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LAND5CAPE
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LAND5CAPE
PHOTOGRAPHY

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All our experts are regular contributors to D|g|ta| S|P Pnotograpny nagazine. ¦or expert advice
and inspiration to help you inprove your photo skills, pick up the latest issue, available on the
second 1uesday of every nonth. ¦or further infornation, visit. www.digitalslrphoto.con
Meet our |andscapeexperts

'¦f you are passionate about shooting landscapes, then we hope
you'll ñnd this conprehensive guide helps you take your best
ever pictures. Millions of photographers around the world have
discovered the beneñts of capturing inages with a digital SLR -
their ease of use, wide choice of lenses and incredibly high inage
quality are just three reasons why DSLRs renain the nost popular
type of canera with photo enthusiasts. 1he N||on Cu|de to
|andscape Pnotograpny has been produced to allowNikon DX and
¦X-fornat DSLR users to nake the nost of their Nikon canera outñt. ¦t's packed
with essential advice, photo techniques, expert guides and stunning photography
and ains to deliver all the infornation, advice and inspiration you need to inprove
your photo skills. ¦t's brinning with tutorials fronnany of the U¦'s favourite
outdoor photographers, with enphasis on key in-canera techniques, as well as
essential and creative post-processing skills. Before heading out with your Nikon
kit, be sure to read up and learn fronthe U¦'s leading experts before heading out
to capture landscape inages like a pro. All the bestl¨
NL LZNO, TOR
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PO55HODDINOTT
Ross is anaward-winning
photographer withnany
years of experience
capturingthediverse
beautyof Britain's
landscapes andwildlife.
www.rossnodd/nott.co.uk
HELENDIXON
Helenis livingthedrean,
havinggivenupher jobto
beconeaprofessional
photographer. Sheis oneof
theU¦'s brightest talents.
www.ne/end/xon
pnotograpny.co.uk
LEEFPO5T
Aprofor twodecades,
Lee¦rost's oneof the
best-knownnanes inthe
U¦photographybusiness,
with20books tohis nane
andworldwideinagesales.
www./eefrost.co.uk
ADAMßUPTON
Ahighlysuccessful
landscapephotographer
withanextensiveportfolio
of inages, Adanis the
author of thephotography
book1heDorset Coast.
www.adam-burton.co.uk
TheNíkonGuídetoLandscape
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CONT£NT5
1N¦¦ÒNGU¦DL1ÒLANDSCAPLPHÒ1ÒGRAPHY
7Introductíonto|andscapes
Bepreparedtolearnandexploit the
fundanentals of landscapephotography
8Composítíon
1hekeytechniques youneedtonaster totake
perfect landscapes, includinglead-inlines,
foregroundinterest andnatural franes
20£xposure
Master thesesinpletechniques andyou'll beon
your waytowell-exposedlandscapes
24 PPTTUTOPIL APLR1URL-PR¦ÒR¦1Y
26XPPTTUTOPIL SHU11LRSPLLDS
28XPPTTUTOPIL WA1LR¦NLANDSCAPLS
31 5harpness
1hebest techniques for super-sharpscenics
32XPPTTUTOPIL HYPLR¦ÒCAL¦ÒCUS¦NG
34XPPTTUTOPIL ¦ÒCUS¦ÒRSHARPNLSS
36Líghtíng
Learnhowtonakethenost of anylighting
condition, fronsunrisethroughtosunset
38XPPTVI 1¦MLÒ¦DAY
40XPPTVI MAG¦CHÒURoSUNSL1S
42XPPTVI WLA1HLR
44XPPTVI SLASÒNALL¦GH1
48Raw8|andscapes
MaxiniseinagequalitybyshootinginRaw
50XPPTVI ¦N1RÒDUC1¦ÒN1ÒRAW
52XPPTVI UNDLRS1AND¦NGACR
54XPPTTUTOPIL PRÒCLSS¦NGRAW¦¦LLS
56XPPTTUTOPIL MLRG¦NGRAW¦¦LLS
58 XPPTTUTOPIL LXPÒS¦NG1Ò1HLR¦GH1
60Fí|ters
Useñlters toinproveandenhanceyour results
62XPPTVI US¦NGANNDGRAD
64XPPTVI US¦NGAPÒLAR¦SLR
66XPPTVI US¦NGANND¦¦L1LR
68XPPTVI 1HL1LN-S1ÒPND¦¦L1LR
71Co|our
Learntherelationships of colour olandscapes
72XPPTVI CÒLÒUR1HLÒRY
74XPPTVI WH¦1LBALANCL
76ß|ack8whíte
Master theart of shootingnonochrone
78XPPTVI 1HLBAS¦CSÒ¦BoW
80XPPTVI L¦GH1¦NGoWLA1HLR
82XPPTVI MÒNÒCHRÒMLCÒAS1L¦NLS
84XPPTVI LANDSCAPLS
86PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL CÒNvLR1¦NG1ÒBoW
88XPPTVI PRÒLD¦1¦NG1LCHN¦ÒULS
91Landscapeprojects
¦antastictechniques leadingtostunningscenics
92XPPTTUTOPIL SHÒÒ1¦NGWA1LR¦ALLS
96XPPTTUTOPIL M¦S1YMÒRN¦NGS
98XPPTTUTOPIL CAP1URLDAWN
100XPPTTUTOPIL CÒAS1ALSUNSL1S
102XPPTTUTOPIL SHÒÒ1BLULBLLLS
104XPPTTUTOPIL WA1LRMÒ1¦ÒN
106XPPTTUTOPIL SHÒÒ1S¦LHÒUL11LS
108XPPTTUTOPIL CAP1URLABS1RAC1S
110 XPPTTUTOPIL SHÒÒ1ALÒNL1RLL
112 XPPTTUTOPIL MUL1¦PLLLXPÒSURLS
114 XPPTTUTOPIL MÒÒNL¦1LANDSCAPLS
117Photoshoptechníques
SinplePhotoshopstep-by-steps that canbeused
toinproveandenhanceyour landscapeinages
118PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL BÒÒS1CÒN1RAS1
120PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL CÒN1RÒLCÒLÒUR
122PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL DRAWÒU1DL1A¦L
124PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL SLLLC1¦vLLD¦1¦NG
126PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL ADDM¦S1oMÒÒD
128PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL CÒLÒUR¦ULS¦¦LS
130PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL RLPLACLAS¦Y
132PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL ¦ÒURSLASÒNS
134PHOTO5HOPTUTOPIL 1LN-S1ÒPL¦¦LC1
TURNTOPAG£90TOFINDOUTAßOUT
OURFANTA5TIC5Uß5CRIPTIONOFF£R5
136Landscapegear
1hebest equipnent for outdoor photography
136ILKIT5FOPPOUIPMNT5
142 OMPPHN5IVLN5T5T5
150XPPTTUTOPIL W¦DL-ANGLLLLNSLS
152XPPTTUTOPIL 1LLLZÒÒMS
154FILTP55TM5PN5
158HOO5INGTHPIGHTTPIPO
160 HOO5INGTHPIGHTG
162Perfect exposures
Cut out anduseour freegreycardl

OFEXPEPT
LND5CPE
DVICE
Ior 2 year warranty on any camera and |ens k|t s|mp|y reg|ster your new N|kon w|th|n 30 days of purchase.
Uffer app||es to 0k 8 kepub||c of Ire|and stock on|y. Ca|| 0800 59T 84T2 or v|s|t www.n|kon.co.uk/reg|ster
l AM 1h£ Nlk0N b610. l ar a rew d|rers|or. w|t| r, íu|| írare
24.3 Hl sersor ,ou car s|oot proíess|ora| |raçes w|t| ease. Capture up to
b íps w|t| 100° .|ewírder co.eraçe ard ar l:0 oí 100·b400, erpardab|e
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ard a|wa,s ço urrot|ced. l ar íu||·írare períorrarce.www.niken.ce.uk
l AM l0LL·lR/ML lOvLR

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CP1URLS1UNN¦NGLNDSCPLS -weall want tobeableto
doit. ¦antasticlandscapes inspirenorephotographers thanany
other typeof inageandonthefaceof it, well, it shouldbeeasy to
do. ¦indanawesonevista andpoint your canera at it, press the
shutter andthat shoulddothetrick. 1his sinpleapproachwill
probably bagyoua decent snap, but oftentheinageyoucapture
will not dojusticetotheglorious sceneinfront of you. We'veall
beena littlebit disappointedby a photothat doesn't quiteliveup
toour great expectations. 1hediherencebetweena decent snap
anda stunninginageis oftendowntoa fewversatileideas, sone
easily learnedexpert knowledge, theright equipnent choiceand
careful planning. 1his inspirational guidewill provideyouwithan
excellent graspof thesefundanentals andhelpyoutransforn
your shots frontheordinary intosonethingvery special indeed.
THß5IC5
Thebasícs LNIKONUDL1ÒLNDSCPLPÒ1ÒRP¥
Thebasícs: Composítíon 1LNIKONUDL1ÒLNDSCPLPÒ1ÒRP¥

Thebasícs: Composítíon
TheruIe-of-thirds
his is a sinpleway of organisingtheelenents inthe
franesothat they createa balancedconposition. s a
conpositional tool, it's beenaroundfor a fewcenturies
andis a sinpliñedversionof the'goldensection', which
is usedinart andarchitecture.
naginetwovertical lines dividingtheviewñnder into
thirds. Nowdothesanewithtwohorizontal lines. You
thenorganisethenainelenents of thepicturewithin
this grid. ¦or exanple, witha sinplelandscape, place
thehorizonononeof thelines sothat youhave
two-thirds landandone-thirdsky, or viceversa.
f youhavea strongfocal point, suchas a treeor
building, youcanplaceit ononeof thepoints wherethe
horizontal andvertical lines intersect. his will nakea
nuchnoredynanicconpositionthanif youwereto
placethefocal point centrally, whichcannakea picture
look rather static. nexperiencedphotographers often
put thesubject right intheniddleandit rarely works.
Movinganelenent of a scenetoa diherent
intersectioncancreatea startlingly diherent inage,
suchis thepower of therule-of-thirds. on't beafraid
toexperinent withdiherent variations ona thene.
PULE-OF-THIPD5GPID: This imagefoIIows theruIe-of-
thirds quitecIoseIy. Thereis approximateIytwo-thirds Iandl
seaandone-thirdsky. TheIighthouseandobeIiskaredivided
bytheIeft verticaI, eachequidistant fromit.
MÒRNNYother factor, conpositioncanturnan
averageinageintoa nasterpiece. herearea snall
nunber of techniques that, oncelearned, will serveyou
well innany diherent situations.
onposingtheelenents inthefraneis aninportant
skill of takinggreat pictures. Youneedtocarefully
consider howpoints of interest arearrangedandhow
they relatetoeachother inthescene.
Placinga subject centrally inthefraneusually results
ina staticrather thandynanicconposition. Placingthe
subject oh-centreencourages theeyetonovearound
thefranenore. Òneway of dividingthefraneupto
achieveharnony is tousetherule-of-thirds (see
below). hereis researchtosuggest that our brains are
wiredtoñndthesearrangenents noreattractive.
Composítíon
earntheart of conpositionandyou'll be
halfwaytheretotakingbrilliant photos
1LNIKONUDL1ÒLNDSCPLPÒ1ÒRP¥
Thebasícs: Composítíon
utt
s thewo s thee-nenson ut photogphs two-
nenson, oneo thennesons tht nscpenges s tht
they ont convey thesenseo epththt ou eyes see. ¦otuntey,
theee ewconposton tcks tht wecnenpoy toget oun
ths the usttngttepoen.
vey ehectvewy toceteepthn photogphs toncue
stongoegoun, otennconunctonwth we-ngeens.
nphssngtheoegoun nths wy w epthtothepctuey
cetngnenty-pont o theeye, pungthevewe ntothescene
ngvngthepctue senseo stncensce.
e-ngeenses hepths technqueecusethey stetch
pespectve, exggetngtheeenents cosetotheens nopenng
uptheveweyontheoegoun.
But eceu, ths cnesut nthenestnceookngenpty
n ckngnnteest sothetck s toshoot onowe vewpont.
hs conpesses thenestnce, sotht theesnt toonuch
enpty spcentheconposton. ou soneetousesn petue
n ocus ceuy tonxnseepth-o-ñe, keepngoegoun
n stnt oects nocus (we expnhowtooths te).
Lead-inIines
Lines represent depthina pictureandcanbeusedtoleadyour eyeinto
thepictureandguideit aroundthescene. Lines areeverywhere.
nan-nade, suchas roads, paths andhedgerows, or natural, suchas
rivers or thecoastline. ll will adddynanisntoyour photographs. Lines
don't havetobereal, they canbeinpliedlikethepatterns createdby
waves over a longishexposure, or objects pointingintothefrane.
Lots of things canbringlinear energy intoyour work.
Straight, converginglines arevery dynanicandcangivea lot of inpact
toa picture, but thereis always thedanger that theeyefollows thelines into
andthenvery quickly out of thefraneagain. Pictures withonly converging
lines night haveinnediateinpact, but canstill beunsatisfying. t's a good
idea totry toplacesoneobject of interest withinthefrane-a ñgureor a
tree, for exanple-togivetheeyesonethingtosettleonwithinthescene.
Lines that curvegently inan'S' shapelack theinnediateinpact of
straight, converginglines, but canresult ina noresatisfyinginage.
1hey canleadtheeyegently throughthewholepicture, allowingthe
viewer totakeinother elenents withintheconposition.
Layers andpIanes
nother in-canera techniquethat canbeusedtoadddepthtoan
inageis thecreationof a layers. Layers inaninagecanbecreatedby
havinga series of overlappingshapes, likethehills inthis inage, right,
or by strongside-lighting, creatingalternatebands of light andshade
that cancreatetheehect of layers of light.
1his kindof techniqueworks particularly well withlonger lenses that
conpress perspectiveandstack overlappingforns. achlayer, or
plane, appears thinner andcloser tothenext, exaggeratingtheehect.
Just renenber longer lenses produceless depth-of-ñeldsoyou'll
needtousesnaller apertures, suchas fiI6, if elenents areinthe
foregroundor near theniddledistance.
1his shot was takenat dawnnear LyneRegis usinga/0-200nn
zoonat aroundI00nn. 1helonger focal lengthconpresses the
distances betweenthelayers andthestrong, directional light helps
enphasisethelayers -theearlynorningnist adds bags of atnosphere.
GETTINGITPIGHT: ThecowparsIeyandgorsemakeattractiveforegrounds to
IeadtheeyeintothesceneandprovidesuitabIeframes for theviewbeyond.
Awide-angIeIens andasmaII apertureof fl22providepIentyof depth-of-ñeId.
ßIGFOPEGPOUNDOP5MALLDETAIL: It's not aIways necessarytohavea
Iargeforeground, coIour, textureandpatterncanprovideforegroundinterest.
This carpet of ñowers is as ehectiveas thestrongshapes of rocks, opposite.

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Conpositionis all about
what youchoose toinclude
inthe frane -andalso
what youchoose toleave
out. Òften, less is nore and
conpositions that are
unclutteredcanbe the
nost successful
Thebasícs: omposítíon
eaktheruIes!
eall rules, therule-of-thirds needs tobeappliedwith
judgenent rather thanas a natter of courseandthere
will always besituations whereit canbeignored. ¦or
exanple, whenshootinga scenewherethesky is
refectedinwater, younight want toplacethehorizon
across theniddleof thefrane, givingthetwoelenents
of theshot -sky andrefection-equal weighting.
¦f thereis nointerest inthesky, placethehorizon
higher inthefraneor cropit out altogether. 1oincrease
a senseof enptiness andisolation, thehorizoncanbe
placedvery lowinthefrane. 1hebeauty of shooting
digitally is theeaseat whichyoucanreviewyour ehorts
andexperinent toensuretheperfect conposition.
1LOUDL1ÒLNDSCPLPÒ1ÒRP¥
Thebasícs: omposítíon
indnaturaI frames
itional deviceis touseelenents ina
scenetofranetheviewbeyond, suchas anarchway,
doorway, windowor theoverhangingbranches of trees.
1ry usingfrost-coveredplants andgateposts tocreate
a natural franefor thenainsubject of your shot. Use
thefranetoleadtheviewer's eyeintothescenefor
sonetruly eye-catchingresults.
Control your focus anddepth-of-ñeldcarefully
though. Whilea snall apertureoftenworks best,
blurringthefranesigniñcantly canhelpkeepattention
onthenainsubject. ¦f youdowant torender your frane
out of focus, nakesureyoublur it enoughsothat the
ehect looks deliberateandnot likea nistakeinfocusing.
Experiment withviewpoints
¦indingtheright viewpoint is keytosuccessful landscape
conposition. Rather thanshootingeverythingfronhead
height, experinent withhighandlowviewpoints.
Higher viewpoints havetheehect of openingupthe
planes intheinageandareuseful whenusingstandard
andtelephotolenses. Whenphotographingwell-
knownlandnarks, it's tenptingtousetheestablished
viewpoints, but spendtinelookingfor a freshview, as
it's nuchnoresatisfyingtocapturesonethingoriginal.
Whilethere's nothingwrongwiththeñrst picture, it's
the'standard' viewof ÒldHarry Rocks inDorset. Without
havingtonovevery far, however, aless photographed
andnoredranaticviewpoint has beenfound.
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try totnnts wtnsn
onnt s ny r ntfowof the
linewill leavetheconpositionfeeling
disjointedandallowtheviewer's gazeto
wander ainlessly inandout of thefrane.
Youcanenhanceyour lead-inlines
dependingonwhat viewpoint andlens you
choose, as bothcaneither fattenor stretch
perspective. 1henost dynanicdistortionof
lead-inlines is convergingverticals.
Convergingdiagonal lines createapowerful
inpressionof distanceanddepth, especially
if they convergeintothecentreof thefrane
andrunparallel toeachother. By standingin
theniddleof then, you'll ñndthat the
further thelines areaway fronthecanera,
thecloser they get toeachother, creating
what's knownas avanishingpoint when
they join. wide-anglelens cangreatly
enhancethis ehect as it stretches
perspective-sothelines seenwider at the
start andnarrower inthedistance-whereas
atelephotolens conpresses perspective
andhinders thefeelingof depth.
Lead-inIines don't haetobestraight or Iead
toafocaI oint: theIinecanaIsobetheinterest
intheicture. Notehowyour eyeis Iedthrough
thescenebythewintrytree-Iinedroad.
2) WhenusingconergingerticaIs, youneed
toget theentiresceneinfocus. 5et thecamera
onatriod, seIect asmaII aerture(fl11-fl22) and
focus onthehyerfocaI distancefor maximum
deth-of-ñeId.
3) 5imIecomositions cansometimes bethe
most ehectie. Thinkabout creatingagrahic
coastaI Iandscaewithnothingmorethan
groynes or aier as aIead-inIine. ßyconnecting
it tothehorizon, too, it means theiewer's gaze
is Iedintothefar reaches of thesceneandIed
out of theframebythehorizonIine.
4) DiagonaI Iines canbeusedtodrawthegaze
frombottomIeft totoright, wheretheeye
naturaIIygraitates, as inthis coastaI Iandscae
wheretheIines of rocks conergetowards the
stunningsunset sky.
5) Thefenceinthis ictureis usedas aneat
deicetodrawtheeyeintowards thefocaI oint:
theeIeatedcastIeinthedistance.
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Lead-í|íes
Master oneof thenost inportant
conpositional tools. lead-inlines
Thebasícs: Csítí
2 3 4
1
5hadows Texture Footrints
1ryphotographinglead-inlines frondiherent
angles. Younayñndthat photographingthelines
enteringthefraneat anangleworks better than
if youcapturedthenstartingwithinthefrane.
1heoppositecanbetrue, too. 1rydiherent
perspectives. get lowtothegroundfor extrene
convergingverticals. 1ilt thecanerauptosee
what vertical lines youcanñndandtrytoelevate
your positionbystandingonabridge, for instance.
boveall, keepyour eyes andyour nindopenfor
less obvious linear aspects anddon't forget the
other guidelines for conposition, including
foregroundinterest andtherule-of-thirds.
1LNIKONUDL1ÒLNDSCPLPÒ1ÒRP¥

1HL1, R1war photographer
Robert Capa oncesaid, '¦f a picture's not
goodenough, youweren't closeenough.¨ He
was talkingabout capturingthedrana of
hunanconfict, of course, andtheneedtobe
intheheart of theaction-anapproachthat
unfortunately eventually cost hinhis life.
However, thesanenaxincaneasily be
appliedtolandscapephotography becauseif
youwant tocapturethedrana of a great
scene, youneedtonoveincloseandnake
thenost of theforeground-it's oneof the
inportant elenents youneedtocreatea
dynanicconposition.
oregroundinterest is useful for a nunber
of reasons. irst andforenost, enphasising
theforegroundwill helptogiveyour
photographs a senseof distanceandscale.
1his is duetoperspective-features closeto
thecanera look nuchbigger thanthose
further way, soour braininnediately
registers that thesnaller features nust bein
thedistanceandweseetheinageas
three-dinensional, nakingit norerealistic.
Second, theforegroundprovides a
convenient entry point intotheconposition
for theviewer's eye, whichthennaturally
travels upthroughthescenetothefocal
point or thebackground. successful
conpositionneeds a 'hook' toenticethe
viewer andholdtheattention. With
landscapes, theforegroundis that hook.
1hird, theforegroundcontains nore
infornationthantherest of thescene, and
beingclosest tothecaneraallows youto
recordtheñnedetail that isn't ahectedby
haze, nist andfog. istant features will record
softer andundeñnedinsuchconditions.
Wide-anglelenses arethenost useful for
exploitingforegroundinterest as theyallow
youtoincludeelenents inashot that are
literallyat your feet. 1hewaywide-angle
lenses 'stretch' perspectivealsonakes those
elenents loonlargeinthefranewhile
everythingelseseens torushawayintothe
distance. 1helower theviewpoint youadopt,
thenoretheforegroundwill doninate.
Lenses withafocal lengthof I6-I8nn
(24-2/nnonfull-franesensors) area
relativelysafebet tobeginwithas they'rewide
enoughtoincludelots of foregroundinterest
without beingsowidethat youendupwithall
foregroundandnothingelse. Ònceyour
conñdencegrows, youcanproduceanazing
inages withultrawide-anglelenses fron
I-I5nn(I5-22nnfull-frane), but youneed
toget reallyclosetotheforeground, otherwise
it will seenniles awayduetotheexcessive
'stretching' of perspectivethat youget with
thesewider lenses.
1elephotolenses areless dynanicinthis
respect, as theforegroundinterest youinclude
is fornedbyelenents or features inthescene
that areobviouslyfurther away, whilethe
foreshorteningof perspective'squeezes' the
elenents together sothat youdon't get the
sanesenseof distanceandthree-dinension
as withawide-angle. Nevertheless, theehect
canstill bestrong, withasinglefeature
doninatingtheforeground.
What canbeusedas foregroundinterest¯
Pretty nuchanything-rocks, rivers, walls,
gates, fences, trees, nooredboats, sand
ripples, refections, people. eatures and
elenents inthescenethat createnatural or
assunedlines work thebest of all, as they
leadtheviewer's eyeintoandthroughthe
scene. Lines that travel vertically work well,
lines that travel diagonally fronbottonleft to
topright work evenbetter, andlines that
convergeintothedistance, suchas railway
tracks or straight roads, arethenost
powerful of all. 1onakethenost of vertical
andconverginglines, turnyour canera onits
sideandshoot inportrait fornat. iagonal
lines arebetter shot inlandscapefornat as
they havefurther totravel throughthe
conposition, holdingattentionfor longer.
Swot uponhowyoushoulduseforegroundinterest togiveyour
shots depthandscaleandinprovetheinpact of your inages
Foregroundínterest
1) ewie-gIeIe t'treth'
eretiveIwviewit tmkethe
regruiteret mrermiet.
) Trypickingsubjects that formdiagonaI Iines
IeadingfromthebottomIeft tothetopright of
theframe, Iiketheseboats do, as it draws the
viewer intothepicture.
3) Insteadof usingforegroundinterest as a
preIudetoadistant focaI point, trycomposing
pictures wherethedominant subject is inthe
foregroundandkeepthebackgroundsimpIe.
4) OnegoodreasonwhyyoushouIdn't Ieave
homewithout anarrayof NDgradñIters is to
ensureyour foregroundis correctIyexposed.
InIow-Iight conditions, Iikeasunset, it's easy
torender theforegrounddarkanddistracting.
5) PracticaIIyanythingcanworkas foreground
interest, as Iongas it's composedweII andñts
withtherest of thescene. Lookfor unusuaI
subjects or for objects that youmaynever
haveconsideredusingbefore, suchas
driftwood, sheIIs or wreckageremains.
6) Pocks arethemost popuIar subjects touse
inacoastaI Iandscapeandcanbethemost
ehectivewhenusedas aIead-inIine, aIso.
Jetties andpiers workweII, too, andhavethe
addedbonus of youbeingabIetointroduce
convergingverticaIs.
Thebasícs: Composítíon
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axímísedepth-of-fíe|d
1here's nopoint includingfantastic
foregroundif it's out of focus, what youneed
is enoughdepth-of-ñeldfor front-to-back
sharpness. s aruleof thunb, if youusea
canerawithanPS-Csensor withafocal
lengtharoundI6-I8nn, focus thelens ona
point I.5nfronthecanera, stopdownto
fiII andeverythingwill besharpfronaround
/5cntoinñnity. ¦or wider focal lengths inthe
I0-I5nnrange, focus onapoint onenetre
away, stopdowntofiII andeverythingwill
besharpfronaround50cntoinñnity. ¦or
full-franeDSLRs withafocal lengthinthe
24-28nnrange, focus onapoint I.5n
away, stopdowntofiI6anddepth-of-ñeld
will extendfronaround/5cntoinñnity. ¦or
wider lenses intheI6-20nnrange, focus
onIn, stopdowntofiI6andyou'll get
depth-of-ñeldfronaround50cntoinñnity.
Basically, tonaxinisedepth-of-ñeldwith
wide-anglelenses, youneedtofocus ona
point relativelyclosetothecanera, nany
photographers focus further intothescene,
resultinginanunsharpinage.
Usingarchways is somethingwe'veseenmany
times before, but theyaIways IendthemseIves
beautifuIIytoframeafocaI oint. It works
articuIarIyweII withthis churchbecausethe
detaiI intheframecomIements thesubject.
2) Thinkabout symmetrywhenIookingfor
naturaI frames, it is aIways Ieasingtotheeye.
Eventhemost simIeof arrangements can
createimact, as seenhere.
3) UsingnaturaI frames is agreat wayof adding
foregroundinterest toascene. WhiIethecastIeis
thefocaI oint inthis image, it's thedramatic
sikes that addimact for theviewer.
4) Your subject doesn't havetoñII theframetobe
striking-heretheextrasaceinfact heIs to
frameanddrawemhasis tothesmaII chaeI. Try
usingsubtIebut grahicshaes intheIandscae,
suchas cIouds or hiIIs, toimroveyour
comosition-simIycentringthechurchwouId
faiI tocreatethesameenergyas it does here.
Thinkoutsidetheboxandyou'II begintosee
frames inthemost unIikeIyIaces.
5) Thedarkframehereis astrikingcontrast tothe
Iighter scenebeyond. Lookfor diherences in
coIour toemhasiseyour frameandaddimact.
ehectiveways to
produceatight, structuredconpositionis by
franingthesceneor subject you'reshooting.
Not onlydoes this helptodirect theviewer's
eyetowards thenost inportant part of the
picture, but franes canalsobeusedtohide
uninterestingareas, suchas abroadexpanse
of enptysky. Natural franes canbeusedin
all types of photography, but areaboundin
thelandscapeif youkeepyour eyes peeled.
Whenyouthink of natural franes, what
cones tonind¯ 1heoverhangingbranches
of atreeareperhaps thenost obvious. gap
betweentrees that franes adistant focal
point¯ Howabout overhangingclihs or the
entrancetoacave¯ Ònthecoast, thegaps
betweenrock outcrops or clihs canbeused
tofranethebeachandseabeyond.
1heseareall fairly obvious options, but if
youstart tothink laterally, other ideas will
present thenselves. ¦or exanple, theshape
of ahillsideor nountaincanbeusedto
franefeatures positionedinfront of it.
louds inthesky canact likeafrane, too
-containingelenents onthegroundand
forcingtheeyedowntowards then.
Whenshootingusingafraneandthesun
is behindyou, light will fall ontotheentire
scene, soeverythingwill beof asinilar
brightness andshouldrecordnoreor less as
youseeit. ¦f you'reshootingintothelight,
however, or thesunis tothesideof the
canera's position, thenainpart of thescene
nay bewell lit, but littleor nolight will fall
directly ontothefraneandit will recorddark
or evenas asilhouette. ¦f thefraneandthe
scenebeyondit is evenly lit, youshouldn't
experienceany problens obtaining
well-exposedinages. ¦f you'restandingin
theshadowof thefrane, however,
overexposureis likely. ¦f this proves tobethe
case, stepbeyondthefraneandout of the
shade, takeanexposurereading, set it on
your canerausingtheL-ock or by
shootinginnanual exposurenode, and
don't changeanythingonceyoureconpose
withthefraneincluded. lternatively, takea
shot fronyour shootingposition, check the
previewinageandhistogran, thenapply
negativeor positiveexposureconpensation
as requiredandretakeyour exposure.
¦inally, if youwant thefraneandthe
scenebeyondtoberenderedinfocus,
select a snall lens aperture, suchas fiI3, and
usehyperfocal focusingtonaxinise
depth-of-ñeld(seepage32for details).
lternatively, by settinga wideaperturesuch
as fi4andfocusingonthescenebeyondthe
frane, depth-of-ñeldwill bereducedso
that thefraneitself is thrownout of focus
andall attentionis directedtowards your
nainsubject.
¦or ideas, inspirationandinfornationonhowtoinproveyour
landscapepictures byusingenvironnental franes, readon...
Howoenaa| fame
Thebaíc: Compoííon
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Wíde-ang|eoe|ephoo?
1heehect thefranehas onthe
conpositionis partlydeterninedbyyour
lens choice. Wide-anglelenses stretch
perspectivesotheapparent distance
betweentheelenents inasceneis
increased. ¦f younoveclosetoanatural
frane, youcanincludeit intheshot, but
you'll still get aclear viewof thescene
beyond. 1elephotolenses havethe
oppositeehect -theyconpress
perspectivesotheelenents inascene
appear closer together. 1his nakes then
less suitedtoshootingnatural franes,
thoughtheycanbehandyat tines if
you'reunabletoget closetoanehective
franeandyou'rehappyfor thescene
beyondthefranetobenoreselective.
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1LNIKONUDL1ÒLNDSCPLPÒ1ÒRP¥

Thebasícs: £xposure
£xposure
LRs haveextrenelyaccurate, nulti-zoneneteringsystens withahistogranfunctiontohelpus
checkaccurateexposure, sogettingit right has never beeneasier. However, totakenorecreativecontrol,
youneedtotakethings intoyour ownhands. Hereareafewtechniques for perfect exposures
1 i i a ecaera i-oeeer
caei io eaidof añraio e
ceei igicora adecaeraa
rggedocarea eoa iforaio
o eer readig froebaseof hecross
andheskreveaIedadiherenceinbrighness of
abou 4.5sops. 5einganexposurefor heIand,
I ñeda.9Ngrad(hreesops) andpuIIedi
downbeIowhehorionoheedgeof hedarkes
shadowarea. I usedasof gradsoha i wouIdn'
cu aIineinohecross. s hereis someIoss of
deaiI inhebrigher pars of hesk, I reducedhe
exposurebwohirds of asopandresho.
3) TheresuI is ha heimagehas nowbeen
'exposedoherigh' (seeover hepagefor
deaiIs), wihou 'cIipping' hehighIighs. The
hisogramshows ha herearesiII darkones, bu
aIsopIenof informaioninheopsecion, and
nocIippedshadows.
4) sraigh conversionof hePawñIeIooks duII,
hepicureIacks conras. For heñnaI version, I've
brough heexposuredownsIighIandadded
moreconras, especiaIIinheshadows, o
recreaehedramaof heoriginaI scene. I'veaIso
weakedheWhieaIanceoaddwarmhand
increasedhesauraionoo.
5) For comparisonpurposes, I aIsoookasho ha
was underexposedbonesop. s oucansee, i's
Ief heshadows muddandIackingindeaiI.
Markauer
¦ was lookingfor anunusual viewof
CorfeCastleinDorset, so¦ sauntered
alongtothis graveyardinthevillage.
Havingfoundaconpositionbased
aroundoneof thecrosses, thenext
problenwas sortingout theexposure. Here's
how¦ tackledthechallenge.
MID-TON£M£T£RING
Meteringsystens indigital caneras are
calibratedtoanI8°grey nid-tone. Basing
exposurereadings onanid-tonesuchas grass
is agoodstartingpoint for accurateexposures
£xpose correct|y
5hadows
1hesetwoexanples onthe
right showwhyit's not a
goodideatounderexpose
your shot andthentryto
openuptheshadows
duringpost-processing.
1henearest inageis around
onestopunderexposed(to
naintainhighlight detail)
andtheshadowcurvehas
beenpulleduptonatchthe
exposureinthecorrectly
exposedversiononthe
right. s youcansee, not
onlyis thereposterisationin
theshadows, rather than
snoothtonal transitions,
andtons of noise, but also
thesensor has recorded
signiñcantlyless detail.
Underexposed orrec exposure
1LNIKONUDL1ÒLNDSCPLPÒ1ÒRP¥
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ícs: £xposure
posurefor ostI Inspes
chivinthcoct posuincoastal shots canba bit ticki
thanfo inlandlandscaps, as thasval thins that canfool th
canas ntinsstn-fo anpl, biht hihlihts onat o
biht hitfoan avs canladtoundposu. nthoth
hand, if ouhavchosna la, dak ock fo ou foound, this
couldcausthcana toovpos. oundtokpanout
fo an laaas of paticulal biht o dak tons andappl
posuconpnsationaccodinl. t is oodpactictochck th
histoanaft achshot andbppadtoshoot if ncssa.
1hcanalsobahuanof contast ithinan onscn, ith
biht skis, dak ocks andbiht hihlihts onat. utal nsit
() aduatlts assntial, anddpndinonthconditions and
thbihtnss of thsk andsalativtoou foound, ouna
ndtopull thaddonv lointhfan. 1his couldvnb
blothhoion, tothtopof ou foound. f oudont, ou
niht ndupithacoctl posdsk andfooundithaband
of ov-biht at inthniddlof thpictu. Sowhenneteringthe
scenetochoosethestrengthandplacenent of theñlter, renenber to
takereadings frontheforeground, sky andsea.
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Longexposures
posintopturemovement
neof thegreat things about takingphotos
bytheseais theopportunities it gives for
capturingthenovenent of waves and
addingatnosphere. ¦nlowlight, withthe
lens stoppeddowntoextenddepth-of-ñeld,
longexposures areanecessity. 1heynay
rangefronseveral seconds toninutes,
dependingonlightingconditions. s waves
washaroundrocks or upanddownthe
shorewhiletheshutter is open, theywill
recordas aronantic, nysterious nist. 1o
capturethedranaof waves breakingonthe
shore, speeds of Ii4secor slower workwell.
1LNIKONUDL1ÒLNDSCPLPÒ1ÒRP¥
1LNIKONUDL1ÒLNDSCPLPÒ1ÒRP¥
Hístograms: naídtocheckíngexposure
ranis a two-dinensional graph, oftenresenblinga rangeof nountain
peaks, whichrepresents aninage's tonal extent. While, at ñrst glance, histograns night appear
conplex andconfusing, they'reactually very sinpletoread. 1hey areanessential aidfor digital
photographers strivingtoachieveconsistently correct exposures in-canera andarea nore
accuratenethodof assessingexposurethanlookingat inages you'vetakenonthenonitor.
1herefore, if you'renot already inthehabit of regularly reviewingyour inages' histograns, it is tine
youdidso. Withour guide, youwill soonfeel conñdent assessinghistograns.
What is ahistogram?histogranis a visual representationof aninage's tonal range. 1he
horizontal axis indicates thepicture's extent fronpureblack (0, far left) topurewhite(225, far right).
1hevertical axis shows hownany pixels havethat particular value. ookingat aninage's
histogran, youcantell whether thepictureis nadeupof predoninantly light, dark or nid-tones.
lthoughits appearanceis alsodictatedby thecolour andtoneof thesubject, a histogranwitha
largenunber of pixels (or a sharppeak) groupedat either edgeis anindicationof poor exposure.
¦or exanple, a histogranwitha largenunber of black pixels (groupedtotheleft) oftensigniñes
underexposureandthat subject detail will beobscuredintheshadowareas. largenunber of
pixels groupedtotheright of thehistogrannornally indicates anoverexposedinage. 1heinage's
highlights will burnout (or 'clip') andthis detail is irretrievable. graphwitha narrowpeak inthe
niddleandno(or few) black or whitepixels indicates aninagelackingcontrast.
5owhat shouIdahistogramIookIike?1his is a tricky onetoanswer. espitewhat sonepeople
nay say, thereis nosuchthingas theperfect histogran. t sinply tells us howa pictureis exposed,
allowingphotographers todecidewhether -andhow-toadjust exposuresettings. 1herefore, a
histogranof a light scenewill bevery diherent frononewithpredoninantly black tones or one
witha nix of both. owever, generally speaking, a histogranshouldshowa goodspreadof tones
across thehorizontal axis, withthenajority of pixels positionednear totheniddle(I00,
nid-point). Nornally, it is desirabletoavoidpeaks totheright-handsideof thegraph, as this is
usually anindicationof 'burnt out' (overexposed) highlights, resultinginlost detail.
Whenassessinga histogran, it is inportant toconsider thebrightness of thesubject itself. ¦or
exanple, a sceneor subject boastinga largepercentageof light or dark tones -likesnowor a
silhouette-will naturally haveanehect ontheoverall look of theresultinggraph. 1herefore, while
it is possibletonakereconnendations, it is inpossibletogeneraliseabout what is andisn't a good
histogran. Whileanevenspreadof pixels throughout thegreyscaleis oftenconsidereddesirable,
youwill alsoneedtouseyour ownknowledgegainedthroughexperience.
HowdoI checkanimage's histogram?Most Nikondigital SRs allowyoutoviewthehistogran
onthenonitor duringplayback. 1odothis, press theplayback buttontoviewtheinageand
thencyclethroughtheadditional photoinfoscreens until thehistogranis displayed. Makethis
your default settingsoyoucanquickly access thehistogranandassess exposureinnediately
after takingthepicturewhenrequired. f thehistogranindicates underexposure, apply positive
exposureconpensation. f pixels aregroupedtotheright-handsideandtheinageappears
overexposed, dial innegativeconpensation. Usingthehistogranis a far norereliablenethodof
assessingexposurethanlookingat inages onthe screen, particularly whentryingtoview
inages outdoors inbright light whenthelight refectingfronthecanprovedeceptive.
Peaks totheIeft: Thehistogramis skewedtothe
Ieft. Thedarkbackdropmeans manyof thepixeIs
areinshadowareas, but theimageis weII exposed.
Perfect exposure: typicaI Iandscapescenegives
aso-caIIed'perfect histogram' as it has agood
spreadof tones andpeaks throughthemid-tones.
Peaks totheright: weII-exposedshot of anoverIy
Iight scenegives ahistogramskewedtotheright,
muchIikethat of anoverexposedimage.
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£xposurewarníngs
Most SRs aredesignedwithaplayback
functionknownas the'highlights screen'.
Whilehistograns provideagraphic
illustrationof aninage's tonal extent,
helpingyouassess exposureoverall, the
highlights screen-or highlights alert -helps
photographers toavoidhighlights burning
out. Whiteor verylight subjects indirect
sunlight areespeciallypronetothis.
histogranwithasharppeaktothefar right
nornallyindicates areas of overexposure.
owever, thehighlights alert actually
identiñes thepixels that exceedthevaluefor
purewhite(255). 1hosepixels arenot givena
value, neaningtheycannot beprocessed
andareehectivelydiscarded, havingno
detail or infornationrecorded. Whenthe
inageis reviewedonthe, thepixels
fallingoutsidethecanera's dynanicrange
fashor blink, providingaquickandgraphic
illustrationof wherepicturedetail is 'burned
out' anddevoidof detail. 1orectifythis, set
negativeexposureconpensationsothat the
next inageis recordeddarker. canera's
highlights alert is not always switchedonby
default. onsult your nanual andswitchit
onwhenyoufeel this typeof exposure
warningwouldproveuseful, nornallyit's via
thecanera's PlaybackMenu.
Teí: xue 1LIKUDL1ÒLNDSCPLPÒ1ÒRP¥
xeeíg
'Exposingtotheright' is fast becomingawidely acceptedapproachtohelp
maximiseimagequality -althoughit only applies if youshoot inRaw. Withthis
techniqueyouenectively pushexposuresettings as closetooverexposureas
possiblewithout actually clippingthehighlights. Theresult is ahistogramwith
themajority of pixels groupedtotheright of themid-point -hencethename
'exposetotheright'. So, whenyou'reconhdent youunderstandexposures
well enough, givethis techniqueatry andpushtheexposureas far totheright
of thehistogramas youcan, without clippingthehighlights. Theimagewill
probably lookalittlelight onceintheRawconverter, but this is easily
correctedwiththebrightness andcontrast controls, andwill givemuchbetter
results thantryingtolightenadarker image.
CCDandCMOSsensors count light inalinear fashion. Most digital SLRs
recorda12-bit imagecapableof recording4,096tonal values over six stops.
8ut thetonal values arenot spreadevenly across thesix stops, eachstop
records half thelight of theprevious one. So, half of thelevels aredevotedto
thebrightest stop(2,048ì, half of theremainder (1,024levelsì aredevotedto
thenext stopandsoon. As aresult, thelast anddarkest of thesix stops only
boasts 64levels. This might seemconfusingbut, simply, if youdonot properly
usetheright sideof thehistogram, whichrepresents themajority of tonal
values, youarewastinguptohalf of theavailableencodinglevels. If you
deliberately underexposetoensuredetail is areretainedinthehighlights -
acommonpracticeamongmany digital photographers -youarepotentially
losingalargepercentageof thedatathat canbecaptured.
Mainimageðinset: Exposuretotheright of thehistogramwiII
capturemaximumdetaiI andminimumnoise. OnceinthePaw
converter, theimagewiII IooktooIight andwashedout, sousethe
ßrightness andContrast controIs toadjust theimage's appearance.

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CoIour histograms
Sone SLRs allowyouthe
optiontoviewseparate
histograns for the red,
greenandblue channels.
You're better ohignoring
this optionandusing the
standardgreyscale
histogran
Thebasícs: erture-ríríty 1LNIKONUDL1ÒLNDSCPLPÒ1ÒRP¥

H

ts ts nnust
llows youtowprtur(inunr) youwnt
toustotk potorp wltnr
utontlly sts torrsponnsuttr sp
sonlt lvls tovtorrt xposur. n
otr wors t lts youprortstprturslton
nt ooss tsuttr spornly.
s tlns prturs tnost nfuential factor over
depth-of-ñeld(thezoneof focus) ina photograph,
aperture-priority nodeis thenost practical shooting
nodeif youarephotographinga subject or situationin
whichcontrol over depth-of-ñeldis inportant.
Landscapephotography is thebest exanple. Generally,
whenshootinglandscapes, you'll want tonakesureyour
depth-of-ñeldis broadenoughtorecordthewhole
sceneinfocus, frontheinnediateforegroundtoinñnity,
whichneans that you'll needtoset a snall aperture, such
as fiII. perture-priority nodelets youdothis easily,
becauseyouhavetoactively set therequiredaperture.
Whenshootingportraits, theoppositetends toapply
-youwant shallowdepth-of-ñeldsothat your subject is
recordedinfocus but thebackgroundis thrownout of
focus. 1hat neans nakingsureyoutakethepicturewitha
wideaperturesuchas fi4or fi2.8, whichagainis easy
whenshootinginaperture-priority nodebecauseit's you
andnot thecanera that decides whichaperturetouse.
1hat said, youcanstill control whichapertureis set
usingother exposurenodes, but it just requires a slightly
diherent (andlonger) way of working. ¦nshutter-priority
(S) node, for exanple, youneedtochangetheshutter
speeduntil thecanera sets theapertureyouwant. ¦n
progrannode, youcanusetheprogranshift functionto
changetheapertureandshutter conbinationthat the
canera has set until youget theright aperture.
Whereaperture-prioritynodetrunps other nodes is
that onceyou'veset anaperture, thecanerawon't change
it, evenif light levels fuctuate. ¦nstead, theshutter speed
adjusts tonaintainthecorrect exposure. 1his wouldn't be
thecaseif youset shutter-priority-if light levels change,
your caneragives shutter speedpriority, autonatically
adjustingtheaperturetonaintaincorrect exposure, andso
your control over depth-of-ñeldis dininished. Sinilarly, in
progrannode, thecanerawouldchangetheaperturei
shutter speedconbinationinresponsetochanginglight.
perture-priority nodeis alsohandy for general use, ie
whenyou'rewandering, shootinganythingthat takes
your fancy, suchas architecture, details, abstracts or
candids. epth-of-ñeldrequirenents will vary depending
ontheshot -oneninuteyouneedlots, thenext as little
as possible-but youcanalter it quickly withthefick of
thecanera's input dial, andtheviewñnder display will
keepyouinfornedof exactly whichaperture(and
correspondingshutter speed) you'reusing.
erture-rírítyísthedefr yu!
FFECTOFPEPTUPE5: Withdepth-of-ñeIdhaingsuchanehect ontheñnaI image, it's
nosurprisethat manyexperiencedphotographersrateaperture-prioritymodeastheir faourite
mode. Thesetwoshots showhowdiherent apertures canproduceerydiherent resuIts.
Sowhat is it that nakes aperture-priority
nodenoreuseful thananyof theother
exposurenodes for takingpictures of
landscapes¯Readon-all will berevealed
Howother
exposure
nodes work
We'vealready established
that inaperture-priority
node, youset thedesired
apertureandthecanera
sets theacconpanying
shutter speedtogivethe
correct exposure. Here's
a quick rundownof how
theother nodes work.
FuII-automode
1hecanerasets the
shutter speedand
aperturetoachievethe
correct exposure.
Youcan't changethe
conbinationtousea
speciñcapertureor
shutter speed.
Programmode
Progranworks ina
sinilar waytofull auto,
but youcanusuallyalter
theapertureishutter
speedconbinationif
youneedtousea
speciñcapertureor
shutter speed.
5hutter-priority
Youset theshutter
speedandyour
canerasets the
appropriateaperture.
¦f light levels change,
thesaneshutter
speedis usedandthe
aperturechanged.
MeteredmanuaI
Younanuallyset both
theapertureand
shutter speed
independentlyof
eachother, soneither
changes unless you
adjust then, evenif
light levels fall or rise.
5ubject modes
1heseprogran
nodes aretailoredto
suit aspeciñcsubject,
withvarious canera
functions likethe
¦, fashand
exposuresystens
set accordingly.
fl4 fl22
5ettígaerture-rírítyde
hoosingaperture-priority nodeis sinple-all youneedto
dois turnyour exposuredial (or insonecases pushthe
exposurenodebutton) andselect . Your Nikondigital SLR
will thenbeset toaperture-priority nodeandall youneedto
dois rotatethesnall adjustnent dial (foundeither onthe
handgripor onthetop-right corner of therear of your canera)
tochangeyour aperture. ¦f youlightly depress theshutter
buttontoactivatetheexposuresysten, youcankeepa check
ontheshutter speedthecanera has selected.

R
¦
B

U

R
hot at fl22
perture-prioritymode
aIIows photographers to
controI howmuchof the
sceneis sharpIyinfocus.
TOPTIP
pertureincrements
Most caneras allowyouto
change the apertures in
Ii2-stopincrenents. Check
the custonfunctionnenu
inyour canera -nany
nodels alsoallowyoutoset
it toIi3-stopincrenents
if yousowish
hebasícs
5hoot |andscapemovement
blusterydayput youohfronheadingout withyour SLR.
Grabyour tripodandnaster capturingnovenent inthelandscape
Hoddinott
Camera: Nikon800
Lens: N¦¦¦ÒR¦-SI6-35nnfi4GvR
Whenphotographinglandscapes,
notioncanproveapowerful
aesthetictool -givingyour shots
addedinterest, lifeanddepth. By
intentionallyblurringnotion, your
inages will appear less staticandnore
atnospheric. Naturally, this techniquerelies
ontherebeingsonedegreeof novenent
withinyour scene. Byenployingarelatively
longexposure, anysubject notionwithinthe
tinetheshutter is openwill blur, creating
dreany, ethereal-lookingresults.
Without doubt, water is thenost popular
subject toblur. Lookthroughthepages of
alnost anyissueof |g|ta| S|PPnotograpny
nagazineandyouwill noticeanunber of
waterfall andcoastal inages whereaslow
shutter speedhas beenenployedtorender
water as anilkyblur. dnittedly, theehect is
oneyoueither loveor hate. 1heresults can
lookanazing, though, andit is apopular
techniqueanonglandscapephotographers.
Water isn't theonlysubject that youcan
creativelyblur. 1helandscapeis full of
novenent andthesanetechniquecanbe
appliedtosuchthings as novingcloudor
wind-blowngrasses, fowers, leaves or crops.
Usingaslowshutter speed, foliageor crops
swayinginthewindcancreateintriguing
wavingpatterns intheforegroundof wider
views. hectively, youaregeneratingyour
ownforegroundinterest. 1his typeof inplied
notioncantransfornanotherwise
nundanesceneintooneburstingwithlife.
Sunner is aparticularlygoodtineof year
for capturingthis typeof inage, withtrees in
full leaf, neadows brinningwithtall grasses
andcrops fullygrown. Youshouldn't haveto
venturefar toñndasuitablescene. ¦norder to
capturegoodinages of notioninthe
landscape, atripodis essential. ¦deally, you
alsoneedaNeutral ensityñlter. 1heseare
designedtoabsorblight andtherefore
lengthenshutter tine. 1heyareavailablein
diherent strengths. ñlter withathree-or
four-stopdensityis ideal. polariser is also
useful, as it alsoabsorbs uptotwostops of
light. 1en-stopNñlters arepopular, but
their ehect canprovetooextrene, creating
exposures solongthat thesubject becones
unrecognisableor inportant detail is lost.
¦nadditiontoyour canera, tripodandN
ñlter, youalsoneedit tobewindyl Lookat the
weather forecast andpickadaywitha
predictedwindspeedof at least I5-20kph
-this will createanicelevel of notion.
wide-anglelens, intheregionof I6-28nn,
is ideal, allowingyoutoñll your foreground
withyour subject inorder toenphasiseits
novenent. s your priorityis aslowshutter
speed, select your canera's lowest ¦SÒ
speed, together withasnall apertureof fiI6.
1hekeyingredient tocapturinginages of
notionis exposurelength. 1hetrickis to
achieveenoughnotionthat theehect looks
creativeandintentional -toolittleor too
nuchandtheshot won't work. Sadly, thereis
nonagicfornulahere. 1heoptinunshutter
lengthwill greatlydependontheanount the
subject is novingandtheehect desired.
degreeof trial anderror is oftenneeded, but
agoodstartingpoint is usinganexposureof
aroundIi2sec. However, dependingonthe
windspeedanexposureof several seconds
nayberequired. 1iningcanalsobe
inportant. ¦f thewindis gusty, youwill need
toreleaseyour shutter tocoincidewiththe
gusts of wind. 1his typeof notionshot is
great fun, notwoshots will ever beidenticall
2
UseapoIariser 1ocreate a longer shutter
speed, ¦ needñltration. ¦ decide toattacha
polarising ñlter -doing soabsorbs a couple of
stops of light andalsoboosts colours. ¦eeping
the ¦SÒandaperture constant, the shutter speed
increases toIi8sec. Movenent is noticeable,
but it doesn't look deliberate enough.
3
UseaNeutraI DensityñIter 1olengthen
shutter speedfurther, ¦ attacha three-stop
Nñlter. 1he resulting shutter speedis one
secondlong. ¦ trigger the shutter againandthis
tine there is obvious subject blur. 1he ehect
looks deliberate andadds interest andinplied
novenent tony foreground.
1
5et upÒnlocation, lock your canera ona
tripodandconpose the shot, ñlling the
foregroundwiththe gently swaying crop. Select
a low¦SÒanda snallishaperture todrag out the
shutter speed-¦ choose ¦SÒI00andfiI6. 1he
resulting shutter speedof Ii30sec is toofast to
create any visible notion.
WithpoIariser NofiIter WithpoIariser +NDfiIter
Check the weather
¦norder tophotographsubject
notion, youneedwind. ¦eepaneye
ontheforecast andlook for a day
wherethepredictedwindspeedis at
least I5-20kph-this will createa
good, constant level of subject
novenent. ¦ rely onwww.metomce.
gov.ukandwww.metcneck.com.
1LNIKONUDL1ÒLNDSCPLPÒ1ÒRP¥
TOGRPH£R'5UDL1ÒLNDSCPLS
Fía| íage
Towards sunset, myexposure
Iengthens considerabIy. I continue
toshoot, triggeringmyshutter to
coincidewiththewind.
Exposure: onds at fiI6(¦SÒI00)
TOPTIP
lthoughtenpting to
select fi22 or fi32 tohelp
generate a slowshutter
speed, avoiddoing soif
possible -the softening
ehect of dihractionwill
growobvious at very
snall fistops.
Tass £xosur
suttr spyouustopturwtr wll
pnon nunr o tors. if it's noving,
howquickly it's noving, hownuchof it there
is, andwhether youwant tostopit deadto
freezeits novenent or let it blur.
¦or bigwaterfalls andbreakingwaves, a
shutter speedof IiI000-Ii200secwill
guaranteeyoufreezeevery droplet. ¦or
fast-fowingrivers andsnaller waterfalls like
this onepicturedhere, try Ii200-Ii500sec,
whilefor slower rivers andstreans,
IiI25-Ii250secshoulddothetrick.
Whenit cones toblurring, onesecondwill
havea goodehect onbigwaterfalls or try two
seconds for snaller waterfalls. Rivers and
streans needa slower speedof twotofour
seconds, thoughyoucangonuchslower -
tento20seconds -if youlike.
Òverexposurecanbea problenwhenlarge
volunes of water areconcentratedincertain
areas, sokeepaneyeonthehistogrananduse
a slower speedif youstart toclipthehighlights.
¦or coastal scenes, onetotwoseconds will
blur waves, while20to30seconds will
producea nilky ehect.
WL'RLNÒ1SURLif you'veever noticed, but the
najority of stunninglandscapeinages usually
havesonefornof water inthescene. Whether
it's as subtleas a snall river tricklingthroughor
as obvious as a doninatingsea ina coastal
seascape, water represents a key elenent in
nany landscapeinages.
Òneof thenainreasons for this is because
water is sucha photographically pliable
elenent. By usingñlters andior nanipulating
theshutter speed, it's possibletorecordwater
inall nanner of ways, fronfreezingits
novenent sodroplets aresuspendedinnidair,
tousinga longexposuretotransfornit intoan
ethereal nist. Whilepotentially causing
problens withour exposure, therefective
natureof water alsoplays its part ininproving
inages, too. Òndays wherethereis littleor no
wind, by headingtoa lake, reservoir or any
other largebody of water, it's possibleto
producea strikingresult by capturinga clean
refectionof thesceneonits surface. 1he
possibilities don't stopthere-rivers canbe
usedas stronglead-inlines throughthescene
or, alongwiththelikes of secludedrockpools
andneanderingstreans litteredwithrocks,
canfornhighly ehectiveforegroundinterest.
1helist is endless, but herewecover the
basics of shutter speeds whenshootingwater,
as well as thegear that shouldnakeit easy to
takeonour landscapeprojects, startingonpage
9I. What areyouwaitingfor¯ Get exploringl
Tass||sfor sootn
watr n|ansas
¦t's all about techniqueandtheright gear whenshootingstunningwater
scenics. bepreparedbeforeyouheadintothegreat outdoors
£ssnta| ar
Coosnsuttr ss
d: When
shootingwater, you'll
belookingtouse
snall apertures
tonaxinisedepth-of-
ñeldandtheslowshutter
speeds requireyouto
keepthecanera stable
toavoidshake. Check out theessential kit
sectionlater inthis guidefor adviceonthe
best tripods tobuy for outdoor photography,
whatever your budget.
5pirit IeveI: ¦f your
tripodkit has a spirit
level, useit toensure
horizons areeven-you
don't want tospend
ages inPhotoshop
levellingthenif youcan
avoidit at thepicture-
takingstage. Òtherwise, buy a basic£I0
spirit level toslipintoa hotshoeor treat
yourself toa funky £30Seculinection
Level (www.intro2020.co.uk).
Wide-angIezoom:
nultra-widezoonlike
a I2-24nnor sinilar is
ideal as it allows youto
ñll theforegroundwith
water anddeliver plenty
of depth-of-ñeldfor
scenes that aresharp
throughout. 1heSigna I0-20nnlens,
costingaround£400, is hugely popular due
toits excellent perfornanceandvalue-for-
noney pricetag.
Photobackpack:
Whenyou'rewalkingfor
niles andniles onend, a
decent photo-dedicated
backpack is a far better
(andconñer)option
for protectingyour
prescious photokit than
a do-it-all gadget bag. 1hosewithan
all-weather cover will oher superior
protectionfronwater andtheother
elenents. 1urntopageI60for our top
bagreconnendations.
CIothing: 1here's
nothingworsethan
slippingintoa river and
havingtospendtheday
inwet clothes. Wear
decent footwear fron
reputablebrands suchas
Berghaus andconsider
waterproof trousers or gaiters
fronbrands suchas Parano, as they allow
youtostepintorivers andstay dry.
FiIters: ¦f you're
serious about landscape
photography, it'll pay to
invest ina slot-inñlter
systen. Cokin's P-systen
(www.intro2020.co.uk)
represents great valuefor
noney, whileif quality is
paranount, looktoLee¦ilters' superbI00nn
systen-thechoiceof theprofessionals
(www.leeñlters.con). polariser helps
boost blueskies anddeliver clear refections
ohthewater's surface. 0.6or 0.9NDñlter
(not NDgradl) is alsoworthconsidering, as
it will allowyoutouselongshutter speeds in
daylight toblur novingwater.
1l20sec
1l60sec
0.4seconds
LUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
hoot water |íke a pro
ramaticcoastIines aretheperfect
pIacetoput theoryintopracticewhen
it comes tophotographingscenes
withwater. FoIIowour adviceonthe
gear touse, thetechniques totryand
thesettings tomakeandyou'II soon
betakingIandscapeimages Iikeapro.

hefundanentals of focusing, depth-of-ñeldandcanerashaketovastlyinproveyour photography

D

M
B
U
R
1
Ò
N
¦MG¦NLYÒU'vL¦ÒCUSLDonanobject that is ñvenetres away. How
sharpwill sonethingbeat sixnetres¯Òr evenñve-and-a-half netres¯
1heanswer is governedbythedepth-of-ñeld. thedistanceeither sideof
thepoint of focus that is deenedtobeacceptablyinfocus. s longas
youcontrol theapertureyouareshootingat, you'reincontrol of
depth-of-ñeld, andyoucanuseit creatively. 1herewill beoccasions
whenyoudon't want nuchof it at all, andyou'll get that ehect by
shootingwithalargeaperturelikefi4. However, for nost of thetinethat
you'reshootinglandscapes you'll want tonaxinisedepth-of-ñeldto
get as nuchof asceneinfocus as youpossiblycan.
¦oregrounddetail is inportant andhas tobeinfocus, but sodoes the
rest of thescene. 1his neans usingsnall apertures toget good
sharpness either sideof thefocus point. But just consider this last phrase
for anonent, andthenthinkabout whereyounight focus when
shootingalandscape. Manynovicelandscapephotographers arehappy
focusingat inñnitywhenshootingalandscape, but don't forget that
depth-of-ñeldextends either sideof thepoint of focus. ¦nfact, thearea
Learnhowtocapturesharpímages|íkeapro
of depth-of-ñeldextends one-thirdinfront of thefocusedpoint and
two-thirds behind. inother words, youget noredepth-of-ñeldbehind
thesubject thaninfront of it. Òbviouslythereis nobeneñt tohaving
acceptablesharpness extendingbeyondinñnity, but youcanpull the
point of focus backtowards you, soit's theendof thedepth-of-ñeld
zonethat is at inñnityinstead. 1his wayyou'll get noreof thescenesharp.
1his is calledhyperfocal focusingandhas beenusedbyprolandscape
photographers for decades. 1heoptinunpoint of focus for anyscene
relies onthechoiceof aperturesettingandthefocal lengthof thelens
youuse-andchanges for full-franeandPS-C-sensor DSLRsl 1here
arecalculators andpocket referencetables youcanstashinyour canera
bag, or youcanuseadependableruleof thunbthat suggests youaina
thirdof thewayintothepicturewithyour lens set toasnall aperture.
We'll becoveringbothfocusingtechniques, as well as providingyouwith
advicetoensureyounaxiniseinagesharpness. 1his includes revealing
whyusingthesnallest aperturewon't necessarilyproducethesharpest
results, eventhoughit gives thenost depth-of-ñeldl
LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
3
5et your exposure akea neter readingfron
thesky andanother frontheforegroundthrift.
1hediherenceinlight is aroundfour stops.
don't want toevenout thelight conpletely as
our eyes naturally perceivethesky tobebrighter
thantheland. 1herefore, attacha two-stop(0.6)
graduatedNeutral Density ñlter tohelpnerecord
detail throughout thescene.

Findyour viewnages lackingforeground
interest canlook fat andboring. Despite
ñndingthis inpressivevista, by not including
anythingof aestheticvalueintheforegroundto
conplenent theviewanddirect theeyeintothe
photo, this shot is nothingnorethana snap.
2
Iter your viewpoint By sinply novinga few
netres, ny next inageis nuchbetter. By
includingsonefoweringthrift intheforeground,
theinageinnediately has noredepthand
interest. owever, thesky is overexposed, so
ñltrationor exposureblendingis needed.

Perfect your compositionWiththecorrect
exposureachieved, it is tinetofocus on
conposition. 1oplacenoreenphasis on
foreground, andtocreatedepth, a low, close
viewpoint is oftenbest, together witha short focal
length. dothis, optingfor thewideendof ny
I/-35nnzoon. 1henearest fowers aren't in
sharpfocus, though, duetoinaccuratefocusing.

aIcuIatethehyperfocaI distance
1oensureeverythingfronnearby foreground
tothedistant viewis acceptably sharp, focus on
thehyperfocal distance. 1hechart tells nethat,
witha focal lengthof I/nnandapertureof fiI6,
thehyperfocal distanceis just over 2ft. nanually
focus thelens tothis distanceandreshoot. 1his
tine, achievefront-to-back sharpness.
ncludingforegroundinterest
cannakeit dihcult toachieve
front-to-backsharpness, but
this guidewill get youthere.
owtoaxsyouto
PossHoddinott
¦lickthroughthepages of any
photoor countrynagazine, and
youwill quicklynoticethat
foregroundinterest is aninportant
conponent inthenajorityof great
landscapeinages. t provides anentrypoint
intotheconpositionandhelps addcontext,
depthandinterest toviews. s longas it
conplenents theoverall scene, practically
anythingcanworkas foregroundinterest -
rocks, astonewall, windingfootpath, colourful
refections or reeds. ¦lowers areanother good
subject toincludeintheforegroundof your
shots. Not onlydotheyhelptoaddscaleto
wider views, but theyalsoaddawelcone
splashof colour. 1hereis nobetter tineof year
thanspringtolookfor fowers toincludein
your shots, particularlyalongthecoast where
pinkthrift grows. 1hrift cancarpet clihtops,
providingcolour andinterest toviews of sandy
bays andruggedcoastline.
ncludingforegroundinterest typically
requires alargedepth-of-ñeldtorender
everythingfronfront tobackacceptably
sharp. Òpt for asnall fistopintheregionof
fiI6, but avoidstoppingdownevenfurther as
theehects of dihraction(softeningof the
inage) will grownoreapparent. Youalsoneed
toselect your point of focus carefully.
Depth-of-ñeldfalls roughlytwo-thirds beyond
thepoint of focus andone-thirdinfront of it.
1herefore, if youfocus toofar intothefrane,
youwastethedepth-of-ñeldavailabletoyou.
rough-and-readynethodtonaxinise
front-to-backsharpness is tosinplyfocus a
thirdof thewayintothefrane(seep34for
details). owever, anoreprecisenethodis to
focus onthehyperfocal distance(seepanel). t
seens likeaconplicatedcalculation, but it's
nucheasier thanyounaythink.
1ohelpgiveyour inages a three-
dinensional appearance, opt for anultra
wide-anglelens -intheregionof I/-24nn
-andget near toyour foreground. 1his
exaggerates thesizeof foregroundsubjects
andstretches perspective, resultingin
eye-catchingshots.
Tbascs: 5ass
yocaot
1hehyperfocal distanceis thepoint whereyoucannaxinisedepth-of-ñeldfor any given
aperture-everythingfronhalf this distancetoinñnity will berecordedacceptably sharp.
Calculatingandfocusingonthis point is inportant if yourequireextensivedepth-of-ñeld.
lthoughthehyperfocal distancecanseendaunting, it is not actually as conplex as it ñrst
seens. f youusea prinelens withgooddistanceanddepth-of-ñeldscales, sinply alignthe
inñnity nark against theselectedaperture. owever, fewnodernlenses -particularly zoons
-aredesignedwithadequatescales, neaningphotographers havetocalculateit thenselves.
1hankfully, therearedepth-of-ñeldcalculators andhyperfocal charts availabletodownload
online. visit www.dofnaster.con-it alsoohers anappfor your snartphone.
eIowaretwohyperfocaI distancechartscoveringthemost popuIar focaI Iengthsand
variousaperturesfor fuII-frameandP5-sensors. Photocopyor cut out thechart reIevant
toyour cameratypeandkeepit handyfor whenyoucometocomposeandfocusyour shots.
perture 16mm 20mm 24mm 28mm 35mm 50mm
fi8 3.8ft 5.6ft 8ft IIft I/ft 35ft
fiII 2.6ft 3.9ft 5.8ft /.8ft I2ft 25ft
fiI6 I.9ft 2.9ft 4ft 5.5ft 8.5ft I/.5ft
fi22 I.4ft 2ft 2.9ft 3.9ft 6ft I2.5ft
FuII-framesensors
perture 12mm 15mm 17mm 20mm 24mm 28mm 35mm 50mm
fi8 3.2ft 5ft 6.4ft 8.9ft I2.6ft I/ft 2/ft 55ft
fiII 2.3ft 3.5ft 4.5ft 6.2ft 9ft I2ft I9ft 39ft
fiI6 I./ft 2.5ft 3.3ft 4.4ft 6.4ft 8.6ft I4.5ft 2/ft
fi22 I.2ft 0.9ft 2.3ft 3.2ft 4.5ft 6ft 9.5ft I9.2ft
P5-sizesensors
LNONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥

itchtoaverticaI compositionas the
portrait format usuaIIypIaces more
emphasis onforegroundsubjects. The
thrift creates aIogicaI entrypoint intothe
compositionanddirects theeyeintothe
image. Pemember, foregroundinterest
shouIdn't dominatethecompositionor
beincIudedfor thesakeof it -it shouId
compIement theview, creatingdepth.
owtousesnall apertures for
thesharpest landscapes
ost
We'vealreadyexplainedthat snall
apertures giveincreaseddepth-of-
ñeldsoyoucanrecordnoreof the
sceneinfocus. ¦deally, when
shootinglandscapes youwant to
recordeverythinginfocus, fronthe
innediateforegroundtothedistant
background. Stoppingyour wide-angleor
zoonlens downtoits nininunaperture-
usuallyfi22-andfocusingoninñnityis arule
of thunbthat nanyusetoachievethis. More
oftenthannot it works becausewide-angle
lenses givesonuchdepth-of-ñeldat snall
apertures. However, it's not best practiceto
always usethenininunaperture, as it doesn't
always giveyouthesharpest results. 1he
purposehereis toshowhowyoucanget the
best fronyour apertures whenshooting
landscapes, without necessarilyalways
resortingtothelens's nininunaperture.
Usíngsma||
apertures
4
OpenuptheapertureBut doyoureally
needtostopdowntofi22whenfocusedon
inñnity¯Weshot this scenewiththelens at
inñnityandopeneduptheapertureastopat a
tinetoseehowwideopenwecouldgowiththe
aperturebeforetheforegroundstartedtoslipout
of focus. ctually, wecouldn't openanywider
thanfi22inthis caseeither, sofocusingcloseto
thecaneraor far awayis clearlynot ideal.
3
Focus oninñnity 1heother optionis to
focus thelens oninñnity, whichis a
techniquethat nost photographers usewhen
shootinglandscapes witha wide-anglelens. ¦f
youdothis andstopdowntofi22as inthe
exanpleabove, thewholesceneis infocus
becauseof theconbinationof anultra-wide
focal length, nininunapertureandthe
increasedfocusingdistance.
5
Focusathirdinepth-of-ñeldextends
bothinfront of andbeyondthepoint you
actuallyfocus on. 1hat's whyfocusingonthe
foregroundor at inñnitydoesn't worksowell,
you'rewastingdepth-of-ñeld. Sowhat about
usingtheoldtrickof focusingathirdintothe
scene¯Wetriedthat at fi22and, as expected,
everythingis sharplyfocusedbecause
depth-of-ñeldis beingutilisednoreehectively.
1
Wideaperture1his scenewas shot usinga
full-franeSLRandultra-wide-anglezoon
set at I/nn. 1helens was focusednanuallyon
theboulders nearest tothecaneraandthe
aperturewas set tofi4-thewidest aperture.
s youcansee, theboulders intheforeground
aresharplyfocused, but bythetinewereach
theniddledistance, depth-of-ñeldhas runout
andthecastleinthedistanceis out of focus.
2
Focus onforegroundStoppingthelens
downtoasnaller aperturewill increase
depth-of-ñeldsothat it extends further and
further intothescene. However, withthelens
still focusedontheforeground, weneedtostop
right downtothenininunaperture-fi22-
beforethecastleinthedistanceis recordedin
focus. 1his is becausedepth-of-ñeldis reduced
whenthefocusingdistanceis snall, as it is here.
Thebasícs: 5harpness LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥

inaIIy, weopeneduptheaperturea
stoptofl16. Inthis case, theimageis not
onIysharpfromfront toback, but aIso
sharper corner tocorner because
there's Iess dihraction. 5o, remember:
for sharper images, focus athirdin
(guess it) andavoidminimumaperture.
LAND5CAP£
LIGHTING
ingleessential ingredient that
allows us tocreateaphotographicinage.
But light cantakeonnany forns -it canbe
hardor soft, strongor weak, warnor cold
-andeachvariationhas aprofoundehect,
not only onthenoodandcharacter of the
landscape, but thesuccess of every
photographwetake. ineof day and
weather conditions arethetwonainfactors
that ahect thequality of daylight. hrowin
seasonal variations andyouhaveseeningly
endless pernutations that changefronone
ninutetothenext. his canbebotha
blessingandacurse. Whenthings aregoing
toplan, daylight is thenost anazinglight
sourcethereis. But whenyoucrawl out of
bedintheniddleof thenight, drivethree
hours indarkness toreachalocationfor
sunrise, only tobegreetedby thick cloud
anddrizzlewhenyouñnally get there, it can
alsobethenost frustrating.

Planningyour shoot puts theodds of
success inyour favour andis easier thanever
thesedays, thanks totheinternet. oucan
check theweather forecast for thenext few
days, establishsunriseandsunset tines for
any day or locationintheworld, or check
tidetines if you'reheadingtothecoast. he
noreinfornationyougather beforehand,
thenorelikely youaretobeintheright
placeat theright tinetotakeadvantageof
fantasticlight. ndif things don't go
accordingtoplan, younay enduptaking
photos that arebetter thanyouhadhoped
for -that's becauseunexpectedchanges in
theweather oftenproducespectacular
conditions that can't beplannedfor, andby
beingonlocation, youcantakeadvantageof
then. ¦t's not downtoluck that top
landscapephotographers produceanazing
inages onaregular basis -it's downto
beingout intheñeld, chasingthelight.
heability andwillingness toadapt to
unforeseenconditions will alsohelpyouto
nakethenost of light becausediherent
forns of natural light suit diherent subjects.
hefat light of anovercast day nay not suit
grandwide-angleviews, for exanple, but it's
ideal for shootingdetails inthelandscape.
nother optionis toshoot withtheintention
of convertinginages toblack owhite. in
whichcase, thequality of light isn't so
inportant. oucanalsousephotographic
techniques. Nonatter howdrabthe
weather is, if you'reonthecoast youcan
produceanazinginages usingaten-stop
Nñlter torecordnotionintheseaand
contrast it withstaticelenents, suchas
rocks, groynes andjetties.
aylight is thenost accessibleandversatilelight sourceavailableto
photographers. Weexploreitsnanyforns, lookatthefactorsthatchange
it andtell youhowtonakethenost of it for successful landscapes
ction
hedirectionfronwhichlight strikes your
subject cannakea bigdiherencetothe
noodandinpact of your inages. ¦rontal
light, wherethesunis toyour back, nakes
theworldlook lovely but, photographically,
it's not very ehectivebecauseshadows fall
away fronthecanera, nakingthe
landscapelook rather fat. Just after sunrise,
or just beforesunset, whenthesunis lowin
thesky andbathes thelandscapeingolden
light, that lack of depthcanbeforgiven
becausethelight is fantastic, thoughyou
nay ñndthat youstruggletokeepyour own
shadowout of theconpositionl
ide-lighting, withthesunat roughly 90°
tothecanera, works better becauseyou
canincorporateshadows, nakingthenan
Líghíng
£enía| fí|e
NDgrad: heNeutral ensity (N)
gradlets youbalancethesky withthe
foregroundsothewholesceneis
perfectly exposed. Without a grad, you'll
endupwitha well-exposedsky and
underexposedforeground, or well-
exposedforegroundandblown-out sky.
his is especially trueat dawnor dusk,
whenthecontrast betweensky andland
is at its highest. ou'll needa 0.9density
(three-stop) Ngrad, whilea 0.6
(two-stop) is ñnefor theday.
PoIariser: hesecondñlter is the
polariser, insunny conditions it can
nakea nassivediherencetoyour
landscapes, deepeningbluesky, cutting
throughglare, elininatingrefections
andboostingbothcolours andcontrast.
¦t's alsobrilliant for autunnal foliage
colour, evenondull days.
LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
etímeof day
N ears
30-40ninutes beforesunrise. ¦deally, arrive
anhour beforesun-uptoñnda viewpoint,
set upyour gear andstart shootingas soon
as colour appears. ny light onthelandscape
is refectedfronthesky, soit's soft and
shadowless, andtends tohavea strong,
cool cast. 1his contrasts well withthewarn
glowover theeasternhorizon.
Water, wet sandandwet rocks pick upthe
colour inthesky, sopredawnis great to
shoot coastal or lakeviews. ¦deally, therewill
besonebrokencloudaddingcolour tothe
sky, but clear nornings canalsobehighly
productive. Light levels arelow, soexpect
longexposures. 1hecontrast betweenthe
sky andlandis highduetothelack of direct
light, sousea 0.9Ngraduatetoretaindetail
andcolour inthesky.
EPLYMOPNINGÒncethesunis up, you
haveninutes tocapturethelight at its peak
quality beforeit loses warnth. uringthe
sunner, daylight is neutral incolour twohours
after sunriseandits colour tenperature
renains constant for about I2hours. uring
springandautunn, any warnthinthelight will
havegoneby 8anandthecolour tenperature
renains steady until 4pn. ¦nwinter, however,
thecolour tenperaturehardly ever reaches
5500¦, evenat nidday, becausetheangle
betweenthesunandearthis shallowall day.
1heñrst twohours after sunrisearethebest
for landscapephotography as theintensity of
thelight is reasonably low, andlongshadows
adddepthandnodelling. polariser is also
ehectivewhenthesunis lowinthesky andat
90° tothecanera.
5UNPI5EBy thetinethesunpeeps over
thehorizon, any colour inthesky nay have
gone. Ònclear nornings, thesunwill be
dazzlingonceit rises, but you'll beableto
shoot intoit for a fewninutes as thesea and
wet sandrefects thelight tokeepcontrast
nanageable. ¦eatures suchas piers, castles
andlighthouses canalsobecapturedin
silhouette. ¦nland, contrast will betoohigh
oncethesunrises intoa clear sky. t this
point, turnandcapturethegoldenlight on
thelandscape. ¦deally, let thesunside-light
thescenesoyoucanincludelong, raking
shadows toadddepthandreveal texture.
1helight is warnat sunrisebecausethe
rays pass throughtheatnosphereat a
shallowangleandthelight is scattered, with
nany of thewavelengths at theblueendof
thespectrunñlteredout.
THEMIDDLEHOUP5Òncethesunhas
beenupfor twohours, thequalityof thelight
inclear, sunnyweather begins totail oh. 1he
higher thesunclinbs, thenoreharshand
intensethelight andtheshorter anddenser
theshadows. By9aninsunner, thesunis at
its 'zenith' -its highest point -andstays
thereuntil at least 4pn. 1helandscapelooks
fat, contrast is highandthelight isn't
attractive. 1heurbanlandscapeis better
suitedtostronglight. shoot nodern
architecture, usingapolariser todeepenthe
sky, andlookfor abstracts andcolourful
details. ¦nthecountryside, capturetrees
against theskyfronalowangleandlookfor
refections inwater. ¦nfraredphotography
works inharshlight, especiallyinspringand
sunner whenthere's lushfoliagearound.
LTEFTEPNOONÒncethesunbegins
its slowdescent andthelight begins to
warnup, its intensity is reduced, and
shadows beconelonger andweaker. Shape
andcharacter returntothelandscape, and
thelonger youwait, thebetter it gets. ¦nthe
norning, thelight falls onacoldearth, but in
theafternoon, theearthis warnsoshadows
appear neutral, not cool. 1heatnosphereis
alsodenser intheafternoon, solight can
appear redder thanit didat thestart of the
day. 1hehour beforesunset is oftenreferred
toas 'thegoldenhour' duetotherichness of
thelight. Longshadows reveal textureand
nodellingtogiveyour pictures depth, and
becausethesunis sinkingandnot rising, it's
easier topredict howthelight is goingso
youcanchooseasuitablelocation.
¦ronthenonent ñrst light appears tothetinewhendarkness takes
over, thequalityof light undergoes anyriadof anazingchanges and
nakes ahugediherencetoyour photographs
Líghtíng
5UN5ET , get to
your location45ninutes beforesoyoucan
choosethebest viewpoint, get set upandtake
avariety of pictures as thesundips. Capture
thelandscapebathedingoldenlight. ¦f the
scenery is relatively fat, thelight will perforn
its nagicliterally until thenonent thesun
sets, whereas inhilly regions, younay losethe
sunhalf anhour before. Shootingintothesun
will recordanythingbetweenthesunandthe
canerainsilhouette. agoodtechniquewhen
shootingwater becausethesun's glowand
colour inthesky will berefected, creatinga
backdroptosilhouettes of boats, islands, piers
andsoon. ¦f fareis aproblen, hidethesun
behindsonethinginthesceneor wait for it to
set. ¦f youwant torecorddetail inthe
foreground, usea0.9NDgrad.
TWILIGHTÒncethesunñnally
disappears belowthehorizon, light levels
quicklyfadeandthelight onthelandscapeis
againrefectedfronthesky. ¦f you'relucky,
therewill beavividafterglowinthesky
createdbythesunas it under-lights the
clouds abovethehorizon, but eventhis will
fadequickly. You'll ñndthat colours are
nuted, thelight is soft, shadows fadeandlight
levels fall away. Headtothewater's edge
wherethepastel colours left intheskylook
stunningrefectedinlakes andrivers. Òr use
thosecolours as abackgroundtosilhouettes.
Longexposures recordnovenent. the
swayingof trees inthebreeze, thenovenent
of clouds across thesky, thenotionof thesea
or water fowinginrivers andstreans. ¦eep
shootinguntil thosecolours fade.
MOONLIGHT1henooncanbealovely
natural sourceof light. Winter scenes work
well becausesnowandfrost refect the
noonlight. Coastal views alsowork if you
capturetheshinneringsilver ribbonof light
fronthenoononthesea. By increasing
exposure, youcancreatesurreal shots that
looklikethey'vebeentakenindaylight. 1hey'll
look nornal, but thelight will haveastrange
quality. Youcaneventry recordingstar trails
inthesky createdby therotationof theearth
whilethecanera's shutter is open. Òbviously,
exposures will belonginlowlight, sousea
tripod, andkeepthe¦SÒlow-400or less -
for highinagequality. Whatever youshoot,
unless thenoonis obscuredby cloud, you
shouldkeepit out of franetoavoidit
recordingas anoverexposedwhitesnudgel

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ThecoIours andtextures in
theskycanbespectacuIar,
especiaIIyif youpickthe
moment as thesunrises above
or faIIs beIowthehorizon.
Líghtíng LNINUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
¦¦NGCÒPLLf u beforesunrise, which
is oftenintheniddleof thenight, is not nost
people's idea of fun. But if you'repreparedtonake
theehort, youwill reaptherewards. Planningis
essential. Check theweather forecast andthe
sunrisetines ontheinternet. ndcheck thetide
tines if youaretravellingtothesea -a lowtideis
usually thebest tinetovisit. ¦f thelight fails to
naterialise, youcanalways dobeachclose-ups.
¦ try tobeonlocationat least half anhour before
thesunrises -if not earlier -becauseit's often
beforethesunappears that thereal nagic
happens. 1his alsogives netinetoset upthe
canera andtoñndthebest viewpoint. Don't just
look for clear days, it's better tohavecloudaround
as this creates wonderful colours inthesky as the
cloudrefects thelight of thesun. 1ry topre-visit
andresearchyour locationbeforetheday of the
shoot. ¦ useÒrdnanceSurvey naps for detailed
infornationonrights of way andparking. Look for
appealingplaces wheretherewill beopportunities
for shots that includeforegroundinterest.
Mist nainly develops duringa coldnight andit
only lingers for a short tineduringthenorningor
until theheat of thesunburns it away. Sonething
tobear innindis that, duringnisty conditions,
your canera's neteringsystenwill often
underexposethescene, resultingina dull, lifeless
landscape. 1oconpensate, alter theexposureby
+Ii2or +I stop. Check thehistogranonthe
canera's LCDnonitor for overexposure.
1heuseof Neutral Density graduateñlters is
pretty nuchstandardinlandscapephotography.
1hey helptocontrol thebrightest part of the
inage, whichis usually thesky. Larly intheday,
thereis a noticeablediherencebetweenthelight in
thesky andthelight ontheland.
Beawareof lens fareif thesunis includedinthe
frane. 1ohelpelininatethis, nakesurethat your
ñlters andlens optics arespotlessly clean. ¦ rarely
useawarn-upñlter as theseñlters nornally nake
any greenfoliageappear ayellow-browncolour.
¦nstead¦ set ny canera's WhiteBalancetoCloudy
or Shadetohelpwarnupthescene. 1ry toavoid
usingtheutoWhiteBalance(WB) settingas you
aresuretocool downthelight, unless, of course,
this is theehect youwant. 1hereareanunber of
reasons why ¦ personally prefer dawnlight over
sunset. ¦ liketocaptureatnosphereinny shots if
¦ can, andearly norningis thebest tinetodothis as
youarenorelikely tohaveanisty or frosty start to
theday. 1helight is oftendihusedandsofter at this
tine, but it's alsonoreof achallengetoincludethe
suninthepicture, too, duringthenorningthanin
theevening, becauseat sunset thepollutionlevels
haverisenthroughout theday, whichhelps
todihusethebrightness slightly. nother great
advantageof early norningis that it's sopeaceful,
¦ rarely seeanother soul. 1heworldbelongs tone
-it's sosatisfyingtowatchtheday unfoldand
witness thenagical light of dawn.
Òncethesunhas risenandbeconetoostrong
tophotograph, turntothesideor put your back to
thesun, beingcareful not tocast a shadowinthe
foreground. Nowstart usingthewarnlight that's
illuninatingtheland. Light is never staticbut
continually changes -it's thenainingredient that
allows us tocreatesonethingbeautiful.
Get uper|yor 'mgíchour' |íghtíng
5híníng through
witfor tsuntorisot
orizon-I usedthesmaII cIumpof
trees toheIpdihusethesunIight.
Exposure: 0.5seconds at fi22(¦SÒI00)
Dawnis thebest tineof dayfor takingbeautiful, atnosphericshots, says landscapeexpert HelenDixon
H
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N
TOPTIP
Mirror Iock-up
Many digital SLRs have a
facility that allows the
nirror tobe raisedprior to
the exposure, tonininise
shake whenthe shutter is
ñred. You'll nost likely ñnd
this is activatedvia a
Custon¦unction
Kítwatch!
HeIen's magic-hour kit
Whenconsideringwhat
equipnent youwill need,
a necessity is a sturdy
tripod, as at this tineof
theday you'reworking
withlongexposures. ¦
usea ManfrottoM¦4
carbon-ñbrewith
322RC2head-
it's a lightweight but
stablesupport and
¦ canhangny bag
fronthecentrepost
for extra stability on
really windy days.
¦ always usea renote
releasebut if youdon't
haveone, usethe
self-tiner tostopany
vibrations anduse
nirror lock-upif your
DSLRhas this facility.
¦ ñndny ultra
wide-anglezoonand
ny /0-200nntelezoon
particularly useful. 1hese
cover nost of ny requirenents.
¦ usethewide-anglezoonwhen
shootingforegroundelenents. nd
thetelephotozoonis especially good
for conpressingperspectiveand
creatinglayers onnisty nornings.
Lítí LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
5tat atadst stíssts
LHÒGH¦poltotklnp
potop t not tn o ty tto
tn nnot lnp tlt ll
vtt ult tñt nlt ou o t
y. Wt nk ttn o ypl tt
tlount lono nlp topk
out ttu o tlnp. ¦ youout
pno potunt younlo
ptul k tlou lt onlo.
lt utnl t ttn o y n
you pnotnpn onton
o lt ut you ut. ¦o xnpl tout
ot nnt look t t tno ty
t tnt ttt. Hvntt tlt n
tñnl ou o ty tn ton n
tunt tlnp otntn
olnlo. lo lt not ot tntn
out unt onptoun tt youont
vtooyoul out o t ulou
ou tonktnot o t. Lt ont not
vyon tllpo nntuno
un HlnDxon(oppot)
lnot nytypo lnplook oont
nou ut ontu llynñt lk
tonuln o okyl. Wntloun
n vytnupnpk out ttxtuo
oknton n tt nt lookull t ny
ot tno ynltout o tony.
Wt lonxllnt ut t t tn
u youvnnttnky youn
oultnpt yunfton. Movn
t npkllknon o ntolu
unlonxpou. n tnount ntyp
o lt llnont tnn tult.
tono tlt nvton
nfunontnoonu o ptu
tknt tnnno no ty. ¦ont
ltn o ntn nlookft ttono
to ont lptopkout ttl o
tlnp. Wttuntoon ov
o lptotptntptun
vl onntxtu. ltn t you
nt toupol totutolou too t
ll vt tont t tn 90to
tun. Bkltnnvynt ll
ut xpou ult toontol nyoull v
toul tovoln f lt ll tly
ontoyou ñlt o tont lnnt o you ln.
Wtll t toon ntt
notooulyunptl onyoutll t
nou ll lvuptoyou xptton¯
Looknt t ot oo
.nto.ov.uk llnyount
tlot o pñon. nn
tt tlon tno tot tl
llt ll . Ckntot tnt
onoot v youtt u.
¦ youvtoyou loton ltntolol o
tton nt t tnntonl on n
kpnyont ppnnntky. ¦o
unt youll ntolooktott t
tunll t nou. Mot o ou
t ont onontt too oy
kpnnyntt ton t polto
lou lklytokupo tkn. Bno
nton tpont o tonp n
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tt toontn o nnonnt.
Gt r rcks




i5t i(¦Ò00)
ot nou t unt ppnyoull vl MkBu
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TOPTIP

Wt Bln yout
no t ont
ñnl ult. voun t
WBttn. ¦ youoot n
younty out ll t
ttn lt onyou
onput noo
you vout
Kítatc!
Mark's magic-hour kit
Wnlln tnot
popul o lnpok ut lon
ln nlouul o pkn
out tkno pttn ntxtu
tt tnou vl.
polnñlt ll lpyounk
tnot o ltny npovn
ovll tuton ut plly
tvnutluk.
tuy tpo not ntl.
¦ youootnntpo
t unt lt lvl ll lo
nnolnll out o t
uton. But t oopttou
tpotv tltnonton
t ll loyouon t nk you
tnk nt nl youtonknll
ut otnvtl n toonpoton.
Nutl Dnty utñlt
lonpotnt plly lou
lt onlont no
t lt ontln. ND lp
ontol ontt.
Watchtheweather
1LRL' NÒUCthigas badeather,
oly iappropriateclothig, sosaid
conediaBilly Coolly, adheas right f
thesuis't shiigadthesky is't blue,
etedtorefer totheeather as bad', but
photographically, bad' cabegood
becauseit gives us variatios itheuality of
light toork ith, adds drana adcreates
atnosphere o-calledgood' eather is
actually ot sogoodfor photography
becausethelight is bladadtheladscape
looks picture-postcardperfect, hichgets
borigafter a hile
Clouds havea dranaticehect othe
uality of daylight becausethey softead
spreadit soitesity is reduced, cotrast
falls adshados beconeeaker Clouds
alsoadditerest tothesky, adthesky ca
nakeor break a great ladscape
Days hethesky is a blaket of
nootoous grey cloudareprobably the
least excitigfor ladscapephotography as
colours appear dull adnuted, ada lack of
shados neas sceery teds tolook fat
aduivitig oever, overcast light is
ideal for capturigdetails itheladscape.
thepatters adtextures irocks, the
snoothshapes adsoft colours isea-
orboulders adpebbles, therichcolours
of autunal foliageor baks of sprig
foers trogcolours look itesei
dihuselight becausethere's oglareto
dilutesaturatio Dull days arealsoideal for
sloshutter speedshots of aterfalls -just
keeptheborigsky out of theshot ad
you'll get sonegreat results
Whiteclouds itheir nay shapes ad
forns arehighly photogeicagaist blue
sky, adyoucanakethenstadout eve
noreby usiga polariser todeepethe
blue eepthesutoyour sidefor the
strogest ehect Watchout for cloud
patters otheladscape, too-they ca
addaextra elenet that nakes a good
sceegreat, adareeasiest tospot if you're
shootigfronaelevatedviepoit
torny eather creates thenost
dranaticcoditios for ladscape
photography -agry, dark clouds rushig
across thesky, strogids bloigad
nonetary breaks that allorays of
sulight tofoodthroughadilluniatethe
sceebelo Youca't plafor such
coditios, but if youvetureoutdoors i
storny eather, there's alays thechace
that you'll beitheright placetocapture
then dit ill bea blessigif youdo
f thesudoes break throughduriga
storn, theladscapeeds upbrighter tha
thesky, hichis a reversal of theorn
What this neas ipracticeis that youca
get aay ithout usigaNDgradas the
sky o't overexpose oever, it's still
orthusiga NDgradtonakethesky
look evenoredranaticthait really is
onethigelsetoatchout for istorny
eather is a raiboarchigacross thesky
Raibos arecreatedhethesushies
throughfalligrai, soif that happes hile
you'reout, turyour back tothesuad
check thesky ahead 1oreveal thecolours
of theboat their best, try tocatchit
agaist dark clouds adusea teleoonto
honeiopart of thebo lteratively,
usea ide-agleoonadicludethe
holebo
Mist adfogreducetheladscapetosoft
shapes adhay outlies 1hreedinesios
beconetoadaerial perspectiveneas
that toes beconebrighter ithdistace
1helight is dihuse, shados do't exist ad
ñedetail is lost cees aresinpliñedad
your inages shouldrefect that
1elephotoleses enphasisetheehects of
nist adfogbynagifyigthesceead
conpressigperspective, sothey'regreat for
shootigtheoverlappigforns of hills ad
noutais, or pickigout elenets likea
sigletreeor churchspirefadigitothe
gloon f youat torelegatenist or fogto
thedistace, theuseaide-agleles -
visibilityclosetothecaneraill benuch
better thafarther aay, soyoucacapture
pletyof foregrouddetail adlet therest of
ßeoweft: Far fromrgtheimage, cIouds
canaddaII-important interest tocoastaI views.
ßeIowright: 5impIescenes suit amistyoutIook
andaregivenanethereaI twist.
Pight: Pays of Iight shiningthroughstormcIouds
canhaveareaIIydramaticehect.
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Chages ieather haveaevegreater ifueceotheuality
of light thathetineof day, soif youat totakestuigshots
everytine, youeedtobepreparedtotakeotheelenets
thesceefadeaay Desefogis heavyad
danp t suhs out colour adturs theorld
togrey, soyounaydecidetocovert your
foggyladscapes toblackowhite. Mist is
noredelicate, soinsteadof destroyingcolour,
it tends tonergeall colours together to
createverysoft hues. Mist is alsoñneenough
tolet thelight through, soshoot contre-jour
at sunrise, whenyou'renorelikelytoñndnist
inwoodlandor over water, andcapture
goldenrays of light bleedingthrough. Such
conditions aren't all that connon, but the
qualityof light whenyouget nist andsunrise
coincidingis hardtobeat.
Líghtíng
5unny Mist
Check the web
¦f you'replanninga landscapeshoot,
whether it's toheadout early inthe
norningfor sunriseor togoohintothe
wilds for a week, usetheinternet to
gather infornationthat will helpyou
nakethenost of thelight. Hereare
sonewebsites worthbooknarkingfor
futurereference.
Weather forecast
www.netohce.gov.uk
www.bbc.co.ukiweather
www.xcweather.co.uk
www.netcheck.con
5unriseðsunset times
www.tineanddate.coniastrononyi
Tidetimes
www.tidetines.org.uki
http.iieasytide.ukho.gov.uk
PIanningyour shoot
noresophisticatedtool is the
Photographer's Lpheneris (www.
photoepheneris.con). 1his is availableas
afreedownloadfor MacandPC(plus as a
paid-for appfor theiPhone) andallows
youtodeterninesunriseandsunset
tines for anywhereintheworld, anyday
of theyear, as well as theangleof the
sunriseisunset soyoucancheckif the
sun's orbwill beblockedbyhills, say.
Moonriseandset tines arealsoprovided.
LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
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(DayIight Wß)
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LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥

W



fully short, withthesunrisingwell
after 8anandsettingbefore4pninJanuary.
Photographically, however, winter is a
fantasticseason. 1herearefewsights nore
nagniñcent thanalandscapecoveredin
freshly fallensnowandbathedincrisp
norningsunlight. But evenif you'renot
lucky enoughtoget that, iceandfrost area
certainty at sonepoint as tenperatures
dropwell belowfreezing.
1heshort days areabeneñt, too, because
youcanshoot sunriseandsunset at civilised
tines. Plus thesunnever clinbs nore
thanabout 2° abovethehorizon, sothe
quality of light renains highfrondawnto
dusk, withlong, weak shadows addingdepth
-onaclear winter's day youcanget eight
hours of goodlight.
¦eepaclosewatchontheweather
forecast andif aclear night is predicted,
preparefor anearly start thenext day
becausethat usually neans iceandfrost
conethenorning-and, if you'relucky,
freezingnist for thesuntoslowly burnaway.
ncrediblepictures areguaranteed.
Woodlandandwater locations areyour best
bet. s well as shootingwide-angleviews,
look for winter details. cobwebs coveredin
icy beads, thepatterns iniceover ponds and
puddles, frosty leaves ontheground, andso
on. awnonafreezingnorningcanbe
nagical, withthesky full of pastel colours
andthesunrisinglikeagiant orangeball. ts
intensity is oftenreducedby nist or haze, so
youcanincludeit inyour shots without any
risk of fare. Usealonglens tonakeit nice
andbiginyour shots.
Snowis best photographedwhenit has
just fallensoit's pristineandfresh, andideally
insunny weather -aglisteningsnowy
landscapeunder abluesky is hardtobeat.
ndyouneedn't headtonagniñcent
countrysidetotakegreat snowshots -avisit
toyour local park canbejust as productiveif
youconcentrateonsinplescenes, likea
singletreestandingintheniddleof a
snow-ñlledñeld.
lthoughseasonal changes havenoreof aphysical ehect onthelandscape, thequalityof daylight also
varies throughout theyear. ere's our guideonhowtohandlelandscapes indiherent seasons.

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sswscees
xposurel ll that whiteness inthe
sceneis likely tofool your canera's
neteringsystenintounderexposure, so
takea shot thencheck thepreviewinage
andthehistogran. Youwill alnost
certainly needtodial inextra exposure
usingtheexposureconpensationfacility
-dothat inIi3-stopincrenents until the
highlight warnings onyour previewinage
start tofashtoindicatetheinageis
overexposed. eletethat shot -the
onebeforeit shouldbeperfect.
s ayseaase
dwe
eñnitely, but carefully. Bluesky is
bluer inwinter andbecausenoreof it is
polarised, theehect of a polarisingñlter is
noreobvious thanat any other tineof
theyear. nextrenecases, thesky cango
alnost black if youfully polarise, soyou
nay needtowindback theehect a little.
W ycaeaway
eezwe weae
Yes, but batteries drainfaster sonake
sureyours is fully chargedandideally
carry a spare. lso, avoidbreathingon
your lens or any ñlters you'reusingas
they will nist upandtakeages toclear.
LUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
PPING
s seasonnarks thedawnof newlifeas
thelandscapeawakens fronthedornant
nonths of winter. Barrentrees burst with
buds andblosson, woodlandfoors,
hedgerows andriverbanks arecarpetedwith
colourful wildfowers, whiledesolateñelds
turnintobeautiful patchwork quilts of green.
cenes that lookedgrey anddrabduring
winter aretransfornedwithinafewshort
weeks -especially if theweather turns andis
nildtowards theendof winter. pringis also
tinefor tulips, dahodils, buttercups and
bluebells, turninggardens andneadows
intodazzlingdisplays of colour.
heweather duringspringis changeable
andunpredictable-but this has its
advantages for thephotographer. Brief
showers cleansetheatnosphereandcreate
rainbows archingacross thecountryside,
shafts of sunlight burst throughstorny skies
toilluninatethelandscapebelow, andlight
nists hangover rivers andlakes or invalley
bottons at dawn.
s theweeks pass, thedays alsogrow
longer. hesunrises at around6anduring
theearly days of springandsets at 8pn, but
by nid-June, sunrisecanbeas early as
4.I5anandsunset after I0.30pninthe
northof cotland. onakethenost of
springconditions, riseearly andstay out late.
awnonaperfect springnorningis hardto
beat, withachorus of birdsongperneating
thecool air andtheñrst rays of sunlight
slowly burningaway thenist. he
opportunity for anazinginages is onethat
shouldn't benissed, andnothingquitebeats
that feelingof gettingintouchwithnature.
heintensity of colour inthespring
landscapecanbeinprovedby usinga
polarisingñlter tocut throughatnospheric
hazeandglareonthefoliage. f youwant to
capturecarpets of springfowers, ideally wait
for abright but overcast day whencontrast is
lowandshadows weak. his nakes it easier
torecordthedelicatecolours andñne
details of thebloons, especially whentaking
pictures inwoodlandwherethelight is
patchy duringsunny spells.

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HowdoI shoot springmist?
Mist oftenoccurs whena nildday with
rainis followedby a clear night andcold
tenperatures. f that's predictedinthe
weather forecast, set your alarnearly and
headout beforesunrise. Mist is connon
near water andwetlands, andin
woodland. et toa decent locationready
for sunrise. if you'relucky, thelight fron
therisingsunwill burst throughthenist,
creatingwarnrays of light that radiate
fronbehindtrees andbuildings. straight
exposureshouldcapturethis ehect
perfectly, but, if necessary, increasethe
exposureinincrenents uptoonestop.
What's thebest shutter speedtouse
whenshootingwaterfaIIs?
shutter speedaroundonesecondis
usually slowenoughtoblur thewater, but
alsorecordsonetexture-thoughyou
canexperinent withslower speeds. What
youdon't want todois overexposethe
water soit cones out white.
HowdoI get backIit shots of ñowers?
Youneedtoshoot whenthesunis low
inthesky, soduringearly norningor late
afternoon, norningis oftennore
atnospheric. et downlow, usea
telezoontoisolatea groupof fowers and
try tocapturethenagainst a dark
backgroundsothecolours glow.
LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
U
favouriteseasonfor
landscapephotographers as thelight tends
tobeharshandbland. Yes, thecountryside
does look resplendent inits lushcoat of
foliage, gardens andneadows arealivewith
colour andthedays last nuchlonger. But
whenthesundoes shine, it canbevery
intenseandunfattering, witha highcolour
tenperaturethat nakes inages look cool,
whileheat hazetends toturnbluesky into
anugly washed-out tone. Consequently,
thenunber of ehectivehours availablefor
landscapephotography arenonorethan
ona clear winter's day.
BetweenI0anand4pninsunner, the
sunis overheadandthelight harshand
characterless, whileshadows areshort and
dense. ¦or conventional landscape
photography, this isn't great, but if youñnd
scenes containinglots of colour -oilseed
rape, poppy ñelds, sunfowers -ona sunny,
blue-sky day, it's still possibletoproduce
strikinginages. Usea polariser toboost
contrast andclarity, andkeepyour
conpositionsinple.
Sunner storns arealsoquiteconnon,
withhightenperatures leadingtothunder
andheavy rain. 1his canproduceanazing
landscapelight, but yourisk a soakingto
catchitl Òncetherainsubsides, crisp, clean
light will oftenbathethelandscapeand
rainbows canappear.
1helight is at its best at theextreneof the
day, soget toyour locationvery early or be
preparedtostay out late. 1hedays doget
shorter as sunner progresses, but 3an
starts andIIpnñnishes arenot unconnon.
Youcanalways graba sleepintheafternoon
whenthelight's nogoodl
Wildlandscapes canstill look dranatic
duringthesunner, andby early Septenber
start toturnquiteautunnal, soscout out the
locations nearest youthat will befull of
colour. Rocky, barrencoastlinealso
changes littleduringthesunner andcan
bethesourceof great shots -especially at
dawnanddusk whenthelight is warn.
ghtíng
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anI doanythingabout hazyskies
Not really. Hazy skies andovercast grey
skies lack textureor drana -they'rejust a
blanket, boringtone. UsinganNDgrad
nerely darkens that tone, but rarely
nakes it noreinteresting. Lxcludethesky
fronyour conpositions, naybeusea
telezoontoshoot selectivelandscapes or
concentrateonsnaller details.
Is thesummer agoodtimetousemy
infraredmodiedcamera
Deñnitely. 1here's plenty of foliageto
showtheghostly infraredehect, andit
doesn't natter howharshthelight is
becauseinfraredphotography suits it. Use
your ¦Rcanera inparks, gardens and
woodland, as well as thecountryside. ¦or
thosewithout an¦R-nodiñedcanera, try
usinganinfraredñlter liketheHoya R/2.
ysummer Iandscapes oftenhaean
unsightIybIuecast What causes it
Highcolour tenperature-ona sunny
blue-sky day, thecolour tenperaturecan
hit I0000¦. ¦f youuseDaylight White
Balance, set for 5500¦, your canera will
recordthecoolness inthelight. Setting
WhiteBalancetoShadewill get ridof the
cast -evenutoWhiteBalance(WB)
nay work. Òr, if youshoot inRaw, youcan
correct thecast duringinageprocessing.

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foIiagetochange
coIour inautumn?
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LUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
Raw8|andscapes LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
LIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
YÒUPRÒBBLYdon't realiseit yet, producing
top-notchinages is easier nowthanat anystageintheentire
historyof photography, thanks todigital technology. Chances are
nanyof youwill haveconeintophotographyduringthedigital
era, inwhichcaseyou'll havelittleor noexperienceof what life
was likepre-pixels. Well takeit fronus -shootingpictures using
digital is awalkintheparkconparedtotakingthenwithñln.
Beingabletoseeyour shots seconds after captureis thefast
tracktosuccess becauseyoucanlearnas yougo, correcting
nistakes andnakingchanges sothat youneednever niss agreat
shot. 1his innediacy, andthefact that everypress of thecanera's
shutter buttondoesn't cost noney, alsoencourages youtotake
creativerisks, whichis byfar thebest waytonaster new
techniques andñne-tuneyour skills as alandscapephotographer.
Òf course, trippingtheshutter is just theñrst stageinthe
creativeprocess as, oncehone, your inages arethen
downloadedtoaconputer whereyoucanturnthosenillions of
coloureddots intoanazingworks of art withtheaidof thelatest
editingsoftware. Successful digital inagingthereforerequires a
conbinationof solidcaneraworkandsynpatheticprocessing.
¦or nanycreativephotographers, there's onlyonewayto
achieveboth. shootinginRaw. ¦f you'vefavouredJPGuntil now,
andcan't seehowswitchingtoRawwouldbeneñt you, readonas
weexplainthenanybeneñts you'll gaingoingRaw.
RW8LN5P5
1HLMA¦ND¦¦¦LRLNCLbetweenaRawñleand
aJPLGis that whenyoushoot inRawfornat,
theinages recordedonyour canera's nenory
cardconsist of therawdatafronthesensor.
Nothingis added, takenaway or changed. ¦f you
shoot inJPLG, thecanerarecords all theraw
datathendevelops theñlein-canera, applying
preset paraneters toWhiteBalance, sharpening
andcustoncanerastyles etc, deletingany
unnecessary infornationandthenerasingany
renainingrawdataas well.
¦nñlnterns, aRawñleis abit likeanegative,
whereas aJPLGis sinilar toacolour slide. Slides
areconvenient becausetheyconebackfron
theprocessinglabñnishedandreadytoview.
1hesanecanbesaidfor JPLGs, whichare
supposedlyreadytoprint straight fronthe
canera. However, this convenienceneans that
youneedtoget everythingright in-canera, so
there's less roonfor error. Negatives arenore
tine-consuningthanslides as youneedto
developthenhowyouseeñt inthedarkroon,
but arenuchnoreversatilewithnorelatitude
for error. Rawñles arethesane. 1heyalways
requireprocessingusingsuitablesoftware
beforethey'reconsideredñnished, but this
allows youtonakechanges toenhancethe
inages andcorrect in-caneranistakes.
1hekeyparaneters youcancontrol inRaware.
Colour tenperaturecanbeadjustedtoget rid
of unwantedcasts or tochangethenoodof an
inage. 1his canbedonewithJPLGs in
Photoshop, but not withthesaneprecision.
Lxposurecanbecorrected-or adjustedfor
creativereasons -without conpronising
inagequality. Whereas if younakeaJPLG
lighter or darker, inagequalitywill beahected.
Youcanalsooptiniseinagequalityby
overexposingRawñles in-caneratojust before
thehighlights beconeblown, as shadowdetail
is increasedandtheehects of noisereduced.
1heexposurecanthenbe'pulledback' while
processingtheRawñle. 1his is onlypossible
becausetheRawñlecontains noredatathan
youneed, whereas aJPLGis already
conpressed, soresidual datahas beendeleted.
¦f youdoaccidentallyoverexposeaRawñleso
thehighlights 'blowout', youcanrecover detail
duringprocessing. 1his isn't possiblewithJPLGs,
soblownhighlights appear whiteandif youtry
todarkenthentheysinplygogrey.
Sharpeningcanbeappliedusingthe
sharpeningtools inRawñleprocessingsoftware
or viathird-partyapplications. JPLGs, however,
arealreadysharpenedsoextraworknust be
donecarefullytoavoidspoilingtheinages.
Anychanges younaketoaRawñleare
nondestructive, becausewhenit's convertedto,
ideally, a1¦¦¦ñle, theoriginal Rawinage
renains unchanged. 1his neans youcanreturn
tothesaneRawñleinthefuturetoprocess it
again. Rawñles alsocontainsonuchdatathey
canbeprocessedseveral tines thenconbined
either toaddress exposureandcontrast
problens, or usedas thebasis for creative
techniques suchas HDR(HighDynanicRange),
whichwe'll showyouhowtodolater.
Ultinately, if optinuninagequalityis what
youwant, your best chanceis toshoot Raw.
Rawñles support I6-bits of dataper colour
channel, whereas JPLGs support 8-bits. 1he
diherenceininagequalitywon't beobvious
initially, but heavyeditingreduces qualityand
8-bit ñles will showthis norereadilythanI6-bit.
Manyphotographers areput ohshootingRaw
as theyassuneit's conplicated. But usingRaw
processingsoftwareis veryintuitive(seepanel)
andanychanges younakecaneasilybe
reversedor cancelled. AJPLG, ontheother
hand, whileseenas thenoreconvenient fornat
for beginners, actuallyleaves noreroonfor
nistakes, whichbeginners will surelynake.
What arethedownsides toshootinginRaw¯
Well, asidefronspendingnoretineat your
conputer processingñles, therearen't nany.
Andif youget as nuchright in-caneraas you
can, aRawñlecanbeprocessedinanatter of
seconds. Rawñles arearoundfour tines bigger
interns of negabytes thanJPLGs, sotakeup
norestoragespace. However, nenorycards
andexternal harddrives arecheapthesedays, so
if you'vespent afortuneonyour canera, it's
falseecononytochooseaninagefornat
sinplytosaveonstoragespace. Bigger inage
ñles alsoneanyour canera's buher will ñll up
faster if youshoot inRaw. Whilethis night prove
frustratingwhenshootingsubjects suchas
sports andwildlife, wherelots of shots aretaken
inquicksuccession, it isn't areal concernfor the
landscapephotographer.
Raw
¦f naxinundetail andcontrol is what youneed, thenshootingin
Rawis theanswer. Wecover thebasics youneedtoget started
Raw8|andscapes
Troub|eshootíng
I 't twsrmmywL?
You'rehavingaproblenopeningRawñles onyour newDSLR
becausecanerananufacturers keepchangingRawñlefornats as
theylaunchnewcaneras. Adobereleases regular upgrades for
AdobeCaneraRaw(ACR) for newcaneras. Gotowww.adobe.
conandseeif thelatest upgradeincludes your canera.
I rsssmwssvtmsIFFs ut t
srrysm. t ttmwt I ?
¦f you'reusingACR, openaRawñleandbelowtheñlenunber for
thepreviewinageyou'll seealineof text. Clickonit anda
WorkfowÒptions windowopens. 1oavoidtheñles beingtoo
snall, chooseAdobeRGB(I998) for Space, I6BitsiChannel for
Depth, 300pixelsiinchfor Resolutionand, for Size, choosethe
closest sizethat natches your canera's naxinunpixel resolution.
Rawprocessíngsoftware Rawprocessíngsoftware
Youneedspecial softwaretoprocess
Rawñles. Your Nikondigital SLRcones
suppliedwitha CD-RÒMcontainingNikon
viewNX2processingsoftware(Nikonalso
ohers a norepowerful suite, CaptureNX2,
for £I35). However, thenajority of
photographers prefer tousea third-party
Rawprocessor. By far thenost popular is
AdobeCanera Raw, foundinall versions of
AdobePhotoshopfronCS2onwards,
PhotoshopLlenents sinceversion3.0
andall versions of AdobeLightroon.
AppleAperturealsohas its ownRaw
converter, whileCaptureÒnefron
PhaseÒneis popular withsone
photographers. SilkyPix is lesser known
but worthtryingthefreetrial download.
Cmrw
www.adobe.coniproductsiphotoshopifanilyi
rtur
www.apple.coniuk
Ctur
www.phaseone.coni4i

www.isl.co.jpiS¦L¦YP¦Xienglishi
5hoot8processRaw
Settingyour canera toshoot inRawis
easy. sinply select the¦nageÒuality
settingvia theLCDnenuscreenand
chooseNL¦ (Raw), or NL¦+JPLG. ¦nterns
of howyouuseyour canera andits
controls, that renains pretty nuchthe
sane. 1heonly diherenceis that when
shootingRaw, yougivetheinageas nuch
exposureas youcanwithout clippingor
overexposingthehighlights. By doingthis
you'll recordas nuchshadowdetail as
possibleandbetter inagequality as a result.
¦t does neanthat theinages intheir raw
stateappear overexposed, but this is easily
resolvedduringRawñleprocessing, which
you'll ñnda step-by-steptutorial for later in
this guide. You'll alsonotethat thenunber
of shots youcanñt onyour carddrops
dranatically, socarry sparesl
LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
more!
Eve Iookedt imges ndwondeed
howthephotogphe cptuedso
muchdetiI inthescene Nodoubt
shootinginPwpIyedbigpt

TOPTIP
5hoot PwndJPEG
f you're initially uneasy about
shooting aw, why not set
your canera torecordevery
inage inbothawandJ¯
1hat way, while youget used
toprocessing awñles, you
knowyou've alsogot Js
of the sane inages, for
reassurance
T too|br
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2) andTooI: Navigataroun
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t thtop-t cornr o thintracarvarioussynbos achwithaustoit your picturs. CShasawnw
aitionstothCS4arsna whichwoutinbow but thnaintoosyou' usor vryayRawitingarth
Zoon, Hand, RotateandWhiteBalancetools. Òthers, suchasColor Sanpler, Crop, StraightenandRetouchtools,
workwell, but unlessyou'reeditingsolelyinRaw, arebest left toPhotoshoponcetheRawñleisprocessed. Red-eye
renoval ishandyif youneedit, but you'reunlikelytoprocessnanyportraitsshot inRawthat suher fronred-eyel
6) 5traightenTooI: Correct a
wonky horizonor rotate.
7) PetouchTooI: Gets ridof
sensor spots andother
unwantedblenishes.
8) Ped-EyePemovaI TooI. Click
ontheeyetorenovered-eye.
9) Preferences: Click here
toaccess theCanera Raw
Preferences dialoguebox.
10) PotatecountercIockwiseð
PotatecIockwisetooIs: Rotate
anti-clockwiseor clockwiseby90°.
Opn objct
Ònceyou'vedoneall
your necessary Raw
editing, press nft to
turntheOpenbutton
toOpenObject to
process your Raw
ñleinPhotoshopas
a Snart Òbject. 1he
beneñt of a Snart
Òbject is that youcan
double-click onthe
layer inPhotoshop
toreopentheRaw
ñleandcontinueany
Rawedits inCR.
lternatively, hold
downat toturn
theOpenbuttonto
OpenCopy (soyou
don't work onthe
original Rawñlein
Photoshop) andthe
Cance buttonto
Reset torevert your
inageback toits
original state.
11) Targeteddjustment TooI:
¦nsteadof usingthesliders,
dragthis tool ontheinageto
nakeedits (CS5).
12) djustment rush: Usethis
tool tonakelocalisededits to
theinage(CS5).
13) raduatedFiIter: Drawa line
across your inagetorecreatethe
ehect of a Graduated¦ilter. You
canthenadjust theLxposure,
Brightness, Contrast, Saturation,
Clarity, Sharpness andColor of the
ñlter tosuit your picture(CS5).
w|nscps
14
1 2 3 4 11 5 6 7 8 12 13 9 10
15
16
17
LIOUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥

cess seens conplicted
ndduntingwhenyoutry it for theñrst tine.
Renenber tkingyour ñrst digitl photogrph
or 'Photoshopping' your ñrst inge¯ Chnces
reyoudidn't hvecluewht youwere
doing, but throughtril nderror ndnking
lots of nistkes, yougot thereintheend. ¦t's
thesnewithprocessingyour Rwñles in
softwrelikedobeCnerRw.
1heninresonwhy photogrphers stick
toshootinginJPLGis becuseit's quick, esy
ndsfe. thecner does theconplicted
stuhndll you'releft withre fewtweks in
Photoshopor Lightroontoñnishthejoboh.
ShootinginRw, ontheother hnd,
involves nother steeplerningcurve
becuseevery shot youtkeneeds tobe
workedon. ¦t's thedigitl equivlent of going
frontkingyour ñlns to high-street lbfor
processingndprinting, tosettingup
drkroonnddoingthejobyourself. Doyou
think it's relly worthll thehssle¯
¦n word, yesl 1oreliseyour full potentil
s photogrpher, youneedtotkecontrol
of your photogrphy ndtheonly wy to
relly dothis is toshoot ndprocess Rwñles.
Òver thenext fewpges, we'll giveyou
rundownof thenincontrols ndtools
vilbleinPhotoshop's Rwconverter
-dobeCner Rw-withnexplntion
of wht they dondhowtousethen, strting
withtheBsics tbwhichfetures everything
youneedfor sinpleconversion.
1ogofronnoriginl Rwñletoñnl inge, 'process' it usingRwconverter likedobeCnerRw
Vibranceand5aturation:
1his tool is nlterntivetotheSturtionslider,
whichdjusts ll thecolours inningeeqully.
1hevibrnce1ool, ontheother hnd, hects
colours tht needboosting, hvingless ehect on
thecolours lredy highinsturtion.
WhiteaIance: ShootinginRwnens tht
youcncontrol theWhiteBlncein
post-production, rther thnhvingtoselect
theright WhiteBlncepreset in-cner.
Under theBsics tb, youhvell thein-
cner WBpresets vilblein drop-down
nenutopick fron(eguto, Dylight, Cloudy
etc). Youcnlsousethe1enperturend
1int sliders tocreteyour ownCustonWB.
lterntively, youcouldusetheWhiteBlnce
1ool, foundinthetoolbr.
Pecovery: 1his is ningesver for nyone
whohs slightly overexposedtheir highlights.
1his nifty tool shouldobviously not be
reliedupon, but is deñnitely oneof thenost
invlublefetures inCRs it cnrecover
nid-tonedetil fronclippedhighlights. ¦t's
not nircleworker, though. thedetil hs to
betheretobeginwith.
FiII Light: ¦ill Light ttenpts torecover
detils fronshdows without brightening
ny blcks. Sinilr tousingñll-infsh, this
tool will cst sonelight intoyour foreground.
Useit longsidetheBlcks slider toddnore
punch, but berelly creful not tooverdoit
for unnturl results.
íc too|s for
Rawconversíon
djustment paneIs: 1henincontrols
you'regoingtousewhenprocessingRwñles
retobefoundontheright sideof theRw
¦nterfce, betweenthehistogrnndthe
control sliders. 1herereeight icons covering
thefollowingset of options (fronleft toright).
Bsic, 1oneCurve, Detil, HSLiGryscle,
Split 1oning, Lens Corrections, Cner
Clibrtions ndPresets.
Most of dobe's Rwcontrols redjusted
vi sliders, nkingthenfst ndesy touse.
Hererethekey fetures loctedunder the
Bsics tb.
Exposure: ¦oundt thetopof theBsics
tb, under WhiteBlnce, theLxposureslider
djusts theoverll brightness of theinge,
withgreter focus onthehighlights. 1he
vlues reinincrenents equivlent to
fistops. ¦or nny photogrphers, this tool is
their svinggrces it llows thentocorrect
their in-cner exposure. Wtchout for noise
ndrtefcts creepinginwhenyoupushthe
exposuretoofr. Useinconjunctionwith
Recovery toreducethehighlight vlues.
Iacks: 1his slider shifts theleft prt of the
histogrnevennoretotheleft, nkingthe
blcks intheinge lot noredoninnt, ndis
useful wy of incresingtheoverll contrst.
rightnesslontrast: Brightness works in
sinilr wy toLxposure. However, insted
of clippingthehighlights ndshdows, it
conpresses ndexpnds theinforntion.
Set theoverll tonl rngeñrst usingthe
Lxposure, Recovery ndBlcks sliders, then
djust Brightness. 1heContrst slider ninly
hects nid-tones, cusingthentobrighten
or drkentoincresecontrst.
Iarity: dds depthtoningeby
incresinglocl contrst, withthegretest
ehect onthenid-tones. ¦t works sinilr to
lrgerdius UnshrpMsk inPhotoshop.
ZoonintotheingeI00°toseetheehects
ndstopwhenyoustrt toseehlos pper
ner theedges intheinge.
Rawínterface
Whenyouopen Rwñlein
dobeCner Rw, you're
presentedwiththis interfce.
1hepreviewingeshows the
Rwingeinits originl stte.
14) Zoom: Youcnvry thesizeof
thepreviewingendlsozoon
intoit usingthetbs inthebotton
left-hndcorner of theinterfce.
15) WorkñowOption: t the
bottonof thescreenis the
WorkfowÒption. ¦f youclick on
this, diloguebox opens, giving
youvrious options. ¦or Space
(colour spce), AdobeRG8(998ï
is nost widely used. ¦or Depn,
choose68/sCnanne/. ¦or S/e,
gofor theonetht ntches the
pixel resolutionof your cner (no
point pyingfor thosenegpixels
thennot usingthenl). ndfor
Resolution, enter 300pixelsiinch.
16) Histogram: ¦nthetop
right-hndcorner is theinge's
histogrn, whichshows the
distributionof tones intheRed,
GreenndBluechnnels. Where
youseeCyn, it indictes
crossover betweenthegreen
ndbluechnnels, Yellowis the
crossover betweentherednd
greenchnnels, ndMgent
is cross betweenredndblue
chnnels. Whiteshows wherell
threechnnels cross over. Usethe
histogrntojudgetheexposures
youdjust thesliders.
17) Iippingwarning: 1hetwo
tringulr tbs inthetopleft nd
right of thehistogrntell youif
therehs beenny clippingof
thehighlights or shdows. ¦f the
tringles reblck, noclipping
hs occurred. ¦f thetbs chnge
colour, thecolour tells youtht
colour chnnel or conbintionof
chnnels hvebeenclipped. ¦f the
tringleis white, ll threechnnels
reclipped. ¦f youclick onthetbs,
res inthepreviewinges will be
highlightedtoshowwhereclipping
hs occurred-clippedshdows
shows fshingbluendclipped
highlights s fshingred.
Raw8|andscapes LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥

entheñIe1 ñt tin w ownw opnou awñl i to
owt itoanloo witt ault ana awttin. W can
tat contat i aily lowwitt bul o t inonationo ti
ina ittin int nil. 1 ina loo uit nutanwoulbnñt
onxta contat toacolou an tail.

ssess thehighIights it cc i t' any ilit tail tat
nit b clippby clicin ont tianl ont topit o t
itoantotunont ilit clippin iplay. Wnacti any clipp
aa fa. 1 wit o t itant litou a clipp wic
nan w nit potntially lo on ilit tail.

PescuethehighIights Youcanco ti ilit inonationuin
t coy li but ti woulb at t xpn o ilit
lw wicwoulhctily uc contat. 1 nall anount o
clippinonationin't tat inpotant ow ci tola tin b.
xpou loo pot onow on't ntoajut ti li it.

oost thebIacks 1 ina pobably loo a littl fat tait ont
cana li ti on o. jut t blac until t itoanpa
towa t a lt i by olin ownat/optonannoin t 8acs
li until aa owupblac ont wit bacoun. You' nowcat
t pu blac inyou ina but b caul not toooit.

Watchfor cIippingYou'nonally loo toaoiclippin any ilit o
aow but ontin it' ncay ino totntnt a
ton aninpo contat. o intanc w wouln't xpct to
tail int oc ac cac. W alot ontat to+6toboot contat
ut witout clippin toonucno aowtail.
6
oost thecoIour owajut t ibanc li w t it to3 o
t Saturatonli i you otwa on't atu ibanc topunpup
t colou a littl. l toacc t Wnte 8aance Too ancc tat you
a ot t coct Wit alanc by clicin ona nutal wit o y aa
t litou i oo.
wtprcssaRawfí|e
LukeMarsh
1bt tinabout ootininawi tat youcanpoc tñltoiaa
btt ult tani youacaptutcna a. 1piwo aaw
ñlonyou cana' nonito nay loo intical toaa all t
aitional inonationi inwitintñl anit' inpoibltoiplay on
you cana' cn. t' only wnyouopntawñlonyou conput tat
you'll twon taininti put o inañlonat. u uiow ow
pocinawñl inotoop' obanaawallow youtoxtact ananazin
anount o inonation laintoaa upio ult tani it abncaptuin.
t tnot onyinabypocininobanaaw
Raw8|andscapes
PawñIe
LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥

negotiate the Dea// tabanduse the Zoom
buttons tozoonin!X. Work withthe Snapness slider toget the inage
looking crisponscreen. We settle onnount I00, Radius I.0andDetail 30.
Sharpening tooexcessively cancause artefacts andnoise toappear, whichis
why it's inportant totake pictures at the lowest ¦SÒrating possible.
10
Ònce you're ñnished, youcaneither openthe inage
tocontinue enhancenents inPhotoshopor save it for later. By saving
the inage as a .1¦¦¦ or .PSDfornat youwill leave yourself witha I6-bit ñle as
opposedtoconpressing the inage toan8-bit JPLG, whichreduces the
anount of infornationandthus fexibility whenediting inthe future.
7
just theWhiteaIance¦f you're not happy withthe inage's colour tone
(White Balance), adjust the Tempeae slider a little. Youcanstrengthen
contrast further if youfeel it's necessary by clicking fronthe 8as/c tabtothe
Tone Ce tab. Select Po/n rather thanPaame/c andchange the
drop-downnenufronMed/mtoSongConas.
8
ddimpact 1oenphasiseareas of colour intheinage-inthis casethe
sky andsea -nakeselectiveSaturationandLuninanceadjustnent.
ChoosetheHSL/Gasca/etab, select Saa/onñrst andtweak therelevant
sliders (weset Blues to+40). 1henchoosetheLm/nanceanddothesane
thing(weset Blues to+40here, too) until you'vereachedyour level of inpact.
Fína| ímage
It's cIear toseethebeneñts of
shootingyour images inPaw,
as it's possibIetoextract far
moredetaiI thanif youhad
takentheshot as aJPEG.
LueMrsh

Photoshop
lenents, usedhere, worksinnuchthesanewayasS. Youneedtocreatetwoseparate
inagesof diherent exposuresfronthesaneRawñle-onefor theskyandtheother for
theforeground-thenconbinethenfor theperfect result. Not onlywill weshowhowto
adjust exposurepost-capture, you'll alsoñndout howtousetheighPassñlter for sharpeningand
howtonakecolour adjustnents. 1histechniqueisespeciallyehcient asyouareonlyworkingwith
inagedatacapturedinasingleexposure, soyoucanrevisit anyof your oldRawñlestotryit.
1
OpentheñeWhenyouopena Rawñle inlenents the inage appears in
the Rawcontrol window(above). s the foregroundinthe original Rawñle
is well exposed, little work is neededat this stage onthe inage. Sinply click
, leaving the settings as they are, thengotoF//e>Sae As andcreate a
Photoshopñle (.PS) as we are going tobe working withlayers.
2
Pepet Reopenthe original Rawñle, andagainthe Rawcontrol
windowappears withthe inage. 1his tine nove the Eposre slider
(circled) left tounderexpose the inage, pulling back the hiddendetail fron
the original Rawñle's overexposedsky. Whenyou're happy withthe results,
click Opentotake the inage intolenents.
3
opypsteYounowhave twoñles open. Òne contains the original
exposure andthe other is the newunderexposedinage. Withthe
underexposedñle active, click Se/ect>A// tnenEd/t>Cop, placing the inage
intothe pasteboardnenory. Nowyoucanclose this ñle anduse Ed/t>Paste
toplace this inage intoa newlayer onthe original ñle.
4
PeoeforegroundWiththe twoexposures inplace, we nowwant to
conbine the correctly exposedforegroundwiththe newly exposedsky.
Withthe sky layer active andusing the Rectang/ar Marqee Too/, select a
large area of foreground, just short of the horizon. Next, click Ed/t>De/ete to
renove the area, noting the ehect inthe Layers palette preview(inset).
5
CIeanupNowit's tine totidy upthe horizon, sowiththe Eraser Too/ set
toa nediun-sized, soft-edgedbrushandthe Opac/t set toaround55,
gradually erase areas of the newly exposedlayer along the horizon, revealing
the original foregroundinage. 1he slight feathering betweenthe twolayers
creates a nisty ehect that enhances the inage's nood.
6
Enhance1he initial layer work is conplete, sotosave your work sofar,
gotoLaer>F/attenlmage thenF//e>Sae As tocreate a newñle. With
bothlayers nerged, it's tine for sone overall enhancenent, soclick on
Ennance>Adjst L/gnt/ng>Lee/s tolightenupthe inage andinprove the
deñnition. lick OKtoapply the changes.
ComíníngRawfí|s
et theperfect inagebynergingtwoshots for ultinatequality
Raw8|anscas
PawñIe
LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥

eIet sky1he inage is predoninantly blue inhue andwe'dquite like to
inject a diherent tone tothe sky area. Using the Recang/ar Marqee
Too/, select the area above the horizonandgoSe/ec>Feaner, entering an
anount of 50pixels tosoftenthe selection, before clicking Ed/>Cop then
Ed/>Pase, placing the selectionintoa newlayer.
10
just Iur Change the 8/endMode of the newlayer toSof L/gn,
andthengotoEnnance>Adjs Co/or>Adjs He/Sara/on. ¦n
the window, start by clicking the Colorize box andinnediately see the
ehect inthe preview. ¦inally, adjust the He andSara/onsliders until you
are happy withthe colour, andthenclick OK.
7
HigPss 1he HighPass ñlter is a far nore forgiving way toenhance detail
thansharpening. 1ouse it, ñrst gotoLaer>Dp//cae Laer topreserve
the original inage. 1hengotoF//er>Oner>H/gnPass, adjusting the Rad/s
toaroundpixels before clicking OK. Nowyouneedtochange the 8/end
Mode inthe Layers palette toSof L/gn.
8
rkenres Use Laer>F/aenlmage again, saving a copy if required.
Now, using the 8rnToo/ (inset) witha large soft-edgedbrushandthe
Opac/ set toapproxinately 5X, darkenthe exposure of speciñc areas,
whichhelps toinprove the depthof the inage. ¦ocus onthe edges of the
frane andgradually buildthe ehect up.
Fína| ímage
tryskies vere! It's
cIear toseethebeneñts of
shootingyour images inPaw,
as it's possibIetorescuemore
detaiI thanif you'dcaptured
thesceneas aJPEG.
Ra8andscapes
wl yun
tlrntusyur nr's histgrn.
singthprviwingtjugxpsur
isn't thst rrn. histgrn nth
thr hn prvis ll thinrntinyu
ntrtthultintwl. t shws
thistriutin tns in igitl ing
rnthrkst shws nthr lt th
histgrntthrightst highlights nth
r right. hgnrl rulwhnxpsingn
ingis tnksurtns ll withinth
xtrns thhistgrntrtintil.
tnuhinrntinis tthr lt sn
shws lk til ni it's tthr right
snhighlights ny lwut nrrs
purwhit. kingsurnithr xtrns r
lippgivs nptlwl.
rrnxinuntnl til hwvr yu
nt'xpstthright'. hy¯ us
snsrs rrnrtns inthhighlights
thnthshws.
st snsrs rr rightnss rng
vr six stps. st histgrns rivi
intvstins whihrprsnt thv
stps inrightnss it rrs. thr thnth
tnl vlus ingiviqully rss
thsvstps 0° thttl nunr r
rrinthrightst stp hl this
nunr inthnxt hl s nny gininth
nxt stp nsn nningtht th
rightst 20° thhistgrn nthr
right ntins I6tins nrtnl vlus
thnthrkst 20°nthr lt. y
'xpsingtthright' yu'rnxinisingth
inrntinrr. hnyuhk th
prviwsrn ings xpstthright
lk vrxps syur nturl rtinis
truthxpsurnrsht ut n't
trust thhistgrn unthnjust th
xpsurnntrst whnprssingyur
sht rtiningthinprtnt tnl vlus n
giving nrtilingwithlss nis.
posngtotheríght' wíthRaw
nrstnhwyur nrrrs tnl inrntinnhwtrwhistgrn
1
h rightst
highlights inth wtr nsky hv n
xpstth pint tht thy'v strttls
til inity th rhighlights. h
ing lks gnrlly wshut.
2
rius ntrls n
usttn wnth ing ntrst
rightnss xpsur ut th n urv
slirs r nst tiv. r th rk tn
ws nvt-3nit lks ttr lry.
3
lthughyushultry
tvilipping th highlights yunus
th vry slir trsu thnut n
nr thnut 20°shul pplis it
tns tfttnth whl ing.
4
h ighlight slir ws nvtth right t vlu
+26nth ights slir tth lt t vlu -I4. uns hw
th n urv hs hngrn stright lin t shllw'' shp.
5
mprovethecoIours liking k nth si t th lks slir
is nvtth right t vlu I4rnits ult stting whil
irnis st t+22nturtint+tst thlurs inthing.
Increasíngtheeposre
hsist wy t'xpstthright' is
ttk tst rnnthnssss th
histgrn. thgrphis ntr(iwll
xps) r tthlt inrsth
xpsury +Ii3stpvi xpsur
npnstin tknthr sht n
hk thhistgrn. pt until th
highlight wrningstrts tfshnth
prviwing initingtht th
highlights hvn'lipp' ntht
yu'vtknthxpsurtr. h
rnr whryugvIi3-stp
lss xpsur is thltwrk n.
) his is wht thhistgrnr n
unrxpsinglks lik thtnl
grphis pushvr tthlt whr
thrrwr tnl vlus. yutk
sht likthis ntritrvr til
yu'hvprlns withnis.
) hris nthingwrngthnilly with
this ingr histgrn thtnl grphis
ntrl nnithr highlights r shws
hvnlipp. yuswthis sht n
thprviwsrn yu'prly
hppy. wvr.
) Lxposingtotheright will recordfar
noretonal values intheawñles than
correctly exposingit. his is what the
previewinagewill look likeif youdo.
overexposedandwashedout. But it's the
best awñleof thethreeexanplesl

LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥

fter savterocessedPaw
ñeas a6-t TIFF, afewñnaI
tweaks weremadeinPhotoshop
andhere's theñnishedimage-
rather moreimpressivethanthe
originaI PawñIeit camefrom.
LT£R5
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slhepf hevessel hs gvesr
srs h l ehreeñlers verbr
wh Ò, s's rher exreeser, b he
wrsehgs hvehppee se 1heqess, whh
hreewle¯
s hlf heCer, ¦ gess reñlers
hr vergeer shp ¦ hbs f pls ,
, Cres) h lferbws ges,
r perfel es b rg b, ree
rvesees pressssges, rbrgh
ps f lgh brll explss f lr, perfr
ll srs f her werwerfl rs ¦ ever sehe
hgs, f rse, beses f heees werehrrble
B were' prper phgrpher less rre
les zef heeverwhere, f hewrs e
hewrs, he wereel fr g sw's er fr sl
prse ¦'veg href exples prve
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C, s we ll heñlers h
were' essel whhll lef ver few Ler sll,
¦ jpehegl bwg, whhe ¦ l
jeseverel helr rre
versñlers h hvebeerepleb heBle
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1 ¦'lef whl hreeñler pes Nerl Des
ND) grs, plrser slNerl Des ND) ñlers
¦r lspegeerl phgrph, he'rell ee,
ll hreebese vll r b
helpge hes fr see
Sef behg, h bher whñlers ll
wheheees bee Phshp¯' ell, f 're
hgh, hes re'veever sehe, bese
whleheees señlers hvebereple
Phshp, hers ' w, evef he lll
be, srel 's beer ge r phgrphs s lse
pleer s pssble, rher hspegges
r per rgsr he pspr¯
¦r frñler sses, e l hepel
belw, hereseeheeree hreefvre
ñlers ler lspeges
nother ñne míst
ery, drama, atmosphere.
usingñIters inyour photography
canmakeyour goodshots great.
Lee¦rs revels hepref ñlers
fr lspephgrphers
Fí|ters
Whíchñ|ter system?
5CPEWIN: 1hesehghql
ñlers srewrelheñler
href r les, ghefs
esse 'll ñers
plrsers NDsrewñlers
lgB+'s espND) b
vrllNDgrs hleerg
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hveers leses, 'll
s leleebseverl szes
f srewñlers Brs ser
leB+, H1e
5LOTIN: r bes hewhe
vesgñler sses hesl
vre brgs h srew
r leses hler h slps
hesergs hs wl
eeeñler Plrsers, NDs
NDgrs rell vlbles sl
ñlers CPr Pr) ¦r
Heh) regñrs sses, whle
Lee¦lers s heprfessls' he
LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
í|ters LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
Dgraduates











hcult as thereareonly
threenaindensities tochoosefron.
0.3, 0.6and0.9, whichreducethe
brightness of theskybyone, twoand
threestops respectively. Sone
nanufacturers alsoproduceaI.2
grad, whichtones downtheskybyfour
stops. 1heweakest, 0.3, is onlyof
usewhenyouneedaverysubtleehect,
whilethestronger 0.9is nainlyused
at dawnandduskwhenthesky's really
bright but there's nodirect light onthe
landscape. 1hat just leaves the0.6
grad, whichis thebest choicefor
general use. f indoubt, takeatest shot
witha0.6grad, checktheinageon
your canera's previewscreen, then
switchtoeither a0.3or, norelikely,
a0.9if theehect isn't right.
Fí|ters
NDgrads 8exposure Choosetheríght densíty
Beforenulti-zoneneteringwas
introduced, exposurereadings hadtobe
takenwithalightneter andset nanually
onthecanerabeforeattachingan
gradtothelens inorder toavoidgettingan
overexposedinage. Meteringsystens
thesedays arenuchnoreintelligent, now
youcanconposeyour shot, alignthe
gradreadyfor useandneter withit onthe
lens. 1hereasonfor this is that anulti-
zoneneteringpatterntakes anunber of
exposurereadings frondiherent parts of
theinagearea, thereforethedarkness of
theñlter doesn't infuencetheñnal
exposureinanegativeway. nfact, it helps
your caneraobtainanaccuratereading,
as whenangradis ñtted, theeutral
ensitypart of theñlter darkens thesky
areasothat thecontrast betweenthesky
andforegroundis reduced. eypresto. a
perfectlyexposedlandscape.

A
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A
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1

Hardor soft grads?
1hekey tosuccess witha gradis correct
alignnent, soit does its jobwithout leaving
telltalesigns. Many photographers struggle
andassunetherenust bea nagicfornula,
but it's just a caseof takingyour tine.
1

Mount your
canera ona tripodand
conposethefrane.
Next, placeanNDgrad
ñlter intheñlter holder
onyour lens, andwhile
peeringthroughthe
viewñnder, slowly
pushthegraddown
intotheholder.
2

As youslidethe
graddownyoushould
seethetoppart of the
pictureappear toget
darker. ¦t won't be
obvious, evenif you're
usinga strongNDgrad,
sowatchcarefully and
whenyouthink you've
got theNDgradinthe
right position, stop
novingit down.
3

Aconnonnistake
is topushthegradtoo
far intotheholder. 1he
gradwill thenact likea
solidNDñlter and
increasetheexposure
but it won't balancethe
diherenceinlight
betweenthesky and
foreground. Younay
alsoseetheline
of thegrad.
4

¦f youstruggleto
alignthegradusingthe
viewñnder, try using
Liveview. Younay ñnd
it sinpler todothis as
you'reseeingthe
exact ehect theñlter is
havingontheinage,
nakingit easier to
accurately alignit.
1herearetwotypes of NDgrad. hardandsoft. 1his
refers tothewayinwhichtheNeutral Density(grey)
part of theñlter graduates downtoclear. withhard
grads thechangeis quitesudden, whereas with
soft grads it's gentle. Newconers toNDgrads
assunethat soft grads areeasier tousebecauseif
youalignthenincorrectlyit's less likelythat you'll
seethelineof thegradinyour picture. However,
hardgrads arealsoquiteforgivingandgiveanore
deñnedehect, nakingthenthebest choice.


oarr
WHLNLGH1S1R¦LS sur sono th
rys sttr inll irtions thus oning
polris usingrtions nglrtht
ruolour sturtionprtiulrly on
shiny surs suhs pintwork nolig.
Polrisingltrs prvnt this ronhppning
y only llowinglight rys tontr your lns
tht rtrvllingrononirtion
tivly lokingout polrislight. Doing
this ors thristint vntgs or
lnspphotogrphy.
1hnost ovious nt is tht thluo
sky is pnusit ontins lot o
polrislight. Usingpolrisr llows youto
visul inpt toings y proviing
strong punhy lukrop. nothr
nt is tht glronnon-ntllisurs
is ru sotholours insnppr
rihr nnorsturt. 1hthir
vntgtousingpolrisrs is tht
rtions rlinint soyouns
throughwinows nintorivrs.
Using polrisr is sy usyoun
stht it hs sinply y rottingit
slowly inits nount onyour
lns whillooking
irulr polrisr will your
st rin oostingolour
inpt nruingrtions
throughthnr's viwnr. Blusky
gos rkr nwhitlous stnout
rtions onngo nglr
ispprs. Whnyou'rhppy withwht
yous sinply stoprottingnr.
1ogt thst possilrsults
howvr youshoullsor in
ninrtintors.
lthoughpolrisrs
gnrlly work st inright
sunny wthr whnthr's
norpolrislight roun
thy nusinull
ovrst onitions too in
orr tornovglrn
rtions. utunnl
woolnsns usully look
nuhttr i youshoot thn
through polrisr s glris
ru sothriholours o th
oligrlly onthrough.
Whnusing polrisr topnlu
sky kpthsunt right ngltoth
nr soyou'riningtowrs thr o
sky whrnxinunpolristionours.
1ht wy you'll gt thstrongst t. th
sunis hinyou or you'rshootingintoth
sun polrisr won't nknuhirn.
Polristioninthsky lsotns tottr
whnthsunis lowinthsky sorly
norningnvninggivttr rsults thn
inthnilo thy.
Polristionis unvnross thsky
sotkrwhnusingultr wi-ngl
lnss or zoons with ol lngthwir
thn2nn(I6nnonPS-snsors) s th
sky inyour ings ny rorrkr onon
sithnthothr. tht nlook vry
o. 1his norrtinPhotoshop
ltr ut it's triky. Youshoullsonottht
glrwill only rnovronnon-ntlli
surs suhs pintwork olign
plsti. 1ornovrtions ronsurs
suhs wtr nglss thngltwn
thrtivsurnthlns xis nust
roun30°. Youcanñndthis by naking
slight adjustnents toyour positionthen
rotatingthepolariser toseewhat happens.
¦inally, polarisingñlters cangiveyour
pictures a slight bluecolour cast whenused
inbright, sunny weather. 1orenovethis,
either adjust your canera's WhiteBalance
settingor correct thecast whenyouprocess
theRawñleonyour conputer.
Crcar or nar?
oarr por
1herearetwotypes of polarisingñlters
available. linear andcircular. void
linear. Youneedtousea circular
polariser withyour digital canera as
linear polarisers areusedoncertain
older nanual focus ñlnSLRs. Bothtypes
doexactly thesanejob, but a circular
polariser is nanufactureddiherently to
ensurecorrect exposurewhenused
withautofocus DSLRs andCSCs.
Whenyouuseapolariser, it reduces the
light enteringyour lens bytwostops. 1his
neans if youhaveanexposureof
IiI25secat fiII without apolarisingñlter
inplace, theexposurewoulddropto
Ii30secat fiII onceyouñttedit. Your
caneraaccounts for this light loss
autonatically, soyoudon't needto
conpensate, but youneedtobeawareof
it becausetheshutter speedcaneasily
beconeveryslowwhenusingapolariser
-eveninbright sunlight -sotheriskof
canerashakeis increased. 1hat said, this
light loss canbeabeneñt whenyouwant
touseaslower shutter speed, as the
polariser acts likeatwo-stop(0.6) ND
ñlter (coveredoverleaf). Whenshooting
waterfalls, for exanple, thepolariser not
onlygives youaslower shutter speedto
blur thewater, but alsorenoves
refections fronwater andglarefronwet
rocks andfoliage, givingabetter result.
oñIter
NoñIter WithpoIariser
WithpoIariser
Fr LNIONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
ue sky thínkíng
upyour usy
vsu mpt toss
yusgapoIarisingñIter.

utr Dnsty(D) ñtrs
N¦L1RSAR


N 1 N

N

N

1




hcnoving
alongbusy roads, trees blowinginthewind,
waves washingover rocks andsoon.
1hey'reideal for useinbright conditions
whenthelowest ¦SÒratingandsnallest
aperturearen't enoughtogiveyoutheslow
shutter speedthat youdesire.
Lengtheningexposuretines withaNeutral Densityñlter is oneof thesinplest
ways tobecreativewithyour canera, producinggreat novenent ininages
TDEN5ITIE5
1heanount of exposureincreaseanND
ñlter requires depends onits density. 1he
weakest NDworthbotheringwithis a 0.6ND
(4x), whichrequires a two-stopexposure
increase. Apolariser alsorequires an
exposureincreaseof twostops socanbe
usedlikea 0.6NDñlter. Next upis a 0.9ND
(8x), whichrequires a three-stopexposure
increase, followedby a I.2ND(I6x) that
requires a four-stopincrease. 1his is where
thedensity of conventional NDñlters ends,
thoughyoucanconbinetwoor norefor a
cunulativeehect -a 0.6NDanda 0.9ND
together will requirea ñve-stopexposure
increase, for exanple.
1healternativeistouseanoreextreneND
ñlter, withadensityof I.8(sixstops) or nore.
1heseñlterswereoriginallydesignedfor
photographingindustrial processesthat
involvedextrenebrightnessbut arenow
popular withphotographersastheyallow
exposuresindaylight of several ninutes. 1urn
over for our favourite. the3.0ND, which
requiresanexposureincreaseof tenstops-
that'sI000xnorethantheunñlteredexposurel
trs
xposurcrt
cnquwtc
¦f you'reusingweaker NDñlters, uptoaI.2density,
your canera's 11Lneteringwill beabletogive
accurateexposurereadings withtheñlter onthe
lens. Òncedensitygoes beyondI.2, however, you
nayñndthat underexposureoccurs becausethe
ñlter densityfools thecanera's netering.
1oavoidexposureerror, takea neter reading
without theNDñlter onthelens, thencalculate
therequiredexposurewithit inplaceandset the
exposureonyour canera nanually. ¦f youhave
aniPhone, there's a useful appcalledNDCalc
that will dothis for you.
Alternatively, refer tothetablebelow. Òncethe
requiredexposuregoes beyond30seconds you
will havetoset your canera toits Bulb(B) node
andtinetheexposureusingthetiner onthe
canera or snartphone, a renoterelease, your
wristwatchor by countingelephants -you
decidel We'dreconnendthat youphotocopy
andcut out theexposurechart belowandkeepit
alongwithyour NDñlter for easy reference.
NofiIter With0.6ND With0.9ND With1.2ND
Ii500sec IiI25sec Ii60sec Ii30sec
Ii250sec Ii60sec Ii30sec IiI5sec
IiI25sec Ii30sec IiI5sec Ii8sec
Ii60sec IiI5sec Ii8sec Ii4sec
Ii30sec Ii8sec Ii4sec Ii2sec
IiI5sec Ii4sec Ii2sec Ònesecond
Ii8sec Ii2sec Ònesecond 1woseconds
Ii4sec Ònesecond 1woseconds ¦our seconds
Ii2sec 1woseconds ¦our seconds Light seconds
Ònesecond ¦our seconds Light seconds I6seconds
1woseconds Light seconds I6seconds 32seconds
1hreeseconds I6seconds 32seconds Òneninute
¦our seconds 32seconds Òneninute 1woninutes
NoñIter 0.6ND
Wor|d í motío
ñIter aIIows
youtouseIonger shutter
speeds indayIight: ideaI
whenshootingwaterfaIIs.

M

.

Ò

Co|our casts
WileNlers souldbeeural, oce
youconbieenfor ier desiy
(adaloer exposure), you'll seea
colour cass appear. is is nos
oiceablewiesopNlers
eBW.adds averywarncolour
cas wileeeeilers Biopper adds
acool bluecas. esecaeacee
lookof einae, bu if youprefer, you
caadjus ecolour enperaurewe
youprocess eawle.
1.2ND 3.0ND
-stopNDñ|ters
noticewhenusingaten-stopND
ñlter is that it's sodense, youcan't seethroughit. ¦nbright
sunlight younight just nakeout afaint inagethroughthe
viewñnder, but its brightness is I000x less thanif youdidn't
havetheten-stopNDinplace. 1otakeaphotographyounust
thereforenount your caneraonatripod, conposethescene,
set focus tonanual (as ¦won't work throughit), alignyour
NDgradinits holder if you'reusingone, thenñnally position
theten-stopND. Most digital SLRs haveLiveviewthat's
sensitiveenoughtoseethroughaten-stopND, soif youneed
toadjust theconpositionor novethecaneraandshoot fron
adiherent spot, younay beabletodosowithout takingthe
ten-stopNDñlter oh. ¦or nost of us, though, renovingthe
ñlter toseethroughtheviewñnder is unavoidable. 1hat's why a
slot-inñlter liketheLee¦ilters BigStopper or Hi1ech's ProStop
is noreversatilethantheB+Wscrew-inñlter -youcansinply
renoveit fronits holder andleaveeverythingelseinplace,
whereas theB+Whas tobeunscrewedfronthelens.
1helongest exposureyoucanachieveusingyour canera's
progrannedshutter speedrangeis 30seconds. Moreoften
thannot, you'll beusingexposures nuchlonger thanthat with
theten-stopper, soyou'll needtoset your caneratoBulb(B)
nodeinorder tokeeptheshutter open. 1ryingtokeep
exposures under 30seconds for convenience, by openingup
theapertureor increasingthe¦SÒrating, is conpletely
defeatingtheobject becauseyou'll get thebest ehects by
usingexposures of several ninutes.
¦nterns of subject natter, any scenecontainingnoving
elenents is ideal. 1hesky is anobvious candidate. onawindy
day, clouds aretransfornedintoghostly streaks as they drift
overhead, andyouwon't knowquitehowthey'regoingto
recorduntil theexposureends andyoucanreviewtheshot.
1rees andgrass swayinginthebreezealsotakeonatotally
diherent appearancewhenexposedfor several ninutes,
addingastrongsenseof notiontoaninage.
Coastal scenes areperhaps thenost ehectivesubjects for
theten-stopND. 1heseais constantlynoving, soover the
courseof afewninutes, anytextureinits surfaceis lost andit
takes onasnooth, nilkyappearancethat contrasts well with
staticelenents suchas piers, lighthouses, headlands, jetties and
rocks. Clouds workwell, too, renderingas streaks inthesky. Òr
for sonethingconpletelydiherent, tryshootingurbanscenes
withaten-stopND. nythingnovingthroughthescenewhile
theshutter is open-peopleandtrahcnostly-won't record.
1his neans youcancapturesonethingthat wenever seewith
thenakedeye-busystreets conpletelydesertedl
Wide-anglelenses arenoreehectivethantelephotos when
usingaten-stopNDbecauseyoucanenphasisethesky and
theforeground, whichis wherenost of thenotionis
recorded. Moveinclosetoastaticfeatureintheforeground
andcontrast it withnovingwater, or get downlowwithawide
lens soyou'relookingupat thesky.
Bright sunshinegives theleast ehectivelight for ten-stop
shots as it's harshandfat, plus thehigher light levels neanyou
won't beabletoachievereally longexposures -evenwith
your lens stoppedright downandthe¦SÒratingat its nininun
setting. Dawnanddusk, ontheother hand, areperfect for
creatingatnosphericinages, alongwithearly norningand
eveningwhenthesun's lowinthesky andthelight is warn.
1heB+W3.0ten-stopNDhas awarncolour cast, whichis
ideal for enhancingshots takenat either endof theday. Storny
weather canproducedranaticresults, too, as there's nore
novenent inthesky andsea, whileonovercast days thesoft
light andgentletones result insinple, graphicinages.
lthoughyou'll beshootingincolour, ten-stopshots look
anazinginblack owhite-especially if you'renot keenonthe
ñlter's inherent colour cast. 1onaxinisetheinpact anddrana,
whenconvertingyour picturetononochrone, treat thesky
andtherest of thesceneas separateelenents by adjusting
their tonality separately, usingtools suchas Levels andCurves.
1heendresult nay look nothingliketheoriginal scene, but that
doesn't natter becauseas soonas youput aten-stopNDñlter
onyour lens, you'retakingastepback fronreality anyway.
Useaten-stopNDñlter andyou'll ñndyou
cancreatestrikingcolour andblackowhite
ñne-art landscapes withease
Fí|ters

£xposurechart
1hechart ontheright
reveals theincreaseof
exposuretines whenusing
aten-stopNDñlter. ¦t's akey
reasonwhyyou're
reconnendednot touse
theLongLxposureNoise
Reductionsystenonyour
canera, as this function
takes thesaneanount of
tineas theexposure. ¦or
instance, whenyoushoot a
two-ninuteexposure, you'll
needtowait another couple
of ninutes for theinageto
writeandbeviewableon
theLCDnonitor. We'd
suggest youswitchNoise
Reductionohandcontrol
noiseinpost-production.

Ii500sec 1woseconds
Ii250sec ¦our seconds
IiI25sec Light seconds
Ii60sec I6seconds
Ii30sec 32seconds
IiI5sec Òneninute
Ii8sec 1woninutes
Ii4sec ¦our ninutes
Ii2sec Light ninutes
Ònesecond I6ninutes
1woseconds 32ninutes
1hreeseconds 48ninutes
¦our seconds Ònehour
LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
he mood
ñIter
of themoment. Don't
Ieavehomewithout one.
Fí|ters

LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
51=ic Ai=z=c vA5DALL
Fhofographlng people ln fhe landscape on asslgnmenf lor fhe Naflonal Trusf,
l lrequenfly work handheld wlfh a Nlkon D-700. Here l had fo respond qulckly ln
lasf-changlng weafher, almlng fo capfure fhe essence ol fhe llghf as lf franslormed
fhe scene belore us second by second. Shooflng fowards fhe sun necesslfafed a
LEE 0.ºND hard grad, fhls allowed me fo keep fhe clouds predomlnanfly mld-fone
whlle ensurlng good quallfy nolse-lree defall ln fhe landscape and on fhe young
people. No ofher approach would have worked here.
l have used LEE Fllfers lor nearly fwenfy years now lor one over-rldlng reason:
quallfy. The sharpness ol my lenses are fofally unallecfed by fhe llfers because ol
fhelr opflcal clarlfy and plane parallellsm (lafness). And fhe neufrallfy ol LEE's ND
llfers (graduafes and sfandards) ls legendary. They are fhe besf ln fhe buslness,
whlch means less posf-processlng flme spenf correcflng unwanfed colour casfs.
Flnally, fhe llfer holder ls easy fo use, lexlble and a vlrfually lndesfrucflble deslgn
classlc. Cl fhe fwo l carry on asslgnmenf, one ls over llfeen years old.
Joe Cornlsh
www.joecornish.com
Tel: (012ó4) 3385ºº www.leellfers.com
LEE 0.º ND
hard grad Ilter
LEE Filter Holder
Nikon D-700,
24mm Lens,
1/320 sec @ I/14
UNR5TNINOLOUR
contrast
otypes of relationshipbetween
colours -harnonyandcontrast. Lookingat acolour
wheel helps us tounderstandthis. Colours that arenext
toeachother -for exanple, blueandgreen-are
harnonious, whilethosethat areopposite-for
exanple, blueandyellow-contrast witheachother.
lso, colours that areonthe'warn' sideof thewheel
harnonisewitheachother, whileall thoseonthe'cool'
sidealsoharnonise. Harnonious colours arenore
calningtolookat, andblues andgreens inparticular
areverytranquil. Contrastingcolours arenore
dranaticandcreateatensionthat canchallengethe
eye-blueandyellowis astrongcontrast.
LÒÒ¦¦ML, energyandthought has beendevotedto
thestudyof colour, its practical applications andits
psychological ehects. Òftenthoseapplications andehects
arelinked. ¦t's not anaccident that stopsigns arered, cool
settings onair conditioningareblueor that the
environnental novenent has adoptedthecolour green.
Muchcanbelearnedabout therelationships between
colours, too. Colours worktogether indiherent ways, with
certainconbinations creatingenergyandtension, while
others harnoniseandcreatecaln. Whenacolour appears
innaturewithagreater thannornal intensity, thestageis
set for great landscapephotography. Learningtheir
relationshipwill reaprewards, helpingyoutoachieve
stunningshots that younever beforethought possible.
THECOLOUPWHEEL
ContrastingcoIours, suchas
yeIIowandbIueor redand
green, createtensionand
drama. CoIours adjacent to
eachother arecaIming.
o|our

D

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B

R

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N
LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥

P
OLOUPNMOTION
r r
r yr
r rr r
yr ¦ rr r r
Cr r
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P r y r r
r ¦ r ry r rr r
rr R r rr
ry rr
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LU rrr yy
r r ry ¦ry y
y r y
r ry B ry r r r
rr ry r rr

PN y Òy r
r r rr
y r y ry r
r r ry Hr
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YLLOW r r rr
r r ¦ ryr r
rry r r
ry rr r ¦
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LUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
Co|our

L
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OLOUP5TUPTION
Òky i w'rgoingtostritly thnil out
this thtrnsturtionrrs tohowpur olour
is. But ovr tin ninprtil trns sturtion
hs ontonnhowintnsor strong olour
pprs inning. rouingsturtings
involvs northnsinply oostingolours in
hotoshoplthoughnuhnontht wy
withgrt rsults thrrnny options t th
pitur-tkingstg. Lt's onsir thosrst.
htino y hs ninpt onolour
sturtion. Lrly norningnlt-vninglight
withthsunlowinthsky nlss glr prous
norintnsolours thnt othr tins s os
ront lightingrthr thnsi- or klighting.
polrisingltr y ruingrtions n
uttingownonglr lsoinprovs sturtion.
polrisr hs thnxinunt whnth
nr is t 90 tothsun. olrisrs rsinpl
touss tht is lrly visilthroughth
nr's viwnr thnost ovious oning
thinrsinsturtiono luskis.
hrr ouplo things towthout or. t's
possiltoovr-polris sn rsultingin
nr-lk skis nlso whnusingwi-ngl
lnss (wir thn2nnon ull-rnDSLRor
I/nnonnS-Csnsor) thgro
polristionnunvnross thrn.
Ò ours youwon't lwys wnt strong virnt
sturtolours. Mutpstl tons rnor
sutl ut nust s tivwiththright
sut nttr rtingntnosphro lnn
trnquility. Lrly norningnist rins olours n
givs ol luishhuto sn whihyoun
nhny twkingthhitBlnin-nr
or ltr i you'rshootingRw.
lot nont thprossingstg.
Lxprinnt withhitBlnsttings to
n-tunthovrll tnosphrnst. Òvr th
pg w'll showhowvryingthhitBlno
Rwlngivrntirsults.
U5INGONLYONEOLOUP
Singlolours otngivning prtiulr noo
nit's possiltonksussul onpositions
usingust onolour or shs o onolour.
Crtinlightingonitions nrtthis t
ntnosphrto sn. nintnsly orng
or rsunst givs vry nutrl olour strongis
thing snin ry wrnth.
lso strongklightingnsturtolours
rtingnlnost nonohrontit, whilt
pr-sunrisnpost-sunst thris nosingl
stronglight sournthlight is iusn
rtownronthsky.
htwoings onthright rrlly goo
xnpls o nonohrontiings. Strtingovr
onthr right younshowklightinghs
rintholours ronthis sn rsultinginn
ingtht pprs lnost voio olour.
hprwnlight thingthlkn
woointhnr-right pituris ius llingon
thsnronvirtully thwholsky. t hs givn
thsn irly olst ut thnoois trnquil.
t suits tholstillnss o wintr norning.
Predawnmonochrome
Pre-sunrise
Without poIariser
ackIit desaturation
Midday
WithpoIariser
Typs of po|arsr
hrrtwotyps o polrisr irulr n
linr. his osn't rr tothphysil shp
thy'rothtullyirulr ut thwyth
light is polris. Mksuryouuyirulr
polrisr or uswithyour DSLRs linr typs
intrrwithyour nr's ntring whih
n't hnllinrlypolrislight.
LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
HInixon
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wt
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u ywt w
tutt ty u y yu
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tw+JPLG, settingthe
correct WhiteBalanceandthenexperinenting
withtheWhiteBalanceafterwards inpost-
production. 1hefollowingstep-by-stepguide
will showyouhoweasy it is todo.
UsíngWhíteßa|ancepresets
Learnhowtoalter thetoneof your landscapeinages byexperinentingwith
diherent WhiteBalancepresets for creativeehect
WB
o|our
3
ryout presets s youcansee, WBkeeps thecolours truetothe
scenebut lacks punch. 1owarnupcolours, ¦ takethesaneshot using
theDaylight, ShadeandCloudy WBpresets. 1helower the¦elvin(colour
tenperature), thenoresaturatedtheoranges, yellows andreds. Cloudy is
thebest WBas it boosts thesky's warnthwithout losingtoonuchcoolness.
4
IncreaseKeIvins thesunfalls just belowthehorizon, try increasingthe
¦elvinby setting1ungstenandthen¦luorescent WBtoenhancethe
blueness of twilight. 1oavoidcolours lookingtoounnatural, opt for aWB
settingthat enhances theblues inthescenebut doesn't overpower thewhole
inage. ¦or this scene, ¦luorescent is nuchbetter than1ungsten(seeright).
1
Findyour IocationCoastal sunsets or sunrises work well for this type of
technique due totheir vividcolours. 1ry toarrive at the locationat least
half anhour before the goldenhour begins. 1ry out diherent conpositions
andlook for foregroundinterest. ¦f youhave trouble ñnding anything, use
the wet sandor a rock pool toadda refectioninthe scene.
2
UseutoWhiteaIanceÒnceyou'veconposedyour scene, select
WB(seeyour canera's nanual if you'renot surewhereit is) andset
aperture-priority nodetoat least fiI3toget adequatedepth-of-ñeld. ¦f your
autofocus struggles inthelowlight, switchtonanual focus. ¦f youstruggleto
balancetheexposurebetweenthesky andforeground, useanNDgradñlter.
5hoot Raw
¦or addedfexibility, shoot your
inages inRawandadjust the
WhiteBalancepost-capturein
dobeCaneraRaw. Òncethe
inageis opened, clickonthe
drop-downnenuat thetopof
theBasictabandscroll downto
select theWhiteBalancepreset
you'dliketoapplytoyour
inage. YoucanchangetheWB
as nanytines as youwant until
youñndtheoneyou'rehappy
withandevenadjust the
1enperatureslider for nore
control over acustonWB.
LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
W ayIight 5hade Ioudy Tungsten

scent Wßhas renderedthe
best resuIts, enhancingthedeep
bIuetones andthepinks inthesky.
Exposure: woseconds at fiI3(¦SÒI00).
tripakasenetoits areessentials yonvertingtolakwhite
produingsinple dranatiinages that arepakedwithatnosphere
H'onlakwhitephotography¯oyouseeit as añne-art nediunthat
ohers endless sopefor reativeself-expression or is it irrelevant andold-fashioned¯or along
tine thelatter viewtendedtoapply espeiallyoneolour ñlneaneahordaleakinthe
'/0s. hytakephotographs inlakwhitewhenolour ones arefar norerealisti¯heritis
hadapoint ut fans of thelakwhiteinagewerequiktopoint out that it's theveryfat
they'renot realistithat gives thentheir appeal andwhenyoustudytheworkof landsapegreats
suhas ihael enna nsel dans andosef Hofehner you'll soonseewhy.
8WT
ND5P5
|ack8whíe|andcape LNONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥

|ack8whíte|andscapes LNIKONUDLÒLNDCPLPÒÒP¥
frontheequationwithout
conpronisingthequality of theñnal result -
nowanyonewitha digital canera cancreate
anazingblack owhiteinages. Putting
yourself intotheright nind-set to'see' the
landscapeinblack owhitecanbetricky, but
it's anobstaclethat caneasily beovercone.
By settingyour canera toblack owhitenode
andusingtheLCDscreeninLiveview, you
canviewthesceneinfront of youinblack o
whiteandquickly pick uponwhichscenes
andcolours work best innonochrone.
Certaincolours whenrenderedblack owhite
look sinilar grey tones, whichcannakeyour
shots look fat. learningwhat colours create
contrastingtones will helpyourecognise
what scenes look goodinblack owhite. You
canevenshoot inbothRawandJPLG-the
inageyouseeonyour canera's preview
screenwill beblack owhite, but you'll also
havea colour Rawñleonthenenory card
that youcanwork onlater. 1heother optionis
SWÒNDLR¦ULas colour photography is, it
canalsobetoofaniliar. ¦t shows us what
things look likeandleaves us feelingreassured
andconfortable. But inart, reality isn't always
thebest solutionbecauseit doesn't
encourageus tolook beyondfaniliarity and
appreciateaninagefor any reasonother than
what it depicts. s soonas yourenovecolour
fronaninage, however, everythingchanges
as it nolonger represents reality.
Black owhiteinages aresinpler, nore
dranatic, noreevocativeandnore
atnosphericthancolour. Òur enotional
responsetoa colour landscapeinageis often
renderedsuperñcial by faniliarity, but cones
frona nuchdeeper placewhenwetakethat
colour away. Light, shade, textureandshape
takecentrestageandwhat's actually inthe
scenebecones alnost irrelevant -it's the
inpact andehect theinagehas onyouthat
counts nuchnore.
Digital technology nakes black owhite
landscapephotography easier thanever
before, nainly becausetheneedfor a
blacked-out roonandsnelly chenicals has
: Misty, bIurredwater, dramaticIooming
skies andgrittytextures areaII great ingredients
that adduptoanimpressive, aImost other-
worIdIy, monochromeimage.
Pight: Don't beafraidtothrowtheruIebookout
of thewindowandincIudeIots of skyinyour
bIackðwhiteIandscapeimages. nyinteresting
cIoudformations becomethefocaI point.

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Whenyouconvert aninage
toblackowhite, sonecolours
coneout as sinilar greytones.
1hesolutionis touseñlters to
changethewaycolours translate
togreyandalsocontrol contrast.
¦ilnphotographers dididothis by
placingoptical ñlters ontheir lens
(yellow, orange, redor greenfor
landscapes). 1heseñlters workby
lighteningcolours closetothen
anddarkeningcolours opposite
thenonthecolour wheel, soa
redñlter lightens reds andother
warncolours, but darkens blues
andgreens, for exanple. s adigital
shooter youdon't needtousethese
optical ñlters onyour lens because
youcanaddtheir ehects whenyou
convert aninagetoblackowhite
duringpost-production, using
Photoshop, Lightroon, perture
or plug-ins suchas NikSoftware's
Silver LfexPro2.
nalternativeoptionis to
usetheMonochronePicture
Styleinyour canera toaddñlter
ehects toaninageas youtake
it. Òr youcouldset your canera
toMonochronenodethenuse
optical ñlters onthelens, though
you'll producebetter inages by
shootinginRaw(colour) then
convertingtoblack owhitelater.
Here's a quick rundownof the
ehect that diherent black owhite
ñlters will haveonyour inage.
YeIIow: Lightens warncolours
anddarkens cool colours. lso
gives a slight increaseincontrast,
but theehects aresubtle.
Orange: Lightens warn
colours anddarkens cool colours,
enhances skies andgives a
signiñcant boost tocontrast.
Ped: 1henost dranaticñlter of
all -bluesky goes alnost black,
clouds standout starkly and
contrast is signiñcantly increased.
Darkens greens inthelandscape
andlightens warncolours.
reen: Lightens greens and
blues whiledarkeningwarner
colours. Handy for landscapes as it
separates out shades of green.
Iue: Not a goodchoicefor
landscapes generally as greens and
blues govery light soit tends to
ruindranaticskies.
1herearecertainñlters that
youcanuseonyour lens when
shootinginages incolour to
convert toblack owhitelater, and
they includea polariser, neutral
density (ND) grads andNDñlters.
POLPI5EPHas a
sinilar ehect onthesky
toa redñlter, darkening
blueandnakingclouds
standout, but it alsoinproves
clarity andincreases contrast,
andall of theseehects will be
seenintheinagewhenyou
convert it toblack owhite.
NDPD51heseare
usedtoreducethe
diherenceinbrightness
betweensky andlandso
whenyouexposefor the
landscape, thesky is alsocorrect.
.6NDgradis ñnefor general
use, but a darker .9NDgradis
better whenthesky is bright or for
dranaticehect.
NDFILTEP5llowyou
toincreasetheexposure
soyoucanrecord
novenent inthe
landscape. 1raditional NDs suchas
a .6, .9andI.2arehandy for
blurringthewater inwaterfalls,
rivers andcoastal views, but in
recent years, extreneNDs suchas
theLee¦ilters BigStopper have
beconepopular as they allowyou
touseexposures of a ninuteor
longer indaylight tocapture
notioninthelandscape.

lthoughyoudon't havetoadhereto
speciñcrules whencreatingblack owhite
landscapes, therearea fewworth
considering. ¦or exanple.
Useforegroundinterest toadda sense
of depthandscalewhenshootingwitha
wide-anglelens.
Look for lines that cancarry theeyeinto
thescene-walls, fences, rivers, streans,
paths, shadows andother natural or
nan-nadefeatures canbeused.
Usehyperfocal focusingtonaxinise
depth-of-ñeldsoyoucanrecordthe
scenewithfront-to-back focus without
havingtostopyour lens right downtoits
nininunaperture.
Usetherule-of-thirds topositionthe
scene's focal point -thetop-right thirdis
usually thebest place. Youcanalsodivide
thesceneintothirds -two-thirds sky and
one-thirdforeground, or viceversa.
inply toshoot as nornal, incolour, then
decidelater whichinages youwant to
convert. onewill work, others won't, but
there's noreasonwhy youwon't endupwith
sonegreat pictures. hereality is, nost of us
liketoshoot bothcolour andblack owhite
rather thanoneor theother exclusively, and
wenay chopandchangebetweenthetwo
whileat thesanelocation, or evendecide
nonths later toconvert a colour shot toblack
owhite. here's nothingwrongwithdoing
this -all that natters is theendresult.
hegreat thingabout nonolandscape
photography is that it ohers endless scopefor
creativeexpressionandexperinentation.
You'vestrippedaway reality by renoving
colour, soafter that it doesn't really natter
what youdo. Youcangodark anddranatic
evenif theoriginal scenewasn't, or soft and
gentle, andcontrol thenoodof theñnal
inage. Youcanalsouseñlter ehects to
changethetonal relationshipintheinage
andboost contrast (seepanel opposite).
Basically, younakeyour ownrules.
Black owhitesuits all types of landscapes,
frongrand, sweepingviews tosnall details
andeverythinginbetween, sononatter
whereyouareyou'll ñndnonoinspiration. ¦t's
alsopossibletoproducestunningblack o
whiteinages insituations wherecolour
sinply wouldn't work, suchas onfat, grey
days, soit canoher a creativeescaperoute
that younay not havethought of. heinages
usedinthis featureshouldgiveyoua good
idea of what we'retalkingabout. Black o
whitecantakeyour landscapephotography
toa wholenewlevel -all youhavetodois
throwcautiontothewindandgiveit a go.

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ckðWhiteMode
oswitchyour Nikonto
Monochrone node, press
the Menubuttonandenter
the hooting Menu. Go
downtoet Picture Control
andselect Monochrone
before pressing Ò¦.

Does it matter if I shoot inJPEGthen
convert myimages tobIackðwhite, or
shouIdI ideaIIyshoot inPaw?
¦t's always better toshoot inawas the
awñleis likea black owhitenegative-
it contains all theinfornationyouneed
but youcaninterpret that infornationin
diherent ways tocontrol thenoodof the
ñnal inage. WithJPLGs, a lot of that
infornationhas already beendeleted
in-canera soit's a less versatileinage
fornat. hat said, youcanstill produce
great black owhiteinages fronJPLGsl
What's thebest softwarefor
convertingimages tobIackðwhite?
henost popular is Nik oftware's ilver
Lfex Pro2, part of theNik Collection(see
page89). ¦t ohers lots of presets that give
yougreat ehects at theclick of a nouse,
allows youtotoneyour inages andadd
thecharacteristics of speciñcblack o
whiteñlns, but it alsogives youa high
degreeof control over theinagesoyou
canadjust contrast andexposurein
localisedareas. Photoshop, Lightroon
andperturearealsoexcellent options.
I want tobuyaten-stopNDñIter.
WhichonewouIdyourecommendfor
bIackðwhiteimages?
herearethreenainoptions. theLee
¦ilters Bigtopper (£I50), theB+WII03.0
(£I25for //nnthread), or theHitechPro
topI0(£/5). Basedonprice, theHitechis
thewinner, but basedoninagequality,
theLeeBigtopper is a better option. ¦n
terns of versatility, theLeeandHitech
options arebetter as theB+Wis screwed
onandthereforetricky tousewithother
ñlters suchas NDgrads (whichyouwill
needtostopthesky fronoverexposing).
ll things considered, we'dgofor theLee
¦ilters Bigtopper.
I haveaninfrared-modiñedD5LP. Can
yougivemeafewtips onusingit for
bIackðwhiteIandscapes?
¦ollowthesesteps for thebest results.
º hoot infull sunandincludefoliageor
grass, whichreally showohtheinfrared
ehect well.
º ¦ncludeplenty of sky andcloud
fornations, they look anazingininfrared.
º Watchtheexposures -younay needto
dial inexposureconpensationtoget
well-exposedinages.
º Wheneditinginages, createa duplicate
layer andadda littledihuseglowtoit
(F//ters>D/stort>D/huseG/ow) toenhance
theinfraredehect. djust theÒpacity
slider until you'rehappy withtheehect.
Whether youuseit
purely toshoot bowor
alongsideyour DLfor
quick analysis of what a
scenelooks likeinbow,
theHueless iPhoneapp
is highly reconnended.
¦t ohers liveexposure
controls, ñlters and
nodes. Buy it at the
pptorefor £I.49.
ßak8hítandsaps
ligh hlni n ihh
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nngll ih hnnj
nnninging hing
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inhnlk ilh
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inging hinn
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ninnin hingln
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hgh nl n ll
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ight acrss theadscae
Pight: grittyfee is achievedwiththeusef a
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redy 5aydiheret tes eathe
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PÒ1ÒRAP¥SAÒU1
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o osr o,
sos. s ror
rcos csop s soo
sooso crsosos
rcs cross scor pso
or bcsosos c s s
crr osc(cro o
cor oso. oror
poorp sooo so
ss bcowhiteinages. Leavetheexposure
toyour caneraandany solidshapes will be
recordedas starksilhouettes. lternatively,
dial inacoupleof stops of exposure
conpensationtoblowout thebackground
andcreateanatnospherichigh-key ehect.
Whenthelight is colourful, your gut instinct
will betoshoot incolour. t sunriseand
sunset, for exanple, thewarnthinthelight
andthevividcolours inthesky areusually
what inspireyoutopick upacanera. But don't
assunethat thesaneinagewon't work in
black owhite. Renovethecolour andsee
what youthink. Goldenlight is fantastic, but it
cannask thereal beauty of thesceneandit's
easy toget carriedaway by colour andignore
theshapes andtones that liebehindit. ¦f you
convert acolourful inagetoblack owhite,
noonewill ever knowit was colourful anyway,
but they will seeit inatotally diherent light.
¦na sense, there's a patternenerginghere
-nanely, whenthelight's not goodfor
colour it's perfect for black owhite, andvice
versa. ¦or this reason, youdon't haveto
pigeonholeyourself as oneor theother, but
sinply bea creativephotographer who
enbraces bothnediuns andswitches
betweenthetwotonakethenost of
whatever conditions youencounter. Purists
nay arguethat by doingsoyou're
conpronisedonbothcounts, but it is
possibletoenbracebothnediuns and
producefantasticwork.

'¦ loveshootinginbadweather, capturingtherawpower of theelenents. 1his shot was taken
onlnnouthBeach, closetonyhoneontheNorthunberlandcoast. Drysandwas being
whippedupbyastrongwindandblowntowards thesea. s thesuncaneout it was as
thoughthesurfaceof thebeachwas alive-¦ couldfeel thesandhittingnylegs as ¦ walked. ¦'d
never triedphotographingthis phenonenonbefore, but decidedtogiveit ago. ¦
experinentedwithdiherent shutter speeds inanattenpt tocapturetheghostlyehect of the
blowingsandandthis one, shot at Ii6sec, provedtobethebest. ¦ lovethecontrast between
thelight toneof thesandandthedark, angrysky, which¦ enphasisedusinganNDgradand
alsobyboostingcontrast duringpost-production.¨
al length: 24mm, tripod, 0.6Nhardgradhlter, xposure: 1!6secat f!22(IS50ì.
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1oñndout whenthe
best natural light is
goingtohit your
location, download
a neat little
augnented-reality
snartphoneapp
calledSunSeeker.
¦t uses your phone's
canera andGPS to
showtheprojected
positionof thesunat a
givendateandtine,
allowingyoutoreturn
tothelocationunder optinunlighting
conditions. SunSeeker is availablefron
theppleppStorefor £4.99or the
GooglePlay storefor £3./9.
1U1ÒLANSAPPÒ1ÒRAP¥

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foregroundtoadddepthandscaletoyour
conpositions. 1hesanerules canbeapplied
at sea level, too, whererock slabs extend
downtothewater's edgeandyoucanuse
thentoleadtheeyeintothescene, or ñll the
foregroundwithsea without gettingyour feet
wetl By shootinginnonoandrenovingthe
distractionof colour, all enphasis is placedon
shapeandforn-neaninghowyou
conposeyour inageis all-inportant. You'll
ñndsinplicity is oftenyour best bet.
Howthesea records depends onhow
roughit is andtheshutter speedyouuse. ¦f
youwant tofreezea crashingsea, you'll need
toshoot at IiI000secor evenIi2000sec.
1his approachworks well if you'reusinga
telezoonlens toñll thefranewithpounding
waves, or tocapturethenexplodingagainst
theshoreandsendingspray highintotheair.
1orecordnotioninthesea, you'll needa
slowshutter speed-theslower it is, thesofter
thesea becones. UseIi4sectoonesecond
torecordnotioninthewaves but still retain
texture, thengradually slowit down. Ònce
youget to20to30seconds, waves turnto
nist andlittletextureonthesurfaceof thesea
is recorded. 1otakethis idea totheextrene,
usea ten-stopNDñlter soexposures runinto
ninutes rather thanseconds, turningthesea
tonilk -or wait until light levels aresolow
that youcanachieveexposures of several
ninutes naturally. ¦ncludestaticelenents in
thescenetocontrast withthesoft sea -
jetties, rocks, groynes andposts all work well.
Convertedtoblack owhite, these
long-exposureinages look subline.
Youcanuseripples inthesandtoleadthe
eye, or rock pools refectingthesky toñll the
foreground. Seaweed, driftwood,
barnacle-encrustedgroynes, oldlobster pots,
ñshingnets, rocks andpebbles foundonthe
beachcanalsobeusedas foreground
ñte
ceateht iethi. Theeai educedta
itybu that give aai f itigue.
bve: Pcyutcp aefataticf addiga
bit f iteet. 5et afat hutte tfeezeti
itheea, ty1l1000ectbegiwith.
Pight: Patte adippe itheeaaea
beigf bðwiage. 5et agexpue,
ettigeveythigappea ihuetted.
Pecedigwave
¦f youwatchwaves washback
downtothesea, they oftenleave
streaks of bubblingfoanthat look
anazinginblack owhite. 1o
capturethis ehect, usea
wide-anglelens anda slow
shutter speed-aroundIi2sec
shouldbeñne. 1ineyour shot to
catchthewaves receding.
high-contrast bowconversion
will enphasisetheehect.
Pcat
Rocks arenever far away at the
coast andoher lots of potential.
Pebbles andboulders worn
snoothby thesea areideal for
patternshots, whilerocks below
thehightidenark areoftenfull of
graceful curves andcontours. Òn
rock slabs, look for pebbles
jannedintocracks andcrevices,
or noveinclosetoreveal patterns
andtextures.
5htigad
Ripples insandarebest captured
early or lateintheday withyour
canera whenthesunis low, or
whenstrongsunlight renders
thenas silhouettes -usethenas
lead-inlines inwide-angleshots
or ñll thefranefroncloserange.
1akea closer look inshallow
outfowstreans, too, where
grains of sandareseparatedto
createeye-catchingpatterns.
Pief theea
Piers nakegreat seasidesubjects.
Usethenas thefocal point in
wide-angleviews, or as thenain
elenent inlong-exposureshots
that recordnotionintheseaand
sky. Standingunder apier and
lookingout toseawill reveal the
conplex patternof legs, struts and
braces. Shoot theninsilhouette
against therisingor settingsun, or
baskingunder noonlight.
k8whíte|andscapes
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cpephotogrphy hs lwys been
perceiveds nesy option-hedintothe
countryside, ñndnttrctivescene, set up
your cner ndñrewy. Mother Nture's
donell thehrdwork, ll you'redoingis
recordingit. ight¯
¦f it weretht esy we'dll benster
lndscpephotogrphers. Clerly there's
nuchnoretoit. Conpositionis theHoly
Gril of photogrphy. well-conposed
lndscpeshot invergelight will lwys
bet bdly conposedlndscpetkenin
gret light, especilly whentheñnl ingeis
nonochrone. Why¯ Becusewithout
strongfoundtion, cretivity crunbles -nd
conpositionis thefoundtionof every
photogrphwetke.
¦ortuntely, conpositionisn't rocket
science. Connonsense, considertionnd
concentrtion, tht's thecrux of it. ll you
hvetodois decidewhichbits youwnt to
cpturendhowyou'regoingtorrngeit ll
inyour cner's viewñnder.
lthoughtelephotondtelezoonlenses
hvetheir plceinlndscpephotogrphy,
wide-nglelenses winhnds downfor 'wow'
fctor. hey giveus viewof theworldtht
thenkedeyesinply cn't ntch. hey bend,
stretchnddistort thetruth, ndthewider
yougo, thebetter it gets. light chnges of
viewpoint lsonke hugediherencetothe
inpct of elenents, whiletheextensive
depth-of-ñeldyouget t snll pertures such
s fiI6ndfi22lsogurntees
front-to-bck shrpness inyour shot.
sing wide-nglelens toexploit
foregroundinterest lsohelps tonken
ingelook three-dinensionl, becuses
well s providing logicl entry point intothe
inge, it lsohelps todd senseof depth
ndscle. ¦f tht rock ñllingtheforeground
looks bigger thnthecottgeinthedistnce,
sy, thecottgenust befr wy, hence
distncenddepthreinpliednd
three-dinensionl feel is chieved.
onkethenost of foregroundinterest,
get closendlow. hootingfroneyelevel is
ñne, of course, but whenthecner is six
foot ohtheground, interestingelenents t
your feet loseinpct. ¦neel downndget in
close, however, ndtht hunblenossy rock
becones gint boulder tht donintes the
conpositionndyou'vebgged drntic
shot sinply by bendingyour knees.
Lines renother powerful conpositionl
device. Pths, trcks, rods, rilwy lines,
fences, wlls ndvenues of trees ll nke
gret nn-ndelines. ivers ndstrens re
idel nturl lines. Digonl lines work best if
they trvel fronthebottonleft of thefrne
totopright, becusetht's thenturl wy the
eyelooks t photo. Converginglines re
evenbetter. tndintheniddleof rodnd
look longit through wide-nglelens. he
ehect of theprllel sides convergingintothe
distnceis dizzyingndrresting. ¦ncluding
thevnishingpoint, wherethoselines pper
toneet onthehorizon, brings the
conpositionto stisfyingconclusion. Lines
don't hvetobestright -thenender of
strens it trvels wy fronthecner is
visully noreinterestingthn stright line.
Bewreof colours s you'reconposing
ndhowthey night reltewhenconvertedto
grey tones -wht looks gret incolour ny
look ft post-conversion. Conversely,
scenetht looks nhtothenkedeyecould
nke fntsticnonochroneinge.
Conñdencehs lot todowithsuccess
whenit cones totkingcrckingblck
whitelndscpes. Digitl photogrphers hve
bove: Whenyou'representedwithascene, try
tothinkwhat it might beIikeconvertedtobIack
ðwhite-if thereareIots of diherent tones, as
withthis shot, it shouIdworkparticuIarIyweII.
boveright: 5hadows andhighIights arethe
makingof agoodmonoimage, aIongwitha
crackingcomposition. This is aperfect exampIe
of howaII threecombinefor aIoveIybðwshot.
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Weconstntly bngonbout keepingyour
¦Òrtinglowwhenshootinglndscpes to
nininisenoise, but whenit cones toblck
white, bit of noisecnbe beneñt.
Noiseoncolour inges tends tolook nh,
but onceyouconvert tht ingetoblck
whiteit looks nuchlikeñlngrin, ndthe
strk, gritty feel cnlook fntstic. inple
inges suit thetretnent -nist ndfog,
sescpes, shots tkenonovercst dys.
Youneedplinres of tones torelly see
thenoiseigrin, sovoidshootingcluttered
conpositions t high¦Ò. Howhighyougo
depends onhowoldyour DLis. he
ltest DLs hndlenoisesowell tht even
t ¦Ò3200you'll get snoothinges, ndif
youwnt torelly gofor it you'll needto
shoot t ¦Ò6400or beyond. Witholder
nodels, youny seelots of noiset ¦Ò
I600or 3200. Just experinent. ¦f youñnd
theingelooks ft inblck white-high
¦Òinges oftendo-boost contrst by
djustingLevels or Curves inPhotoshop.
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rtí: He|eDíx
'oneof ny fvouritenonochrone
inges resosinple, oftenjust lone
treendbigsky, likethis onetht ¦
spottedwhiledrivinginthecountry. ¦
wlkedroundtheñeldtoñndthebest
view, lookingtoincorportethefenceto
ddinterest. heclouds ddedtexture,
fornndhelpedthetonl rnge. sully
¦'dopt for ny wide-nglelens, but s the
ñeldws inccessible¦ hdtouse
telephoto, whichkept theshot
uncluttered. hewingews
processedincolour ndthen¦ pplied
Blck Whitedjustnent lyer in
Photoshoptodjust thetones. ¦inlly,
¦ usedCurves tobringout thecontrst
ndnkeit punchier.¨
xposure: 1!20secat f!13(ISO200ì.
NIKON





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Youhavetobebold-don't beafraidto
boost contrast, todarkenthat sky, tonake
localisedadjustnents tocontrast and
exposure(just as they didindarkroondays)
by dodgingandburning. Renenber, you're
nolonger dealingwithreality, sotherulebook
goes out of thewindowl


journeythroughtheimageandtreatingthe
viewer toacertainamount of intrigue.
Far right: 5hootinginbIackðwhiterequires youto
thinkdiherentIyabout your picture-taking. Often
your imagewiII beaboveyou, soIookup-here
thecIouds formaframefor thechurch.
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Myhometown
Wetendtoassociatethe
countrysidewithlandscape
photography, but theurban
landscapeis just as interesting-
andoftenfar noreaccessible. Set
yourself aproject toshoot aseries
of black owhiteinages of your
honetown-not just bigviews,
but details that captureits
character. Younay discover
places youdidn't knowexisted.
MinimaIist images
Blackowhiteis anininal nediun
sousethat toyour advantage
whenselectingscenes. ofor
sinple, stark conpositions such
as trees against thesky or
refectingincalnwater. 1he
winter landscapelends itself to
this treatnent, especially when
coveredinablanket of snow. Dull
days do, too, as they providea
plain, featureless backdrop.
5kyhigh
Whenweshoot landscapes, the
sky usually plays secondñddleto
theforeground, but insone
situations thesky will benuch
noreinterestingthanthescene
itself. Don't beafraidtotilt your
caneraupandnakeafeatureof it
-dranaticcloudfornations look
anazingwhenshot witha
wide-anglelens andveryoftenwill
createincrediblepictures.
Movingwater
Waterfalls, rivers andstreans area
favouritesubject anong
landscapephotographers and
nakegreat bowsubjects. 1hey're
alsobest shot indull weather,
whenthelight's soft, soif the
weather worsens, ñndyourself
sonenovingwater. 1oachievean
attractiveblurry ehect, experinent
withshutter speeds fronIi4sec
toseveral seconds.

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just your coIour sIiders ll
jing h l li l h
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nholonh 8ues li ng i oh lf
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ðwhitePawconversion.
4
Target your adjustments ive to
adjusting the sliders, youcantarget your
adjustnents. lick andholdonthe Targeted
Adjustment Too/ buttonat the topandselect
Graysca/e M/x. lick andholdonany tone in
your inage anddrag upor downtolightenor
darkenthat tone andthe surrounding tones, too.
5
IncreaseGrayscaIeMix Sone of the warner
tones nowlook a bit lost, soincreasing the
Grayscale Mix onthe channels for Oranges and
Ye//ows brings out the detail inthe rocks and
creates a strong contrast betweenthenandthe
sea. 1his canbe done nanually or by using the
TargetedAdjustment Too/ again.
6
djust Curves ¦inally, select the Tone Curve
buttonat the topandchoose the Po/nt tab.
Under the Curve tab, select StrongContrast. ¦f
necessary, youcanadjust the curve belowby
noving the individual points as required. 1his
ñnal stepjust adds extra drana andoonphto
our nonochrone inage.

y pturtis pitur
ws xplorint
ortunrlnost lookin
for sns tosuit tt of
tn-stopltr. n swtis
olsrnn's ut knwlonxposur
woulworkwll torornotionint
riftinlous nswyinrss wilt
ut stysttiintnilof tfrn.
oriinl winlookprtty ull
prtly ustlit ws t nlso
ustB+tn-stopltr
wrnst nsonvinttin. owvr
nonof tis nttrus knwt
inwoulroppnonvrtto
lk witltr.
Brininout tt rn ninpt ws
sy. 'nnot onfor spnins workin
onwls n intis s in't nploy
ny fny softwritr -¦ only used
PhotoshopCS3. ¦irst ¦ boostedcontrast by
adjustingthe1oneCurve. novingtheDarks
slider a littletotheleft andtheLights slider a
littletotheright. ¦ thenopenedtheinagein
Photoshopandcroppedit tosquarefornat.
1oget a basicnonochroneinage, ¦ applied
a Black oWhiteadjustnent
(ge>Adjustments>8/ack8Wn/te). 1hen¦
usedthePolygonal Lasso1ool, withthe
¦eather set toI00px, toselect thesky. 1o
inprovethesky's inpact, ¦ thenaddeda
Levels adjustnent (lmage>Adjustments>
Leve/s), usingtheutobuttontoseeif it gave
nethelook ¦ wanted. Sinceit did, ¦ stuck
withit, but if it hadn't, ¦'dnornally cancel the
adjustnent andnakenorecontrolled
alterations usingLevels or Curves. ¦ then
invertedtheselection(Se/ect>lnverse), so
everythingother thanthesky was selected,
andreappliedtheLevels utoconnand,
whichboostedcontrast intheshedand
grass. 1heñnal stagewas tobringout detail
andtextureintheshed, so¦ selectedit with
thePolygonal Lasso1ool, the¦eather set to
30px, thenadjustedCurves
(lmage>Adjustments>Curves) togivethe
inagenore'oonph'l
Whenit cones toprintingny black o
whitelandscapes, ¦ always usethesane
paper -HahnenuhlePhotorag308. ¦t's a
heavy, fat whiteñne-art paper withalovely
dull ñnishandbrilliant archival qualities. ¦ print
withanLpsonStylus Pro/88024inprinter
usingLpson¦3Ultrachroneinks. 1oprint
black owhite, ¦ usethedvanceBoWsetting
ontheprinter, whichuses threeblack inks to
producepurenonoinages. ¦ liketoprint big
(usually 20x20inon24inpaper) -then¦ have
theprints nountedin32x32inwindow
nounts sothere's a6inborder onall sides
andfranedinnatural oak franes. 1heñnal
franedwork is 34x34in, soit nakes abig
statenent whenhangingonthewall -the
best placefor black owhitelandscapesl
urníngbw:
pro'sprocess
Professional photographer
Lee¦rost explains his process
for takingblackowhiteinages
fronPhotoshoptoprint
ß|ckwhíte|ndscpes

ß|ckhítedjustment|yer e|ectíve|ydjustíngb|ckwhíte
hoosíngproducts
Whilesonephotographers prefer thesinplicityof astraightforward
blackowhiteconversion, youcanget great results usingaBlacko
Whiteadjustnent layer (Layer>NewAdjustment Layer>8/ack8
Wn/te...). Not onlydoes it allowyoutousethecolour channels to
adjust thetonalityof your blackowhiteinage, sinilarlyif youareusing
colour ñlters in-canera, anyadjustnents younakearenon-
destructive. t anypoint youcandouble-clickonthedjustnent
Layer intheLayers paletteandre-edit your conversion, if necessary.
¦t's averyfexibleandehectivewaytoedit your bowinages.
Òftenthenonochroneinages youget fronabasicconversioncan
befat andgrey. ¦or this reason, nakeinprovingthecontrast usingan
djustnent Layer your ñrst priority. youcoulduseLevels, Curves or
BrightnessiContrast for this. ¦f soneareas of your inagearestill in
needof help, consider beingselectivewithyour adjustnents. Lither
useaselectiontool toisolatethetarget areaandapplyaLevels
adjustnent (likeLee¦rost has) or duplicatetheinagelayer (Layer>
Dup//cateLayer) andusetheDodgeandBurn1ools, set toMidtones
andalowLxposure, toreveal detail inshadows andhighlights.
Youcanget fabulous results fronat-hone
printingbyconbiningtheright products.
Wereconnendtryingnatt ñne-art papers
byHahnenuhle, ¦lfordor Pernajet, ideally
suitablefor blackowhiteinages. lso
consider usingalarge-fornat Lpson,
Canonor HPprinter withonlyaset of black
inks, rather thancolour, tooptinisedetails
intheshadows andhighlights.

CaroIinWiIkinson
f youniss thegrainquality you
got fronyour ¦odak 1-Max
P3200, thesnoothtones of
gfa's PXProI00or thedeep
blacks andpearly whites fronan
¦lfordXP2Super 400roll of ñln, you'll adore
Nik Software's Silver fex Pro2, part of
Google's Nik Collection. Carefully selecting
ñlnhada great deal todowiththeart of
black owhitephotography, but that
enjoynent doesn't havetoendwithdigital.
Whilethereareanunber of ways youcan
developablackowhiteinageinPhotoshop
CS, lenents andLightroonfor grand
results, Silver fex Pro2allows youtoget
norecreativeandelaboratewithyour
ehects. Not onlycanyoureplicatethelookof
your favouriteñlntypewithafewclicks, you
canalsoapplycolour ñlters toadjust tonality
andpickfrondozens of classic, vintageand
nodernpresets for instant results. Youcan
evennakeyour usual selectiveadjustnents
tocontrast, noiseandexposure, andthen
ñnishohby pickinga vignette, border and
toningstyle. Youcannakeit as classicor as
creativeas youwant withvery littleehort, so
don't worry if you'renewtothis digital
editingnalarkey -this softwareputs the
enjoynent back intoediting.
s a plug-in, Silver fex Pro2 works in
conjunctionwithyour naineditingsuite
andis accessible via its ¦ilters nenu. 1his
neans youcancontinue toedit your inage
inPhotoshopbefore andafter workingonit
inSilver fex Pro. it's one streanlined
solution. Personally, while youcanyield
great results usingthe techniques we've
already shownyouinPhotoshop, for ne,
nothingconpares tothe fexibility andease
of Silver fex Pro2. ¦or the tine it takes you
toget one creative conversionin
Photoshop, youcouldproduce a nunber of
diherent looks usingSilver fex Pro-one
of which¦'ll explaintoyouhere.
Beforeeditingthis exanpleinagewith
Nik Software, ¦ croppedtheinagein
Photoshop. ¦t's goodtodothis ñrst if you
plantoadda vignetteor border toyour
ñnishedinagetoavoidcroppingtheedge
ehects out afterwards. Before¦ nadeany
selectiveadjustnents totheinage, ¦
scrolledthroughthePreset Categories to
seewhichpreset best suitedtheinage.
Sone, likeLow¦ey, nadetheinagelook
toodark, whileothers likePinholeand
ntiquePlate¦¦ lookedunusual but weretoo
vintagefor what ¦ wanted.
¦ chosethebasicHighContrast preset
thenincreasedtheStructuretosharpenand
5í|er£fexPro
Lookingfor aquickandehectivewaytoconvert your landscapes to
nonochrone¯Looknofurther thanNikSoftware's Silver fexPro2
boost contrast. 1oaddnoisefor a grainy
high-¦SÒehect, ¦ set theGrainper pixel
slider to86. Youcanseetheehect of the
settings onyour inagealnost instantly
inthepreviewwindow. 1oñnishoh, ¦
addeda grungefraneby selecting1ype8
under ¦nageBorders. s soonas ¦
pressedÒ¦, theehect was appliedand
theinageautonatically openedin
Photoshop's nainsuiteas a separate
editablelayer withintheLayers palette. ¦t
really is as sinpleas that.
Youcantry beforeyoubuy withtheNik
SoftwareI5-day freetrial, downloadable
frontheGoogleNik Collectionwebsite
-visit www.niksoftware.con. Youcan
alsobuy theplug-inas part of Google's
Nik ConpleteCollectionfor SI49.
ß|ack8whíte|andscapes
Otherídeastotry
Protíp: RossHoddínott
CanvasðacryIics¦f afranedñne-art
print is alittletootraditional for you, think
about gettingastretchedcanvas print or
your inageprintedonacrylicglass, or
evenaluniniun, for anorecontenporary
style. Consider brands likeWhiteWall,
Jessops, PointI0I andLucyrt.
ProssionaI printrs¦f investingina
qualityprinter andinks is norenoneythan
you'rewillingtospendfor theoccasional
bowinage, consider hiringaprinting
conpanytodoit for you. 1heprintspace,
for instance, ohers ñne-art Giclees and
silver-basedC-typeprints that aresureto
bringout thebest of your inagefor a
reasonableprice. Lookfor conpanies that
oher archival-qualityproducts toavoidthe
colour fadingover tine.
Wb¦f youwant toaddyour inageto
your onlineportfoliofor awider audience
tosee, nakesureyouchangethe
Resolution(lmage>lmageS/ze) to/2,
resizeyour inageandapplyalittle
sharpeningbeforeuploadingtoyour site.
's withanycreative
profession,
presentationis
everythingin
photography.
Beautifullyconposed,
technicallybrilliant
shots canbetotally
underninedif poorly
printedor presented.
Naturally, paper
choiceis inportant.
1hereis sonuch
choicewhen
choosingpaper, but
¦lford's GalerieGold¦ibreSilk is a favourite
of nine. 1hepaper has great archival
properties and, arguably, is theclosest
thingyoucanget toa darkroonprint -it
looks, feels andevensnells liketraditional
darkroonpaperl Croppingis aninportant
part of theconpositional process anda
squarefornat, inparticular, really suits
black owhite-enhancingits ñne-art
look. snall border -intheregionof
I-2cn-will alsohelpconpletethelook
of your nononasterpiece.¨
NIKON
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Capturn
watra||s
1hereissonethingnagical aout waterfalls-especiallywhen
our canerashavetheailitytonakethenlookevennore
eautiful. Òur step-y-stepguideshowsyouhowtoshoot then
ssHoddinott
Camera: NikonD800L
Lens: Nikon¦-S24-/0nnfi2.8LD
WYSTwehndwater so
rresstbleandmesmersng?
'll leavet tothemore
ntellectual types todebate
what t s that connects us so
closelytowater. All knows that, lke
many photographers, whenever 'mfaced
wththem, just can't resst theurgeto
photographlargebodes of reñectve
water, crashngwaves andmeanderng
rvers. Arguably, waterfalls arethemost
photogencformof water andthe
UK-partcularly Scotland, md-Wales and
theNorthof England-arehometosome
stunnngly beautful rapds andfalls. Thebg
questons, though, howdoyoucapture
great waterfall photographs?
avnglocatedasutablefall -maybe
somewhereclosetowhereyoulveor are
holdayng-consder theweather. 8rght,
sunnydays arebest avoded, as strong,
drectonal lght wll createahghlevel
of contrast, makngt dmcult toavod
burnt-out hghlghts onthewater.
8rght, overcast days arebetter, as
cloudcover acts as onegant dnuser.
Landscapprocts NIKN

ls, it is tenwrtwilevisitinter
rinll, s tis will ensurewter levels re
ntt tereis nicenunt
nvenent ninterest. 1etine yer
cnlse iinfuenceinyur sts.
Mny teest wterlls reunwitin
wln, sinutunn, surrunin
sesnl clur cnextr interest t
yur sts, wileinsprin, resliewill
virncy n strk winter wln
will eull n. t tesetines yer,
tpts cnenuy, swer yur
wellies -tey'll lsllwyutweint
tewter slitly, ivinyutepprtunity
tcpturenreinterestinviewpints.
s lwys, kit ciceis ninprtnt
cnsiertin. reltivelywiecl lent
-interein 24-/0nn-is
cice, s it ives yuteptintcpture
ynnic-lkincnpsitins. neiun
teleptcnlseuseul sulyuwis
tislteyur wterll r r wenyuve
tst rnurter wy. tripis nust
-prticulrlyi yuintentenplyslw
sutter spees. plriser nnñlter
nylscneinny. ¦eeplens clt
clsetns well, tis will einvlule
tquicklywipewynywter splsinup
ntyur lens r cner.
1eiest ecisinyucewen
ptrpinwterlls is wyure
intcptureits ntin-yu
reezetewter r lur it¯ 1is is very
suectivetin. Hwever, wtever
yuecie, yunust ensureit
lks intentinl -i tewter
isn't srpr lurreenu,
it will ust lk nessy n
s tuyuven't
cievewt yuset ut
t. Mst ptrpers
vur lurrintewter's
nvenent, witte
ehect enerlly cnsiere
nreesteticlly plesin.
lurrinntinis reltively
esy t-sinply enply
slwsutter spee Ii2secr
lner. ¦ yuwulpreer treezentin,
yuwill nee sutter speeexceein
Ii500sec. However, achievingsucha fast
shutter speedis oftendihcult whenyouare
shootinginovercast light, unless youselect
a very high¦Sspeed, together witha large
aperture. ¦deally, youdon't want todoeither
of thesethings, though, as a high¦Srating
will increasenoisewhilea largeaperturewill
reducedepth-of-ñeld. 1herefore, unless
youreally detest thenilky-water ehect,
your best bet is toblur thewater's notion.
Lastly youneedtoconsider
context andviewpoint.
Waterfalls canbe
photographedinvarious
ways andfrona nultitude
of angles. 1ightly cropped
shots canlook very
ehective, but usually wider
views -capturingthe
waterfall incontext withits
surroundings -will create
a far norestrikinginage.
Whenever possible, try using
thewater fowingaway fron
thefall as foregroundinterest or a
lead-inline. Usingnoss-coveredboulders
or fallenleaves trappedby thewater's edge
canalsohelptogiveyour waterfall inages
noreinterest, depthandcolour. ou'll ñnd
a lowviewpoint will oftenwork well, but be
careful not toget wet feetl

ooseyour oto fter a little online research, ¦ decide tovisit
Sgwddwli Uchaf -one of Wales' nost inpressive falls. ¦ opt for
the versatility of ny 24-/0nnzoonand, using the long end, ñll the
frane withthe falls. However, by conposing ny shot sotightly, the
photographlacks context andlooks static andboring.

Leteexposure s the water didn't look right frozen, ¦ decide
toblur it instead. ¦ lower the ¦StoI00andset a snaller fistop
of fiI6-this helps lengthenexposure tine, andincreases depth-
of-ñeldtoo. 1he resulting one-secondexposure creates a nice level
of subject blur -ny tripodis essential tokeepny inage shake-free.

reezetemoto ¦ zoonout toinclude nore of the waterfall's
environnent. ¦ want tosee what the water looks like if ¦ freeze
its notion. 1ogenerate a shutter speedfast enoughtodothis, ¦ raise
the ¦Sto6400andselect a large aperture of fi5.6. 1his results ina
shutter speedof Ii500sec. However, the water looks nessy.

seporser ¦ reviewny last inage -the shot lacks colour
saturation. 1here is a lot of glare refectingfronparts of the
foliage andthe river. 1herefore, ¦ attacha polariser androtate the
ñlter inits nount until the refections andglare disappear. 1he ñlter
absorbs uptotwostops of light, soit blurs novenent evenfurther.

ere
1ake care whenshooting
photos by the water's edge.
Rocks will be slippery andit is
easy tolose your balance
whenyouare carrying a heavy
backpack andtripod. lways
put your welfare -andthat of
your valuable kit -above
taking photos.

I switchtaverticaI cmpsitint
makemref thefregrundandcreate
astrnger mrebaIancedresuIt. I aIs
attachathree-stpNDñIter toIengthen
theexposureto20seconds. TheresuIt is
anethereaI-IookingwaterfaII image.
Exposure: 20seconds at fiI6(¦SÒI00)
ndserojets

istynornings ronof thky
trits of spring. ist cnlook
ngicl ñllingvllys nhnging
tnosphricllyovñls. y
rucingcolour ncontrst nist
sinpliñs thlookof ojcts plcingnor
nphsis onshpinst. hrr
ihrnt typs of nist nfog ut thnost
photognicis 'ritionfog' whichforns
uringclr still nights whnthgroun
loss ht yritionncools.
hgrounchills nryir tosturtion
point nnist forns. t oftnstys conñn
tolowgroun forningthinwhitlyr t
thottonof vllys. Whenlookingat the
local weather forecast, watchfor clear skies
andcool, still nights -perfect conditions for
nist. lso, lookat theforecast for clarity. ¦f
clarityis predictedtodroptoaverageor poor
duringthenight, thenthereis agoodchance
youwill begreetedwithnist inthenorning.
Set your alarnearly. llowenoughtineto
get toyour intendedviewpoint before
sunrise, sothat youcanget set upandready
inadvanceof thebest conditions. ¦f youare
driving, renenber your journeywill be
slower duetotheconditions.
highviewpoint, fronthetopof ahill or
valley, is oftenbest, allowingyoutoget above
thenist toshoot atnosphericvistas.
Òften, objects arereducedtonothing
norethanasinplesilhouetteinnisty
weather. 1herefore, lookfor strong, bold
objects tophotographwithinthelandscape
-achurchsteeple, castleruinor tree, for
exanple. Longer focal lengths suit nisty
scenes thenost, foreshorteningperspective
andallowingphotographers toisolatepoints
of interest. Light scatters andis noredihused
innist, addingtoits nystical ehect -often
thenost dranaticresults conefron
shootingintothelight. nediuntelephoto
lens, intheregionof I00nn, is oftenideal.
Mist -likesnow-has ahabit of foolinga
canera's neteringsysten. 1his is becauseit
is designedtoassunethat thesubject is
nid-tone(I8°grey). Subjects that are
signiñcantlylighter or darker thannid-tone,
likeanistylandscape, canbeexposed
incorrectly. 11Lneteringhas atendencyto
underexposenist, renderingit toodark.
Consult thecanera's histogranscreen
regularlywhenshootingnist. ¦f thegraphis
biasedtotheleft, this is anindicationof
underexposure. pplypositive(+) exposure
conpensationtonaketheinagebrighter,
andthenreshoot. Younayonlyneedto
applya+Ii3or +Ii2of conpensation, but in
extreneinstances, younight havetodial ina
stopor noreof conpensation. gain, use
thehistogranas your guide.
Havingdraggedyourself out of bedearly
toshoot thenorningnist, don't overlook
thepicturepotential of snaller, less obvious
subjects -for exanple, dew-ladencobwebs
glisteninginthenorninglight.
hoot místymorníngsene
Ross Hoddinott reveals howearlynorningnist provides awonderful
opportunityfor youtoshoot ethereal, nagical scenes
4
1he brightness of
nist canfool netering systens designed
toassune scenes are nid-tone. Using the
canera's exposure conpensationbutton, ¦
dial inone stopof positive (+) conpensation
tolengthenthe exposure tine. 1he result is
far better, but the scene lacks a focal point.
5
mposition¦ scanthe landscape for a
key point of interest togive ny shot nore
purpose andnotice a churchtower sticking
out above the nist. ¦ reconpose the picture
tonake this ny nainpoint of interest and
alsotry a vertical conposition. 1he result is a
great springtine nisty inage.
1
PIanning¦ check the local weather forecast
daily andnotice that a clear, still night is
predicted. Clarity alsodroppedduring the night,
so¦ anoptinistic that it will be nisty inthe
norning. ¦ prepare ny canera outñt, thenset
ny alarnfor just before sunrise.
2
Viewpoint Sure enough, the landscape is
shroudedinnorning nist. ¦ drive toa high
viewpoint, whichohers goodviews over the
nisty landscape andset upny kit. telephotois
a goodlens choice for nist as it conpresses
perspective, exaggerating the ehect.
3
MeteringMist helps tosinplify the look of
the landscape, giving it a 'layered' ehect.
¦ conpose ny shot, andrelease the shutter, but
the result is toodark. By looking at the
histogran, ¦ cantell the exposure is biasedtothe
left, conñrning the inage is underexposed.
ether sítes s
Òutdoor photographers
rely heavily onlocal
weather forecasts,
especially whenwaiting
for ideal conditions leading
tonist. Whilelong-tern
forecasts aren't always
reliable, 24- and48-hour
forecasts areoften
accurate. 1herefore, keep
a regular eyeonthen.
Mobilephoneapps arean
ideal sourceof infornation
but youshouldalsousewebsites such
as .metomce.gov.uk

OPTIP
iny water droplets are
condensing out of the air,
thenthey are alsolikely to
condense onthe surface of
your lens andñlters. ¦eep
aneye out for noisture on
optics andwipe away
witha cleannicroñbre
lens cloth
Fína| ímage
I tyaious ompositions
ut tis is myfaouit T
sot tIpotosttin
ats anatmospi,
IayIansapima
nspprojts
hoot snt wn
PossHoddinott
Camera: ikon/00
Lens: -I/-35nnfi2.-
nvr thought woul
sythis ut.wnis thst tinof th
y. hlight is pur skis rutiful n
youoftnhvthworltoyourslf. lov
ny ut onup thxitnnt of
wht younight photogrphis unrivll.
hst wnshots rrrly thrsult of hn
soplnh. lultthtinnirtionof
sunrisfor thtinof yr nslt your lotion
oringly. hwthr forst is lsoinportnt.
if you'rhopingfor light nolour ut lnkt lou
is forst you'll isppoint. olour ngin
forninginthsky uptonhour forsunris so
rrivinplnty of tin. hk your kit gthnight
for nsuringvrythingis inthright pln
ttris rfully hrg. k torh too. inlly
strt shootingstright wy vninxtrnly low
light, xposurtins will long ut this n
gnrtintrstinglouor wtr novnnt.
oss oinott sys youn't t sunrisfor ingxtrorinryolour toyour lnsps.
1
ßepreparedlnyour shoot rfully
tonxinisyour hns of
suss. tuy thsun's positions this
will ittsuitlwnviwpoints.
oushoullsoknowthtinof
sunrisntitins if you'rhing
tothost. hk thwthr
forst forhn too. nunr
of goowsits nphonpps n
hlp(onof thst is
www.photophnris.on).
2
TraveI ving hosn lotion
plnto ry toshoot t lst 30
ninuts for sunris. llowtin for
riving wlking toyour viwpoint n
stting up. h st wnolours n
glowoftnppr long invn of
sunris itslf. llowtoonuhtin
rthr thntoolittl, youon't wnt to
riving toyour lotions olour
gins ppring inth sky s you'v
proly nisshlf your shoot.
3
Overexposedsky itholour lry ginning toforn
onpos ny shot. ogurnt front-to-k shrpnss
slt snll prtur of fiI6nfousonth hyprfol
istn. nth lowlight tripois ssntil tonsur shrprsults.
singnulti-zon ntring took ny ñrst frn. h forgrounis
orrtly xpos ut th rightr sky is lownout.

PredawngIowrwnlight is soft nshowlss whih
ontrsts wll with olourful sky. pt for viwpoint fing
st for th st olours. roun20ninuts for sunris th
olours r t thir st. tr sns work wll rfting th sky's
olour nlight. ithth sky's intnsity hnging quikly th look
nfl of your ings nhng fronon frn toth nxt.

GraduatedNDt wn thr is usully lrg ontrst inlight
twnth sky nln. oprou orrtly xposrsults
in-nr yououltk twofrns -on xposfor th ln
non for th sky -nlnthnuring post-prossing or
tthngrñltr. lignth ñltr using thr-stopgr
tolowr ontrst towithinth nr's ynni rng.

5unriseust ninuts ltr th sky's intnsity grows toostrong to
ontrol s th sunpprs ov th horizon. h st of th
olour hs gon nth highlights r urnt out. owvr u to
th sun's lowposition th light is wrnngoo soon't pk up
ngohon just yt, instñn ihrnt viwpoint -pointing
frthr wy fronth sun's position-nkpshooting.
6.03am
6.10am 6.31am
6.07am

ín| ím


vourít ím: 6





i4secat fiI6(¦SÒ200)
Ladscapprojcts
3
Lvenwhenthe sunis
lowandits intensity reduced, the sky will still
be considerably brighter thanthe foreground. s
a result, your canera will either correctly neter
for the sky, resulting inforegroundthat is too
dark, or it will neter for the foreground, resulting
inanoverexposedsky. Unless youfancy
Photoshopwork afterwards, the only in-canera
solutionis using graduatedNDñlters. Òne witha
two- or three-stopdensity is nost useful.
1
eforeyouvisit, check tide
tines for thearea (www.tidetines.org.uk) and
alsoplot thesun's positionusinga suninoon
calculator like1hePhotographer's Lpheneris.
heck thetineof sunset andarriveat least an
hour beforehandtolocatethebest viewpoints.
f youhavea snartphone, reconnend
downloadingtheSunScout apptoplot where
thesunwill set onceonlocation, enablingyouto
select your viewpoint accordingly.
5
Whenshooting
sunsets, don't overlook the usefulness of
White alance. lthoughyour canera's uto
White alance usually does a great job, it can
be worthswitching tothe loudy or Shade
preset togive sunsets a boost -particularly if
capturing PLs. Doing sowill warnupand
enhance your sunsets. f youare shooting in
Raw, youcanalways adjust colour tenperature
during post-processing.
2
ook for a goodviewpoint
where youcanshoot towards the setting
sun. Rocks, sandpatterns andpools are great
conpositional aids for coastal sunsets. Unless
dihusedby cloud, the sun's intensity is nornally
toogreat totake photos long before the sun
disappears belowthe horizon. 1herefore, you
needtobe patient. f youtry totake pictures too
soon, your inages will suher fronfare and
skies will be overexposedandblownout.
4
nthis instance, use a
three-stopNDhardgradñlter, attaching it to
ny canera via a ee ¦ilters ñlter holder. nND
gradwitha hardtransitionis oftenbest for
coastal sunsets, as the horizonis usually fairly
even. Whenusing NDgradñlters, carefully align
the transitional zone withthe horizonfor
seanless results. 1he inage here is nuch
inproved, but looks onthe cool side, rather than
showingohthe warnthof the sunset.

1herearen't nanyphotographers
whocanresist agoodsunset.
¦airlyordinaryscenes canbe
transfornedbytheextraordinary
colour andglow, andoneof the
best places tobeat that tineis bythesea.
Water refects light andthesky's warnth,
whilethenovenent of inconingwaves adds
notionandinterest towide-angleshots.
Shootingcoastal sunsets is far froneasy. n
reality, nost sunsets arehugelydisappointing,
barelynaterialisingat all. Perfect conditions
arethosethat don't havetoonuchor too
littlecloudinthesky-just enoughtoradiate
thesunset's warnth, but not sonuchthat it
obscures thesun. Predictingthenis alnost
inpossible, too. reat colour canbebrief and
unexpected. npractice, theonlywayto
guaranteegoodsunset inages is toheadout
withyour caneraat everyopportunity-
sooner or later, your persistencewill be
rewardedwithananazingskytophotograph.
Winter is agreat tineof year totryout this
technique. Sunset is early, neaningyoudon't
havetobeout late, andbeaches arequieter,
resultinginfewer footprints inthesand. f you
arevisitingalocationfor theñrst tine, arrive
twohours beforesunset toallowtineto
exploreandidentifysuitableconpositions.
ookfor viewpoints whereyouwill not only
beabletoshoot inthesunset's direction, but
alsoincludeinterestingforeground-rocky
outcrops, sandpatterns, aweatheredgroyne
or refectivepool, for exanple. lsocheckthe
tidetine-not onlyis this inportant frona
safetyaspect, but thetide's height greatly
dictates whereyoucanshoot fron.
nterns of kit, atripodis essential, as areND
grads -unless youprefer exposureblending.
Whenthereis great colour, younornallywant
togowideandincludelots of sky, soashort
focal lengthintheregionof I/-35nnis a
goodlens choice. nterns of set-up,
aperture-prioritynodeis best for scenics,
givingyoufull control over depth-of-ñeld,
andselectinganapertureof fiII tofiI6
provides goodfront-to-backsharpness. So
withyour canerabagall packed, it's tineto
headtothecoast, withñngers tightlycrossed
for acrackingsunset.
Capturthstromacoasta| sustsc
¦or beauty, nothingbeats asunset over thesea. Ross oddinott shows youhowtonakethenost of it
NKON

Don't ackuandheadhoetoosoon,
thebest coIour andconditions often
don't aear untiI after sunset. ßeautifuI
shades of red, orangeandpinkcanform
intheskyandyoudon't want tobe
waIkingbacktothecar if this happens.
Exposuretimes naturaIIygrowIonger in
theIowIight, soatripodis essentiaI.
5hutter speeds exceedingtenseconds
arenot uncommon, renderingwater
movement as anethereaI bIur.

1heU¦i hebe plceihe
ldphgphc
blebell i i eiedh
d° hei eie
pplii dhee S,
heee lieiheU¦, ill be
blebell d 1he fe
beeeid-pil dheed M, b
heiehehe e hei pe c
lighl e e 1picll, he e
phgeic he M, b i i
hhileigel ii j
e h gehe e dig
ee ie ii cecl d
d' i he hei be
ehe diigee
cidei 1heei bdehe
phgphigblebell, b bigh
ec dceieldpebel
heligh i lic, i e i eie
chieehecec epe 1heli
ligh i ded, dhecl
dldfe dehgeelige
llleed lig
dleeeigcpdcegicl ligh
dldphgph, 1heligh i
e dhelghd dddeph
h bigh ehedhie, he
-dppleddldf cl
cieheee, b heleel c
ceeceedhecpbiliie
e' dicge ihch
c, chieiggdepecbe
dicl, i ipiblei i e
bee idhig iidd i
lgdideii ill d, he
blebell eiill digepe
deiig 'heh' idldih
lgehe blebell cpeic

Pledipigdhedblebell d
e eel ceieechie cpeiig ige
chice cpiii l liile
1eeege ige, ceie
eei il ¦eepcpiiiple id
cle, liellebche, dl
ieeigdlddeil h ce
ee, liep lgee
Nph idig ihedicec
beeddheiee' eeih
Le chicei ip ege
cl legh ih ide-gle ege
cpig cpe fe, b e
id-elephiheegi -
i be iedphgphigblebell
h elephill hepepecie,
ceigheipeih hecpe
fe i dee hi i 1hi pe cl
leghi lgdi ihc
eipicllphgeicgp
ee cle, helged
ele, i idel ileidiidl fe
ec ligh, chieigheigh
epei elielighd
ce' li-eee hld' he
pble elig leeeig
ligh, i i epeebleh ihe
dieci he, h i 'bleed' hgh
lige ee, hehigd he
ligh, eeigcbedeceieddel
deeped ¦eepeehehig
dpplepecpeii eied
She peed eelihehde
dld, ipdi eeil
eepig, ide-gledige dld
iei, p ll pee, lie 1hi
cee lgedeph--eldhichill
ede eehig ic ee,
hlldeph--eldill i ecee
bee eple, ileiglepl d
elec idepeelie4 6ede
bcgdfe cieblehe

lebell eeibl beil, b
h i he ee
phgph eigch ppl,
ell-phgphedbjec e i ee
hde pdceigil, ceieige
ddi pide ipiib
iiighi lcl dldide ee
h ie blebell picehecld
h i epe diceill help
h l , echie , dh
idhehigblebell

he
hi ige, edcedb he ibc d
cl he blebell deledhe lle
bche dcleeddldf ¦eep
cpii clediple

idig ph
pce g
led-ilie 1hi ill gie ige
hee-dieil eel ih hi, ige
eie lc dephdiee

Shll
c c ell hephgphig
dldbjec Selec ide pee
die bcgddeil 1hi ill plce
ephi pi c

ñowers
Sechlie d i e
ele e, j ge ed
icheldever Wood, nr Winchester
ÒS ideeece. SU6
ii. eg
West Woods, nr Marlborough
ÒS ideeece. SU666
ii. eg
Yoxall Lodge, nr 8urtonuponTrent
ÒS ideeece. S¦
ii. blebelldllc
Fofne/nfoma/ononb/ebe//
wood, v//. wwwwood/andogk
Woodanemone:
idepeddlcll
cdld
peeil, egig
ilgeclp hie
fe ebeil d
delice e h idiidll i
cle-p ice ihi dld
dig ig ide-gle
Ramsons: Òe
gigg e
blebell 1he ell
gl glicdc
gi be i
dpdld e
ciebcli ie-lligcle-
p ch pliigle e
hecl helee
HerbRobert:
dideped, i
phgeicpi fe
ppe pil
d Uig c
le cle-ple ill
eel i delicebe ll ile
hieefec bce l ligh d
eliee hhhd
NIKON
andscapeproects
4


y blur the trees.
¦t is a hit-and-niss technique andnay take
nany attenpts toget a result that youlike.

1his is another easy,
creativetechnique. onposeyour shot using
either the zoon's shortest or longest end. 1hen,
during exposure, snoothly adjust the zoonring
tothe opposite endof the lens's range.
6
polariser will reduce
the glare andrefections fronfoliage and
fowers. 1he ñlter helps restore natural colour
saturationandgives woodlandinages added
inpact. Note it will lengthenyour exposure.

OI
lways place the welfare
of your subject ñrst. ¦eepto
paths andnever treador
tranple onfowers for the sake
of a better conposition. on't
pick fowers either.
Photographers are getting a bad
press for their disregardtowild
fowers -don't addweight
tothe argunent
IKO
jects
ß|urríngmotíonínwater
Prssn trr Rss Hntt nstrts wt
rnr vnwtr s tsr tr st r rtvt
2
1ur twtr vnt
tntr rtry stn
tr suttrrrty ntswst
suttr sv r rturrrty
nt r tsst rtur Ltr t
sts tnst xsurtnntvn
t As st yur r's wst ¦SÒrtn,
tyy ¦SÒ00ntrty DSLRs
3
Hvn st¦SÒ
00nrturrrty ¦ st t
nurtur i22 nwt r r
wv twsrunt rrunrs 1
xsur is t i22 s nr ut s t
wtr st sn't rnrn y ¦ rsn
tr tntnt xsur
4
UseapoIariser Arsr s tr tr
twsts snuss st ND
tr y xtnntxsur yu
n't wnnND ¦t ss rvr n
ts srtrs 1rsut s ttr ut n
ts nstn txsur i2st i22s st
nt nnu r ttr rsut ¦ tr
5
ddanNDñIter r t ur ¦ wnt ¦ v t
nNDtr ¦ v t rsr n
ntt trstNDtr 1 r's
11L trn utty usts r t tr
ut t srns t vwnr syuw
nts n t us r t
st r ttn t tr tyur DSLR
1
Composeyour shot ¦t s vnn nt t
s 1ur t wtr s t wss vr t
ry utrs ny sr ¦ ruy
rrn y stn usn trt
y s sr tt r st t
rr t utty sts suttr
s i0s t isnt v
t nt swnutur wtr
PossHoddinott
Burry wtr yutr vt
r tt ¦ vt 1rnr
vnwtr y trt
xsurts ssnt, t
st ntwtr n
ssy Aru tus tst
suttr s runnsnr
nr 1s surtnttrtv
v ur Lntr xsurs rt
vnrtsrrsuts
1nrttnst xsurt
r tvt st yur DSLR's
wst ¦SÒttr wttns's
sst rtur i22r i32 ¦nw
t vn nty xsurs
rtvy sy wtxsurts
ntury nr But wntt s
t s nt tnsstst
suttr ssunty swwtut
vrxsnt 1sutns t
usnNDtr 1strnr tnsty
tNDtr trt t srs
tnr txsurntrtr
tv ur r xtrts L
trs BStr tnsts n
nrtxsurts svr
nuts rurntus yur
r's Busttnn rt
rs nstnwtr vnt
usnnxsurs vry w
rnt 1 sun s n
tr wns st
5et-up
NIKON

sing long exposures to
blur water notionis a
technique that relies ona
sturdy tripod, otherwise
canera shake will ruin
the results. Òuite sinply,
a tripodis essential, not
optional

Bklit your sujts tortstunnin
silouttins tis uisows youow

ject rs rt rpi sinploutlinprt
or siloutts. t is sist totksiloutts innornins nvnins
wntsunis lowr intsky sovinrrivrly spot tstwo
trs tt tink will work wll. sintlonno stnrzoon
ropintitly totn ut tnr's nulti-zonntr ttnpts to
rortns ni-ton rsultinin isppointin ws-out sot.

Usespot meteringonsur tt t lovly olours o t sunris r
roritully ntt t trs r trownintopur siloutt
switt nr's ntrin no tospot (tis is otnillustrty
ot s snint pitur ov). your unsur owtoslt spot
ntrin k your nr's instrutionnnul. your nr lks
spot no us prtil ntrin inst.

Get your tripodIownsootin siloutts lowviwpoint otn
works st lpin youtost your sujt strkly inst rit sky.
ror on't ritot your kns npnirty toslt low
nl. ntis instn sply t ls onny tripowi opn nlin
n tosoot ron lowprsptiv.

PossHoddinott
s potorprs wrlwys strivinor t
'orrt' xposur rn't w¯ owvr it oul
rutt tris nosutin s it rtly pns
ontsujt tsitutionntt t
potorpr wnts toiv. or xnpl
silouttnrt truly y-tininvntou
tnilly spkin it is trsult o poor xposur.
silouttis wntsujt is rors lkoutlin
witout olour or til inst litr krouninotr
wors tsujt is rosslyunrxpos. t is tnost xtrn
orno klitinut wnoninwittrit snor
sujt trsults nstunninprtiulrlywntsujt is
ontrstinst nintrstinor olourul sky. spittlko
til nolour siloutts nonvynuout tsujt n
typrovtt trrllyis nosutins 'orrt xposur'.
no trt tins out sootinsiloutts is tt ty r
sily ivnyounvry littlintrns o kit tot oo
rsult. visitrtnoor's winswpt lnsptosowyouow
tosoot prt siloutts.
Meteríng
our nr's trix
nulti-zonntr is sin
tornr tsujt s
ni-ton. iltis is prt
or tvst njority o
situtions it will rrly
proutrsults your
lookinor wnsootin
sujts tt ronsirly
litr or rkr inton.
silouttsujt n
rtprolns or ntrin
systns. ltouily
sopistit tnr's
xposursystnnnot
prit tt your
tryintoiv. ror i
tsnis oninty
lk silouttsujt t
nrwill ttnpt tornr
it s ni-tony sltin
lonr xposurrsultinin
ovrxposur. ltrntivly i
tsnis oninty sky
nis vry lit tnris
likly tounrxpost
rn. nkully voiin
tis typo xposurproln
is sinply switintoyour
nr's spot-ntrin
no. is ntrinnois
sltitr vi
ituttonor trou
tnr's nnusystn.
t lults tovrll
xposurronjust snll
portiono trnusully
ntrl irl. oint t
spot-ntrinirlt
rit r o trnn
prss tsuttr rls
uttonlwy totk
rin. srt
xposursttins youwnt
tonploy totkyour
siloutt. rssint
uto-xposurlok (-)
utton 'lok' tsttins
onposyour inn
rlstsuttr.
rsult soultt your
sujt ons
unrxposnpprs
s purlk siloutt.
TOPTIP
nsiloutts w striv
or t ninsujt to
voio til or olour,
soslt sujts wit
stron ronisl
outlin. opl uilins
ninls ntrs nk
ooois
NIKON
nscpeprjects
n me
ßyzoomnnaIttIfromtIast fram, fI
tat 'vstruktrt aIanntrms of
omposton. PIanttrs rtof
ntrrats astronr matant wouI
avf tyanntraI. 5potmtrn
as naImtoapturtrt xposur
namra-aII atoopostapturwas
ntnsfytsky's oIour vrysItIyy
Iknmage>djustments>ue/aturat/on
anaustntsaturatonsIr to+10.
4
okyour sttns renovethecanerafronthetripodviathe
quick-releaseplate, andpoint thespot-neteringcircleat abright areaof
thesky. ¦ press theshutter releasebuttonhalfway totakeny neter reading,
andthenlock thesesettings by usingtheauto-exposurelock (L-L) button.
¦ replacethecaneraonthetripodandcheck that theconpositionhasn't
changed. 1hen, usingthenewlockedsettings, ¦ takeanother picture.
5
vwompostonlthoughtheexposureis nowcorrect, ¦ anfeeling
less happy withtheconposition. ¦t looks alittlecranpedand¦ wonder
whether ¦'vecroppedintooclose. 1hejoy of usingazoonlens is beingable
toquickly changeconpositionwithout havingtonove. ¦ zoonout toleave
norespacearoundthetrees, allowingnetocapturenoreof thesunrise.
However, have¦ nowgonetoofar towards theoppositeextrene¯
NKON
Landscapeprojects

ikon00
-/0-200nni2.
youhr o th
inportno ingshrpnss
or tht youshoullwys us
stury tripo rnotrlsn
nirror lok-upwhnshooting
lnsps¯ ll thrrlwys
xptions tovry rul nwhnpturing
ings usingthniqull'intntionl
nrnovnnt' or thrulook
gts thrownñrnly out thwinow.
is rnitthniquyouithr
lovit or htit. s thnnsuggsts th
i is tonovthnr uringth
xposurtortivly lur sttisujt.
his night sounlik ripor isstr
ut it's tully sy tohivvry rtisti
rsults with littltril nrror. ngs n
look pintrly nonvy snso noo
or novnnt. ny ol lngthnwork
ut gnrlly spking stnrto
niuntlphotolngthis thst option
inthrgiono 50nntoI35nn.
norr topturings slowish
shuttr spis rquirintous
sps rounIi4stoonson.
owvr yououlopt or longr or
shortr lngthpningonhowst you
novthnr ntht yousir.
hrr ouplo irnt wys to
gnrt spo this lngth. ououl
slt onintiono lowrtingn
snll prturo i22or i32youon't
ntoworry out irtions rsults
won't shrpnywy. ltrntivly you
ouljust shoot inlowor ovrst light.
youstill struggltohiv slownough
shuttr sp try ñltrtion thr- or
our-stopsoliñltr shoulothjo
nily whil polrisingñltr will sor
twostops o light sonlsousto
rtiñilly lngthnxposur. polrisr
lsohs thvntgo oosting
olour sturtionnruingglr.
ll typs o sujts suit ut wooln
nhsns rprtiulrlypopulr
nwll-suittoththniqu. pt or
sujts tht hvstrongshps whihwill
rninrognislvnwhnrtivly
lurr. lso rs o strongolour lins n
ontrst suit wll. ht younto
rnnr is tht thñnl ingwill not
loslyrsnlthsujt itsl ut inst
will nstrt rprsnttiono it.
owithyour sujt nxposursort
nowons thunprt. riggr thshuttr
nnovthnr uringxposur. ou
nothis hnhlor with tripo using
pnningtiontolur your sujt. or
snoothrsults ginnovingthnr
oropningthshuttr nontinu
pnninguntil it loss. tnnovnnt
only ns torltivly snll toonuh
nyour shot will oniglur nyour
sujt's ñnitionwill lost.
irnt typs o notionyilvrying
rsults. rtil nhorizontl novnnt is
nost populr ut novingthnr k
north igonl pnningnrottionn
lsortstrikingings. ovingth
nr prlll tolins ngs tht
lry xist inyour onpositionwill
nphsisthnor xnpl vrtil
pnningtypilly suits tll trunks st.
otworsults will vr look thsn.
his is rl hit-n-niss thniquyou
night ñnyougt tht youwnt tr
onrn or it night tkyou40or 50
ttnpts ounnvr surwht you
rgoingtopturwith whihis on
o thrsons why it is suh unthniqu
P. yournwtousingintntionl
nrnovnnt woolnis grt
pltogin. hstrong vrtil lins n
rptitionipttrno trtrunks is illy
suittoththniqu. ornlly it is st to
voistrongor hrshsunlight. vrst
iusor rly norningiltvninglight is
nornlly st. nthis instn visitlol
onir woolnjust tr sunris.
I
5e aIoher lting slowshuttr
spis intgrl toth thniqu. ry tous
nxposur lngtho twnIi4s toon
son. giny slting your 's lowst
(typilly I00) n snll prtur.
this osn't suhce, try ñltration. solidNDñlter
is designedtoabsorblight. However, inthis
instance, ¦ attacha polarising ñlter, whichhas a
factor ñlter of uptotwostops -doing sohelps
ne achieve anexposure of one secondat fi22.
Createabstract ímages
Ross Hoddinott reveals howintentional caneranovenent canyield
anazingresults if youlearnhowtoget thetechniqueright

niqes iherent types of
¦CMproduce very diherent results. 1ry
noving the canera back andforthdiagonally,
or -if youare using a lens witha tripodcollar -
why not create radial blur by rotating the canera
during ther exposure¯ Òften, youdon't know
what will work, andwhat won't, until youtry it.
¦eepnovenent snoothanddeliberate.
Generally speaking, it is best toavoidtoonuch
sky inshot, as it has a tendency tooverexpose.

Pano cameaRoughly conpose your
inage andfocus. 1oensure a snooth
panning action, beginnoving your canera just
before youtrigger the shutter andcontinue to
panthe canera snoothly throughout exposure.
¦t is ñne todothis handheld, but if your tripod
headis a three-way panitilt design, youwill
probably ñndit easier using its controls.
Lxperinent withdiherent shutter speeds and
the speedwithwhichyounove the canera.
4
Changesettings andmoement 1oa great
extent, ¦CMrelies ontrial anderror. Lvery
inage will be diherent fronthe one previous,
andyoujust have topersist until youget the right
conbinationof shutter lengthandcanera
novenent. vertical panning suitedthese tree
trunks best anda snoothtop-to-botton
notion, using a shutter speedof 0.6seconds,
producedjust the level of blur andartistic
abstractionthat ¦ wanted.

hereis noright or wrongresuIt -
it aII comes downtowhichever
imageyou'rehappywith.
Exposure: 0.6seconds at fi22(¦SÒ50)
nspoposton
oot so|trytr
Bssdwithsunnydy¯Mthost o thñnwthr ndhdout intothountrysidtoshoot
virnt rur i nDixonshrs hr xprt dvitohpyourinshot o ontr.

NikonD800L
Carl Zeiss Distagon2Inn
SÒL1RY1RLLSvLlongbeen
alovedsubject for photographers.
1here's sonethingalluringabout a
nininalist landscapecontaininga
lonestructure, standingtall
anongst its surroundings. 1heresulting
inages aresinpleyet strikingandare
relativelyeasytocreate.
nterns of your choiceof subject, look
for a treethat sits near thecrest of a hill.
Shootinguphill renoves distractions fron
thehorizon, isolatingthelush, greenfoliage
of thetreeagainst thevibrant blueof thesky.
1hekey toa successful conpositionis to
keepit sinple-if your sky contains
interestingcloudfornations thendon't be
afraidtoconposetheshot toincludea big
sky. lternatively, youcouldtry positioning
thetreetosit centrally inthefrane. Whenall
elsefails, therule-of-thirds is a pretty
sure-ñreroutetosuccess. f conposingthe
shot inportrait fornat, placethetree
centrally oneither theupper thirdor lower
thirddividingline, if conposinginlandscape
fornat, consider placingthetreeonan
intersectingthirdfor naxinuninpact.
Ònceyou'vefoundyour ideal subject, abit
of planningwill ensurethat youcapturea
successful inage. visit onasunny day to
capturethetreeset against abrilliant blue
sky, andtineyour visit sothat thesunis
behindyou, otherwisethefoliagewill becast
inshade. Ònceonlocation, look for
interestingcloudfornations, or clouds with
interestingshapes that youcanincludein
your conposition-thesecanbeusedto
createbalancebetweenforegroundandsky.
¦it-wise, therearevery fewessentials,
other thanyour canera, that you'll needto
beabletosuccessfully pull ohthis
technique, althougha circular polarising
ñlter (seepanel, right) will helpnakethe
nost of thecolours inyour sceneanda
sturdy tripodwill nakeconposingand
gettinga sharpshot easier.
Ònceyou'vephotographedyour tree
duringthesunner nonths, whynot return
tothesanespot duringdiherent seasons to
docunent thechange¯1heresults canbe
arrangedtogether as aseries of inages.
2
Moving downthe hill towards the lake ohers nuch
better shooting options, withrelatively fewdistractions onthe horizon.
Set upyour canera ona tripodandtry a variety of conpositions. ñrst try a
landscape-fornat inage, positioning the tree using the rule-of-thirds.

UseapoIarisingñIter ttacha polariser toaddcontrast andsaturation
tothe scene. Rotate the polariser, assessing the results throughthe
viewñnder until youare pleasedwiththe ehect. Be nindful of dark areas in
the sky causedby overpolarisationif using anultra wide-angle lens.
1
Findtheright angIeÒnce you've identiñedthe ideal candidate for your
solitary tree, have a goodwalk aroundtoassess the best angle toshoot
fron. 1his tree is ideal, being inthe niddle of a grassy ñeld-however,
fronthis angle it doesn't standout fronthe background.
3
DiaI inthesettings Select aperture-priority node andchoose a
nid-aperture. 'nusing Matrix netering, but if this doesn't work, try
spot-netering frongrass or foliage for a goodexposure. 1ake a test shot
andcheck the histogran-dial inexposure conpensationif required.
o|rsn |tr
Polarisingñlters allowyou
tocut downtheanount
of refectedlight ina
scene-boosting
contrast, naking
foliagegreener and
thesky clearer and
norevibrant. 1hey
areavailableina large
rangeof threadsizes
tosuit a variety of
lenses andcanbe
rotatedtoalter the
polarisingehect. Best of
all, youcanlook through
your viewñnder toassess theexact
ehect that theñlter is havingonyour
inage. Unlikenany other types of
ñlter, too, theehect of a good
polariser is very dihcult toninicin
digital software, nakingit a nust-
havepieceof kit.

chgycitir
rtrit igiyñI ht d
itithtrttht
thcIudrti dbIuy
Exur Ii30secat fiI3(¦SÒI00)

Nikon8
N¦¦ÒR-SI6-35nnfi4
LÒv1ÒRhateit, creatively
blurringsubject notionis a
popular techniqueanong
photographers. t's hardtodeny
that it inplies notionandadds
energy, depthandnoodtophotographs.
1henost popular subject to'blur' is water,
but novingclouds, foliageandevenpeople
canalsosuit thetechnique.
1hequestionis, howdoyoucreatethe
ehect¯ 1hesinpleanswer is toenploy a
slowshutter speed, typically of Ii4secor
longer. By doingso, any novenent during
thetinetheshutter is openwill appear
blurred. 1ogenerateanexposureof around
this length, youcouldshoot inlowlight,
whenshutter speeds will beextended.
lternatively, photographers canattacha
Neutral ensity (N) ñlter, whichabsorbs
light, inorder toartiñcially lengthen
exposuretine. owever, what doyoudoif
theslowest shutter speedpossibleis toofast
tocreateblur andyoudon't haveanNto
hand¯ ll is not lost.
lthoughless regularly discussed, a
SLR's nultipleexposurefacility canbe
enployedtogeneratea very sinilar ehect
tothat of anNñlter. Basically, insteadof
takinga singlelongexposure, younake
nultipleexposures of a nornal length.
Whenconbined, theresult looks alnost
identical towhat youwouldhaveachieved
usinga solidN. or exanple, if you
capturedandconbinedteninages taken
at Ii2sec, theresult of theconpleted
nulti-exposurewouldehectively appear as
if it hadbeenshot usinga singleIi2sec
exposure. By usingthetechnique, youcan
blur water ripples, cascadingwaterfalls and
fast-novingclouds.
Multipleexposurenodes allowyouto
takea predeñnednunber of franes before
conbiningthen. Not all digital SLRs oher
this feature, thoughnany Nikonnodels do,
fronentry-level right uptopro. Òuickly
check your canera's user nanual toñndout
if your canera has thefacility or not. Ònny
Nikon8, thenultipleexposurefacility is
foundwithintheShootingMenu.
avingselectedthis function, an
presentedwiththreeoptions. Multiple
exposurenodeÒniÒh, Nunber of shots,
andutogainÒniÒh. Most caneras will
oher thesaneor sinilar options. 1ypically,
it is best tokeeputogainswitchedonto
prevent overexposure. t is nornally best
toselect a nunber of shots betweensix
andtentogenerateanintentional-looking
level of blur, althoughtheanount of
franes requiredwill vary dependingon
shutter lengthandsubject speed. fter the
last inageis captured, thecanera
conbines thenautonatically in-canera
tocreatea singleñle.
motíonb|ur
usíngmu|típ|eexposure
Want tocapturedynanicnovenent inclouds or water but lackingan
Nñlter¯Ross oddinott shows youtheropes.
2

conpose ny inage
sothat water cascading
over boulders forns ny
foreground, while a Welsh
nountaincreates a dranatic
backdrop. t SÒI, using an
aperture of fiII, the resulting
shutter speedis Ii2sec -
not long enoughtocreatively
blur the water's notion.
3

don't want toselect a
snaller aperture due tothe risk
of dihractionanddon't have an
Ntohand. owever, using
nultiple exposures, know
canstill create the ehect
want. switchthe facility on
andtake a sequence of six shots.
owever, utogainis oh,
resulting inoverexposure.
4
quickly
realise ny nistake and
switchutogainon-the
canera nowallows for the
accunulationof exposures and
creates a single correctly
exposedresult instead. take
another nultiple exposure set of
six inages. 1he result looks
good, but still want a slightly
greater level of notion.
5

increase the nunber of
shots inthe nultiple exposure
sequence toten. thentrigger
the shutter tentines. 1his
ehectively creates anoverall
exposure of Ii2sec, enoughto
hopefully give the degree of
notion want andall without
havingtoattachanNñlter or
shoot inlowlight.
1
Whenusing your canera's
nultiple exposure facility tocreate a long
exposure, it is inportant toenploy a good,
sturdy tripodanda renote release. 1his will
not only naxinise inage sharpness, but
alsoensures eachfrane is identical.

NIKON

ur canera doesn't
have a nultiple exposure
node, youcanachieve
the sane ehect in
post-processing by
stacking photos together
andadjusting the opacity
of eachlayer tosuit.

, givingme
theperfect amount of bIur.
Moon|ít |andscapes
US1BCUS1SUNhs gondown
dosn't nnyoun't pturutiul
lndsps. Usingnoonlight is int sinplr
thnphotogrphingt dusk s thlight is lss
vril. Shootingnoonlit lndsps is not
tht dirnt ronshootingindylight ut
lot sir thnshootingt sunst us
noonlight is lot strongr thnthlst light
o thdy. 1ht sid youndtopy sinilr
ttntiontothnglndpositiono th
noon s youwouldthsun. highnoon
sts strongdownwrdshdows whil low
noonrts longshdows ndnuhsotr
lighting. t's thoptinunlight or lndsps
ndours shortly tr sunst just s th
noongins toris.
xposuris photogrphr's nin
hllngwhnit ons tonoonlight s it's
svrl thousndtins wkr thnsunlight.
urthr onplitionor nyontking
piturs t night is tht tht thnoon
novs irly quikly soxposurs tht r
northn ouplo ninuts longn
rndr it strk inthsky. Ònsolutionis to
kpthnoonout o rnndsinply shoot
lndspxposdy its light. ndsps
illunintdxlusivly y ull novingnoon
tht sotns shdows nnkri
thrl piturs. Ustoolongnxposur
though ndthlight ons ft. you
wnt thnooninthpitur ut th
xposuris toolong tkthorrt
xposuror thorground innditly
ollowdy shortr xposuror thsky
ndthnnrgthtwoinpost-prodution.
1hlngtho nxposurdpnds onth
intnsity o thnoon ull noonon lr
night is grt or illunintinglndsps
whryouwnt xtnsivdpth-o-ñld. But
i thnoonisn't s strongor proninnt you'll
ñndyouny ndtoonpronison
dpth-o-ñldy using widprturto
rduxposurtins. Rnnr though
i youus widprtur urtousing
is ritil. 1hst tins toshoot rwhn
thr's ull noonor duringthtwodys
orndtr thull noon whnit wns
intondout o its ull phs. Notlsotht
lyrs o loudt thxposur just likit
dos duringthdy.
or xtr visul intrst inyour
photogrphs try shootingwith rivr lk
or s inthorground soyounptur
thlight ns glistningothsur
you'll ñndtht thrftdlight lso
rightns thwholsn. ououldlso
introdufshor torhintoyour shoot
usingit topint thorground.
hnsttingupyour nr pply th
snthniqus lrdy xplindinthis
guid usBulor nnul nod work out
thxposur ous nnully i possil
ndñrthshuttr using rnotrls.
hnworkingout thxposuror noonlit
sn nulti-zonntringworks wll.
1hnollowthis thniqu tk tst shot
inprtur-priority nodt your highst
SÒrtingndwidst prturtogiv
yoursl sshuttr spd thnus
riproity ilurtowork out thxposur
or dnt prturndlowSÒrting.
ltrntivly swithtospot ntringnd
ntr othrightst prt inthsn
thnddtwostops o xtr xposur
usthntringsystnwill othrwis
rndr your highlights s nid-ton.
Ònyou'vnstrdstr trils nd
noonlit lndsps try shootingurors
ntor showrs or vnhv got
dp-spphotogrphy you'll opnup
wholworldo photoopportunitis
1hrightnss o thnoonnrtothr-worldlylndsp
sns usit toyour st dvntgor shots ull o nood
igt or vryxposuro tis sn t
lstopntousttopt
suttr sptwn15and30seconds in
order tofreezethemoon's motion.
ßeIow: This shot of 5waIedaIecomprises a
four-minuteexposurefor theforegroundanda
30-secondexposurefor thesky.

Ò

N
P

1
R
C

Landscapeprojects
Recíprocíty|aw
ithlow-light photogrphy it's inportnt to
rnindyoursl out thintrhngl
rltionshiptwnshuttr spds nd
prturs sotht younworkout th
rquirdxposur. t tks it o
rinpowr ut younnowdownlod
pps toyour snrtphontht nhlpyou
lultquivlnt xposurs. Bsilly
vrytinyoustopdownyour prtur
youndtoinrsyour shuttr spdto
doulthxposurtin soi yougoron
i4toi5.6 thshuttr spdnds to
doulron sy twosonds toour
sonds. Riproitylwiluris whnth
nrils tourtlyntr snin
lowlight ndils tontr suhint
xposurtinor thlngtho shuttr
spd. t's nuhlss onnonwithdigitl
nrs thnñln ut younyñndyou
ndtoddnxtrstopor twoo xposur
towrdoundrxposurwhnshooting
noonlit shots likthons onthspgs.

R
Y

R

¦
R
Ò

1

¦or hoof hoon hhror for
p-pphoogrphof hilkW
gl, hnr hinghoh
niinof pi hnoon Yoon n
npil ipnn ophoogrphhnoon,
onlh onornllfor no nigh
phoogrph, n lphoozoon
oln -inprilr, honing
o l nn f oon hil
ln, oolin inlonrr on
hrh Rnnr h n-nrh
ropfor of I, ohiln fol
lnghof nnln i nn
onrinhnoon
righn, hihi h ginghpor
orr nirik o r np
lnr phoogrph rl innorpo
irlhrhnoonhol 1hr p
ooiinghi i opik po hrhri no
nin ligh fronror rligh, on
lr nigh, ihnolo 1hri lilril
nrror nog hprf por
i hng pningonhhooing
oniion, or nronnl
nonI f8(ÒI)
ringpoin 1kri of rk
por (inon-opinrnn) ronhi
ingnrihnonhnonior
Wronnnohnghhr
prhr hnhprr pningon
hphof hnoon, i righn, or
loionnhnophrioniion, o
nnonolnghnor hornh
poroprnoghonl il on
hlnr rf
oiionor fo poin or hnoon,
lok onoi ingofo nhnih
onnl fo oopi hning U
rnorlor hlf-inr oninini
hrik of hklrringhrl
Yorlikl ohorophingin
hoohopno lilork onhonli
jinghl oro nor
il onhnoon rf
agBookscoer arangeof opics, fron¦1oMooring, and¦inessoLifesle
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o ing inno on ooino hoo
pnhoolo ingjnn nlno
Jordanutters
i nog onl
nophoing ohing
ion hnooo
hill nno in noning
likhl noningn
piinghogh il h h
oonhnno hogh ni
lnp hin lk o
on no oo ihh
iiono njnn non
pinnionihlno on
ppl hpnhoo ni lnp
ing hilhi oil h nonin
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nho npplioing ing
okoninhoohop ll
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OriginaI

olllipliing
o oiginl ingl oo
iingo phoogph j in
onknnik o
njo n o jnn i
h hnoni nning
h nhng onkinghn
ono hoiginl ing
h no hpn n
l o njnn n
kinhjnn pl
ninhogho hiing
po o i ono nilhpp
ihh oninpll
h jnn n h
5
uyst Ls 1his tine, rather than
using the utoadjustnent, click anddrag on
the and point sliders inthe
djustnent palette totweak the contrast of your
inage. Be careful howfar youpushthe black
andwhite points soyoudon't clipthe shadows
andhighlights andlose detail. Youcanbe nore
liberal withthe grey slider for the nid-tones.
6
Exrt wtßs Back inthe
Layers palette, experinent withthe diherent
toalter the ehect.
L/gnt andHadL/gnt will all oher slightly diherent
ehects. Youcanalsouse the Opac/t slider at the
topof the Layers palette toweakenthe ehect or
youcanrevisit the djustnent palette at any
tine totweak the paraneters.
4
ryu justment ¦f youaren't happy
withthe ehect fronusing utolevels, delete
your djustnent Layer by clicking onit inthe
Layers palette anddragging it tothe De/ete /ae
iconat the botton, this reverts the inage back to
its original state. ddanother djustnent Layer
by clicking onthe Ceate newh// o adjustment
/ae buttonandselecting Leve/s.
ín| ímge
Thecontrast increase
has cut throughthehaze
andboostedsaturation.


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t t
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OriginaI
Víbrance 85aturatíon
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nrsngsturtonnportrt sots
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onprsonsows trnn
ustnnt o +/onsr
ns totorgn ng.
Vibrance+75 5aturation+75
NIKON
Potosoptníqs
ín ím


control the intensity of eachcolour.
lick onthe Saturat/ontabanddrag the Green
slider toadjust the channel. Make any changes
gradually, as oversaturationcanlook as bad, if
not worse, thanundersaturation.

s before,
neighbouring channels nay beneñt fron
sone slight adjustnent. ¦nthis case, the green
grass lookednore natural whena snall increase
was nade tothe saturationof the Yellows
channel as well.

1ochange the colour of an
area -like these orange hills -select the
Hue tab. Next nove the Orane slider until
youare happy withthe result. Younay ñnd
only snall changes are neededtoalter the hue
-but be watchful that it doesn't look unnatural.
NKON

nt tortnDRt ut on't hvRws or st o
rtxposurs¯Don't spr UsShows hhts.
ñat photos

Weall haveinages that didn't quiterender thescene
howyourenenber it. Maybethesky's not as noody
or thegroundis toodark, or naybetheoverall
appearanceof theinagelacks contrast or is badly
exposed. Well, Shadows oHighlights canresurrect
theseinages. 1his niftyadjustnent is afantasticphotographic
tool, whichis oftenoverlookedbyusers sincededicatedHDR
softwarelikePhotonatixandPhotoshopactions becane
availablefronthird-partyconpanies. ¦nthesinplest terns,
theadjustnents allowyoutorecover detail fronover-or
underexposedareas byadjustingtheHighlights or Shadows
controls respectively, or youcaninprovetheoverall tonal range
usingtheMidtoneContrast slider. ¦t's reallyverysinple.
1hekeytosuccess withShadows oHighlights is subtlety.
As withanyprocess that plays withtonal range, Shadows o
Highlights canproducephotographic¦rankensteins if usedtoo
eagerly. Sowhynot giveit ago¯1hecontrols nayseendaunting
at ñrst, but after alittleexperinentationandabetter
understanding, younayñndyou'll beusingthis featureregularly.
Hot Key

Whenworkingin
Shadows o
Highlights, hold
downa/t to
changetheance/
buttontoaReset
buttonincaseyou
want totakethe
ñlter backtoits
default settings.
Youcanalso
uncheckPre/e
totogglebetween
theblurredand
original inage.
5
Withthe nask inplace,
any work done will only ahect the sky area.
ÒpenSnados 8H/gn//gnts as instructedinstep
two, but this tine work nainly onthe H/gn//gnts
and/dtones ontrast topull all the detail back
intothe sky. Younay want toincrease the /ack
//ptoinprove the overall contrast.
4
Click onthe aer ask
thunbnail andselect the rad/ent Too/,
ensuring the oregrondandackgrondo/or
are set tothe default /ack andWn/te. Withthe
sn/ft key helddowntoensure a straight line, click
near the horizonanddrag, lettinggoat the topof
the inage. 1his adds a gradient tothe nask.
6
Òne ñnal tweak is to
renove sone of the colour toenhance the
storn-like appearance of the inage. Withthe top
layer still active, gotoaer>edjstment
aer>He/Satrat/on.andreduce the
Satrat/onslider by around2X, thenclick .
Nowsave as a PS, topreserve all the layers.
2
ðHighIights Ònthe duplicate layer
gotomage>djstments>Snados
8H/gn//gnts.As the inage is generally fat,
concentrate onthe Snados and/dtone
ontrast, withonly ninor adjustnents tothe
H/gn//gnt ñeld. At this stage youwant tobe
focusing nore ongetting the foregroundright.
1
DupIicateoriginaI Òur choseninage is a bit
lifeless, yet clearly has potential texture inthe
sky anddetail inthe foregroundthat couldbe
pulledout using Shadows oHighlights. ¦irst,
create a duplicate layer fronthe original by
going toaer>p//cateaer., naning the
layer accordingly for reference later.
3
DupIicateadjustedIayer Nowduplicate this
editedlayer withaer>p//cateaer.
1henadda Layer Mask by going toaer>aer
ask>Reea/ // or by clicking onthe ddaer
ask iconat the bottonof the Layers palette
(circled). 1he purpose of the Layer Mask is sothat
the next edit only ahects the sky area of this layer.
OriginaI
NIKON

Frat tantast
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anp h Dk onak ha o
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on o oon g
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naal Sl h 8rusnToo/ an hWn/te
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5howtheLayers paIetteWho nag
loanPhoohop nak h La
pal l gong oW/ndow>Layers.
¦nh La pal oll onl a
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lppoj a nglla o
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OriginaI
Masks
La Mak an
applonagla
a ll a jnn
La o nag h
oo nola
pn l h
la ohonak
anhkAddvector
masknhLa
pal 1hnh
8rusnToo/ oh
o annako
nag Rnn
-Whitereveals the
layer, Blacknasks it.
TOPTIP
1oapply anadjustnent
toa single layer rather
thanthe whole inage,
select the C//pto/ayer
button( ) in
the djustnents
palette.
NIKON

seetivedusti
thererud the
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it dvisiedeti
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4
ee eee
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Layer>NewLayer. eF//ter>
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de dwe de e
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8/endModeScreeneeye e.
5
ddpepeve
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dwe eude y d e
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e ude e pedu
yue ppy. uy eedzu
ve e u eu wee.
6
Cee w
due ye y ee e e
e ye pee ed. ¦ ee
Hue/Saturat/ondue ye due e
Saturat/onde deue e u y
d y ee 8r/gntness/Contrast
due ye e uhey
ee e ppee duedy .

M e eeuveeee ey
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y

euLayer
Masks eGrad/ent
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eeweee
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1
e Layer>NewLayer.
ee ye ve e . ee
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de e p d e
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ud8/ack. C dd ed
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3
dd
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2
ey e wude
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pee ed. Nex ee e 8rusnToo/ e
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ve e ee ev e . yu
yue e ForegroundCo/or Wn/te
dp ve e e de.

kes toadda
touchof mist toyour
Iandscapeimages.
ñ|er
rnhowtocontrol Photoshop's gradients tocreateacolour graduated
ñlter ehect andtransfornordinaryskies intosonethingglorious

¦nanideal world, landscape
photographers wouldalways have
anarrayof Ngradñlters closeto
hand, onefor everysituationand
ehect that youwant tocreate. But
this isn't always practical. 1hankfullytherearea
rangeof ehects inPhotoshopthat sinulatethe
results of usingñlters. 1his techniqueis great
for enphasisingexistingcolours intheskyor
conpletelychangingthenoodof your inage
byenulatingadiherent tineof daytowhen
inagewas taken.
Phooshoechníques
6
¦nthe Layers palette, click
onthe ddneh// or adjmen /ae button
againandthis tine select noo//e. Select one
of the am/ng//e andclick K-this will
warnthe entire inage tosuit the dusk colours.
5
1he twoCo/or Stops above
the gradient scale control the gradient opacity.
Move the Wn/te Co/or Stopinthe top-right corner
tocontrol the depthandhardness of the gradient
tosuit your inage. Ònce done, click OK.
4
lick on8/ack Co/or Stop
inthe botton-left corner of the gradient. 1hen
click onthe Co/or thunbnail belowtoopenthe
Co/or P/cker w/ndow. Select your colour -¦ chose
pink toenulate the sky at dusk. lick OK.
3
ouble-click onthe
thunbnail onthe Grad/ent /aer inthe Layers
palette toopenthe Grad/ent F/// nenuagainand
click onthe Grad/ent thunbnail at the toptoopen
the Grad/ent Ed/tor palette.
2
¦nthe dialogue box, click
onthe Reerse box toplace the gradient at the
topof the inage as opposedtothe bottonand
thenclick OK. Back inthe Layers palette, change
the 8/endMode of the Grad/ent /aer toM/t/p/.
1
Before we begin, press the D
key onyour keyboardtoreset your colour
palette todefault. lick onthe Addnewh// or
adjstment /aer buttoninthe Layers palette and
select Grad/ent fronthe drop-downnenu.
NIKON

Mu|í|e fí|ers
Youcouldalways tryaddingnorethan
onecolour ñlter toyour inage. Sinply
duplicateyour Gradient layer by
selectingit intheLayers paletteand
goingtoLaer>Dp//cateLaer and
changethegradient colour as was
doneinsteps threethroughtoñve. 1ry
placingthegradients at diherent angles
usingtheAng/edial intheGrad/ent F///
nenufor diherent ehects.



ñIters? Nofear -whenyoucan
createstunningsunsets Iike
this inPhotoshop, you've
aIways got aback-uppIan!

MuItipIeñIters WarmingFiIter CooIingFiIter GreenFiIter
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4
otoEd/>
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Photoshoptechníques
3
pnou
plnnt sk in in nwwinow
n usin t Recangu/ar Marquee Too/ slt
t sk onl op ou sltion oin to
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stit w soont wo i tis is t s
5
lik ont Addvecor
Mask uttonint s pltt Slt t
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su tt t 8/ack/Wn/e int is slt n
t in lik n t lin onjust low
t oiontows t topo t sk tn
ls t utton 1is pt involvs son til
no ut ounpt s nn tins s
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just thecontrast nh s pl
lik onh ate newadjustment /ayer
uonnsl Leve/s onh nnu. ¦is
nk su h h jusnn is lippoh
l loonl liking h uon h
oono h jusnns pl. hnjus
h ons o ou sk onhh s o h
ing using h nil (nions) ll sli.
Òn on s ou ing using F//e>Save As.

Ò

Ò

Ò

Wethinkyou'II agree
that thenewsky
adds somemuch
neededdramatothe
originaI image.

Tidyupthehorizonon o ou nsk
ill sill olponoh lnsp sooi
his up sl h 8rusnToo/ lo h Opac/ty
o25Xns h ushs Hardness o25Xinh
ushÒpions ool. l 8/ack s ou
ForegroundCo/or nusho h hoion
uiling ups h ouishol. ou
gooo o nk nisk sinpl sl Wn/te
s ou ForegroundCo/or nushk o.

h sk pill gs
igh h los oh
hoioni is. his in
ninhnppling ou
gin i h gin
is ooloo ooh
hnh ill
lk lisn
Ouíck se|ectíon
huiklion
ool s lsih
hlunho hooshop
nlnns
nhs uinll
sions sin. oks
ingons
ins nnks
slionson
his il o sping
skis onhoions.
us o
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nsugglosp
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Photoshoteehnqes
Maetheyeara|rwthaor-seasonsspecía|
rIneIknsn

owhite
scenes inwinter -you'renever short of
opportunities. Whilethereareanillionand
oneways tophotographtheseclassic
scenes, eachas beautiful as theother, it's
goodtoñndatechniquethat gives these
seasonal scenes afresh, artisticappeal.
Giveyour seasonal landscapes acreativetwist withthis sinplebut strikingnotion-blur technique
Younayhaveconeacross notionscapes
beforewhereyoupanthecaneraacross a
coastal horizontocreatestreaks of colour.
1his techniqueis verysinilar but applies
vertical streaks instead, usinghotoshop. You
candoasinilar techniquein-canerausinga
three-waypanotilt tripodheadtopanthe
caneraupanddowninafuidnovenent,
but it will blur theentireinage, whereas here
onlywant toblur half of it. lus, whilethe
purists naybecursing, theehect is nuch
easier tocontrol, withbetter results, usingthe
MotionBlur ñlter inhotoshopinstead.
fter sonetrial anderror, it was clear that
toget thebest results for theseasonal
quadtych(series of four inages), 'dneed
inages wheretherewas as nuchinterest in
thetopof thefraneas thebotton,
otherwiseyouwouldn't beabletotell what
was blurredor infocus. foundthat thebest
scenes wereforests or landscapes where
trees ñll theheight of thefrane, sowiththis
innindthe|g|ta| S|PPnotograpny tean
runnagedthroughtheir harddrives for
suitableinages toillustratespring, sunner,
autunnandwinter.
1
retedpIcteIer penyour ñrst picture andduplicate the inage
by clicking onthe inthe ayers palette andgoing to
, or by dragging it downtothe
iconat the bottonof the ayers palette. ¦ronnowonyou'll only be
working onthis duplicate layer. eave the original inage untouched.
5
skhthebIur Withthe Gradient 1ool andthe ayer Mask
selected(black lines appear aroundthe nask's corners whenit's
activated), click at the topof the inage anddrag the cursor downto
the point where youwant the blur tostart.
2
ppIymotionbIur Click on toopenthe
ñlter's dialogue box. s youwant toapply a vertical blur, set the
to by either typing the anount inor noving the angle ñnder.
You'll notice that by clicking anddragging onthe angle ñnder the
directionof the blur will change inthe previewscreen.
3
Increasethestrengthdjust the slider toincrease the strength
of the blur ehect. 1he bottonof the inage needs tobe heavily blurred
but not tothe point that the subjects becone unrecognisable. t will be
diherent for every inage (we used409pixels). Whenyou're happy, click .
4
ppIyaLayer Mask1oadda ayer Mask tothe blurredinage,
click onthe iconat the bottonof the ayers palette.
You'll notice this adds a white box next toyour inage inthe ayers palette.
1henselect the fronthe toolbar or press .
Toomuch
etter
NIKON
Phthptcchuc
a mac



herent Iook?

Pepeat you've done is create a gradient inyour Layer Mask that
allows the blur tograduate throughyour inage. Youcanchange the
graduationby repeating stepñve. You'll ñndthe inages look better if the
blur is heavier at the bottonof the picture thanthe top.

ppIythetechniquetoaII seasons Repeat steps one tosix withthe
other three inages of your choice. We've pickeda colourful autunn
woodlandscene, bright sunshine passing throughtrees for sunner anda
black owhite picture of a snowy forest.
NKON
ñltrs rqurtontot rt rsults. r's tnquor
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or nyo youworn't lrywr ttnstop
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tnqus otntkytots suss s tloton ns
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wt ns nt work t's wortlooknt ontrutor
rost's otontus (www.lrost.o.uk) tknwt
ntul tnstopñltr.
Phooshoechníques
5
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-prop140 Enthusiast p138
Donoforgeopack...
Conens
t or nscs
anyyourself as thenext JoeCornishor DavidNoton¯You'reproalydrawntothe
landsapeyageneral loveof thegreat outdoors ut havenever takennorethansnapshots
whileout onwalks or enjoyingother pursuits. Nowyou'veaddedphotographytoyour list of
other hoies it's tinetouptheante. Here's arundownof what you'll needtodojust that...
tr syst
¦nterns of value, theCokinPSysten
is theest thereis. 1heñlters are
84nnwidesotheholder is ig
enoughtoavoidvignettingon
lenses as wideas I4nnonDSLRs
withPS-Csizedsensors (2Innon
full-frane) andthereareadaptor rings
availalefor lenses withthreads up
to82nn. 1heholder osts around
£5andadaptor rings are£II eah.
Whihever randyouuy, nakesure
youinvest ina irular polariser anda
set of NDgrads. Cokin's PI64Cirular
Polariser osts £90, whileits NDgrads
ost around£22eah.
nscnovc
urzoo
¦oal lengths fronnoderatewide
totelephotowill ater for all your
landsapeneeds, andif youwant to
haveaneasylifeandonpat kit, this
aneoveredinasingleI8-200nn
or I8-2/0nnzoon(equivalent to
2/-300i405nninfull-franefornat).
Nikon's £585¦-SI8-200nn
fi3.5-5.6GvR¦¦ is worthheking
out, ut don't writeohindependents
suhas the£320SignaI8-250nn
fi3.5-6.3DCÒSHSMor highlyrated
£3301anronI8-2/0nnfi3.6-6.3Di
¦¦ vCPZD.
cc
You'll eworkingwitha fairly snall
kit sothere's noneedtoinvest ina
giant akpak. 'Zoonster' ase
for your SLRandlens likethe£43
1hink 1ank PhotoDigital Holster
20nay eokay ut a akpak
is etter. Models likethe£I45
Lowepro¦lipsideSport areideal
as they holdyour kit, plus have
a setionfor snaks andspare
lothes, plus a laptoppoket.
lsoonsider the£90vanguard
UP-Rise45andthe£50Lowepro
ConpuDay Photo250.
ot rs
Whenyour anera's nountedon
a tripod, ñringtheshutter withyour
ñnger anauseshake. voidit witha
renotereleasethat plugs intoa soket
onthesideof your anera. Gofor a
asinodel fronHana, Yongnuoor
Hahnel. 1he£25Hahnel 280Renote
Shutter Releaseis a great hoieas
your ñrst renote.
sc outoor cotn
¦f youplantoeoutdoors all day, you
needtonakesureyou'resuitaly
dressedfor theelenents. 1he£25
Sprayway Lxplore1eeis a onfortale
aselayer, whilethe£68Parano
Challenger is lightweight, reversile
andohers exellent protetionfron
windandrain.
ro
Younay not liketheidea of arryinga
tripodaround, ut trust us, it is worth
theehort -espeially whenyou're
shootinginlowlight at dawnor dusk.
¦t's far etter tousea tripodandset a
low¦SÒratingfor highinagequality
thantryingtohandholdat high¦SÒ.
Deent nodels toonsider inlude
the£I20velonSherpa+630andthe
£I50Slik Pro/00DX.
ntry-v
-t
1herearenopoor DSLRs or CSCs -
eventheleast expensivenodels give
youfantastiinagequality -sodon't
worry if your udget won't streth
toa pro-spenodel as youreally
don't needone. What youdoneedis
a relatively onpat andlightweight
DSLRthat youanarry aroundall day
andnot notie, that's quik andeasy
touseandhas thefeatures tolet you
gradually takenoreontrol as your
knowledgeandexperienegrows.
Models toonsider inludethe£3/0
NikonD3200, £600NikonD3300and
the£600NikonD5200.
Memory cards
You'll havetoequiteshutter-happy
toñll a 4GBard, evenona good
day, sooneintheanera should
enorethanenough-thoughit's
wortharryinga spare4GBardjust
inaseyouget arriedaway.
ßacpac







pod and ead



50Manfrotto
I90CXPRÒ3is a worthy contender as is the£I90
Giottos M1L 826IB. Bothwill needa headunless you
buy theninkit forn. 1he£55Manfrotto804RC2
headis anexcellent option, as is the
£55Giottos MH500I three-way head.
NDad ñ|e
Whenshootinglandscapes, thesky is alnost always
brighter thanthelandsowhenyouexposefor the
land, thesky blows out andlooks horrible. 1he
quickest andeasiest way toavoidthis is topopan
NDgradñlter onyour lens. 0.6ND(two-stop) grad
is ñnefor general use, whilethe0.9ND(three-stop)
gradis better at dawnanddusk. Cokin's Z-ProND
grads cost £50each, whileHitech's NDgrads cost
fron£50upwards for its I00nnñlters.
F|e em
lthoughyoucouldstill get away withusinga Cokin
P-systenholder withlenses as wideas I4nn, the
fact that you'vebought anultra wide-anglezoon
will probably beencouragenent enoughtogofor
a larger I00nnsysten. Lee¦ilters will probably
beover your budget, but theCokinZ-Prosysten
or HitechI00nnsystenarea noreahordable
alternative. Holders cost around£50eachand
adaptor rings areunder £20each.
Remoe e|eae
decent renotereleaseis a nust. Youcouldstick
witha cordedrelease, liketheHahnel 280Renote
Shutter Releaseshownontheprevious page.
However, younight alsowant toconsider a wireless
renotetoo, suchas the£50Hahnel Conbi 1¦. s
well as oheringa four-secondtiner, it canbeusedin
thestudiotoñreyour fashsysten, nakingit a better
choiceif youalsoshoot portraits.
2 eadvancedenua
Soyou'vebeenshootingseriouslyfor
twoor threeyears now, you'vepickedup
alot of knowledgeandexperiencealong
thewayandyour inages arepretty
good. ¦anilyandfriends areaskingyou
for prints for thewall andyou'refeeling
prettyconñdent about your
photography, sothetinehas coneto
upgradeyour landscapekit. Here's the
gear that younight want toconsider.
K fo |andcape NIKON

Cr r wyr
wr
y w yw
rr yr yr wr w r
1y r r
r r xr
¦wryr r
ywr
ryr rwrr
r yr w r yrw
r Rr wr yr r
r r rr
y ry wr Br
r Parno, Berghus, 1he
North¦ce, MountinLquipnent, Sprywy nd
MountinHrdwer, nongothers.
1he£I90velez dventureSnock ohers one
lrgekngroopocket, whichcnñt nÒS np
or ñlters. ¦t's short, confortblewterproof top
tht's lsolight inweight. s withother Parno
wterproofs, thevelez dventurepunps wy
perspirtionsotht whenyoustop, youdon't get
colds youdon't hveny liquidclosetoyour skin
coolingyoudown.
While pir of jens reidel for everydy
use, they'renot goodchoicewhenyou're
spending dy out shootings they'renot
wetherproof ndwill beconeclnny nd
hevy shouldyouget cught in shower. You
refr better ohweringrinpnts, whichre
confortble, durblendbovell wterproof.
Shownhererethe£40Sprywy Hvn pnts,
whichoher decent budget option.

¦f you'vebeenusing kit zoonuptonow, it's
tinetoupgrdeto qulity stndrdzoon. ¦ocl
lengths roundI6nnreidel for generl use
s they'rewideenoughtoproducedrntic
conpositions. round35nnyou'll get sinilr
ngleof viewndperspectivetothehunneye,
while50nnndbeyondtkes youintoshort
telephototerritory. |g|ta| S|PPnotograpny rn
conprisontest of stndrdzoons ndrtedthe
£440Nikkor ¦-S DXI6-85nnfi3.5-5.6GLDvR
s Best Buy. ¦f tht's bit toopricey, thencheck
out the1nronI/-50nnfi2.8Di ¦¦ vCXR, which
received Highly Rtedccolde.

Youwnt thebest tht youcnhordinPS-C
fornt sotht youcnproducetopqulity inges
ndprint theñles toI6xI2inor bigger, without
worryingbout thenlookingunshrpor griny.
Nikonohers decent choiceof nodels. 1he£800
NikonD5300is oneof its newest nodels nd
bosts 24.2-negpixels. norerobust option
is theexcellent NikonD/I00, 24.I-negpixel
nodel tht's noreexpensivet £I,II0body-only
but fr tougher nodel.

¦f youwnt your DSLR's nonitor screentodoits
jobproperly, it needs tobekept ingoodcondition,
sobuy ndñt screenprotector. 1heplstic
clip-onvriety vilblefor sonecners re
oky but rerther onthethick sidendwith
tendency totkeon 'frosted' look fter while.
Self-dhesiveprotectors, likethe£6protector by
Hn, rectully better options ndlso lot
norewllet-friendly.
TPAWIDE-ANGLEZOOM
1houghyoustill tendtorechfor your
stndrdzoonñrst, it's worthdding
nultr wide-nglezoontoyour kit s
well soyoucnstrt toexperinent with
drnticconpositions, exploitinglines nd
foregroundinterest ndcretinginges
with powerful senseof depthndscle.
1his is likely tobeconeyour stndrd
lens s youdiscover its beneñts sonke
sureyoubuy goodone. 1he£3/0Sign
I0-20nnfi4-5.6LXDCHSMnd£460
Sign I0-20nnfi3.5LXDCHSMre
goodindependents, whilethe1okin 1-X
I2-28nnfi4Prois evenbetter. 1he£640
Nikkor ¦-S I0-24nnfi3.5-4.5DXLD
delivers gret perfornncetoo.
2) TELEZOOM
Youwon't usetelezoons nuchbut it's
worthbuyingonetoconpress (gret in
nistywether), reducedepth-of-ñeldndto
ñll thefrnewithdetils inthelndscpe.
/0-200nnis ehectivelyI05-300nnwith
PS-Csensors, while/0-300nnequtes
toI05-450nn-norethnpowerful
enough. Checkout the£I00Sign
/0-300nnfi4-5.6DGMcro, £I50Sign
/0-300nnfi4-5.6DGPÒMcro, £280
Nikon¦-S55-200nnfi4-5.6DXvRnd
£2901nron/0-300nnfi4-5.6USDvR.
3) MEMOPYCAPD5
1houghnost shoots only lst dy, you
reventuringfurther ñeldndspending
weekends onloction, soyouneedextr
crds. ¦f youhvefour gooddys youcould
esily shoot 20-30GBof Rwñles, socrry
t lest ñve4GBcrds.
4) HOODLOUPE
viewinginges onyour digitl SLR's
previewscreencnbetricky inbright
light ndthoughyoucnresort topulling
your jcket over thecner or cupping
your hnds, thebest solutionis the£/8
HoodnnLoupes it lwys gives bright,
distortion-freeI.I view.
5) DEP55I CAPD
¦t only costs £2.99, but this hndy ccessory
helps pinpoint theloctionof sunrisend
sunset throughout theyer -just lign
thecrdwith1rueNorthndredohthe
indictor. 1urnthecrdover ndyou've
got hyperfocl distncechrt tht tells
youwheretofocus your lens tonxinise
depth-of-ñeld.
6) NDFILTEP5
UseNDñlters toincreseexposures when
shootingnovingwter torecordtht lovely
blur ehect. 1heCokinZ-PRÒNDs will set
youbck round£34echndtheND4
ndND8will bethenost useful. Hitech's
NDñlters cost round£25ech.
7) POLAPI5EP
polrisingñlter will deepenbluesky,
reduceglresocolours pper richer, cut
throughhzendelininterefections.
1he£249CokinZ-PRÒpolriser is the
idel choicefor usewiththeZ-PRÒñlter
systen, whileHitech's costs £I30. ¦f you
cn't stretchto slot-inpolriser, consider
screw-incirculr polrisers. Hoy ohers
nexcellent rngeof polrisers, prices vry
ccordingtosize, but expect topy round
£65for /2nnor //nnñlter.

1
3
4
5
6
7
2

oli ipoh ill kpo h ll-nDSLR
oononboill inhighin i nil. Cbon-ñbi
onnonnonong o ipo ihGiobingh
no popl bnihpo. Chk o hG354I
Monin. ¦ oon likhGio i lglok oni
hMnoo55CXPRÒ3. ¦ igh np njo
i hnonol h ill ppl hIGioo Silk
RoYL 354nh5Gioo viinvGR55 boh
ignihl phoogph innin.

ipolgonlgoohhohohn oon
bloo nibg onnpin. goo olihih55
GiooMH5Ih-it'swell-nadeandideal for bothsingle
shotsandsequencesfor stitchedpanoranas. ¦f youprefer ball heads,
professional photographerslovercaSwissandReallyRight Stuh.
G|ass po|aríser
¦f you'veinvestedina Lee¦ilters kit, younight as well
conplenent it witha top-quality polariser. 1he£220I05nn
Leecircular polariser attaches totheLeeñlter holder via an
optional £33I05nnadaptor ring. However, thepolariser
has a deepnount soif youuseultra wide-anglezoons or
lenses, consider a slinner polariser, suchas theexpensivebut
optically superb£230Heliopan¦asenann.
Fí|ter system
1here's only oneñlter systenthat prolandscapephotographers
use. Lee¦ilters. ¦t has norival interns of versatility andquality
and, thoughexpensive(thebasicholder is £55andadaptor rings
£I9-£55), it's built tolast. Moreinportantly, theI00nnwide
holder cones as a kit andcanbeset upwithanythingfrononeto
threeñlter slots, allowingyoutoadapt it for usewithwide-angle
lenses. ¦it twoslots andyou'll get vignette-freeinages withfocal
lengths as wideas I6nnona full-franeDSLR. 1here's alsoan
SWI50systenfor usewiththeNikkor I4-24nnandother ultra
wide-anglezoons that havea protrudingfront elenent.
3) Thesemí-prolpro
Makingagoodfull-tinelivingfronlandscape
photographyis verydihcult, but sonenanageit
bydiversifying-shootingstockinages, selling
prints, self-publishingcards andcalendars,
writingbooks andnagazinearticles andleading
workshops. Seni-pros conbineproñtable
photographywithother ways of nakingnoney.
Lither way, if youfall intothis categoryor want to,
you'regoingtoneedgear that canwithstand
regular andsustaineduseinharshconditions.
1hinkof it as aninvestnent inyour future.
U|tra wíde-ang|e zoom
¦ocal lengths fronI6-35nnona full-franedigital SLRare
invaluablefor landscapephotography. nultra wide-angle
zoonis thereforelikely tobeyour standardlens, sonakesure
youbuy thebest thereis. ¦ronNikon, the£I,300¦-S I4-24nn
fi2.8GLDhas a great reputationbut unless yousplashout onan
expensiveholder, you'll havetroubleusingñlters. Morepractical
is the£830¦-S I6-35nnfi4GLDvR, whichwona |g|ta|
S|PPnotograpny Best Buy awardwhentestedinthenagazine.
lternatively, if you'reona budget try the£650¦-S I8-35nn
fi3.5-4.5GLD, whichscoreda Highly Ratedinthesanetest. lso
wortha look is theexcellent Signa I2-24nnfi4.5-5.6¦¦ DGHSM,
whichalsoscoredHighly Ratedinthetest.

1) ast stadardzoo
zoonfronnortwitoshort
tlhotois vitl rt of thro
lnsr's kit Gofor onwith fst fi2
nxinunrtursoyougt right
viwñnr ing 1h£I300Nikkor ¦-S
24-/0nnfi2GLDis onof thshrst
zoons rounut it's xnsiv 1nron's
SP24-/0nnfi2Di vCUSDis worth
onsirtiont roun£50¦¦ lns
whilSign's 24-/0nnfi2LXDGHSM
osts roun£600
2) Teezoo
1houghit's likly toyour lst-us
lns tlzoonis still worthhvingfor
onrssingrstivnshooting
tils in sn Nikonosts twofst
rniuntlzoons th£I6I0¦-S
/0-200nnfi2GLDvR¦¦ or th£II00
¦-S /0-200nnfi4GLDvR Sign's
£00/0-200nnfi2LXDGÒS HSM
osts |g|ta| S|PPnotograpny Bst Buy
wr whilth£II001nronSP/0-
200nnfi2Di vCUSDsor Highly
Rtol
3) acupD5
¦f your ugt will runtoit sonoy
is worthhvingjust insyour ninon
is tonlfuntionor youngit on
lotion ¦nthil worlyou'hvtwo
of thsnnol ut rlistilly goo
sfotionis nnthusist-lvl PS-C
DSLRlikth£II00NikonD/I00
) 5parebatteres
Gos without syingrlly nothingwors
thnrunningout of ttris inthnil
of nowhrwhnthlight's grt lwys
st out withtwofully hrgttris s
wll s rnttris Dlkin Hn n
Hahnel ll oher lterntives.
) Meorycards
1rips wycnlst weekor norendwith
youshootingeverydyfrondwntodusk
whenthewether plys bll, you'll soonstrt
ñllingupyour nenorycrds. Downloding
full crds tolptopis dilyroutine, but if
youprefer not torefornt crds until you're
hone, thencrryt lest 50GBof cpcity,
inother words sixor seven8GBcrds.
6) NDters
s well s your ten-stopNDñlter, it's worth
crrying coupleof weker NDs soyoucn
useslower shutter speeds whenshooting
wterflls ndrivers tocpturenotion.
polriser cnbeusedlikenNDñlter s it
loses twostops of light (equivlent ton
0.6ND), but lsodd0.9ND(three-stop)
ndnybeI.2ND(four-stop) s well soyou
hvenoreoptions. Lee¦ilters
ProGlss NDs cost round£II0ech.
Ten-stopNDFí|ter
Noself-respectingprowouldbewithout
one. Gofor the£I30LeeBigStopper or
theB+W3.0NDscrew-inñlter. Prices vry
dependingontheñlter size-for exnple,
52nnñlter costs round£4I, while
//nncosts £I30.
8) NDgrads
1henost useful ñlters of ll for lndscpe
photogrphyreNeutrl Density(ND) grds
s theyllowyoutoproducewell-exposed
lndscpendwell-exposedskyinone
shot, in-cner. ¦nvest in£200NDgrd
set fronLee¦ilters, whichcontins 0.3, 0.6
nd0.9densitygrds, ndwedvisegoing
for thehrdgrds rther thnsoft grds s
they'renoreehectivendesier touse.
9) Pieceof card
sheet of I0x8instout crdis hndy touse
s lens shdewhenshootinginstrong
sunlight, toshieldthefront endof thelens
ndprevent fre. lens hoodwoulddo
tht, but whenusing ñlter holder, the
hoodtht cnewiththelens obviously
won't ñtl
10) 5esor ceaigit
Younynot wnt tocrryit inyour
bckpck, but keepkit inyour cr. ¦t's worth
hvingccess todecent sensor cleningkit
incseyoushouldneedit, suchs the£/5
rcticButterfy/88Britesensor brush.
11) ppeiPhoe4s or 5
Not onlyinvlublefor keepingintouch,
ndtkingdecent photos withits eight-
negpixel cner, theppleiPhone4Sis
powerhouseof technology. ¦or exnple, if
youtkereferenceshots usingthecner,
youcnpinpoint their loctiononGoogle
Mps bytppingthePlces optioninthe
CnerRoll. 1heppleiPhone's GPS
cpbilitylets youknowexctlywhereyour
lndscpeshots retken, soyoucnñnd
your wybcktothesnespot -or shre
theinforntionwithothers. Youcnlso
downlodthepp1hePhotogrpher's
Lpheneris (http.iiphotoepheneris.con),
whichllows youtoestblishthetinend
directionof sunrisendsunset nywherein
theworld.
Fu||-frame D5LR
¦npre-digitl dys, nediun- ndlrge-fornt ñln
cners werethewepons of choicenongpros,
but nownediun-fornt qulity cnbechieved
using full-frneDSLR, soit hs beconestndrd
issue. ¦ngequlity side, top-endfull-frneDSLRs
lsobost excellent buildqulity, includingfull
wether-seling, sothey cncopewithdily usein
extrenewether conditions ndnot evenfinch.
Rin, snow, wind, snd, volcnicsh-younneit.
voidfgshipnodels, thererenorehordble
full-frneDSLRs tochoosefron. 1he£I,800
24.3-negpixel NikonD6I0is brillint option.
However, for evenhigher resolution, consider the
36.3-negpixel D800(£2,600) or £2,900D800L,
whichdoes wy withtheÒpticl LowPss ¦ilter.
Remote re|ease
lthoughyoucnget wy withusing bsicrenote
relese, being proyounight wnt tosplshout on
sonething bit fncier, likethe£I30NikonMC-36.
¦t cnbepre-progrnnedtonkelongexposures
-hndy if youuse ten-stopNDñlter or shoot
sequences of inges t set intervls, whichis useful
for str tril photogrphy. cheper optiontht hs
pretty nuchevery fcility you'll needis Hahnel's
feture-pcked£60Gig 1Pro¦¦.
U|tímate outdoor c|othíng
¦t's well worthinvestinginqulity wterproof clothing
if youplntoregulrly shoot outdoors. Prno's
£300Hlconjcket hs ninepockets, includinglrge
pockets tht cnñt nost ñlter systens (including
Lee), withplenty of roonfor btteries, nenory crds
ndother ccessories. Shownis thebest-selling£II5
PrnoCscd trousers, whichoher full wether
protectionndexcellent confort. Youcnfurther
preservebody het by wering woollenht fron
outdoor brnds suchs Ptgoni or Berghus.
5ensíb|e footwear
Whenyouspendhours onyour feet ndregulrly
wlk niles over roughterrin-ll in dy's work for
lndscpepro-youneed decent pir of boots
tht reconfortble, wrnndprotective. Check
out boots by 1heNorth¦ce, solo, Meindl, Berghus
ndSolonon. Whenshootingonboggy terrin, ner
wter or onbeches, goodpir of wellies is fr nore
useful s they will keepyour feet bonedry. iglend
L Chneurereputblebrnds totry.
ßackpack
¦nvest in bckpck tht's bigenoughtohousell
your cner kit s well s hveextr spcefor nps,
food, wter, spreclothes -ndis wether resistnt.
Loweprois thebrndof choicenonglndscpe
pros ndoneof thebest pcks is the£I20ProRunner
450W. Styledlike trditionl rucksck, it hs lods
of fetures includingneshsidepockets, fully pdded
interior nd lptopconprtnent. lsocheck out
top-endnodels fronvngurd, ¦t nd1nrc.
G|ass screen protector
1herer screenonyour DSLRwill coneinfor sone
punishnent soprotect it with £25Giotto's egis
ProGlss screenprotector. Youwon't knowthere's
screenprotector theret ll ndyoucnclenit s
oftens youlike, sfeintheknowledgetht therel
screenbenethit is s goods new.
Inthebag...
5
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Howtoreadthe |ens sharpness graphs
Our bar graphs provideyouwithavisual
representationof lens sharpness. Each
graphshows thecentreandedge
performanceof thelens at full f!stops from
maximumaperturetof!16at dinerent focal
lengths of thezoom. Centresharpness is
showninred, edgeingreen. Thehigher the
bar, thebetter thesharpness, withratings as
follows: 8elow10: Poor, 10-29: Fair, 30-49:
Good, 50-69: Very good, Over 70: Excellent.
All our lens test analysis is performedusing
software.
Lenarne(: Fuframe Ede Centre
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NIKON

: noj nonh go
hi ikon-i ln i onlohl
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HNLING: hi ikono o ligh
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-nn. ninhin i
igh lil hnk onnio
li. hoiningh hn
ignin oin hogh non't refect on
quality. 1hereis atiny bit of play inthenanual
focusingring, but not as nuchas thenore
costly NikonI6-35nn, nadeinJapan.
FTUP5: I2elenents ineight groups, with
glass andaspherical elenents as usual. 1he
naxinunaperturevaries withfocal length, and
fi3.5at theI8nnendis one-thirdof astop
faster thanfi4, andfi4.5at 35nnis one-third
of astopslower. ¦uses theSilent WaveMotor
withfull-tinenanual override, ñlter sizeis
//nn, lens hoodsupplied.
UTOFOU5: Silent WaveMotor focusing
works quietly andehciently. t's not quitethe
fastest nover intown, thoughwe'retalking
fractions of asecondhereandyou'dnever niss
ashot becauseof it.
PPFOPMN: t theinportant business of
sharpinaging, this lens excels. Ònfull-frane,
thecentrestarts well intotheexcellent zone
andnever goes belowthat standardat any tine,
whiletheedges only dipjust under it at the
highest finunbers duetodihraction. 1heparity
betweencentreandedgeis exceptionally
good. ÒnPS-, thehigher resolution
denands of thesnaller fornat naturally
depress theM1¦ñgures, thoughnonorethan
expectedandvery nuchinlinewithother
sinilar lenses. ¦or pixel-peepers seeking
ultinateresolution, theNikonI8-35nn
peakedat I03lines-per-nnintheM1¦20°
test. 1hat's slightly lower thanrivals, thoughto
put things incontext, eventhenighty Nikon
800with36-negapixels can'only' resolvea
theoretical naxinunof I02lines-per-nnso
thelens is unlikely tobealinitingfactor.
Òntheaberrations front, distortion,
vignettingandareplentiful, but nonoreso
thanis typical for this typeof lens. ¦ortunately,
all thesethings canbeclearedupinpost-
processing, usually withanerenouse-click in
softwarelikeLightroonthat provides
autonaticcustonisedcorrections. ndeed
nany lenses areproducedwithsoftware
correctioninnind, givinglens designers nore
scopetoinproveoptics inother areas.

£52
I5TOPTION(Full-frameì Poor I5TOPTION(APS-Cì Poor
HPOMTI(Full-frameì Verygood HPOMTI(APS-Cì Good
IGNTTING(Full-frameì Good IGNTTING(APS-Cì Excellent
Lens5harpness(X): 18mm(FF) dge entre
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fl4 fl3.5 fl16 fl11 fl8 fl5.6
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fl4 fl16 fl11 fl8 fl5.6
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Lens5harpness(X): 35mm(P5-) dge entre
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HNLING 19l2
FTUP5 16l2
PPFOPMN 36l4
LUFOPMONY 16l2
OPLL 87l1
NikonF-518-35mmfl3.5-4.5(P5-) NikonF-518-35mmfl3.5-4.5(fII-frame)

ít for |andscapes
PIT: ithut ny ut iknh ne
nejwiththi ult-wieznlen
intingvibrationReductionintoavery
high-gradeoptical package, evenif it has tobe
saidthat thebeneñts of vRdininishas focal
lengthis reduced, andthis is onevery widelens.
1heweatherprooñngis always welcone,
though, andis asuresignof pro-standardbuild
quality, insideandout. ¦f all theseaspects of
perfornanceareinportant toyou, andthe
extraweight isn't toonuchof aproblen, the
priceis well worthpaying.
HNLING: 1his lens is considerably larger
thanits I8-35nnsiblingandgettingonfor
doubletheweight too. ¦t handles beautifully
andis extrenely well nade, exudingclass.
Zoonandfocus rings areone-ñnger light,
thoughtherewas abit of play inthenanual
focusingringof our reviewsanple.
FTUP5: 1heheadlinehereis vRinage
stabilisation-añrst for alens of this type. 1his is
at least partly responsiblefor theextraweight of
I/elenents inI2groups, withagenerous
sprinklingof preniunglass andaspherical
surfaces. pertureis aconstant fi4and
conparedtotheNikonI8-35nn, that littlebit
wider focal lengthat I6nnadds auseful /°
norecoverage. ¦t's alsoweatherproofed.
UTOFOU5NP: Nikon's SWM¦is
particularly inpressivehere, sofast andquiet
youhardly knowit's working. 1opnarks for
that. 1hevRhas aclainedfour-stops
ehectiveness andthat was borneout at longer
focal lengthsettings. 1hedihculty at thewider
endis four stops belowthenornal
handholdingthresholdneans very longshutter
speeds aroundonefull secondwhenthereare
not only shaky hands toconbat, but alsosone
body sway that's beyondthescopeof any
stabilisationsysten. ither way, it's certainly
possibletohandholdthis lens at sone
crazy-longshutter speeds.
PPFOPMN: very sharpindeed, recording
thehighest peaks here. Ònfull-franeat I6nn
and24nn, thecentreis nudging90°at fi4
withedges alsowell intotheexcellent zone.
Sharpness drops alittleat 35nn, particularly
at theedges, thoughit's still very high.
Resolutionpeakedat aninpressiveI20
lines-per-nnat M1¦20°.
istortionis theweak point withthis lens,
particularly at I/nnwithheavy barrellingof
over 4°. ¦or critical subjects likearchitecture,
correctioninsoftwareis essential. Òntheother
hand, ñgures for bothvignettingandwere
thebest, evenif anoreaccuratedescription
wouldbetheleast poor. Nosuper-widezoon
is at all goodontheseaspects of perfornance,
especially at thewideend. 1obefair, though,
distortionis nuchreducedat longer focal
lengths, andvignettingalnost goes away at
nid-rangeapertures.
NíkonF-16-35mm
fl4GVR
£83 ß5T
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Lens5harpness(X): 16mm(P5-) dge entre
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Lens5harpness(X): 16mm(FF) dge entre
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fl4 fl16 fl11 fl8 fl5.6
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NikonF-516-35mmfl4(fII-frame) NikonF-516-35mmfl4(P5-)
HNLING 18l2
FTUP5 2l2
PPFOPMN 38l4
LUFOPMONY 18l2
OPLL 94l1
I5TOPTION(Full-frameì Poor I5TOPTION(APS-Cì Poor
HPOMTI(Full-frameì Verygood HPOMTI(APS-Cì Good
IGNTTING(Full-frameì Good IGNTTING(APS-Cì Excellent
NON
Kít for |ndscpes
PIT: his is ananazinglens. ¦nshrt, it is
shar, built tavery highquality, has asnth
eratinand, all things cnsidered, reasnably
riced. ndat 2nn, theeld-f-viewis
incredibly wide, rducingauniquestylef
inageunnatchedby any ther lens, znr
rine. ell wrthcnsideratin.
HNLING: his is awell-nadelens, with
igna's newer snthblack surfacenish
that's nreresistant tnarkingthanthelder
natt black. ¦t's nderately heavy, andbth
fcus andznrings arewell weightedand
silky snth.
FTUP5: tandut featureis thenega-wide
zn, whichges dwntanincredible
2nn. his is way wider thananythingelse-
infact, it's thewidest rectilinear nn-sheye
lens f any kindnadefr full-frane. t 22°,
theeld-f-viewis a whing° nrethan
thesecndwidest lens here, theNikn
6-3nn. heisidef that is thefcal
lengthat thelnger endnly extends t
24nn, andanther dwnsideis thebulbus
frnt elenent that revents theusef nrnal
lters. herearesecialist gradlter kits
availableeg¦rnatt itech, but they'rebth
enrnus andcstly, syu'dbest bneu
nyur Dtechniqueas analternative-
snerefer it anyway.
UTOFOU5: ithsnuchdeth-f-eld
available, theyersnic¦systendesn't
havenuchtd, but it wrks very quietly and
eciently, syuwn't haveany rblens.
PPFOPMN: nder thehd, there's a
whlestack f exticglass andasherical
surfaces, ttalling/elenents in3grus.
ust as well, as they haveahefty task nanaging
that vast angle-f-view, anddeliveringshar
inages withut tnuchdistrtin, vignetting
andare. ignahas dnearenarkablejband
erfrnanceis alt better thanyunight
exect, infact it stands shulder tshulder
withthebest, desiteits relatively lwcst.
hendest naxinunaerture, nly fi4.at
2nnrisingtfi.6at 24nn, gives it abit f a
head-start nthetical challenge, but evens
thelens is shar, very shar, hittingtheexcellent
standardright acrss afull-franeinagefrn
naxinunaerture. Ònly theedges lagalittleat
theteleend, whichis acnnncharacteristic.
here's lenty f distrtin, vignettingand
chrnaticaberratin, as therealways is with
ultra-wides, but theigna's nt any wrsethan
nst thers. eak reslutinis ahigh8
lines-er-nn, recrdedat /nnfi.6inthe
centre. nareaf cautinis twatchut fr
are. Giventheextensiveeld-f-view, areas f
sky andsunarebundtbeincludedinthe
frane, andthertrudingfrnt elenent
naturally falls victintickingusecula
highlights. his is nstly inevitable, andnre
snethingtbeawaref thantwrry abut.
ígm12-24mm
fl4.5-5.6II GH
5
f45 f f f8 f5
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HIGHL
£
HNLING
FTUP5
PPFOPMN 4
LUFOPMONY 8
OPLL
5igaG-4f45-5f-fae 5igaG-4f45-5P5-
I5TOPTION(Full-frameì Poor I5TOPTION(APS-Cì Fair
HPOMTI(Full-frameì Good HPOMTI(APS-Cì Fair
IGNTTING(Full-frameì Fair IGNTTING(APS-Cì Excellent
IK
fo |andcape
AD:

's China plant.
EATUPE5: Best zoonrangeinthesuper-wide
class for greatest versatility, thoughnaxinun
apertures areaverage. Has a rain-seal nount
gasket, andcones witha lens hood.
AUTOFOCU5: ilent WaveMotor is excellent as
usual, withfull-tinenanual override.
PEPFOPMANCE: 'Lxcellent' levels of
sharpness inthecentreat all focal lengths,
fronfi3.5-4.5anddippingdownto'very good'
aroundfi8as dihractionbegins tobite. Ldge
sharpness is lower, thoughconfortably within
the'very good' bandat all tines, apart fronat
thelonger 24nnendthat doesn't really get
goinguntil fi8. Peak resolutionis a littlelower
thanother conparativelenses we'vetested, at
III lines-per-nn. Distortionis highat I0nn
witha hefty +3.9°, thoughit inproves
dranatically at longer focal lengths andis close
tozerothroughnost of thenidrange.
vignettingis low, rating'excellent' overall, and
chronaticaberrationcontrol is typical of nost
ultra wide-angles, inother words always
present andrating'fair'.
VEPDICT: harp, conpact andlight, great ¦,
sanenaxinunapertures andevennore
useful focal lengthrange. Ldgesharpness at
24nnis theonly weak spot, andthepeak
resolutionñgureis slightly lower. ¦t's quite
expensiveat £640though.
NkonF514mm
f3545DX£D
£640
DI5TOPTION:vrrr +3.9°t10.
vr rtng:Good
PEAKPE5OLUTION:111lines-per-mm
atMTF20°, 10mmf!5.6centre
CHPOMATICAßEPPATION:Reducesat
24mm. Overall rating:Fair
VIGNETTING:Mild0.9Vat10mmf!3.5.
Overall rating:xcellent
Y
RT£D
Lens5harpness(X): 10mm Edge Centre
60
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fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 fl4 fl3.5
Lens5harpness(X): 15mm Edge Centre
60
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70
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90
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fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 fl4 NlA
Lens5harpness(X): 24mm Edge Centre
60
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fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 fl4.5 NlA
HANDLING: Lhectively identical tothe Nikon
I0-24nn. Conpact, snooth, high-quality
build-very nice.
FEATUPE5: inilar tothe NikonI0-24nn,
but at I2nnit's not quite sowide. Maxinun
aperture is a constant fi4. Hoodsupplied.
AUTOFOCU5: he ilent Wave Motor is as
goodas ever -swift, quiet andaccurate,
plus full-tine nanual override.
PEPFOPMANCE: his is a ten-year-oldoptical
design, Nikon's ñrst DXultra-wide. Basedon
our reviewsanple, it displays 'classic'
characteristics of highsharpness at the wide
end, steadily reducingas focal lengthis
increased, withedge sharpness always
lagging. t I2nn, sharpness inthe centre is
'excellent' at fi4, the edges 'very good', anda
highstandardof inage quality is naintained
throughout the aperture range. s focal length
is raisedthough, bothcentre andedge
sharpness falls -todisappointinglevels at
lower finunbers, especially at 24nn.
toppingdowninproves sharpness quite
dranatically andat fi8, it's 'excellent' to'very
good' across the frane at all focal lengths.
Peak resolutionneasuredII3 lines-per-nn
andaberrations control is par for the course.
VEPDICT: Maybe we got a rogue test copy, but
basedonthese results it's hardtosee why this
lens shouldcost a very substantial £840-
£200nore thanthe NikonI0-24nnthat is
sharper andhas anextra 2nnat the wide end.
NíkonF-512-24mm
fl4DX£D
£840
DI5TOPTION:Strongbarrel +2.8°at10mm.
Overall rating:Good
PEAKPE5OLUTION:113lines-per-mm
atMTF20°, 12mmf!4centre
CHPOMATICAßEPPATION:
Highthroughout. Overall rating:Poor
VIGNETTING:Mild0.7Vat12mmf!4.
Overall rating:xcellent
Lens5harpness(X): 12mm Edge Centre
60
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fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 fl4 NlA
Lens5harpness(X): 18mm Edge Centre
60
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fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 fl4 NlA
Lens5harpness(X): 24mm Edge Centre
60
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fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 fl4 NlA
NikonAF-510-24mmf3.5-4.5GDXED
HANDLING 18l20
FEATUPE5 18l20
PEPFOPMANCE 36l40
VALUEFOPMONEY 17l20
OVEPALL 89l100
HANDLING 18l20
FEATUPE5 17l20
PEPFOPMANCE 33l40
VALUEFOPMONEY 15l20
OVEPALL 83l100
NikonAF-512-24mmfl4GDXED5WM
NON
Kí fr adcap
HNLING bd dñe,
ec cee, b
veve ñcwch
FTUP5 I0nnis as wideas they cone, but
20nnis a bit less thanaverage. Maxinun
aperturefi4-5.6is alsonodest. Lens hoodand
casesupplied.
UTOFOU5 Signa's ypersonicMotor
(SM) autofocus driveis as goodas any,
ieexcellent, andthereis full-tinenanual
override, too.
PPFOPMN Sharpness inthecentreis
always high, well intothe'excellent' zoneupto
fiII beforedihractiontakes hold. s always,
edgesharpness is lower, thoughnever less
than'very good' withtheexceptionof I0nnat
fi4that stands out a bit as beingdisappointing.
owever, it ranps upvery quickly andby fi5.6
it's 'very good' andfronthereonwards
sharpness is unifornly highacross thefrane.
Peak resolutionhits I2I lines-per-nn. Barrel
distortionis a high+3.5°at I0nn, but falls
quickly andturns to-0.6°nildpincushionat
nid-rangeandlonger focal lengths. vignetting
is a littlehigher thanaverage, but still 'very
good' overall, whileCcontrol is a littlebetter
thansone, rating'good'.
VPIT oprizes for low-light perfornance,
but fronfi5.6tofiII -probably thenost
useful rangefor anultra-wide-sharpness is
very highat all focal lengths. t only £3/0, the
priceis evensharper.
ía1020fl.6
£DCHM

I5TOPTIONeeebael .5amm.
eall ang:ood
PKP5OLUTION121line-pe-mm
atMTF20°, 10mmf!5.6cente
HPOMTIPPTIONighetat
10mm. veall ating:ood
VIGNTTINGModeate1.3EVat10mmf!4.
veall ating:Veyood
HIGHLY
A£D
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I I I I
N N
HNLING ¦ractionally larger andheavier
thanthe Signa fi4-5.6variant, otherwise like
twopeas ina pod. 1he test sanple's zoon
control was heavier andslightly less snooth.
FTUP5 Mainfeature is the constant fi3.5
naxinunaperture, one thirdof a stop
brighter thanfi4, two-thirds nore thanfi4.5.
oodandcase included.
UTOFOU5 Signa's ypersonic focus
works quickly, but a little less quietly here.
Manual focus is full-tine override.
PPFOPMN Sharpness is unusually high
inthecentre, always 'excellent' at all focal
lengths uptofiII. dgesharpness is lower,
thoughnostly never out of the'very good'
zone. t I0nn, theedges arenoticeably less
sharpanddon't respondnuchtostopping
down. t I5nn, theedges perk upand
throughout thenid-rangefocal lengths,
sharpness is highat all apertures. t 20nn
though, edgesharpness drops away again.
Peak resolutionneasuredI22lines-per-nn.
Barrel distortionis a decidedly 'poor' +3.5°at
I0nn, but quickly drops tozerothroughthe
nid-rangebeforeturningtonild-0./°
pincushionat 20nn. vignettingcontrol is
never less than'excellent', C'fair' overall.
VPIT lways sharpinthe centre, andthe
edges tooat nid-range focal lengths, less so
at either endof the zoon. Mainappeal is the
constant fi3.5 naxinunaperture, thoughthe
cheaper Signa fi4-5.6versionlooks favourite.
ía1020fl3.
£DCHM

I5TOPTIONSeveebael +3.5°at10mm
veall ating:ood
PKP5OLUTION122line-pe-mm
atMTF20°, 14mmf!4cente
HPOMTIPPTIONModeateto
high. veall ating:Fai
VIGNTTINGMild0.8EVat10mmf!3.5.
veall ating:Excellent
L5a d

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HNLING 2
FTUP5 2
PPFOPMN
VLUFOPMONY 2l2
OVPLL 89l1
5igma1-2mmfl4-5.6XH5M
HNLING 18l2
FTUP5 17l2
PPFOPMN 35l4
VLUFOPMONY 17l2
OVPLL 87l1
5igma1-2mmfl3.5XH5M
NIKON
Kí fo nc
HNLING: lly l nv n
no ululy ovou yln vy
Nkonu wnon¦ onnul
ou y pullnlun ou
uully nov x nlly
FTUP5: ¦ nllnwln n
lon lnokn IIInn
28 nonn nxnunpu
o nu I228nnzoonn
Hoonlu
UTOFOU5: okn DMln Dv
Moul wok ukly nuly opnk
PPFOPMN: okn puono
n uly onoup ¦n
n pn wll no xlln
zon ll ol ln upoII L
pn low u nv l nvy
oo Ponn onn ll n
nopk nnony up Pk
oluonnu I2 lnpnn
Bl oon 2°at I2nn, rating
'poor', thoughit quickly drops to+0.4°at
I8nn('excellent') andhovers aroundzeroto
28nn. vignettingis ehectively insigniñcant
throughout, Cis a little higher thanexpected,
rating'fair' overall.
VPIT: ñne lens. ¦t feels goodandworks
great, withconsistently highinage quality at
all settings. 1he extra focal lengthat 28nnis
useful, but at the expense of a couple of nns
less at the wide end. 1he price has droppeda
little since launch, too.
okín-12-2mm
fl4o
535
I5TOPTION:Severebarrel +3.2°at12mm.
verall rating:ood
PKP5OLUTION:123lines-per-mm
atMTF20°, 12mmf!5.6centre
HPOMTIPPTION:Reducesat
28mm. verall rating:Fair
VIGNTTING:Mild0.8EVat12mmf!4.
verall rating:Excellent
Le5hape(X: 12mm dge ee
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fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 fl4 Nl
Le5hape(X: 18mm dge ee
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Le5hape(X: 28mm dge ee
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fl8 fl16 fl5.6 fl11 fl4 Nl

HNLING: Conpact andlight, well nade,
too. Mainhandlingdiherenceis thefocusing
ringturns during¦, andhas tobeswitched
over for nanual.
FTUP5: Great focal lengthrange, broadest
inthis class, for highversatility. Maxinun
apertures less soat fi3.5-4.5. Hoodprovided.
UTOFOU5: Noultrasonicfocusing, andthe
nicro-notor is a littleslower as it whirrs along,
but works well enough.
PPFOPMN: Sharpness is lower thannost
others we'vetested. Ònaverage, ultra-wides
tendtobe'excellent' inthecentreand'very
good' towards theedges, whilethe1anron
I0-24nnruns onesteplower -'very good' in
thecentre, and'good' at theedges. Peak
resolutionis alsothelowest of this group,
reachingI0/lines-per-nn, recordedat 24nn
fi8inthecentre. Distortionlevels are'fair'
overall, withstrong+3.2°barrellingat I0nn,
rating'poor', steadily reducingto+I.6°barrel at
24nn. vignettingis well controlled, never
norethan0.9Lvat I0nnfi3.5, rating
'excellent', andusually less thanthat. Cis
higher thanaverage, rating'poor' overall.
VPIT: 1hefocal lengthrangeis excellent.
1henaxinunapertures arenodest, but
perfectly workable, andthe¦ nechanisn,
whilenot quiteas sophisticatedas theother
ultrasonics, does thejob. ¦t's only theoptics
that disappoints here, andtherearebetter
buys, evenat £3/0.
mon1-24mm
fl3-4í II L
3
I5TOPTION:Severebarrel +3.2°at10mm.
verall rating:Fair
PKP5OLUTION:107lines-per-mm
atMTF20°, 24mmf!8centre
HPOMTIPPTION:ighestat
10mm. verall rating:Poor
VIGNTTING:Mild0.9EVat10mmf!3.5.
verall rating:Excellent
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Tamo5P1-24mmfl3.5-4.5i II L
HNLING 1l2
FTUP5 1l2
PPFOPMN 32l4
VLUFOPMONY 15l2
OVPLL 81l1
HNLING 18l2
FTUP5 18l2
PPFOPMN 3l4
VLUFOPMONY 18l2
OVPLL 1l1
ToiaT-X12-28mmfl4PoX
NIKON
f
wíde-ang|e|enses
Aamßurton
ngles arethelens of choicefor thevast
najorityof landscapephotographers for very
goodreason. 1heselenses allowyoutosqueeze
as nuchof alocationintoyour viewñnder as
possibleandcaptureasceneabsolutely
brinningwithdetail andinterest. 1his is anadvantagefor
landscapephotographers as it neans youcaninclude
foregroundinterest as well as lots of detail inthefar scene,
givingyour inageplentyof depth. Bychoosinginteresting
foregroundsubjects, youcanalsograbtheviewer's
attentionandpull thenintothepicture.
Usingwide-anglezoons canbesoaddictivethat you
autonaticallyusetheir widest settingat everyopportunity.
But this canposeproblens. Sonelenses canbeset sowide
that theyshowthecorners of your equipnent (lenses, ñlters
andholders) inthefrane, this is knownas vignetting. nother
issuewithusingextrenewide-anglelenses is barrel distortion,
whichcauses horizons tobendandbuildings tolean.
ll this canbeavoidedbytrainingyourself toset your
wide-anglelens accordingtoyour subject natter. ¦f shooting
astraight horizon, likeaseascape, thenusingthefocal lengtha
fewnillinetres upfronthewidest will reducetheappearance
of abendyhorizon. nountainous terrain, whichalreadyhas
anunevenhorizon, canbeshot as wideas youwant. s well as
focal length, payattentiontotheheight andtheangleof your
canerawhenyouset it uponatripod. 1rees will leanwhen
conposedfronlowtotheground, sotrysettingthecanera
at headheight andyounaynoticeabigdiherence.
1hebeneñts of shootingwithwide-anglelenses far
outweighthesefewconsiderations. 1heinpact theycangive
onyour photographs is astounding, whichis whyit cones as
nosurprisethat nost prolandscapephotographers wouldn't
shoot without then.
CHOO5EAFOPMAT:
Myñrst imagewastakenina
horizontaI format, whichis
oftenthenaturaI orientation
for Iandscapes. However, a
verticaI format canworkjust
asweII withwide-angIe
shots. It aIIowsmoreroom
for foregrounddetaiIswhiIe
stiII incIudingIotsof sky.
NOTTOOWIDE:
Usingthewidest endof your
zoommaycausebarreI
distortion(whenthehorizon
curvesdownwards) and
vignetting(whendarkareas
appear inthecornersof your
frame). Thewider your focaI
Iength, thegreater the
chancethecamerahasof
incIudingpartsof your kit (eg
ñIter hoIders). Avoidthese
probIemsbynot settingyour
Ienstoitswidest focaI Iength.
GOLOW: Aviewpoint
cIoser totheground
dramaticaIIyincreasesthe
impact of theforeground
subject matter and
providesamoredynamic
composition. Nowthe
viewer canfocustheir
attentionontherockpooI,
whichIeadstheir eyeinto
theframeandtowardsthe
distant castIe.
Shootingwideensures your shots arefull
of detail andinpact. Here's why.
Vignetting
Format
Lowviewpoint
Kít for |andscapes NIKON


hectivewhenthere's
someprominent foreground
interest topuII theviewer in
tothescene. Don't beafraid
tocomposesothat your
foregroundis bigandboId!

ure the entire scene
is sharp, set aperture-
priority node, use a snall
aperture like fiI6and
focus a thirdof the way
intothe scene. Make sure
toset your digital canera
ona tripodfor stability

1hereis norgunent tht lnspe
photogrphers shoulpleeent wie-ngle
lens (eit prineor zoon) t thetopo their
wishlist. owever tht's not tosythereshouln't
elittleroonlloteinthegget gor
telezoon. hileyou'll preoninntlyelling
thernewithwie-nglevists you'll lson
tines whentelephotonproveuseul. 1his
will usullyewhenyouwnt toisoltespei
reor eturewithintheseneor whenyouwnt
toretelyeringeet throughperspetive
onpression(seeelow). 1hererevriety o
telephotozoons villeut we'reonnen
youopt or ol lengtho roun55-200nni
youuseSLRwithnPS-sizesensor or
/0-300nnor sinilr zooni youhveull-rne
SLR. ou'll nthe1nron55-200nni4-5.6i
toegret vlue longwithSign's /0-300nn
i4-5.6zoon. Botho thesewill eperet or llingthernewith
ny willieyouny enounter s yourontheountrysie.
1NLLSPN telephotolenses on't 'onpress perspetive'
ut prtillyspeking youoget ierent eelingo perspetive
rontelephotoshot thnronsenepturewithwie-nglelens.
ie-nglelenses openupperspetivenretesenseo epth
euseneryojets pper ig nurther ojets pper toe
snll suggestingistne. ie-nglelenses lsoretestrong
igonls enhningthesenseo epth. Òntheother hn telephotos
nkeistnt ojets pper lrger pprentlyonpressingtheplnes o
theingenreuingtheinpressiono epth. Lines tennot tostreth
intoigonls nprllels reninprllel inresingthetwo-
inensionl eel. onpretowie-ngleview this ll s upton
ingetht is norestti. n o ourse thelonger thelens thegreter
theeet. Sowht kino inges enet ronthis onpressioneet
o longer lenses¯1hesttihrter o telephotoinges suits trnquil
senes, hillylnspes reiel espeillywheretherereseverl
plnes or 'lyers' tht nevisullypulletogether sotheypper toe
lnost stkeontopo ehother. 1heeelingo trnquilityne
enhneyerlynorningnist withthetops o thehills risingovethe
hze. Morerntiinges nereteintheright lighting
onitions toolookor lterntingns o light nrk reting
'lyeringo light'. Urnlnspes lsoworkwell s younuse
onpressiontoontrst elenents or suggest roweenvironnent.

Photogrphers otentlkout usingtelephoto
toonpress perspetive ut wht oes it nen¯

8-35mm
hepprent distne
etweenthe
foregroundndstIe
retes senseof
depth, withthehiIIs
ndviIIgeehindthe
stIestrethingwy
intothedistne.
50-85mm
vent moderte
teIephotosettings,
theperspetiveseems
muhñtter, ndthe
stIeseems toIoom
over thedistnt hiIIs
ndtheviIIge.
105-200mm
s thefoI Iength
inreses, perspetive
seems toñttenout,
sotht thestIe
ndthehiIIs ehind
seemtoeImost on
thesmepIne.
120mm 200mm
DIDYOUKNOW?
ile telephotos appear
toconpress perspective,
the truthis that they don't.
Magnify anarea of a shot
takenwitha wide-angle
lens andyou'll see that
it gives a virtually
identical ehectl

iltrs hvlongnthsinplst nnost inxpnsivwytoinprovor ltr your ings in-nr.
Lvninthigitl g thyhvthir plinvrylnspphotogrphr's kit g. xplinthnin
typs o ltr systns our ronnnltr typs nthnjor rns toonsir...
1HLÒR1HÒ¦L1LRS now
tht whvPhotoshop is topi
tht still ivis opinionnongst
ntur photogrphrs. But or
thostht liktogt it right
in-nr ltrs rstill
invlultools inprtiulr with
outoor photogrphrs.
hilsonltrs ngivn
ing olour st othr
populr typs rnutrl in
tonninstnl
photogrphrs tolnright
nrk rs o sn or hv
norsopor thir hoio
prturs nshuttr sps.
1hrrnny irnt uss or
ltrs tosuit ll typs o
photogrphy ut inthis gui w
hlpyouiwhihtypo
ltr s wll s wht ltr systn
is thst hoior lnsp
photogrphy.
iltrs onintwonintyps
srw-in whihtthirtlyto
thltr thrt thront o your
lns rrl, nslot-in whihslip
intoholr hlinplonth
ront o your lns yptor rings
srwontothltr thr.
Bothhvthir pros nons
whihyoushoulonsir or
iingwhihtouy. As you'll
noout isovr s youron
onintiono othtyps is
otnthst solutionor nost
photogrphrs.
: systemsandtypes
5crew-ínñ|ters 5|ot-ínñ|ters
1hsrquik nsy totthn
rnovronyour lns sor vry
onvnint hoi. As thy'rn
ronglss thy ro highoptil
qulity nnoriult tosrth.
Srw-inltrs oninvrious sizs
with2nnto//nningthnost
onnon. ¦ youown nunr o
lnss hwithirnt ltr thrs
youwill ithr n ltr inhsiz
or tkthnororloptiono
stppingring(stiplow). Anothr
ngtivpoint worthonsiringis tht
grltrs rn't wll suitor uss
srw-in whihwill o-puttingor
lnspphotogrphrs inprtiulr. oulsontotkrwhn
usingnorthnonsrw-inltr t tin s yourunthrisk o
vigntting(rkningt thingornrs) spilly withwi-ngl
lnss. Anothr isvntgis tht osionlly youny n ltr
won't ug inwhihsyou'll n ltr lnptohlprnovit.
Ahpr optionthnuying
thsntypo ltr invrious sizs is touy th
lrgst sizyounn stp-ownring
whihllows youtot lrgltr on snllr
thr. or instn i youhv /2nnltr n
uy /2-6/ ring younsrwthltr toth
ring whihtths sily tothlns. Don't go
or stp-upringor tthingsnllr ltrs to
lrgr lnss s thsnusvigntting.
iththssystns youonlynto
uyonltr vni youhvsvrl
lnss o irnt sizs. 1his is us
thltr slips intoholr whih
tths tothlns vinptor ring.
So insto ningostlysrw-ins
invrious sizs younsinplyuy
orlptor rings inthsizs you
nnswpthholr twn
thn. ¦t os nnthinitil invstnnt
is highr ut ovr tin it provs tor
norononil spillyi youhv
svrl lnss. ou'll nthris n
xtnsivrngo ltrs vill in
prtiulr gruts whihrnong
thnost populr typs o ltr or lnsps. Unliksrw-inltrs
slot-inltrs rnronoptil rsin whihis inrilytoughn
lightr thnglss lthoughnorprontosrths. Òptilly thyor
xllnt qulity withlittlisrnilirntosrw-ins.
or thultintqulity lookt prorns likL
iltrs whihusthvryst ntrils.
ou'll nnost rns
nknorthnonsizo slot-insystnto
suit irnt typs o DSLRs. 1hstnr
sizis 6/nnut i youhvwi-ngl
lnss w'ronnnyouonsir th
8nnor I00nnornts. Nottht s ths
sizs rstnr sinilrly sizholrs will
pt ltrs ronothr rns.
Kít r sps IK
CIose-upñIters
nright dys whenthesunis
highintheskyndnot prtiulrly
suitleor lndspephotogrphy,
nnyphotogrphers turntheir
ttentiontoshootingdetil. lose-
upñlters reuseul i youdon't own
nrolens ndwnt toshoot
snll ojets t highngniñtion.
NeutraI Desity
1heseren't essentil ñlters,
ut revery useul. eutrl
ensity ñlter is grey inolour
nddoesn't lter theolour
lneo ningeut insted
redues thenount o light
pssingthroughtothelens.
1hey reninly usedinright
sunlight, whenyouneedtouse
wideperturetonininisedepth-o-ñeldor
slower shutter speedtoenphsisenovenent.
1herereliterllyhundreds o dierent types o ñlter ville, ut our shortlist elow
highlights thosetht provenost eneñil toyour lndspephotogrphy
5kyIightlUVlProtectioñIters
1hesereessentilly ler glss
srew-inñlters tht protet theront
elenent o your lens rondust,
nrks nddnge. 1heUvñlter n
lsoidintherenovl o hze, ut
ll threerenoreor less thesne.
ewouldreonnendtht you
tthonetoeho your lenses.
NDgrauateñIter
rdutes hve drk re
tht des toler ndre
usedtolneright sky
with drker oreground.
1hey'revillein vriety
o olours, ut we'dsy the
only grdtouy t ñrst is
the(eutrl ensity)
grdute. 1hesehve
grdul eet tht does
not hngetheolour lneo thesky, ut
llows detil toereordedinthesene.
grds revilleinvrious densities, withthe
0.6grdeing goodñrst hoie. You'll ñnd
tht thereresot- or hrd-edgedvrints, too,
reltingtohowthegrdeet lls owe'd
suggest youeginwith sot-edgedgrd.
NDfiIter factors: 1his tleexplins the
reltionshipetweenexposures ndñlter
tors. ight loss is sttedinstops.
Desity FiIter factor Light Ioss
0.3 2x I
0.6 4x 2
0. 8x 3
I.2 I6x 4
PoIariser
youshoot outdoors regulrly,
uy polrisingñlter. t sturtes
olours, inprtiulr luesky, s well
s nininisingglrendrefetions
ronshiny sures likeolige
or wter. 1heeet o polriser
n't ereplitedurtely in
hotoshop, whihis why nost
lndspephotogrphers never levehone
without one. voidliner polrisers youneed
irulr polriser, otherwiseyour ner won't
neter orretly. olrisers hve ñlter tor
o 4x ndreduetheexposurey twostops, so
wthout or ner shke. hileoneo the
nost expensivetypes o ñlter, they'redeñnitely
worththeinvestnent.
KF£YOURFILT£R5!
ilters neesily srthedsoesureto
returnthentotheir storgeseor ñlter
wllet whennot eingused. Useniroñre
lens lothtorenoveñngerprints ndnrks.
Usíngs|ot-ínfí|ters Ourfavouríteñ|tertypes
5crew-ínñ|ters
1) Srewintheppropritedptor ring
2) tththeholder tothering
3) Slidetheñlter intotheholder
1 2
3
uidepries or populr rnds
UV PoIariser ND
ß+W
52nn £23 £6 £34
55nn £23 £8 £34
58nn £23 £8 £34
62nn £26 £4 £36
6nn £32 £III £3
2nn £40 £I28 £43
nn £45 £I44 £4
oya
52nn £I4 £40 £25
55nn £I4 £40 £28
58nn £I6 £40 £30
62nn £20 £40 £35
6nn £25 £40 £38
2nn £25 £60 £45
nn £30 £80 £55
Koo
52nn £I0 £24 £I2
55nn £I0 £24 £I3
58nn £I0 £24 £I5
62nn £I0 £30 £I5
6nn £II £30 £I
2nn £II £36 £28
nn £I3 £38 £2
Tihe
52nn £I0 £3I £22
55nn £I0 £3I £22
58nn £I3 £35 £22
62nn £I5 £3 £3
6nn £I6 £46 £3
2nn £23 £5 £50
nn £24 £5 £50

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Kít for |andscapes
1
2
5
3
6
4
7
Ve|bon 5herpa+ 630
º Length(cIoed): 5n
º Height (Iegextended): n
º Numbe of Iegection: igh kg
º MaximumIoad: 4kgWebite: ink
ln h i dn llnd h ligh
hnnn i inill idil nh
igh ing nigh h ili h n
nnid hili n ihdi ndl
i n ll d hlg gdn in
ndh hi lhl df l hlg
nñd hdin ngl g dnl
ndhnlnnn ll hk li inhl
gnl hnlnnlk i nl
ining l h hn ing kn ndi ll
k h ll k i igh i h
inn hk i
£120
5|íkro700+700pan8tí|t head
º Length(cIoed): n
º Height (Iegextended): n
º Numbe of Iegection: igh kg
º MaximumIoad: kgWebite: ink
hlg idni hl liki ld
ihndn nn d ndlih ndinl
lk id i lhghi h i i ill
l hlk ngnd n
hilhilnl lnnll k
lll ndnh ih i ill
ihndihhlg nid hihi
i inghhiinlk hldhnñnl
inl hnil hd nninglk nd
nhnningnin hiklli
il nkingi hnddhhn
hii ll nghk
£150
anfrotto804RC2head
º Weight: g
º Height: n
º ßaediamete: nn
º MaximumIoad: 4kg
º OPytem: n
º Webite: nnk
hi i inlh hdh d
hjll ndi n n
ll gdi g
igh ihnlldingi hh
hhglnl hndl lgill iind nd
nkdihdgl nd ii ll hiklli
n h linginil ndlkingnill n
i h hdnnnn i ingldd iningin
hn i ildd kd lking id
id hgh ll lking h in
£55
Interchangeab|etrípod
highndid n lidihhd
lling hhi dlg nd
ili gnlhd hn
nnn hd ll
ßaII-and-ocket: hngninl
hd ihnnl nl ni ih
nnilk ndgg gilk nd
hdlilllkingn ll ng
ndik dj hnnil hd h
llnnn inll diin
Thee-wayhead: nnnl knn
nndil hd hg ll
hgh nninggg l
nnih ndfidhd hh
nh nningnin
Thee-way
ßaII-and-ocket
IK


º Weight: g
º Height: 1n
º ßasediameter: nn
º MaximumIoad: g
º OPsystem: i
º Website: giin
hi ha i hai aniall
il gingnhha i anihlag
hanl ha ln lag n
nl alhghh ann
aingaa anag hi hanRi in
hnhn ain n all naha nhin
ill i n a hana a ianha ing
high ann gnliana an ih an in
i anng hgingan hgah hlia i
i hi na a nailhi
£55
º Weight: gg
º Height: n
º ßasediameter: nnall i nn
º MaximumIoad: g
º OPsystem: li
º Website: in
ll na iha ignha lighl nal
hli hani nlagn
nl hing inlinglinghnallih
nnall a a n gla an
anhn hi i a ghhaan ll h nininal
hi nlingnina ni n h
ni hnainnha a nl nahingi
a lingliinnl h a n hilalaha a
nnli aan ail inlaa hl na h
ll inall hi i a gingnli a a anali
£90

º Length(cIosed): n
º Height (Iegsextended): n
º Number of Iegsections: igh g
º MaximumIoad: gWebsite: giin
an hai all anhial inn high
ngh ligh anniiin
nall li nnii hnan hgan
anni naa i hanh li
hi i all anng ligh a nl g an
alhghi i anahiha h
i anala n hi i a lai
hini hih i inhnil h
la iala h alln nhan
igngh n ngnghaanhing
h hhai l anligh ngh
aianh hingn
£190
XPRO3
º Length(cIosed): n
º Height (Iegsextended): n
º Number of Iegsections: igh g
º MaximumIoad: gWebsite: nan
ani aall a hannan a i
n hU¦ai nhn
hg hing hi an a h
la i i a n i i inila
hi anaal hanlingall
hhai aailalihh in
lg ih ih hilinglnn hi i a inli
in hilinglnnia anhili annl
ligh hinal inaiha n
nniaili anill g gnll
ainghhigh ihhnnal lgl
lingn h lgangliin
£220
Gítzo GT3541 Mountaíneer
º Length(cIosed): n
º Height (Iegsextended): n
º Number of Iegsections: igh g
º MaximumIoad: gWebsite: gi
anll hi i a all gi linga i
nh li hi ina nhing h
i anhilnhinln nl n
nan ana hnni h nn
hanhi la alianan igh i l hing
l agh igi lingli ainga gii
n in h all hahlinglg
hinga nal ana lan hini in
higningi hin ali naial an
nanaingiin iha all ha all
i nh i alnininanaal
in aignianl ha annl a i hai
£600
Manfrotto190XPRO3+494R2head
º Length(cIosed): n
º Height (Iegsextended): n
º Number of Iegsections: igh g
º MaximumIoad: gWebsite: nan
hi ani ligh ani l ignl anai
ii hinlg i a an
ana iha hi l angani
hnal lnnanaiannin
hinal iinih ningi nhlg
nainghi naanlll h
hnliiinlgl haa iln
nainghnai hanhihli ha
n li hallan hai nhan
nihnl hing i ial i
iining n a ia n hh
ha n hi a ii ll ana agh
£250
Gíottos Vítruvían VGR8255 kít
º Length(cIosed): n
º Height (Iegsextended): n
º Number of Iegsections: igh g
º MaximumIoad: gWebsite: giin
hlg hiianl nhn
lnn inghlnghn nhlg
ani n anininnihn
lnnai anila an i
lighigh analihalnininall inhnain
ainginaingn i l aa ana
anhnlnnannn
i ina nn hliallan ha
n nhl anha a iinl ii ll an
ilalaiha l nainnla
gna hi a ialhi n h ala
ha alninininR
£260
Gíottos 5í|k Road YTL 8354
º Length(cIosed): n
º Height (Iegsextended): n
º Number of Iegsections: igh g
º MaximumIoad: gWebsite: giin
Rlainhnn hi innainl
ananinan aiih hgah
iall hhglal al h a
a halnnha all hlg nngl
gh hnl ainganahil
aininghnghanaili a nninal
lnn hignanh an
nan i lail ligh ihlg ll
n hhigh ni l anan
aih nia hnlnn an
ll ign ihaningnh h lgin
nini ihn hha lana ail
£210
NIKON
kk hy iiu
wigh v yu hul nk nkingi i y g
v lngin. hyk hl hg inhnin
ngnl in inhnnn whilih
kk ignwihlg ki innin. ni hllwing
Cm yuy nki hwigh in hul
inn. hwi nnhy hl hy igin
yu hul. i uul hy livninnh
lun ginnhlkyu k igh. nh inn
i hg n. nui hnh whihny n
unnl u i hl kyu k igh nlngk.
C hink u hwnuhki yulny. ll hg h
hvjulnnn quivil.
ßuIuI wwll hkk i u gh inluingh
ihing zi nwhng nin hwlngi ugh
l hwngi i nhwwll i yu quinn.
unI Iw nhgh ju wn gwih
l h nnningv iu.
hvn k ignhlyugniyu nny
ni inununu.
hvhvg innun ul
il nn hnnuu guii.
atures
hk i
h jul
nwi
hnnuinginyu
hul nlngjuny.
llk wi .
2 nng
hvu nh
k whihwill k l
hinu lngjuny
nhwigh h
g v lg .

hghlll h
quinn yun yu
hghy¯ hi
nuhny hg
will unln whih
n yu k. ll
hg uhhv
julivi n
qui i viliy.
n
nv g
wh in. n
wh n
h hvll-wh
v h nullu
n hinnnn
uully nh.
mmn
kuh hl
nnn i ignugh
yu nu hy
vy iniz. hingi
linn h.
AI n
g llwyuh
uh g i n
nn u wh
nnly nil
wihhgnnuu
wnliyn.
Zips yugu l in
wh n w
nkuh hzi u
i. illihgh
hullni hni
ny hzi ninl
nily ighn.
ßagsandbackpacks
x ving yu ng
Kít for |andscapes
1
2
Fíttíngandwearíngabagproper|y
yuyingl hvy ki i inn h yu gi ly
nyu k yu i. hi vinvn ll kin k n
uln. ihkk nuh h v yu
hul nighnh hgi inhn yu k. i
h wi nh nkuyuuhniiuh
wigh vnly yu k h hnju yu hul.
hul g ull hv yu hhihul. hi
huliiuhwigh hni i wnhl hul
ni nliingyu hul ingily nh.
ßackpack Gadget bag
LoweproCompuDayPhoto250
º Dimensions: 40x32xn
º Weight: 00g
º Warranty: iin
º Contact: 00244
º Website: www.lw.n
hi lgh lny n
vyy in n
innn ignugh
wihnzn. hil
hn i n xly n
hugh hlgn
ninnnn i ui
k nni hn
nyhingilly
hghi. hn
ivi u h n
ln hguni in
w. hzilh in
. g n ying
n lngiyu gnl
wky ki. hk
unn n ini g lhg nl. h
hn i inl ju hul hughhnuhnk
i y y hgv nhul wihquik hn.
£50
LoweproF|ípsíde400W
º Dimensions: 4x30x24n
º Weight: 40g
º Warranty: iin
º Contact: 00244
º Website: www.lw.n
hi i iu kk ign
yingl n g wih
n nuiy. hwhl
hk unzi n g
hull iz hg lg
nugh ul n
u vln uln ny
lngh hni.
hnyuyingi h n
hninnnn
yu nynl. n i
uy hul n
h hwi ni
nhvily ninlu
y l. wlin yu
nhgunyu n n
g whili hyu wi u h king l whni
ull. hn nnn i quihllwnhinly u
nlgnugh nll nl in nni u n l.
£90
4
6
3
5
7
NIKON
K aapc
aa
º Dimensions: 4n
º Weight: ,g
º Warranty: ieine
º Contact: 844
º Website: ink
hi i ne n lee lin
eie, hihinlde lge
ein inhenge heeehee
ingi. kk,
eihe le- igh-hnded
ling heeeheeen in
heninne nnen.
nhide ndhen
k ell ling e,
ihhehe hlde nd
indked ehindhee
dding ne e i hghhe
ide, heehee n nd
nedin-iedn hee lengh
e nhe len ne, l
h, ndnge heeihe hghhen , nhe
ieide hennen h el e i, ide
engh -nnn hee i ell dded, n
einen inheeldneedi nein
£120
aacc
º Dimensions: 8n
º Weight: g
º Warranty: ieine
º Contact: 844
º Website: ink
n denengeinlde
kk ndhi i henlle,
ihligh eigh ndnili innind
ee lnhell deignhe
ninnnen ni ndhinge
eneel nde ej ig
engh nlle ihki
nndnene len
h, nne eini
gd hennen i
ghl heneie, ndlge
engh lene -nn
n, l nhe len hgn,
hee ih nddiinl
dding hen ke ke
le le nd hne, nddink nekedinheide
ke hehne nke nnein ie, einggd
ndn ll hee-in jieihdjlehe
ndi , inldinge l
£125
cpRcW
º Dimensions: 4n
º Weight: ,g
º Warranty: ieine
º Contact: 844
º Website: len
henne 4hld l
ge, ihn lge
ihn hed, nd
e eel e lene,
hgn, hidd nd
inl, hehlde
ehikl ddednd
djle, ndhei el nd
hndleill eeied
hening ll h eigh
henein hel
edehelk nhe4
eie nin, hee
il-inll-ehe e ndl
ehnd ing id hen
ke ill hld eenl ien, he
heeinenl ke eeindnenel helkeehing like
le ndil, ndheeedediednen dhe,
hi gi ge in ing lge ell enl ge
£125
VaaRc
º Dimensions: 4n
º Weight: ,g
º Warranty: iniedlieine
º Contact: 8
º Website: ngdldk
he-iegee ngd
eninen, edl
niinge ehenneeded
, inieihhe4, i nke
el n dieene h i i
h ne, ee
heninnnen i lge
engh ih
-nnnhed, l
heee lene nd hgn
inghene hghheide
i e, ihlee-edien
eed niinghek he
ddednnen i lge,
ndhennedeheding
dnndnnee lgehldll hee
e nne hghl he, likehene nnen
eedih-ll ini, l elnd li heeedl g
hndle, ine nd gdidl ihdjle
£90 Vaacac33
º Dimensions: 4n
º Weight: ,g
º Warranty: ieine
º Contact: 8
º Website: ngdldk
ge l nne ihngd. hi gi
j nnedihee,
nn nenin
hee ke gned
h hi i iggih
ll hennl , l
gene heling e
inne, hei
en ide die e
heninnnen,
hihneened
nleel h heg
ene genel hldll he
ddedlhli ,
deen-iedidlinge
likenginhen, nd ine nhek hehlde
h ne h n needhenhi he gi
ll g heinl-e ll hlde hne ndhee hnd
nini-ginlded hing likeeie ndle,
£100
aaa3
º Dimensions: 4n
º Weight: ,84g
º Warranty: ieine
º Contact: 844
º Website: ink
hi ngi ied
lge ned
eele, hee
lgel inhen, l
gdZipropfront
pockets andtwonoreunder
thelid, all with1anrac's
see-throughWindowpane-
nesh. Whenthebagis set
downandopen, there's good
access toeverything. 1he
standardlayout is tohavetwo
pro-sizeSRs withlenses
attachedacross thetop, though
thedividers canbecustonised. 1hetopis securedby a zip, four clips and
velcrotabs totaketheweight, witha largecentral handle. 1heraincover is
inanaccessory pouchonthesidewheretherearetwinloops at either end.
1anrac's Strapccessory Systenis sinilar toowepro's Slipock and
1hink 1ank Skins -goodfor expandingcapacity.
£160
IK
Whíteßa|ancecards
¦¦ÒD¦G¦SSSLsophistiatposusstns anall ok
usingthsanassunptionthat thaagof thsnthat is ing
ntfonis ani-ton, o 8°gtoat, ithaagof all
ak, light anni-tons nitogth is 8°g. ¦ts thasis of all
ntingpattns anoks supisinglll, ut hilits ñnfo th
najoitof shootingsituations, it anlatoinot posus hnth
sno sujt is onsiallight o ak intonthan8°g. ¦o
anpl, akaas anfool thntingsstnintooposu.
Sinilal, light sujts, suhas asnosn, anfool thanainto
unposingthn-nakingthnappa ak thantha-as th
light nt ill takaaingsignton thnas ani-ton. s a
anais tington aninagg, its ou jotonsuou
onpnsattokpthtons tutolif. ouanothis usingonof
ou DSs posuoifailitis, suhas posuonpnsationo
thL-okutton, o ntingfonanaaof thsnthat has a
ni-ton. nthats hou gaons in. singit is sinplas
ou stp--stpguiloillustats. nn that ountopla
thgainsinila lightingtoou sn fo instan, ont plait ina
shaaaif ou snis athinsunlight. lsonaksuthat tha
ñlls thntingaa-onnnouusspot ntingas tha
ont ntoñll thntiinagaa, ut anis suital. ouanith
lokthposuusingou anas L-okfailito notthaptu
anshutt sp, anthnsithtonanual noanst ths
althoughthis nthoisnt suitaltoas hlightingis aial). h
ahas ¦fnlins tohlpou anas autofous lokontoit.
Ho, ouont nssailnit toinfous tookotl. h
gaas ll as thhita) analsoustotakaustonhit
Balanaingfon, too.
h8°gaanustonsupft posus hnshootingintiklightingonitions. Both
fnas analsoustost austonhitBalan. Dpningonthanaouus, ounto
takahitBalanaingohthgo thhitaou anas instutions ill shoouho)
1
Gtttatlaou g aonth
gounangltoas ouannsuits
loatinaspot that is athinthsanlight
as thnajoit of thsnouplantoshoot.
2
Taamt aLnsuthat thnti
ntingaais ñll thg ainthis
instanusingnulti-onnting) an
lok thposuiththL-ok utton.
3
Cmðt iththis posulok,
ouanonposou snantakou
shots. hnouhk it onou CDnonito,
thposushoulpft.

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Metered to perfectíon!
5 tbt a
Iat U
aaaI
abIm
£nsureperfect exposures
TOPTIP
ßtbat
hth ouus th g
ao not, intik lighting
onitions, akt ou
posu +i- stops
using ou anas
posu onpnsationo
LBfuntions tonsu
ougt th shot
NIKON

IN5I!
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HLLP¥ÒU1¦LBL11LR
LNDSCPLSW¦1H
¥ÒURN¦¦ÒNDSLR
LN5P PHOTOGRPHY

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hyperfocal focusingtocomposition,
learntheessential skillsforlandscapes

Expertadviceandtutorialsformaximising
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heprofessionalsreveal their secretsto
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Expert adviceonthebest outhtstosuit all
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