You are on page 1of 106

F d t l M h i Fundamental Mechanisms

f of
Pl EBG St t Planar EBG Structures
f PI/SI A li ti for PI/SI Applications
Leo Raimondo, Francesco de Paulis, Antonio Orlandi
March 2009
Goal
1. Understanding the fundamental
mechanisms that governs the EBG’s 
behaviour (Power Integrity)
2 Understanding the fundamental 2. Understanding the fundamental
mechanisms of the coupling
between signal’s lines and EBG between signal s lines and EBG 
(Signal Integrity)
2 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
All simulations have been performed by CST Studio Suite 2008/09
Outline
1. Introduction to Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures (EBGs)
2 Specific Planar EBG Structures 2. Specific Planar EBG Structures
3. EBGs Characterization for Power Integrity Analysis
3.1    Impact of Port Position
3.2    EBG Frequency Regions
4. EBGs Characterization for Signal Integrity Analysis
4 1 Analysis of Microstrip Line Position 4.1    Analysis of Microstrip Line Position
4.2    Test Without Bridges
4.3    Differential Microstrip Line
5. IR‐Drop and Static Thermal Analysis
6. Design Guidelines
3 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
1. Introduction to Electromagnetic
Band Gap Structures
What is an EBG Surface?
Metallization of periodic patches!!
The basic idea to mimic the behavior of photonic band gap structures.
D. Sievenpiper, “High-impedance electromagnetic surfaces,” Ph.D. dissertation,
Dept. Elect. Eng., Univ. California at Los Angeles, Los p g , g ,
Angeles, CA, 1999.
5 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
EBGs Can Take Various Shapes
3D MUSHROOM TYPE
2D PLANAR
6 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Interpretation and Analysis
π
=
1
2
res
f
LC
Surface wave propagation
TM waves at low Freq
Resonance comes from lumped 
behavior of vias and patches TM waves at low Freq.
No propagation around f
res
TE waves at high Freq.
behavior of vias and patches
Period must be much smaller than 
wavelength
7 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Interpretation and Analysis
2
1
LC
j L
Z
LC
ω
ω
=

( )
1 2
1
2
res
f
L C C π
=
+
8 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
EBG as an EM Wave Suppressor
9 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
2 Specific Planar EBG Structures 2. Specific Planar EBG Structures
Overview
• In this Section are introduced • In this Section are introduced
– the equivalent circuit and the formulas for 
quantifying the circuit parameters of a planar EBG 
structure;
– The dispersion diagram as a tool for investigating 
the behavior of a planar EBG. e be a o o a p a a G
11 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
A Planar EBG Structure
w = bridge’s width
g
b
d
a
12 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Schematic and Equivalent Circuit
Ki Hyuk Kim José E Schutt Ainé “Analysis and Modeling of Hybrid Planar Type Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures and Feasibility Study on Ki Hyuk Kim, José E. Schutt‐Ainé,  Analysis and Modeling of Hybrid Planar‐Type Electromagnetic‐Bandgap Structures and Feasibility Study on 
Power Distribution Network Applications”, IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 56, no. 1, January 2008
13 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Formulas
L d

Starting frequency of the 
bandgap
0
2
0
Low
1
f
p
r
p
L d
b
C
d
µ
ε ε
=


⎪ ⎧
=
=
⎪ ⎪
( )
( )
Low
0 1
8
0
1
cosh
f ; 3 10 m/s
p
p p bridge
r
gap
d
C L L
b
a
C
c
g c
π
ε ε
π

⎪ ⎪
+
⎪ ⎪
⇒ +
⎛ ⎞
⎬ ⎨
=
⎜ ⎟
⎪ ⎪
= = ⋅
⎝ ⎠
⎪ ⎪
High 0
7
1 1
f   ;     3 10 m/s
2
ln 2   ;     2 10 H/m
r
bridge
g c
b
d
L k g k
w
π
ε
π

= = ⋅
⎝ ⎠
⎪ ⎪


⎛ ⎞
= = ⋅
⎜ ⎟ ⎪
⎝ ⎠

Ending frequency of the
w
⎝ ⎠

Ki Hyuk Kim José E Schutt Ainé “Analysis and Modeling of Hybrid Planar Type Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures and Feasibility Study on
Ending frequency of the 
bandgap
Ki Hyuk Kim, José E. Schutt‐Ainé,  Analysis and Modeling of Hybrid Planar‐Type Electromagnetic‐Bandgap Structures and Feasibility Study on 
Power Distribution Network Applications”, IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 56, no. 1, January 2008
14 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Formulas – f
Low
( )
π
= =
+
Low
2
1 1
f
b g d C L L
( )

π
π π ε

+
+ +
2
1 1
2
1.8379 2
ln(2 ) ln( )
p p bridge
b g d C L L
k b k g
c d w
f
Low
depends on almost all geometric parameters of the board.
d
µε
⎧ 1 1
k
= = If       then  ln( ) 0
d
d w
w
µε
ε
π π ε µ
=
=

=

=

+ +
2
Low
3 1
2 3 1
1 1
f =    with 
2
2
d w
k
k k
g g
b k k b k
d d d d
15 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Formulas – f
High
=
Low
1
limf lim =
c
c = propagation speed in the
di l t i
π
π ε µ
→ →
= +
Low
0 0
1
limf lim
2
g g
d d
d w
b
g
b k
d


0 no more EBG patterned plane g
g
dielectric




→∞

0 no more EBG patterned plane
0
there is no more cavity
g
g
d d
π ε µ
→∞ →∞
=
=
+
Low
1
1
limf lim =0
2
g g
d d
d w
g
b k π ε µ+
1
2 d w b k
d
→∞

→∞


 it exists only ONE patch
h di l i i hi
g
g
d



0 the dielectric is very thin d d
16 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Formulas – f
High
π
⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
0 0
f = f
c c m
ε π ε
=
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
01
High
1
f = f   
2 2
TM
r r
m
b
b
•f
High
is the frequency of the lower resonant mode of the virtual 
cavity given by the single‐patch & the continuous plane underneath 
it.
•f
High
depends only on the dimension of the patch
17 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Unit Cell – Patch Dimensions
Three reference configurations are 
considered.
The model of the 
elementary patch (or cell) is
considered.
They are named:
3 2
elementary patch (or cell) is
always the same
• 3x2
• 3x4
• 3x2L
b
• 3x2L
Config. b
1
dimension
b
2
dimension
a

dimension
a
2
dimension
b
2 a
2
3x2 13.7 mm 13.7 mm 15 mm 15 mm
3x4 9.95 mm 8.7 mm 11.25 mm 10 mm
3x2 L 17.9 mm 18 mm 19.2 mm  19.3 mm
18 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Unit Cell – Bridge Dimensions
The bridge 
d
Zoomin
W
bridge
dimensions are 
always the same for 
all the three
Zoom in
L
bridge
all the three 
configurations
L
bridge
dimension
W
bridge
dimension
1 3 mm 0 4 mm 1.3 mm 0.4 mm
19 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Unit Cell – Lateral Dimensions
ε
r
= 4.4
tg(δ) 0 02
FR4
Thickness
tg(δ)= 0.02
Thickness Fr4 = 0.4 mm
Thickness PEC = 0 017 mm
PEC
PEC
Thickness PEC   0.017 mm
PEC
Thickness
Thickness
Zoom in
20 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Dispersion Diagram
What is the dispersion diagram ?
A UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR:
“It represents the values of the 
AN ENGINEER:
“It represents the frequencies
propagation factor γ = α + jβ (e


compatible with the structure under 
l i ( t t i l ) f
for which it exists real values
of β (jβ is immaginary, and 
th th i EM fi ld analysis (geometry, materials) for
every given frequency”
“β is real j β is imm prop
then there is EM‐field
propagation) compatible with
the structure under analysis β is real j β is imm. prop.
β is imm. j β is real no prop.”
the structure under analysis
(geometry, materials)”
21 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Dispersion Diagram
ω
A UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR AN ENGINEER
ω
2
k
π 2
c
k
a
π
=
k
π
=
c
k
a
=
β
Real & immaginary values Only real values
22 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Dispersion Diagram
Theoretical calculation
1 1
1 1
n n n
d
n n n
V V V A B
e
I C D I I
γ
+ +
+ +
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
= =
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
1
0
0
0
d
n
d
V A B
e
C D I
γ
γ
+
⎛ ⎞
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
− =
⎜ ⎟
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎜ ⎟
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
⎝ ⎠
( )
2
0
d
d d
A e B
AD BC A D
γ
γ γ

1
0
d
n
C D I
e
γ
+
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎜ ⎟
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
⎝ ⎠
( )
2
0
d d
d
AD BC e e A D
C D e
γ γ
γ
= − + − + =

( )
h
A D
d
+
( )
cosh
2
A D
d γ
+
=
23 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Dispersion Diagram – Bloch Modes
x
min
, x
max
, y
min
, y
max
: periodic
Γ
K
e
c
t
i
o
n
z
min
=z
max
: Electric (E
t
=0) TE Modes
z
min
=z
max
: Magnetic (H
t
=0) TM Modes
K
Y
-
D
i
r
e
Bloch’s modes
The complete dispersion diagram of a 
periodic structure is fully given by the 
dispersion diagrams along the three
Bloch’s directions
Χ
Bloch s directions
Numerical calculation by using CST 
Eigenmode Solver (E!)
24 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Dispersion Diagram for Config. 3x2 Original
8
Dispersion Diagram
6
7
Second band-gap region
BW=1.4GHz
4
5
q
u
e
n
c
y

(
G
H
z
)
First band-gap region
BW=2.3GHz
2
3
F
r
e
q
0
1
25 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Χ Γ K Χ
Y-Direction
X-Direction XY-Direction
Dispersion Diagram for Config. 3x4
12
Dispersion Diagram
8
10
Second band-gap region
BW=1.5GHz
6
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

(
G
H
z
)
First band-gap region
BW=2.4GHz
4
F
r
e
0
2
Χ Γ K Χ
26 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Χ Γ K Χ
Y-Direction
X-Direction XY-Direction
Dispersion Diagram for Config. 3x2 Large
6
Dispersion Diagram
4
5
Second band-gap region
BW=1GHz
3
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

(
G
H
z
)
First band-gap region BW=1.8GHz
2
F
r
e
0
1
0
27 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Χ Γ K Χ
Y-Direction
X-Direction XY-Direction
Notes
• The formulas for identifying the band‐gap limits (f
high
and f ) are related to the geometric parameters of and f
low
) are related to the geometric parameters of
the single patch, bridge and gap.
• The dispersion diagram is able to accurately compute p g y p
the PASS‐ and STOP‐band. It is less time consuming
than a frequency or time domain simulation. Suitable

than a frequency or time domain simulation. Suitable
for optimization processes
28 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms

3. EBGs Characterization for
Power Integrity Analysis
Overview
• The behavior of a planar EBG structure is presented • The behavior of a planar EBG structure is presented
in this section from the power integrity point of view.
• Three different EBG are introduced; they differs by
the number and the dimensions of the patches.
• A validation of the numerical simulations is shown
for one of these structures (3x2 original). ( g )
30 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Power Integrity: Propagation Point of View
Currents flowing through vias that pass through power  g g p g p
planes act as antennas causing radiation.
Other vias (power or signal) act as antennas and 
receive the signal as noise.
31 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Overall Picture
Efficacy range of different switching noise suppression methods Efficacy range of different switching noise suppression methods
32 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
What is the Result of Using EBGs ?
S P t
-10
0
S
21
Parameter
d
B
]
-30
-20
I
n
s
e
r
t
i
o
n

L
o
s
s

[
d
S Parameter
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-50
-40
Frequency [GHz]
-20
-10
0
S
21
Parameter

[
d
B
]
-50
-40
-30
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

o
f

S
2
1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-70
-60
Frequency [GHz]
M
33 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Simulated Structures: 3x2 Original
0
2
0.503
p
L d nH µ = =
( )
2
0
0 1
18.3
1
r
p
b
C pF
d
b
a
ε ε
ε ε
= =
+
⎛ ⎞ ( )
0 1
1
cosh 0.65
ln 2 0 48
r
gap
b
a
C pF
g
d
L k g nH
ε ε
π
π

+
⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
( )
1
ln 2 0.48
1
2.37
bridge
low
L k g nH
w
f GHz
π = =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
= =
( )
5.22
2
p p bridge
high
C L L
c
f GHz
b
π +
= =
2
r
b ε
34 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
3x2 Original: PP vs PI
-10
0

Bandgap region is
considered at ‐30dB, so 
f =2 7GHz and f =5GHz
-20
10
X: 2.7
f
low
=2.7GHz and f
high
=5GHz.
At low frequencies, the 
power planes structure and 
-40
-30
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
Y: -30
X: 5
Y: -30
the EBG structure, having
the same external
dimension, show the same
-50
capacitive behavior.
Resonant modes of power plane
structure shift to lower
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-70
-60

Power Planes
PI
structure shift to lower
frequencies (violet arrow) in the 
EBG structure. This is due to the 
additional inductance
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Frequency [GHz]
additional inductance
introduced by gaps and bridges.
35 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
ADS Model: 3x2 Original
5-port network from EZpp (4 bridges + 1 external port);
4-port network from EZpp (4 bridges);
B id i d t
Term
Term1
5
1
4
3
2
4
1 2
4
1 2
Bridge inductance.
Term1
Z=50 Ohm
Num=1
L
L9
R=
L=Lb
L
L8
R=
L=Lb
S5P
SNP2
Fi l e="Si ngl ePatch_5Ports_EZpp_13p7x13p7mm.s5p"
Ref 2
S4P
SNP3
Fi l e="Si ngl ePatch_4Ports_EZp
3 Ref
S4P
SNP1
Fi l e="Si ngl ePatch_4Ports_EZpp_13p7x13p7mm.s4p"
3 Ref
VAR
VAR1
Lb=0 nH {t}
Eqn
Var
Term
Term2
L
L7
R=
L=Lb
L
L6
R=
L=Lb
L
L5
R=
L=Lb
Z=50 Ohm
Num=2
L
L11
R=
L=Lb
L
L10
R=
L=Lb
S4P
SNP4
4
1 2
3 Ref
S4P
SNP5
4
1 2
3 Ref
S5P
SNP6
5
1
4
3
Ref 2
Fi l e="Si ngl ePatch_4Ports_EZpp_13p7x13p7mm.s4p" Fi l e="Si ngl ePatch_4Ports_EZpp_13p7x13p7mm.s4p"
SNP6
Fi l e="Si ngl ePatch_5Ports_EZp
36 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
3x2 Original: S
21
Comparison
0
-20
-40
Original 3x2 CST model;
-60
g
ADS & EZpp (L
bridge
= 0.2nH);
ADS & EZpp (L
bridge
= 0.4nH);
1 2 3 4 5 0 6
-80 ADS & EZpp (L
bridge
= 0.8nH);
freq, GHz
37 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
3x2 Orig.: CST vs ADS (L
bridge
=0.2nH) by FSV
IEEE Standard P1597.1
Recommended Practice for Validation of Computational Electromagnetic
Computer Modeling and Simulation
0.6
0.7
ADMc
ADMtot = 0.24992 ADMconf = 2.45000 ADMpw = 3.25459
0.2
0.25
FDMc
FDMtot = 0.43944 FDMconf = 2.77500 FDMpw = 4.10111
03
0.35
0.4
GDMc
GDMtot = 0.55146 GDMconf = 3.39000 GDMpw = 4.38115 Kadm = 1.00
Kfdm = 1.00
Computer Modeling and Simulation
0.3
0.4
0.5
n
t
o
o
d
o
o
r
0.1
0.15
e
n
t
G
o
o
d
P
o
o
r
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
n
t
o
o
d
o
o
r
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.1
0.2
E
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
V
e
r
y

G
o
G
o
o
d
F
a
i
r
P
o
o
r
V
e
r
y

P
o
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.05
E
x
c
e
l
l
e
V
e
r
y

G
G
o
o
d
F
a
i
r
P
o
o
r
V
e
r
y

P
o
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
0.05
0.1
E
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
V
e
r
y

G
o
G
o
o
d
F
a
i
r
P
o
o
r
V
e
r
y

P
o
1 2 3 4 5 6
Grade=4
Spread=3
Grade=4
Spread=4
Grade=5
Spread=4
38 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
3x2 Original: S
21
Comparison
-10
0
-30
-20
-50
-40
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
-70
-60
ε
r
=3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-90
-80

Measurements
MWS
r
tgδ=0.0015
d=0.508
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Frequency [GHz]
39 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
3x2 Original: CST vs Measurement by FIT
0.35
ADMc
ADMt ot = 0 26102 ADMconf = 2 35478 ADMpw = 3 31008
0.35
FDMc
FDMt ot = 0 43043 FDMconf = 2 60150 FDMpw = 4 07858
0.35
GDMc
GDMt t 0 54767 GDM f 3 11243 GDM 4 37167 K d 1 00
0.2
0.25
0.3
ADMt ot = 0.26102 ADMconf = 2.35478 ADMpw = 3.31008
0.2
0.25
0.3
FDMt ot = 0.43043 FDMconf = 2.60150 FDMpw = 4.07858
0.2
0.25
0.3
GDMt ot = 0.54767 GDMconf = 3.11243 GDMpw = 4.37167 Kadm = 1.00
Kfdm = 1.00
0.05
0.1
0.15
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t
e
r
y

G
o
o
d
o
o
d
a
i
r
o
o
r
e
r
y

P
o
o
r
0.05
0.1
0.15
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t
e
r
y

G
o
o
d
o
o
d
a
i
r
o
o
r
e
r
y

P
o
o
r
0.05
0.1
0.15
x
c
e
l
l
e
n
t
e
r
y

G
o
o
d
o
o
d
a
i
r
o
o
r
e
r
y

P
o
o
r
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
E
x
V
e
GF
a
P
o
V
e
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
E
x
V
e
G
o
F
a
P
o
V
e
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
E
x
V
e
G
o
F
a
P
o
V
e
Grade=4 Grade=4 Grade=5
Spread=4 Spread=4 Spread=5
40 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Simulated Structures: 3x2 Large
0
0 1 2
0.503
31 4
p
r
L d nH
b b
C pF
µ
ε ε
= =
= =
( )
1 0 1
1
,1
31.4
1
cosh 0.93
p
r
gap
C pF
d
b
a
C pF
g
ε ε
π

= =
+
⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
( )
2 0 1
2
,2
1
cosh 0.92
r
gap
g
b
a
C pF
g
π
ε ε
π

⎝ ⎠
+
⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
1
ln 2 0.48
1
bridge
d
L k g nH
w
π
⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
( )
1
1.81
low
p p bridge
f GHz
C L L
c
π
= =
+
1 2
3.99
2max{ , }
high
r
c
f GHz
b b ε
= =
41 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
3x2 Large: PP vs PI
-10
0

Bandgap region is
considered at ‐30dB, so 
f =2GHz and f =3 9GHz
30
-20
X: 2
Y: -30
f
low
=2GHz and f
high
=3.9GHz.
At low frequencies, the 
power planes structure and 
-40
-30
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
X: 3.9
Y: -29
the EBG structure, having
the same external
dimension, show the same
-60
-50
capacitive behavior.
Resonant modes of power plane
structure shift to lower
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-80
-70

Power Planes
PI
structure shift to lower
frequencies (violet arrow) in the 
EBG structure. This is due to the 
addition of inductance
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Frequency [GHz]
addition of inductance
introducedby gaps and bridges.
42 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Simulated Structures: 3x4
0
0 1 2
0.503
8 43
p
r
L d nH
b b
C pF
µ
ε ε
= =
= =
( )
1 0 1
1
,1
8.43
1
cosh 0.43
p
r
gap
C pF
d
b
a
C pF
g
ε ε
π

= =
+
⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
( )
2 0 1
2
,2
1
cosh 0.36
r
gap
g
b
a
C pF
g
π
ε ε
π

⎝ ⎠
+
⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
1
ln 2 0.48
1
bridge
d
L k g nH
w
π
⎝ ⎠
⎛ ⎞
= =
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
( )
1
3.5
low
p p bridge
f GHz
C L L
c
π
= =
+
1 2
7.19
2max{ , }
high
r
c
f GHz
b b ε
= =
43 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
3x4: PP vs PI
-10
0

Bandgap region is
considered at ‐30dB, so 
f =4 4GHz and f =8 5GHz
-30
-20
X: 4.4
Y 30
X: 8.5
Y: -30
f
low
=4.4GHz and f
high
=8.5GHz.
At low frequencies, the 
power planes structure and 
60
-50
-40
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
Y: -30
the EBG structure, having
the same external
dimension, show the same
-80
-70
-60
capacitive behavior.
Resonant modes of power plane
structure shift to lower
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-100
-90

Power Planes
PI
structure shift to lower
frequencies (violet arrow) in the 
EBG structure. This is due to the 
addition of inductance
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Frequency [GHz]
addition of inductance
introducedby gaps and bridges.
44 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Notes
•The modification of the individual patch size leads to a change in
the band‐gap region. In particular: the band gap region. In particular:
f
low
becomes lower if either the patch dimensions or the
bridge inductance increase;
f
high
, instead, depends only by the patch dimensions; a larger
patch leads to a lower f
high
and viceversa.
•The power integrity peaks (due to resonant modes) correspond to
signal integrity notches; whereas the S parameter of signal signal integrity notches; whereas the S
21
parameter of signal
integrity is close to 0dB in the band‐gap region .

45 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms

3.1 Impact of Port Position
•The impact of port position and cell number
on power integrity |S
21
| is investigated in this
section ;
• Their influence on the |S | behavior is • Their influence on the |S
21
| behavior is
highlighted focusing on the resonant
frequencies and on the depth of the band‐gap
region.
46 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Simulated Structures
Structure 01
Structure 04
r
e
0
6
Structure 02
S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
Structure 02
Structure 03
Structure 05
t
u
r
e
0
7
S
t
r
u
c
t
47 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Patch Number and Port Position: Impact on PI
-10
0
-30
-20
-50
-40
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
Th f thi
-70
-60
The presence of this
notch is the effect of the 
position of port 2.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-90
-80

Structure 01
Structure 02
Structure 03
The S
21
level in bandgap
region is influenced by the 
number of patches
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Frequency [GHz]
number of patches
between port 1 and port 2.
48 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
E‐field Distribution
Structure 02 Structure 02
-10
0
-40
-30
-20
B
]
E field at 0 99GHz (first resonant mode)
-60
-50
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
E field at 0.99GHz (first resonant mode)
-90
-80
-70
Structure 01
Structure 02
Structure 03
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Frequency [GHz]
49 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
E‐field Distribution
Structure 02
E field at 3GHz – Band gap region E field at 3GHz – Band‐gap region
-10
0
-40
-30
-20
B
]
Structure 03
E field at 3GHz – Band‐gap region
-60
-50
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
-90
-80
-70
Structure 01
Structure 02
Structure 03
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Frequency [GHz]
50 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Other Structures: Impact on PI
-10
0
-30
-20
-50
-40
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
-70
-60
Structure 04
Structure 05
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-90
-80

Structure 06
Structure 07
Structure 07 - S
31
Frequency [GHz]
51 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Notes
•The number of patches (or unit cells) between port 1 and port 2
affects the |S |level in the band gap region: more cells means affects the |S
21
|level in the band‐gap region: more cells means
smaller value of |S
21
|.
•Increasing the number of patches does not lead to a significant Increasing the number of patches does not lead to a significant
change in the band‐gap region:
The low frequency resonances move because the total size of
the cavity is modified.
In particular, increasing the number of patches, and hence
h b d’ d l d h l the board’s dimensions, lead to increase the plane capacity;
therefore the resonant modes become lower.
52 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms

3.2 EBG Frequency Regions
h h f | | •In this section the spectrum of |S
21
| parameter is
investigated investigated.
•Analogies and differences among frequency regions
are highlighted.
53 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Identifying the Frequency Regions
0

• Below Band‐Gap (BBG) region: 
in this range of frequencies the 
-20
-10
S
21
behavior is dominated by
entire board’s resonant
modes;
-40
-30
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
BG
ABG
BBG
• Band‐Gap (BG) region: in this
range of frequencies no 
propagating modes are 
-60
-50
|
p p g g
possible;
• Above Band‐Gap (ABG) region: 
in this range of frequencies the 
0 2 4 6 8 10
-80
-70
Frequency[GHz]

g q
S
21
behavior is dominated by
resonant modes of the virtual
cavity single patch/continuous
Frequency [GHz]
y g p /
plane.
54 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
PI Analysis: BBG Region
0
TM
10
TM
01
E
z
field at resonance frequencies
-20
-10
0
TM
10
-40
-30
20
|

[
d
B
]
BG
ABG
BBG
10
-60
-50
|
S
2
1
0 2 4 6 8 10
-80
-70

TM
01
0 2 4 6 8 10
Frequency [GHz]
55 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
PI Analysis: BG Region
0
E
z
field in band‐gap region
(4 GHz)
-20
-10
0
-40
-30
20
|

[
d
B
]
BG
ABG
BBG
-60
-50
|
S
2
1
0 2 4 6 8 10
-80
-70

0 2 4 6 8 10
Frequency [GHz]
56 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
PI Analysis: ABG Region
0
E
z
field in above band‐gap region
(7.47 GHz)
-20
-10
0
TM TM TM
-40
-30
20
|

[
d
B
]
BG
ABG
BBG
TM
11
TM
11
TM
11
TM TM TM
-60
-50
|
S
2
1
TM
11
TM
11
TM
11
0 2 4 6 8 10
-80
-70

0 2 4 6 8 10
Frequency [GHz]
57 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Plane Resonances: LIS vs HIS
Time domain H‐field inside the cavity with
a continuous plane (LIS)
Time domain H‐field inside the cavity with
an EBG plane (HIS)
58 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Notes
•The spectrum of the S
21
parameter can be divided into three
regions.
•Below Band‐Gap (BBG) region: in this range of frequencies the S
21
b h i i d i t d b ti b d t d behavior is dominated by entire board resonant modes.
•Band‐Gap (BG) region: in this range of frequencies the
propagation of modes is not possible propagation of modes is not possible.
•Above Band‐Gap (ABG) region: in this range of frequencies the S
21
behavior is dominated by resonant modes of the virtual cavity

y y
single patch/continuous plane.
59 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms

4. EBGs Characterization for
Signal Integrity Analysis
Overview
•In this section the behavior of an L‐shaped In this section the behavior of an L shaped
microstrip line referenced to an EBG plane is
investigated.
•In particular, the coupling to the cavity
underneath is highlighted focusing on the underneath is highlighted, focusing on the
resonant frequencies and on the band‐gap region.
61 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
q g p g
3x2 Original with L‐shaped Microstrip: PI vs SI
-10
0

-20
-40
-30
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
-50
40
-70
-60
PI
SI
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-70
Frequency [GHz]
62 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
3x2 Large with L‐shaped Microstrip: PI vs SI
-10
0

30
-20
-40
-30
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
-60
-50
-80
-70
PI
SI
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-80
Frequency [GHz]
63 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
3x4 with L‐shaped Microstrip: PI vs SI
-10
0

-30
-20
-50
-40
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
80
-70
-60
-100
-90
-80
PI
SI
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-100
Frequency [GHz]
64 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
E‐field Analysis: Below Band‐Gap Region
0
3x2 original
-20
-10
-40
-30
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
Th E fi ld b h i i d
-60
-50
PI
SI
The E‐field between the microstrip and 
the EBG plane (on which the msl is
referred) couples to the cavity
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-70
Frequency[GHz]

underneath at the resonance
frequencies:
•electromagnetic energy is drawn fromthe exterior to the interior of the cavity
65 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
•electromagnetic energy is drawn fromthe exterior to the interior of the cavity
•the effect is a notch in the S
21
parameter.
E‐field Quantification: Below Band‐Gap
3 1 2
3x2 original
4 5 6
Point E
z
(V/m) V=E
z
∙h (V)
1 6.51∙10
4
11.91
Field propagates along the
2 3.84∙10
4
7.03
3 1.45∙10
4
2.65
Field propagates along the 
structure.
4 1.99∙10
4
3.64
5 5380 2.15
In the cavity, a resonant 
mode is excited.
6 743 0.13
66 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
E‐field Analysis: Band‐Gap Region
0
3x2 original
-20
-10
-40
-30
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
•The EBG/GND cavity has a very low E‐
field in the band gap region (4 GHz in
-60
-50
PI
SI
field in the band‐gap region (4 GHz in 
the figure, black curve), thus the two
planes behave like a short circuit.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-70
Frequency[GHz]

•The microstrip can be assumed
referenced on the GND plane, thus the 
S
21
parameter (blue curve) is close to 0 S
21
parameter (blue curve) is close to 0 
dB.
67 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
E‐field Quantification: Band‐Gap
3 1 2
3x2 original
4 5
6
4
Point E
z
(V/m) V=E
z
∙h (V)
1 4 74∙10
4
8 67 1 4.74∙10 8.67
2 4.03∙10
4
7.37
3 2 66∙10
4
4 88
Field propagates perfectly along the structure.
3 2.66 10 4.88
4,6 646 0.12
5 6116 1.12
There is no propagation in the cavity 
In the gap/bridge regions some current 5 6116 1.12
68 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
In the gap/bridge regions some current 
flows in the cavity, from EBG to GND plane.
E‐field Quantification: Band‐Gap
3 1 2
3x2 original
4 5
6 4
Point E
z
(V/m) V=E
z
∙h (V)
1 4 74∙10
4
8 67 1 4.74∙10 8.67
2 4.03∙10
4
7.37
3 2 66∙10
4
4 88
Small values of E
Z
and V: virtual short circuit 
3 2.66 10 4.88
4,6 646 0.12
5 6116 1.12
Z
between patterned plane and continuous 
one mstrip “sees” as reference a 
continuous plane
5 6116 1.12
69 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
continuous plane
E‐field Analysis: Above Band‐Gap Region
0
3x2 original
-20
-10
-40
-30
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
•Above the band‐gap region there is
again a correspondence between the
-60
-50
PI
SI
again a correspondence between the 
S
21,PI
peaks and the S
21,SI
notches.
•This correspondence is due to the 
li b t th i t i d th
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-70
Frequency[GHz]

coupling between the microstrip and the 
virtual cavity single patch/ground plane;
• Frequencies of these peaks/notches are 
70 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
the resonant modes of the virtual cavity.
E‐field Quantification: Above Band‐Gap
3 1 2
3x2 original
4 5 6 7
Point E
z
(V/m) V=E
z
∙h (V)
1 4∙10
4
8
Field perfectly propagates along the
2 1.59∙10
4
3.18
3 8740 1.75
Field perfectly propagates along the 
structure.
7 1.7∙10
4
3.4
4,6 1355 0.27
In the cavity a resonant mode of the virtual 
cavity single patch/ground plane is excited.
5 3445 0.69
71 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Small current flows from EBG to GND.
Voltage Comparison
3
1 2
4 5
6
3 1 2
4 5
6
3
1 2
4 5
6
7
4 5 6
4 5 6 4 5
6
BBG BG ABG
7
Point BBG BG ABG
3x2 original
Point BBG BG ABG
1 11.91 8.67 8
2 7.03 7.37 3.18 2 7.03 7.37 3.18
3 2.65 4.88 1.75
4 3.64 0.12 0.27
5 2.15 1.12 0.69
6 0.13 0.12 0.27
72 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
7 / / 3.4
Return Currents: Whole plane vs EBG
Time domain H‐field for a MSL 
referenced on a whole plane (LIS)
Time domain H‐field for a MSL 
referenced on a EBG plane (HIS)
73 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Notes
•BBG: at the resonance frequencies the E‐field between the microstrip and EBG
plane (on which msl is referenced) couples to the cavity underneath; therefore
h i h i h there is a notch in the S
21
parameter.
•BG: the EBG/GND cavity has a very low level of E‐field and hence of electric
potential difference (voltage): the two planes behave like a virtual short circuit: p g p
the microstrip can be assumed referenced on the GND (continuous) plane;
the S
21
parameter is close to 0dB;
moreover the return path of the current goes at the gap from the EBG to the moreover, the return path of the current goes, at the gap, from the EBG to the
GND plane.
•ABG: there is again a correspondence between the S
21,PI
peaks and the S
21,SI
h Thi i d h li b h i i d h i l i notches. This is due to the coupling between the microstrip and the virtual cavity
made by a single patch and his projection on the ground plane; in fact frequencies
of these peaks/notches are the resonant modes of this virtual cavity.
74 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms

4.1 Analysis of MSL Position
•In this section the impact on signal integrity of •In this section the impact on signal integrity of
microstrip position is investigated
•The impact of the distance between microstrip
and bridges on S
21
behavior is highlighted
f i th t f i d focusing on the resonant frequencies and on
the band‐gap region. the band gap region.
75 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Analysis of MSL Position: S
21
s=0W -10
0

-30
-20
]
s=4W
-40
-30
S
2
1

[
d
B
]
s=12W
-60
-50
On Bridge
Intermediate Position
FarFromBridges
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-70
Frequency [GHz]

Far FromBridges
PI
s i th t t t di t b t i t i d th t b id s is the center‐to‐center distance between microstrip and the nearest bridge
W is the width of the bridge
76 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Surface Currents
MSL on the bridge
MSL at 
intermediate 
position position
MSL far 
from bridge
77 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Notes
•The center to center distance s between microstrip line •The center‐to‐center distance s between microstrip line
and bridges affects the notch depth both in below band‐
gap and above band‐gap region; in particular, larger is gap and above band gap region; in particular, larger is
the distance deeper is the notch.
•In the band‐gap region the more the microstrip line is far
from the bridge, the more is the current flowing from
h l the EBG to GND plane.

78 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms

4.2 Test Without Bridges
•In this section the three configurations 3x2 In this section the three configurations, 3x2
original, 3x2 large and 3x4, have been studied
without bridges at all.
•Results illustrates analogies and differences
b t th t ( ith d ith t between the two cases (with and without
bridges). b dges)
79 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
EBG Without Bridges: Schematic View
With Bridge With Bridge With Bridge
Without Bridge
With t B id With t B id
Without Bridge
Without Bridge Without Bridge
80 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
PI Analysis: 3x2 Original
-10
0
g

Without Bridge
-30
-20
-40
-30
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
With Bridge
-60
-50
| With Bridge
0 2 4 6 8 10
-80
-70

PI - W/O Bridge
PI - W Bridge
0 2 4 6 8 10
Frequency [GHz]
81 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
PI Analysis: 3x2 Large
20
0

Without Bridge
-40
-20
-60
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
With Bridge
100
-80
| With Bridge
0 2 4 6 8 10
-120
-100

PI - W/O Bridge
PI - W Bridge
0 2 4 6 8 10
Frequency [GHz]
82 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
PI Analysis: 3x4
0

Without Bridge
-20
60
-40
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
With Bridge
-80
-60
|
With Bridge
0 2 4 6 8 10
-100

PI - W/O Bridge
PI - W Bridge
0 2 4 6 8 10
Frequency [GHz]
83 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
SI Analysis: 3x2 Original
-10
0

Without Bridge
30
-20
-40
-30
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
With Bridge
-60
-50
|
S With Bridge
0 2 4 6 8 10
-80
-70
SI - W/O Bridge
SI - W Bridge
0 2 4 6 8 10
Frequency [GHz]
84 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
SI Analysis: 3x2 Large
0
10

Without Bridge
20
-10
-30
-20
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
With Bridge
-50
-40
|
S With Bridge
-70
-60
SI - W/O Bridge
SI - W Bridge
0 2 4 6 8 10
70
Frequency [GHz]
85 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
SI Analysis: 3x4
-10
0

Without Bridge
-20
10
-40
-30
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
With Bridge
-50
40
|
S With Bridge
-70
-60
SI - W/O Bridge
SI - W Bridge
0 2 4 6 8 10
70
Frequency [GHz]
86 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Without Bridges – Low Frequency Circuit
•Without bridges S
21,SI ,
in the BBG region, doesn’t have the
notches due to the resonances of the entire structure when all notches due to the resonances of the entire structure when all
patches are connected by the bridges
• A low frequency equivalent circuit helps in understanding the
mechanisms of microstripline return currents path
87 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Without Bridges – Low Frequency Circuit
88 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
S
21
Parameter – 0 < f < 2.4 GHz
-10
0
3x2 Original

-40
-30
-20
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
-70
-60
-50
|
S
SI - W/OBridge
0 2 4 6 8 10
-80
Frequency [GHz]

SI W/O Bridge
SI - W Bridge
89 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Currents’ Magnitude
Currents through C
p
Currents  through C
g
90 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Currents’ Phase
Currents through C
p_32
Currents through C
p_41
Currents through C
41
and C
32
have OPPOSITE phase (one Currents through C
p_41
and C
p_32
have OPPOSITE phase (one 
goes from patch to cont. plane, the other in opposite sense)
91 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Notes
•Without bridges S
21,SI ,
in the BBG region, doesn’t have the
notches due to the resonances of the entire structure when all notches due to the resonances of the entire structure when all
patches are connected by the bridges
• Its magnitude is close to 0 dB up to the end of BG region
•Above the BBG region S
21,SI
is similar to the S
21,SI
of the case with
bridges because, in this frequency region, the bridges do not act
( ) anymore (too inductive)

92 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms

4.3 Differential Microstrip Line
h f h d ff l In this section a configuration with a differential
microstrip line is studied focusing on the microstrip line is studied, focusing on the
differences between common and differential
mode.
93 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Single End vs Differential: Schematic View
Z =50Ω Z =60Ω ; Z =100Ω Z
0
=50Ω
ε
r
=4.4
h
dielectric
=0.2mm
Z
0
=60Ω ; Z
d
=100Ω
ε
r
=4.4
h
dielectric
=0.2mm
94 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Single‐Ended vs Common‐Mode
0
5

-10
-5
-20
-15
|
S
|

[
d
B
]
-30
-25
-40
-35
S
cc21
S
21 - SE
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
40
Freq [GHz]

95 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Common vs Differential: Diff/PI Comparison
0
10

20
-10
-30
-20
|
S
|

[
d
B
]
-50
-40
S
-70
-60
S
cc21
S
dd21
PI
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-70
Freq [GHz]

96 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Notes
•The S
cc21
and the S
21,SE
parameters are very similar.
•There is a correspondence between power integrity peaks and
signal integrity notches also for the common‐mode transfer
function (S
cc21
) of the differential microstrip line.
Th S t h d (fl t l t 0 dB) •The S
dd21
parameter has a very good (flat, close to 0 dB)
behavior because it is not affected by any type of resonances
(ideally the current loop does not take into account the (ideally the current loop does not take into account the
reference –EBG‐ plane).

97 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms

5 IR Drop and Static Thermal Analysis 5. IR Drop and Static Thermal Analysis
Overview
•In this section are computed:
• the IR‐Drop for the 3x2 Original configuration is computed
by means of CST EMStudio 2008/09 y /
•The static thermal distribution for 1 A of injected DC
current.
99 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Potential Distribution with 1 A Current Source
I = 1A
∆V = 9.2 mV
100 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Temperature Distribution: 1 A Current Source
101 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
Notes
•The limiting factor in EBG design are the bridges
•Their presence increase the DC voltage drop and the
temperature increase on the board’s plane temperature increase on the board s plane

102 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms

6 Design Guidelines 6. Design Guidelines
Design Guidelines: BBG Region
-20
-10
0
•In this range of frequencies the S
21
behavior is dominated
by entire board resonant modes.
•Resonant modes of power plane structure move to lower
-50
-40
-30
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
BBG BG ABG
Resonant modes of power plane structure move to lower
frequencies in the EBG structure with respect to the ull
plane cavity due to the additional inductance of the
bridges
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-70
-60
Frequency[GHz]

PI
SI
bridges.
•By increasing the number of patches the resonances move
to lower frequencies because the total size of the cavity is
modified modified.
•At the resonance frequencies the E‐field between the microstrip and EBG plane (on which
msl is referenced) couples to the cavity underneath; therefore there is a notch in the S
21
parameter parameter.
•The center‐to‐center distance between microstrip line and bridges affects the notch depth
both in below band‐gap and above band‐gap region; in particular, larger is the distance
deeper is the notch
104 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
deeper is the notch.
•In the without bridges case the S
21,SI
parameter doesn’t have the notches due to resonant
peaks of the power integrity, thus it is very close to 0dB in the below band‐gap region.
Design Guidelines: BG Region
-20
-10
0
•In this range of frequencies the propagation of modes is
not possible.
•The modification of the individual patch size leads to a
-50
-40
-30
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
BBG BG ABG
The modification of the individual patch size leads to a
change in the band‐gap region. In particular:
f
low
becomes lower if either the patch dimensions or
the bridge inductance increase;
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-70
-60
Frequency[GHz]

PI
SI
the bridge inductance increase;
f
high
, instead, depends only by the patch dimensions;
a larger patch leads to a lower f
high
.
•The number of unit cells between port 1 and port 2 affects the S level in the band‐gap The number of unit cells between port 1 and port 2 affects the S
21
level in the band gap
region: the more the n umber of cells, lower is S
21
.
•Increasing the number of patches does not lead to a significant change in band‐gap region.
•The S parameter of signal integrity is close to 0dB in the band‐gap region The S
21
parameter of signal integrity is close to 0dB in the band‐gap region.
•The cavity has a very low level of E‐field and so the two planes behave like a short circuit:
the microstrip can be assumed referenced on the GND plane (virtual short circuit);
the S parameter is close to 0dB;
105 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms
the S
21
parameter is close to 0dB;
the return path of the current goes, at the gap, from the EBG to the GND plane.
Design Guidelines: ABG Region
-20
-10
0
•In this range of frequencies the S
21
behavior is dominated
by resonant modes of the virtual cavity single
patch/continuous plane
-50
-40
-30
|
S
2
1
|

[
d
B
]
patch/continuous plane.
•There is again a correspondence between the S
21,PI
peaks
and the S
21,SI
notches. This is due to the coupling
between the microstrip and the virtual cavity made by a
BBG BG ABG
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-70
-60
Frequency[GHz]

PI
SI
between the microstrip and the virtual cavity made by a
single patch and his projection on the ground plane; in
fact frequencies of these peaks/notches are the resonant
modes of this virtual cavity modes of this virtual cavity.
•The center‐to‐center distance between microstrip line and bridges affects the notch depth
both in below band‐gap and above band‐gap region; in particular, larger is the distance
d i th t h deeper is the notch.
•Above the BBG region the S
21‐SI
of the case without bridges is similar to the S
21
of the case
with bridges.
106 EBG Fundamental Mechanisms