maintenance. The Personality Module cannot be accessed other than
by Flash Programming. The ECM has an excellent record of
reliability. Therefore, any problems in the system are most likely to
be in the connectors and wiring harness. In other words, the ECM
should typically be the last item in troubleshooting. Using a
substitute ECM is a convenient method of troubleshooting the unit.
C-9 Engine - 43 -
07/02
30
Unit injectors
Electrically signalled,
hydraulically actuated
ECM controls opening
and closing of injector
System controls
nozzle opening and
closing
Injector trim codes
Fuel Injection
The C-9 HEUI unit injector is electrically and physically similar to the
3126E HEUI electronic unit injector. It is controlled electrically by the
ECM and is actuated hydraulically. There are other advanced features
which are described later in this presentation. The signal from the ECM
controls the opening and the closing of the solenoid valve. The solenoid
valve controls the flow of high pressure oil to the injector. This system
enables the ECM to control fuel volume, timing and injection actuation
hydraulic pressure.
This system can control both the opening and closing of the injector
nozzle.
The C-9 injector has a bar code and a numerical code marked on the
tappet. The numerical code must be entered into the ECM using ET. The
purpose of this code is to ensure that all injectors are matched as perfectly
as possible in performance, both in timing and fuel quantity.
The C-9 injector solenoids operate on 70 Volts direct current. Always
remain clear of the injector area when the engine is running or electrical
shock may occur.
C-9 Engine - 44 -
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31
WARNING
Injector testing
Injector solenoid test
Manual cylinder
cutout test
Automatic cylinder
cutout test
Three tests can be used to determine which cylinder or injector is
malfunctioning:
INJECTOR SOLENOID TEST
This test is performed while the engine is stopped. The injector solenoids
can be tested automatically with the service tool using the Injector
Solenoid Test. This function individually tests each solenoid in sequence
and indicates if a short or an open circuit is present.
MANUAL CYLINDER CUTOUT
This test is performed while the engine is running at any speed.
The 70 Volt pulse can be individually cut out to aid in troubleshooting
misfire problems in the injector and the cylinder.
AUTOMATIC CYLINDER CUTOUT TEST
This test is performed with the service tool while the engine is running.
The test makes a comparative evaluation of all injectors and numerically
shows the results. The test is repeated three times for reliability and
accuracy. The test enables an on-engine evaluation of the injectors.
When diagnosing a misfire problem, a satisfactory test of all injector
solenoids without any diagnostic messages indicates that a mechanical
problem in the cylinder probably exists. This problem could be caused by
a seized injector, a damaged inlet or exhaust valve.
C-9 Engine - 45 -
07/02
HEUI INJECTOR TESTING
METHODS
Injector Solenoid Test
Manual Cylinder Cutout
Automatic Cylinder Cutout Test
32