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# Chapter 5

## Heat Exchanger Design Methods

Learning Objectives
At the end of this chapter students will:

## • Be able to determine the mean temperature difference for a heat exchanger

• Be familiar with the assumptions made when defining mean temperature
difference, and hence know the limitations of the concept.
• Understand the concept of heat exchanger effectiveness
• Be familiar with the assumptions made when formulating effectiveness-NTU
relationships, and hence know the limitations of these relationships.
• Be able to size a heat exchanger or determine its performance using the mean
temperature and effectiveness-NTU approaches

## 5.1 Mean Temperature Difference

We have seen (Section 3.2) that for heat transfer between two fluids separated by a
wall the rate of heat transfer is given by the expression:

## Q& = −UA(Th − Tc ) (5.1)

This can be applied over the whole area of the wall if Th and Tc are constant, but in
most heat exchangers the temperature of at least one fluid stream varies as it flows
through the exchanger. It is therefore useful, particularly for hand calculations to
define a mean temperature such that:

## An appropriate mean temperature may easily be calculated for parallel and

countercurrent flows, subject to a number of simplifying assumptions. Crossflow and
more complex flow arrangements are not amenable to simple analysis but correction
factors for a wide range of flow arrangements are available in the literature and these
may be applied to the counterflow case.

5.1
Logarithmic mean temperature difference
A mean temperature difference applicable to parallel and countercurrent flow heat
exchangers may be calculated if the following conditions hold, or may be assumed to
hold:
1. There is no external heat transfer to or from the heat exchanger
2. Axial conduction (along the heat exchanger walls or the fluid streams) is negligible
3. Changes in potential and kinetic energy are negligible
4. The overall heat transfer coefficient (U) is constant throughout the heat
exchanger. This implies, in practice, that each individual heat transfer coefficient must
be constant.
5. The specific heat capacity of each fluid is constant throughout the heat exchanger
(we shall see later that the analysis is valid for one fluid being at constant
temperature, e.g. a phase change at constant pressure)
6. The temperature of each fluid is constant over any cross section of its path
through the heat exchanger.
7. The flow rate of each fluid is constant throughout the heat exchanger and there is
no bypassing of sections
8. In shell-and-tube heat exchangers the temperature change of the shell-side fluid
within one baffle space is small compared to its overall temperature change within
the unit. This implies a large number of baffles.

Let us now consider parallel and counter flow heat exchangers, the temperature
profiles of the two streams are represented in Fig. 5.1. (a) and (b), respectively.

5.2
1 2

Th,i

dTh
∆T1
Th,o
∆T dQ& ∆T2
Tc,o
dTc
Tc,i

1 2

Th,i

dTh
∆T1
Th,o
∆T
Tc,o dQ& dTc
∆T2

Tc,i

(b) Counterflow

## Figure 5.1 Temperature profiles in heat exchangers

5.3
We can examine a small slice of the heat exchanger and apply an energy balance:

## dQ& = m& h c p , h dTh = m& c c p , c dTc (5.4)

& = −U∆TdA
dQ (5.5)

where ∆T = Th − Tc

d ( ∆ T ) = d Th − d Tc (5.6)

Now let us consider the appropriate signs: For parallel flow, taking the positive
direction of flow as from left to right and noting that Tc increases with distance along
the heat exchanger and Th decreases, we can write equation 5.4 as:

dQ& = −m
& hcp,hdTh = m
& ccp,cdTc (5.7a)

and
dQ& dQ&
dTh = − , dTc = (5.8a)
m& h c p , h m& c c p , c

## Combining equations 5.6 and 5.8a gives:

− dQ& dQ& ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
d (∆T ) = − = −dQ& ⎜ + ⎟ (5.9a)
& hcp,h m
m & ccp,c ⎝m& hcp,h m& ccp,c ⎠

Similar logic may be applied for the counterflow case, however both Tc and Th
decrease with distance along the heat exchanger:

dQ& = −m
& hcp,hdTh = −m
& ccp,cdTc (5.7b)

5.4
dQ& dQ&
dTh = − , dTc = − (5.8b)
m& h c p , h m& c c p , c

## Combining equations 5.6 and 5.8b gives:

− dQ& dQ& ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
d ( ∆T ) = − = −dQ& ⎜⎜ − ⎟
& ccp,c ⎟⎠
(5.9b)
m& hcp,h m& ccp,c ⎝ m& hcp,h m

Integrating equation 5.9 from the end 1 to end 2 of the heat exchanger thus yields

⎛ 1 1 ⎞
∆T2 − ∆T1 = −Q& ⎜⎜ ± ⎟
& h c p,h m& c c p,c ⎟⎠
(5.10)
⎝m

⎛ 1 1 ⎞
∆T1 − ∆T2 = Q& ⎜⎜ ± ⎟
& c c p,c ⎟⎠
(5.11)
⎝ m& h c p,h m

where the positive sign in equation 5.11 refers to the parallel flow case and the
negative sign to the counterflow case.

## Rearranging equation 5.11 gives:

− d ( ∆T )
dQ& = (5.12)
1 m& hcp ,h ± 1 mccp ,c

## & from equation 5.5 yields:

and substituting for dQ

− d ( ∆T )
= U∆TdA (5.13)
1 m& h c p ,h ± 1 mcc p ,c
or

− d ( ∆T ) ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
= U ⎜⎜ ± ⎟⎟ dA (5.14)
∆T ⎝ m& hcp,h mccp,c ⎠

which may then be integrated over the entire length of the heat exchanger to give

5.5
⎛ ∆T ⎞ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
− ln⎜ 2 ⎟ = UA⎜⎜ ± ⎟⎟ (5.16)
⎝ ∆T1 ⎠ ⎝ m& hcp,h m& ccp,c ⎠

## Equation 5.11 gives:

⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ∆T1 − ∆T2
⎜⎜ ± ⎟⎟ = (5.17)
⎝ h p,h
&
m c &
m c p,c ⎠
c Q&

## which may be substituted into equation 5.16 to give

⎛ ∆T ⎞ ∆T − ∆T
− ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ = UA 1 & 2 (5.18)
⎝ ∆T1 ⎠ Q

## A final rearrangement yields:

∆ T − ∆ T2
Q& = −UA 1 (5.19)
⎛ ∆T ⎞
ln ⎜ 1 ⎟
⎝ ∆ T2 ⎠

difference:

∆ T1 − ∆ T2
∆ Tlmtd = (5.21)
⎛ ∆T ⎞
ln ⎜ 1 ⎟
⎝ ∆ T2 ⎠

## It should be noted that the expression for Logarithmic Mean Temperature

Difference (LMTD) derived above is identical for parallel and counter flow
configurations, when expressed in terms of the fluid temperature differences at the
two ends of the heat exchanger. However, the value of LMTD obtained is always
higher for the counterflow arrangement (except in special cases where the values
are equal). Indeed, the LMTD for the counterflow arrangement is the highest
attainable for given process conditions.

5.6
For other flow configurations analytic solutions for the mean temperature difference
are more complex. It is convenient to consider the more general case such that:

and:

## ∆Tm = F∆Tlmtd ,counterflow (5.22)

Where F is a factor depending on the flow configuration in the heat exchanger which
can be expressed as a function of the temperatures at inlet and outlet.

## F=f(P,R, flow configuration) (5.23)

Where P and R are related to the inlet and outlet temperatures of the heat
exchanger stream as indicated in Fig. 5.2.

5.7
Figure 5.2 Correction factors, F, for use in determining ∆Tm
(Adapted from Fraas A.P. Heat Exchangers Design, Wiley, 2nd Edition, 1988)

5.8
Figure 5.2 (continued) Correction factors, F, for use in determining ∆Tm
(Adapted from Fraas A.P. Heat Exchangers Design, Wiley, 2nd Edition, 1988)

5.9
5.2 Heat Exchanger Effectiveness and NTU

## An alternative approach, based on the same assumptions as those defined when

calculating the LMTD, is to employ a parameter known as the effectiveness of the
heat exchanger and relate this to the fluid conditions and the heat exchanger area
and geometry.

Firstly we shall define two terms, namely the Capacity Rate and the Capacity Rate
Ratio: The capacity rate for a stream in the heat exchanger is defined by:

Q&
C=
Tin − Tout
≡ mc
& p (for single - phase) (5.24)
≡ ∞ (for constant temperature phase change, condensation or boiling)

Remembering that

## Cmin ∆Tc max

CR = = , 0 ≤ CR ≤ 1 (5.26)
Cmax ∆Tc min

where Cmin and Cmax are the lower and higher capacity rates, respectively and
∆ Tc min and ∆ Tc max are the corresponding fluid temperature changes.

5.10
` 1 2

Th,i

Tc,o

Th,o= Tc,i

1 2

Th,i= Tc,o

Th,o

Tc,i

## Figure 5.3 Temperature profiles in ideal counterflow heat exchangers

5.11
The Second Law of Thermodynamics tells us that all heat transfer must be from the
higher to the lower temperature, therefore the limiting performance of a
counterflow heat exchanger must be as shown in figs 5.3(a) or 5.3(b). That is, either
the hot fluid is cooled to the inlet temperature of the cold fluid or the cool fluid is
heated to the inlet temperature of the hot fluid. More generally we can say that in an
ideal heat exchanger the fluid with the lower value of capacity rate (and hence
subject to the larger temperature change) will exit the heat exchanger at the same
temperature as the other fluid enters. Thus we can determine the maximum possible
rate of heat transfer for given process conditions:

(
Q& ideal = C min Th ,in − Tc ,in ) (5.27)

## and the effectiveness, ε, of a real heat exchanger may be defined:

ε=
Q& actual
=
(
Ch Th,in − Th,out
=
) (
Cc Tc,out − Tc,in )
Q& ideal (
Cmin Th,in − Tc,in ) (
Cmin Th ,in − Tc,in )
(5.28)
∆Tc min
=
(Th ,in − Tc,in )
where ∆Tc min is the temperature change for the stream having the smaller capacity
rate, remember, this implies that it is the larger temperature change.

or

## where the Number of Transfer Units, NTU, is defined:

UA
NTU = (5.31)
Cmin

5.12
Rearrangement of equation 5.21, together equations 5.25, 5.27 and 5.31 yields
expressions for the effectiveness of counterflow and parallel flow heat exchangers:

For counterflow:

1 − exp( − NTU (1 − CR ) )
ε= (5.32)
1 − CR exp( − NTU (1 − CR ) )

ε= (5.33)
1 + CR

## Expressions or approximate solutions may be derived for other configurations. Some

are presented graphically in Fig. 5.4.

For all flow conditions if CR=0, i.e. one side of the heat exchanger is isothermal
(normally when one side of the heat exchanger is condensing or boiling, or it is
electrically heated) then

## e = 1 − exp( − NTU ) (5.34)

It is worth noting that for most heat exchanger configurations the effectiveness
increases with increasing NTU, asymptotically approaching a maximum value. For
counter flow and for CR=0 this maximum value is unity. For all other flow
configurations, if CR>0, the asymptotic value is less than one. In some configurations,
however, for example in split flow heat exchangers with mixing of one fluid, as
shown in Fig. 5.4, the effectiveness reaches a maximum value and then declines with
increasing NTU.

5.13
Figure 5.4 Heat transfer effectiveness for various geometries
(Adapted from Kays W.M. and Landon A.L., Compact Heat Exchangers, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition, 1964)

5.14
Figure 5.4 (cont) Heat transfer effectiveness for various geometries
(Adapted from Kays W.M. and Landon A.L., Compact Heat Exchangers, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition, 1964)

5.15
Figure 5.4 (cont) Heat transfer effectiveness for various geometries
(Adapted from Kays W.M. and Landon A.L., Compact Heat Exchangers, McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition,1964)

## 5.3 Design and Performance Calculations

The mean temperature difference and ε-NTU approaches to heat exchanger design
and performance estimation are both based on the same set of assumptions. Both
approaches would be expected to yield the same results. It may be argued that the ε-
NTU approach introduces a factor (the effectiveness) which has some
thermodynamic significance. This is not apparent in the mean temperature
approach. More importantly, from a practical point of view, the
ε-NTU approach often results in the simpler algebra and may eliminate some of the
need for iteration which is frequently encountered in heat exchanger design and
analysis. It must, however, be remembered that both analyses are underpinned by
the assumption that a constant U value may be determined for the heat exchanger
(or for the section of heat exchanger concerned) and that the corresponding area

5.16
can be defined. Since the product UA is used in both approaches it does not matter
which area is chosen as the reference, providing the appropriate U value is used.

## Two problems are typically encountered in heat exchanger calculations:

a) Given U, Cc,Ch and the terminal temperatures determine the area required.
b) Given U, Cc,Ch,,A and the inlet temperatures for both fluid streams determine the
outlet temperatures

## Mean Temperature Difference approach to problem (a)

& from the temperature change of one
1. Calculate the rate of heat transfer Q
& and the inlet conditions
stream and the appropriate capacity rate (alternatively, if Q
are known calculate the outlet temperatures)
2. Calculate P and R from the known inlet and outlet temperatures
3. Determine the correction factor, F, from the appropriate curve or expression
4. Calculate the log mean temperature difference assuming counterflow using the
known inlet and outlet temperatures.
5. Calculate the area required:

Q&
A=
UF∆Tlmtd

## ε-NTU approach to problem (a)

1. Calculate the effectiveness, ε, and the capacity rate ratio, CR, from the known (or
calculated) inlet and outlet conditions and capacity rates.
2. Use the appropriate ε-NTU relationship or curve to determine the value of NTU.
3. Calculate A using:

C min
A = NTU
U
As can be seen from the above steps, there is little to choose between the two
approaches for a problem of type (a).

5.17
Mean Temperature Difference approach to problem (b)
1. Calculate R from the capacity rates
2. Assume an outlet temperature for one stream and determine P.
3. Using the appropriate chart or relationship evaluate the correction factor F.
& and the other outlet temperature using the assumed value of outlet
4. Calculate Q
temperature
5. Evaluate the log mean temperature difference assuming counterflow using the
inlet and assumed outlet temperatures.
& using:
6. Calculate Q

Q& = UAF∆Tlmtd
& calculated in steps 4 and 6. If they are acceptably close
7. Compare the values of Q
then finish. Otherwise revise the assumption of outlet temperature in step 2 and
repeat steps 3-7.

## ε-NTU approach to problem (b)

1. Calculate NTU and CR using the available data
2. Use the ε-NTU curve for the appropriate flow configuration and CR to determine
the effectiveness, ε.
& from:
3. Calculate Q

Q& = ε (
C min Th ,in − Tc ,in )
and hence determine the actual outlet temperatures.

In case (b) the ε-NTU approach is quicker and easier than the mean temperature
difference approach. It may also be argued that the effectiveness of a heat exchanger
has a more fundamental meaning that the mean temperature difference.

5.18
5.4 Design of a Heat Exchanger- Example
Design a heat exchanger to meet the following specification:

gas liquid

## Inlet temp oC 250 20

Outlet temp oC 25

## and friction factors using:

c f = 0.079Re−0..25
and the frictional pressure drop is given by:

2 ρ Vm2 c f L
∆p =
D
Losses in bends = 0.5 velocity heads

5.19
Design of a Heat Exchanger Example - solution

Step 1
Choose a type of heat exchanger, in practice iterative approach is required It may be
necessary to perform outline design calculations with more than one exchanger type
before selecting the most appropriate. Unless guided by experience of similar
applications (or very lucky!) it is unlikely that you will choose the best type without
performing some preliminary analysis, it is even less likely that you will choose the
optimum configuration (number and diameter of tubes, plate type etc.) at the first
attempt. The design presented here is not optimised but illustrates the steps
required.

( )
The approach temperature Tgas,out − Toil,in is very close - this suggests that
counterflow is required.
The pressure levels and temperature are high for plate and plate-fin exchangers
If a compact heat exchanger is required PCHE, or SPFHE may be suitable.
Otherwise try double-pipe
Use double pipe
Choose standard unit (see Table at end of solution)
Determine necessary length
Try standard double-pipe section
4” Nominal diameter with 19.02mm tube OD
7 finned tube in shell 16 longtitudinal fins/tube

Dimensions
Shell internal diameter, Ds, 102.26mm
Number of tubes, Nt, 7
Tubes
Number of fins, Nf, 16
Thickness of fins, b, 0.0009m
Height of fins, lf, 0.0053m
Tube internal diameter, di, 0.0148m
Tube external diameter, di, 0.01902m
Extruded fins

5.20
Step 2
Since the liquid side heat transfer coefficient is likely to be higher than the gas side
coefficient liquid should be on the tube side. (i.e. the fluid with the lower heat
transfer coefficient goes on the side with the larger area)

Step 3
Internal heat transfer coefficient

π di2 π x 0.01482
Flow area inside tubes, At = x Nt = x 7 = 1.204 x 10-3 m2
4 4

m& oil 3
Mass flux G= = = 2491kg / m2 s
At 1204
. x 10-3
Gdi 2491x 0.0148
Rei = = = 73734 hence flow is turbulent
µ 5 x 10-4

Use Dittus-Boelter

## Nu = 0.023 x 73734 0.8 x 10.810.4 = 467

Nuk 467 x 0.110
ai = = = 3472W / m 2 K
di 0.0148

Step 4

## Wall resistance referred to inside area, kw=52W/mK

di d 0.0148 19.02
rw = ln o = ln = 36 x 10 -6 m 2 W / K
2k w di 2 x 52 14.8

Step 5

5.21
Shell side heat transfer coefficient

## Flow area As = Shell CSA-(tube+fin CSAs)

π Ds2 π x 0.10226 2
Shell CSA = = = 8.22 x 10 -3 m 2
4 4

π d o2 π x 0.01902 2
Tube CSA = x Nt = x 7 = 199
. x 10 -3 m 2
4 4
Fin CSA = b l f N f N t = 0.0009 x 0.00533 x 16 x 7 = 0.54 x 10 -3 m 2

## 4 x Flow area 4 x 5.7 x 10 -3

Hydraulic diameter d e = = = 0.0118m
Wetted perimeter 1.935

## m& gas 0.6

G= = = 105.3kg / sm 2
As 5.7 x 10 -3

## Gdi 105.3 x 0.0118

Rei = = = 124254 hence flow is turbulent
µ 1 x 10-5

## Use Dittus-Boelter to find clean coefficient

Nu = 0.023 Re 0.8 Pr 0.3
Nu = 0.023 x 124254 0.8 x 0.7930.3 = 249.4
Nuk 249.4 x 0.028
a o= = = 592W / m 2 K
di 0.0118

5.22
With fouling
1 1 1
= + r f ,o = + 0.0003 = 1.989 x 10 -3 m 2 K / W
αo, f αo 592
1
αo, f = 2
-3 = 502W / m K
1.989 x 10

Step 6

Fin Efficiency

η fin =
tanh ml f ( )
ml f

2α 2 x 502
m= = = 146.4
kb 52 x 0.0009 ,
ml f = 146.4 x 0.00533 = 0.781

η fin =
tanh ml f ( ) = tanh( 0.781) = 0.836
ml f 0.781

Step 7

## External heat transfer coefficient related to inside diameter

α o , f ,i =
(
α o , f η fin A fin + Atube ) = 502((0.836 x 16 x0.00533 x 2) + (π x 0.01902 - 16 x 0.0009))
Ai π x 0.0148
2
2029W / m K

5.23
Step 8

## External heat transfer coefficient with reference to inside area

1 1 1 1 1
= + r f ,i + rw + = + 0.0002 + 0.000036 +
U i αi α o , f ,i 3472 2029
= 102
. x 10 -3 m 2 K / W
U i = 983W / m 2 K

Step 9

## Log Mean Temperature difference and heat load

( )
Q& = (mc) gas Tgas ,in − Tgas ,out = 0.6 x 2.219 x (250 - 25) = 299.6 kW

= (mc) oil (T
oil ,out − Toil ,in )
Q& 299.6
Toil ,out = Toil ,in + = 20 + = 62 o C
(mc) oil 3 x 2.378

250oC 25oC
Gas

## ∆T1 − ∆T2 ( 250 − 62) − ( 25 − 20)

∆Tm = ∆Tlmtd = = = 50.5o C
⎛ ∆T1 ⎞ ⎛ 250 − 62 ⎞
ln⎜ ⎟ ln⎜ ⎟
⎝ ∆T2 ⎠ ⎝ 25 − 20 ⎠

5.24
Step 10

Area required

Q& 299.6
A= = = 6.035m 2 (This is internal area of tubes)
U∆Tm 0.983 x 50.5

Step 11

## Internal area/metre length = π d i N t = π x 0.0148 x 7 = 0.326m 2 / m

Area required 6.035
Length = = = 18.5 m
Area / metre 0.362

Gas out

Liquid in

Liquid out

Gas in

5.25
Step12

Pressure Drops

## For Tube Side

Re = 73734 G = 2491 kg / m 2 s
f = 0.079 Re − 0.25 = 0.079 x 73734 − 0.25 = 4.79 x 10 -3

## 4 fLG 2 2 x 4.79 x 10 -3 x 20 x 24912

∆p f = = = 107618Pa
2d i ρ 2 x 0.0148 x748

## Assume 0.5 velocity head in 180o bend

1 1 1 1 G2 24912
∆pbend = x ρV 2 = x = 0.25 x = 2073Pa
2 2 2 2 ρ 748

## For Shell side

Re = 124254 G = 105.3 kg / m 2 s
f = 0.079 Re − 0.25 = 0.079 x 124254 − 0.25 = 4.2 x 10 -3

## 4 fLG 2 2 x 4.2 x 10 -3 x 20 x 105.32

∆p f = = = 39466Pa
2d e ρ 2 x 0.0118 x 4

## Assume 1 velocity head in link between shells

1 1 G2 105.32
∆plink = ρV =
2
= 0.5 x = 1386Pa
2 2 ρ 4

5.26
Total ∆p = 40852Pa ≡ 41kPa this is acceptable

5.27
Design of a Heat Exchanger Example – Standard units

## Note: Assume extruded fins 0.9mm thick

5.28
Design of a Heat Exchanger Example – useful equations

5.29
Summary Points

## • Providing certain assumptions are valid, a mean temperature difference may

be determined for a heat exchanger based on the fluid inlet and outlet temperatures.
• The Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) may be calculated
for counter-flow and parallel flow configurations.
• A correction factor is available in graphical form for other configurations and
is applied to the LMTD for the streams flowing in counter flow.
• The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is defined as the ratio of the rate of
heat transferred in the heat exchanger to the maximum thermodynamically possible
rate of heat transfer for the same fluid inlet conditions. The thermodynamic
maximum rate of heat transfer would be achieved in an infinitely long counter flow
heat exchanger.
• Providing certain assumptions are valid, the effectiveness of a heat exchanger
may be calculated or determined from published tables or graphs.
• Use of the Mean Temperature difference and Effectiveness-NTU approaches
to heat exchanger calculations will yield identical results.

5.30