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Learning Objectives

At the end of this chapter students will:

• Be familiar with the assumptions made when defining mean temperature

difference, and hence know the limitations of the concept.

• Understand the concept of heat exchanger effectiveness

• Be familiar with the assumptions made when formulating effectiveness-NTU

relationships, and hence know the limitations of these relationships.

• Be able to size a heat exchanger or determine its performance using the mean

temperature and effectiveness-NTU approaches

We have seen (Section 3.2) that for heat transfer between two fluids separated by a

wall the rate of heat transfer is given by the expression:

This can be applied over the whole area of the wall if Th and Tc are constant, but in

most heat exchangers the temperature of at least one fluid stream varies as it flows

through the exchanger. It is therefore useful, particularly for hand calculations to

define a mean temperature such that:

countercurrent flows, subject to a number of simplifying assumptions. Crossflow and

more complex flow arrangements are not amenable to simple analysis but correction

factors for a wide range of flow arrangements are available in the literature and these

may be applied to the counterflow case.

5.1

Logarithmic mean temperature difference

A mean temperature difference applicable to parallel and countercurrent flow heat

exchangers may be calculated if the following conditions hold, or may be assumed to

hold:

1. There is no external heat transfer to or from the heat exchanger

2. Axial conduction (along the heat exchanger walls or the fluid streams) is negligible

3. Changes in potential and kinetic energy are negligible

4. The overall heat transfer coefficient (U) is constant throughout the heat

exchanger. This implies, in practice, that each individual heat transfer coefficient must

be constant.

5. The specific heat capacity of each fluid is constant throughout the heat exchanger

(we shall see later that the analysis is valid for one fluid being at constant

temperature, e.g. a phase change at constant pressure)

6. The temperature of each fluid is constant over any cross section of its path

through the heat exchanger.

7. The flow rate of each fluid is constant throughout the heat exchanger and there is

no bypassing of sections

8. In shell-and-tube heat exchangers the temperature change of the shell-side fluid

within one baffle space is small compared to its overall temperature change within

the unit. This implies a large number of baffles.

Let us now consider parallel and counter flow heat exchangers, the temperature

profiles of the two streams are represented in Fig. 5.1. (a) and (b), respectively.

5.2

1 2

Th,i

dTh

∆T1

Th,o

∆T dQ& ∆T2

Tc,o

dTc

Tc,i

1 2

Th,i

dTh

∆T1

Th,o

∆T

Tc,o dQ& dTc

∆T2

Tc,i

(b) Counterflow

5.3

We can examine a small slice of the heat exchanger and apply an energy balance:

& = −U∆TdA

dQ (5.5)

where ∆T = Th − Tc

d ( ∆ T ) = d Th − d Tc (5.6)

Now let us consider the appropriate signs: For parallel flow, taking the positive

direction of flow as from left to right and noting that Tc increases with distance along

the heat exchanger and Th decreases, we can write equation 5.4 as:

dQ& = −m

& hcp,hdTh = m

& ccp,cdTc (5.7a)

and

dQ& dQ&

dTh = − , dTc = (5.8a)

m& h c p , h m& c c p , c

− dQ& dQ& ⎛ 1 1 ⎞

d (∆T ) = − = −dQ& ⎜ + ⎟ (5.9a)

& hcp,h m

m & ccp,c ⎝m& hcp,h m& ccp,c ⎠

Similar logic may be applied for the counterflow case, however both Tc and Th

decrease with distance along the heat exchanger:

dQ& = −m

& hcp,hdTh = −m

& ccp,cdTc (5.7b)

5.4

dQ& dQ&

dTh = − , dTc = − (5.8b)

m& h c p , h m& c c p , c

− dQ& dQ& ⎛ 1 1 ⎞

d ( ∆T ) = − = −dQ& ⎜⎜ − ⎟

& ccp,c ⎟⎠

(5.9b)

m& hcp,h m& ccp,c ⎝ m& hcp,h m

Integrating equation 5.9 from the end 1 to end 2 of the heat exchanger thus yields

⎛ 1 1 ⎞

∆T2 − ∆T1 = −Q& ⎜⎜ ± ⎟

& h c p,h m& c c p,c ⎟⎠

(5.10)

⎝m

⎛ 1 1 ⎞

∆T1 − ∆T2 = Q& ⎜⎜ ± ⎟

& c c p,c ⎟⎠

(5.11)

⎝ m& h c p,h m

where the positive sign in equation 5.11 refers to the parallel flow case and the

negative sign to the counterflow case.

− d ( ∆T )

dQ& = (5.12)

1 m& hcp ,h ± 1 mccp ,c

and substituting for dQ

− d ( ∆T )

= U∆TdA (5.13)

1 m& h c p ,h ± 1 mcc p ,c

or

− d ( ∆T ) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞

= U ⎜⎜ ± ⎟⎟ dA (5.14)

∆T ⎝ m& hcp,h mccp,c ⎠

which may then be integrated over the entire length of the heat exchanger to give

5.5

⎛ ∆T ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞

− ln⎜ 2 ⎟ = UA⎜⎜ ± ⎟⎟ (5.16)

⎝ ∆T1 ⎠ ⎝ m& hcp,h m& ccp,c ⎠

⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ∆T1 − ∆T2

⎜⎜ ± ⎟⎟ = (5.17)

⎝ h p,h

&

m c &

m c p,c ⎠

c Q&

⎛ ∆T ⎞ ∆T − ∆T

− ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = UA 1 & 2 (5.18)

⎝ ∆T1 ⎠ Q

∆ T − ∆ T2

Q& = −UA 1 (5.19)

⎛ ∆T ⎞

ln ⎜ 1 ⎟

⎝ ∆ T2 ⎠

difference:

∆ T1 − ∆ T2

∆ Tlmtd = (5.21)

⎛ ∆T ⎞

ln ⎜ 1 ⎟

⎝ ∆ T2 ⎠

Difference (LMTD) derived above is identical for parallel and counter flow

configurations, when expressed in terms of the fluid temperature differences at the

two ends of the heat exchanger. However, the value of LMTD obtained is always

higher for the counterflow arrangement (except in special cases where the values

are equal). Indeed, the LMTD for the counterflow arrangement is the highest

attainable for given process conditions.

5.6

For other flow configurations analytic solutions for the mean temperature difference

are more complex. It is convenient to consider the more general case such that:

and:

Where F is a factor depending on the flow configuration in the heat exchanger which

can be expressed as a function of the temperatures at inlet and outlet.

Where P and R are related to the inlet and outlet temperatures of the heat

exchanger stream as indicated in Fig. 5.2.

5.7

Figure 5.2 Correction factors, F, for use in determining ∆Tm

(Adapted from Fraas A.P. Heat Exchangers Design, Wiley, 2nd Edition, 1988)

5.8

Figure 5.2 (continued) Correction factors, F, for use in determining ∆Tm

(Adapted from Fraas A.P. Heat Exchangers Design, Wiley, 2nd Edition, 1988)

5.9

5.2 Heat Exchanger Effectiveness and NTU

calculating the LMTD, is to employ a parameter known as the effectiveness of the

heat exchanger and relate this to the fluid conditions and the heat exchanger area

and geometry.

Firstly we shall define two terms, namely the Capacity Rate and the Capacity Rate

Ratio: The capacity rate for a stream in the heat exchanger is defined by:

Q&

C=

Tin − Tout

≡ mc

& p (for single - phase) (5.24)

≡ ∞ (for constant temperature phase change, condensation or boiling)

Remembering that

CR = = , 0 ≤ CR ≤ 1 (5.26)

Cmax ∆Tc min

where Cmin and Cmax are the lower and higher capacity rates, respectively and

∆ Tc min and ∆ Tc max are the corresponding fluid temperature changes.

5.10

` 1 2

Th,i

Tc,o

Th,o= Tc,i

1 2

Th,i= Tc,o

Th,o

Tc,i

5.11

The Second Law of Thermodynamics tells us that all heat transfer must be from the

higher to the lower temperature, therefore the limiting performance of a

counterflow heat exchanger must be as shown in figs 5.3(a) or 5.3(b). That is, either

the hot fluid is cooled to the inlet temperature of the cold fluid or the cool fluid is

heated to the inlet temperature of the hot fluid. More generally we can say that in an

ideal heat exchanger the fluid with the lower value of capacity rate (and hence

subject to the larger temperature change) will exit the heat exchanger at the same

temperature as the other fluid enters. Thus we can determine the maximum possible

rate of heat transfer for given process conditions:

(

Q& ideal = C min Th ,in − Tc ,in ) (5.27)

ε=

Q& actual

=

(

Ch Th,in − Th,out

=

) (

Cc Tc,out − Tc,in )

Q& ideal (

Cmin Th,in − Tc,in ) (

Cmin Th ,in − Tc,in )

(5.28)

∆Tc min

=

(Th ,in − Tc,in )

where ∆Tc min is the temperature change for the stream having the smaller capacity

rate, remember, this implies that it is the larger temperature change.

or

UA

NTU = (5.31)

Cmin

5.12

Rearrangement of equation 5.21, together equations 5.25, 5.27 and 5.31 yields

expressions for the effectiveness of counterflow and parallel flow heat exchangers:

For counterflow:

1 − exp( − NTU (1 − CR ) )

ε= (5.32)

1 − CR exp( − NTU (1 − CR ) )

ε= (5.33)

1 + CR

are presented graphically in Fig. 5.4.

For all flow conditions if CR=0, i.e. one side of the heat exchanger is isothermal

(normally when one side of the heat exchanger is condensing or boiling, or it is

electrically heated) then

It is worth noting that for most heat exchanger configurations the effectiveness

increases with increasing NTU, asymptotically approaching a maximum value. For

counter flow and for CR=0 this maximum value is unity. For all other flow

configurations, if CR>0, the asymptotic value is less than one. In some configurations,

however, for example in split flow heat exchangers with mixing of one fluid, as

shown in Fig. 5.4, the effectiveness reaches a maximum value and then declines with

increasing NTU.

5.13

Figure 5.4 Heat transfer effectiveness for various geometries

(Adapted from Kays W.M. and Landon A.L., Compact Heat Exchangers, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition, 1964)

5.14

Figure 5.4 (cont) Heat transfer effectiveness for various geometries

(Adapted from Kays W.M. and Landon A.L., Compact Heat Exchangers, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition, 1964)

5.15

Figure 5.4 (cont) Heat transfer effectiveness for various geometries

(Adapted from Kays W.M. and Landon A.L., Compact Heat Exchangers, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition,1964)

The mean temperature difference and ε-NTU approaches to heat exchanger design

and performance estimation are both based on the same set of assumptions. Both

approaches would be expected to yield the same results. It may be argued that the ε-

NTU approach introduces a factor (the effectiveness) which has some

thermodynamic significance. This is not apparent in the mean temperature

approach. More importantly, from a practical point of view, the

ε-NTU approach often results in the simpler algebra and may eliminate some of the

need for iteration which is frequently encountered in heat exchanger design and

analysis. It must, however, be remembered that both analyses are underpinned by

the assumption that a constant U value may be determined for the heat exchanger

(or for the section of heat exchanger concerned) and that the corresponding area

5.16

can be defined. Since the product UA is used in both approaches it does not matter

which area is chosen as the reference, providing the appropriate U value is used.

a) Given U, Cc,Ch and the terminal temperatures determine the area required.

b) Given U, Cc,Ch,,A and the inlet temperatures for both fluid streams determine the

outlet temperatures

& from the temperature change of one

1. Calculate the rate of heat transfer Q

& and the inlet conditions

stream and the appropriate capacity rate (alternatively, if Q

are known calculate the outlet temperatures)

2. Calculate P and R from the known inlet and outlet temperatures

3. Determine the correction factor, F, from the appropriate curve or expression

4. Calculate the log mean temperature difference assuming counterflow using the

known inlet and outlet temperatures.

5. Calculate the area required:

Q&

A=

UF∆Tlmtd

1. Calculate the effectiveness, ε, and the capacity rate ratio, CR, from the known (or

calculated) inlet and outlet conditions and capacity rates.

2. Use the appropriate ε-NTU relationship or curve to determine the value of NTU.

3. Calculate A using:

C min

A = NTU

U

As can be seen from the above steps, there is little to choose between the two

approaches for a problem of type (a).

5.17

Mean Temperature Difference approach to problem (b)

1. Calculate R from the capacity rates

2. Assume an outlet temperature for one stream and determine P.

3. Using the appropriate chart or relationship evaluate the correction factor F.

& and the other outlet temperature using the assumed value of outlet

4. Calculate Q

temperature

5. Evaluate the log mean temperature difference assuming counterflow using the

inlet and assumed outlet temperatures.

& using:

6. Calculate Q

Q& = UAF∆Tlmtd

& calculated in steps 4 and 6. If they are acceptably close

7. Compare the values of Q

then finish. Otherwise revise the assumption of outlet temperature in step 2 and

repeat steps 3-7.

1. Calculate NTU and CR using the available data

2. Use the ε-NTU curve for the appropriate flow configuration and CR to determine

the effectiveness, ε.

& from:

3. Calculate Q

Q& = ε (

C min Th ,in − Tc ,in )

and hence determine the actual outlet temperatures.

In case (b) the ε-NTU approach is quicker and easier than the mean temperature

difference approach. It may also be argued that the effectiveness of a heat exchanger

has a more fundamental meaning that the mean temperature difference.

5.18

5.4 Design of a Heat Exchanger- Example

Design a heat exchanger to meet the following specification:

gas liquid

Outlet temp oC 25

c f = 0.079Re−0..25

and the frictional pressure drop is given by:

2 ρ Vm2 c f L

∆p =

D

Losses in bends = 0.5 velocity heads

5.19

Design of a Heat Exchanger Example - solution

Step 1

Choose a type of heat exchanger, in practice iterative approach is required It may be

necessary to perform outline design calculations with more than one exchanger type

before selecting the most appropriate. Unless guided by experience of similar

applications (or very lucky!) it is unlikely that you will choose the best type without

performing some preliminary analysis, it is even less likely that you will choose the

optimum configuration (number and diameter of tubes, plate type etc.) at the first

attempt. The design presented here is not optimised but illustrates the steps

required.

( )

The approach temperature Tgas,out − Toil,in is very close - this suggests that

counterflow is required.

The pressure levels and temperature are high for plate and plate-fin exchangers

If a compact heat exchanger is required PCHE, or SPFHE may be suitable.

Otherwise try double-pipe

Use double pipe

Choose standard unit (see Table at end of solution)

Determine necessary length

Try standard double-pipe section

4” Nominal diameter with 19.02mm tube OD

7 finned tube in shell 16 longtitudinal fins/tube

Dimensions

Shell internal diameter, Ds, 102.26mm

Number of tubes, Nt, 7

Tubes

Number of fins, Nf, 16

Thickness of fins, b, 0.0009m

Height of fins, lf, 0.0053m

Tube internal diameter, di, 0.0148m

Tube external diameter, di, 0.01902m

Extruded fins

5.20

Step 2

Since the liquid side heat transfer coefficient is likely to be higher than the gas side

coefficient liquid should be on the tube side. (i.e. the fluid with the lower heat

transfer coefficient goes on the side with the larger area)

Step 3

Internal heat transfer coefficient

π di2 π x 0.01482

Flow area inside tubes, At = x Nt = x 7 = 1.204 x 10-3 m2

4 4

m& oil 3

Mass flux G= = = 2491kg / m2 s

At 1204

. x 10-3

Gdi 2491x 0.0148

Rei = = = 73734 hence flow is turbulent

µ 5 x 10-4

Use Dittus-Boelter

Nuk 467 x 0.110

ai = = = 3472W / m 2 K

di 0.0148

Step 4

di d 0.0148 19.02

rw = ln o = ln = 36 x 10 -6 m 2 W / K

2k w di 2 x 52 14.8

Step 5

5.21

Shell side heat transfer coefficient

π Ds2 π x 0.10226 2

Shell CSA = = = 8.22 x 10 -3 m 2

4 4

π d o2 π x 0.01902 2

Tube CSA = x Nt = x 7 = 199

. x 10 -3 m 2

4 4

Fin CSA = b l f N f N t = 0.0009 x 0.00533 x 16 x 7 = 0.54 x 10 -3 m 2

Hydraulic diameter d e = = = 0.0118m

Wetted perimeter 1.935

G= = = 105.3kg / sm 2

As 5.7 x 10 -3

Rei = = = 124254 hence flow is turbulent

µ 1 x 10-5

Nu = 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.3

Nu = 0.023 x 124254 0.8 x 0.7930.3 = 249.4

Nuk 249.4 x 0.028

a o= = = 592W / m 2 K

di 0.0118

5.22

With fouling

1 1 1

= + r f ,o = + 0.0003 = 1.989 x 10 -3 m 2 K / W

αo, f αo 592

1

αo, f = 2

-3 = 502W / m K

1.989 x 10

Step 6

Fin Efficiency

η fin =

tanh ml f ( )

ml f

2α 2 x 502

m= = = 146.4

kb 52 x 0.0009 ,

ml f = 146.4 x 0.00533 = 0.781

η fin =

tanh ml f ( ) = tanh( 0.781) = 0.836

ml f 0.781

Step 7

α o , f ,i =

(

α o , f η fin A fin + Atube ) = 502((0.836 x 16 x0.00533 x 2) + (π x 0.01902 - 16 x 0.0009))

Ai π x 0.0148

2

2029W / m K

5.23

Step 8

1 1 1 1 1

= + r f ,i + rw + = + 0.0002 + 0.000036 +

U i αi α o , f ,i 3472 2029

= 102

. x 10 -3 m 2 K / W

U i = 983W / m 2 K

Step 9

( )

Q& = (mc) gas Tgas ,in − Tgas ,out = 0.6 x 2.219 x (250 - 25) = 299.6 kW

= (mc) oil (T

oil ,out − Toil ,in )

Q& 299.6

Toil ,out = Toil ,in + = 20 + = 62 o C

(mc) oil 3 x 2.378

250oC 25oC

Gas

∆Tm = ∆Tlmtd = = = 50.5o C

⎛ ∆T1 ⎞ ⎛ 250 − 62 ⎞

ln⎜ ⎟ ln⎜ ⎟

⎝ ∆T2 ⎠ ⎝ 25 − 20 ⎠

5.24

Step 10

Area required

Q& 299.6

A= = = 6.035m 2 (This is internal area of tubes)

U∆Tm 0.983 x 50.5

Step 11

Area required 6.035

Length = = = 18.5 m

Area / metre 0.362

Gas out

Liquid in

Liquid out

Gas in

5.25

Step12

Pressure Drops

Re = 73734 G = 2491 kg / m 2 s

f = 0.079 Re − 0.25 = 0.079 x 73734 − 0.25 = 4.79 x 10 -3

∆p f = = = 107618Pa

2d i ρ 2 x 0.0148 x748

1 1 1 1 G2 24912

∆pbend = x ρV 2 = x = 0.25 x = 2073Pa

2 2 2 2 ρ 748

Re = 124254 G = 105.3 kg / m 2 s

f = 0.079 Re − 0.25 = 0.079 x 124254 − 0.25 = 4.2 x 10 -3

∆p f = = = 39466Pa

2d e ρ 2 x 0.0118 x 4

1 1 G2 105.32

∆plink = ρV =

2

= 0.5 x = 1386Pa

2 2 ρ 4

5.26

Total ∆p = 40852Pa ≡ 41kPa this is acceptable

5.27

Design of a Heat Exchanger Example – Standard units

5.28

Design of a Heat Exchanger Example – useful equations

5.29

Summary Points

be determined for a heat exchanger based on the fluid inlet and outlet temperatures.

• The Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) may be calculated

for counter-flow and parallel flow configurations.

• A correction factor is available in graphical form for other configurations and

is applied to the LMTD for the streams flowing in counter flow.

• The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is defined as the ratio of the rate of

heat transferred in the heat exchanger to the maximum thermodynamically possible

rate of heat transfer for the same fluid inlet conditions. The thermodynamic

maximum rate of heat transfer would be achieved in an infinitely long counter flow

heat exchanger.

• Providing certain assumptions are valid, the effectiveness of a heat exchanger

may be calculated or determined from published tables or graphs.

• Use of the Mean Temperature difference and Effectiveness-NTU approaches

to heat exchanger calculations will yield identical results.

5.30

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