27 views

Uploaded by aju

usefull

save

You are on page 1of 14

**http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 1/14
**

Advertisement

HOME

News

Channels

Aerospace & Defense

Cellular/4G/LTE

Industrial/Scientific/Medical

Masters of MIMO

RFID/GPS/Location

RFIC Channel

Small/Pico/Femto Cells

Software/EDA

Test & Measurement

eLearning

Webinars

White Papers

Design Tools

Community

Blogs

Classifieds Section

MWJ Facebook Page

Pinterest

Polls

RF & Microwave LinkedIn Group

Twitter

Events

Webinars

Trade Shows

Training-User Meetings

EDI CON

IMS MTT-S

EuMW

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 2/14

Buyers Guide

Multimedia

Photo Galleries

Videos

Magazine

Current Issue

Archives

Subscribe

Subscription Renewal

Sign-In / Subscribe

FREE Subscription

MWJ China

View Cart

Advertisement

Enter Keywords Entire Site Find Advanced Search

Recent Searchesquick connect sma / lime microsystems / suhner / enter keywords / inet

Advertisement

In Print

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 3/14

Digital Edition Online Edition

Featured

Modern High Efficiency Amplifier Design: Envelope Tracking,

Doherty and Outphasing Techniques

Featured

PXIe Performance Vector Signal Analyzer

Featured

Cost Effective 3D Glass Microfabrication for Advanced RF Packages

The MWJ Buyer's Guide

Click this featured vendor's logo for the latest RF/microwave products, catalogs, brochures and company news.

Visit Buyer's Guide | Get Your Company Listed

Popular

Most Viewed

Recent Comments

Modern High Efficiency Amplifier Design: Envelope Tracking,

Doherty and Outphasing Techniques

Brooklyn 5G Summit

Women Take Center Stage at IMS 2014

PXIe Performance Vector Signal Analyzer

Fujitsu, Panasonic DBJ sign MoU to establish new semiconductor

company

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 4/14

Advertisement

Multimedia

Images

Videos

Videos

Frequency Matters Series

Bi-weekly industry update

Powered by ePublishing

More Multimedia

Improving Amplifier Efficiency

Which design technology will have the biggest impact on improving amplifier efficiency for 4G designs?

Envelope Tracking

Doherty

Asymmetric Multilevel Outphasing

Chireix Outphasing

Some hybrid of the above

Submit

View Results Poll Archive

Home » Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

Industry News

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 5/14

Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using

Ansoft HFSS

Photonic band gap (PBG) constructions with the ability to produce substrates, ground planes and other

structures that have a forbidden frequency range

Richard Remski

September 1, 2000

No Comments

Email / Print / Reprints / | More/ Text Size+

Email

Share

0

Related Articles

Broadband Bandstop Filter Using Periodic Fractal Electromagnetic

Bandgap Structures

Parametrics and Optimization Using Ansoft HFSS

Design of a TRM Calibration Kit for the ZMA Coaxial Interface

Using Ansoft HFSS

APPLICATION NOTE

Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

Richard Remski

Ansoft Corp.

Grand Prairie, Tx

The microwave industry recently found-new uses for concepts familiar to solid-state designers in the form of photonic

band gap (PBG) constructions. PBG constructions offer the ability to produce substrates, ground planes and other

structures, which have a forbidden frequency range, or band gap, that does not support electromagnetic waves. This

behavior arises from some form of periodicity, in either material characteristics or in a circuit layer, that reacts to

electromagnetic fields in much the same way that crystal lattice structures do.

PBG surfaces -- which often become magnetic conductors within their band gaps, much like a corrugated metal plate

with the correct characteristics -- have a number of exciting potential uses to the microwave and wireless design world.

A few examples include circuit board ground planes (which cannot be excited by long clock traces), novel TEM-mode

rectangular waveguides,

1

antenna ground planes (which do not image currents and sap antenna gain) and shield surfaces

to reduce specific absorption rate (SAR) levels in cellular phone users.

PBG surface structures designed for these applications are currently being modeled with custom algorithms. With the

Share Share Share

0 Like

Share

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 6/14

release of Ansoft HFSS 7 and its associated Optimetrics™ engine, a commercial finite element method (FEM) package

is for the first time capable of solving more general categories of PBG devices.

The simplest microwave PBG structures are solid substrates perforated with a rectangular grid of holes, or their

complement: a rectangular grid of dielectric rods in air. Assuming a finite number of periods, these structures are easy to

model for transmission characteristics in many commercial electromagnetic packages using a waveguide simulator

approach shown in Figure 1 . (Five periods in the transmission direction are shown.) Example transmission spectra

obtained with Ansoft HFSS for five, six and seven periods of a simple PBG crystal structure are shown in Figure 2 .

2

While the described technique suffices for three-dimensional PBG substrates, or "electromagnetic crystals," more

directly useful planar or layered PBG structures do not have the necessary degrees of symmetry for analysis in this

fashion. Ansoft HFSS Version 7, however, contains the feature set necessary to model these interesting new designs.

OPTIMETRICS AND EIGENMODE SOLVER LEVERAGE ExISTING FEATURES

One of the primary features necessary for efficient modeling of general periodic structures was introduced in Ansoft

HFSS 6: the linked boundary condition (LBC). Similar to performing a Floquet-mode expansion, LBCs allow imaging

of a unit cell into an infinite array of such cells. However, unlike a waveguide simulator, LBCs permit unconstrained

user-assigned field relationships between the master and slave boundaries composing the LBC pair. They allow more

than two planes of symmetry, and remove any assumption that the fields on the boundary be forced either tangential to

or orthogonal to the boundary faces (as is the case with perfect E and perfect H symmetry). Linked boundary pairs

need not always be parallel surfaces, and also need not be perpendicular to other linked boundary pairs, permitting a

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 7/14

wide array of lattice arrangements.

3

In addition to the capability of defining a lattice with a single unit cell, the new eigenmode solver in HFSS 7 enables

direct calculation of the permitted resonance frequencies for a unit cell structure. Computation can be performed over

the entire range of field relations between LBC pairs by using Optimetrics. The Optimetrics interface automates the

process of altering parametrically the LBC pair's phase relationship to match each value in a table of desired

configuration setups and executing each resultant solution. Post-processing capabilities within Optimetrics permit

charting of any combination of input vs. output variables, including generation of a display analogous to the dispersion

diagram commonly referenced in PBG literature.

The structure shown in Figure 3 is a square array of metallic patches atop a substrate layer (e

r

= 2.2), tied by central

vias to an underlying ground plane.

4

This type of PBG structure is of interest to the wireless industry for antenna

applications because it cannot support a surface travelling wave within its forbidden band. This behavior permits its use

as a ground plane within the designated band, which could enhance -- rather than detract from -- antenna pattern

performance. Additionally, the possibility of diffraction around the ground plane edges is also reduced, which should

allow for lower SAR levels on the far side of the plane from the antenna where the user's head would be.

A unit cell model representation of this structure (also shown in the diagram) was constructed in Ansoft HFSS 7 and

assigned as the nominal problem in an Optimetrics parametric sweep. The top of the model volume is terminated with an

anisotropic perfectly matched layer (PML) construction. The variables for the parametric analysis were the phase

relationship between each opposing pair of linked boundaries. By varying the phase between the boundaries and

calculating the permissible eigensolutions for each phase relationship, a dispersion plot tracing the three sides of the

irreducible Brillouin zone (BZ) triangle, shown in Figure 4 , is obtained.

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 8/14

For a plot of possible solution frequencies in the G to x direction, the phase between the first pair of LBCs is held

constant at zero and the phase between the second pair is varied from 0° to 180°. For solution frequencies along the x

to M direction, the phase between the second pair of walls is held constant at 180° while the phase between the first

pair is incremented from 0° to 180°. Finally, for the M to G direction, both relationships are simultaneously varied from

180° back to 0°. Using 10° increments and eliminating the repeated (0°, 0°), (0°, 180°) and (180°, 180°) points result

in a total of 54 eigensolution HFSS project setups. All setups are generated for the user by the Optimetrics package

following simple construction of a table of parametric combinations. The list of 54 HFSS projects is solved as an

automatic batch sequence by the Optimetrics package, and all pertinent results are stored for easy comparison from

project to project.

The results of this analysis are shown in Figure 5 . The horizontal axis of each graph represents the changing phase

variable for one of the three BZ triangle boundaries, and is analogous to having the wave vector plotted in a true

dispersion diagram. Examining the space between the lowest eigensolution frequency for all phase combinations and that

of the next highest eigensolution (which falls beneath the light line at either end of the combined plot), a band gap of

approximately 10 to 15 GHz is clearly observed. These simulation results closely match those previously reported

3

for

the same structure, obtained using a custom, non-commercial program.

UC-PBG DISPERSION

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 9/14

Another type of PBG not conducive to analysis with a waveguide simulation is the uniplanar compact (UC) PBG. One

such structure is discussed in the literature,

5

for which a unit cell model is shown in Figure 6 . The cell dimension is 120

× 120 mils, patch is 100 × 100 mils, inset cutouts are 27.5 × 40.0 mils, centered extension traces are 10 mils wide to

end and substrate thickness ( e

r

= 10.2) is 25 mils.

4

As with the prior example, the unit cell structure represents the

nominal problem, terminated on top by a PML surface layer. The Optimetrics package is used to vary the phase

relationship between the appropriate LBC pair side walls to obtain dispersion data. Figure 7 shows the results for this

analysis, which again agree well with those published in the referenced paper and obtained from a custom approach.

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 10/14

FIELD POST-PROCESSING FOR MORE DETAILED ANALYSIS

In many cases, the dispersion diagram is not the only parameter desired from analysis of a PBG structure. Again, Ansoft

HFSS and Optimetrics together provide a unique set of capabilities for more extensive evaluation of this class of

problems.

Optimetrics permits post-processing of any HFSS-computed quantity as either a parametric sweep output or as part of

an optimization goal function. Unlike competing products that only provide data output or optimization toward S

parameters or other port quantities, even field analysis results such as antenna patterns, radar cross-section or other

derived quantities can be plotted with respect to the setup count or the parametric inputs.

For example, it has already been mentioned that one application of PBG surfaces is as an antenna ground plane. Within

the forbidden band not only does the PBG surface not support a travelling surface wave, but it also reflects incident

radiation in phase, rather than with a 180° phase shift as would a standard metal ground plane. The region of the

frequency band over which the reflected energy adds most constructively (phase shifts of only a few degrees plus or

minus from the incident signal) is a subset of the band gap itself. Using Ansoft HFSS and Optimetrics, the reflection

phase resulting from an incident wave excitation (averaged on a suitable evaluation plane) can be calculated with respect

to incident wave frequency as an output. This capability is made possible by the post processor's Field Calculator, a

staple feature of Ansoft HFSS that has been continually maintained and upgraded in each new release.

To illustrate this usage, another example project has been constructed from the designs presented by Sievenpiper et. al.

4

and shown in Figure 8 . This hexagonal lattice PBG surface could not be solved in any form using a mere waveguide

simulator. However, by modeling a unit cell with LBC side walls and running a parametric sweep using an incident wave

excitation at different frequencies, the reflection phase can be calculated directly from field results.

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 11/14

Assuming that the reflected signal is evaluated at a distance d away from the reflection plane, the expected reflection

phase from a perfect metal ground plane would be

If a PBG structure is placed with its top face the same distance d away from an evaluation plane, the Field Calculator

can be used to obtain the average reflection phase at the evaluation plane by calculating

where S is the evaluation surface. (The scattered E field data from an incident wave project are directly available as an

input to the Field Calculator following the nominal HFSS solution.)

An integrated macro language allows the calculator routine necessary to obtain

PBG

to be automated by recording

user operations in the nominal project. Optimetrics then replays the macro for each setup during the solution batch

process. The difference between the reference metal plate reflection and the PBG reflection (with an adjustment factor

of 180° to center the desired result about zero) is identified in Optimetrics as the final sweep output of interest.

The results of this analysis are shown in Figure 9 , with points extracted from the measured data published in the

referenced paper. In this case, the Ansoft HFSS and Optimetrics analysis closely matched results obtained from

reflection phase measurements on actual PBG hardware.

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 12/14

CONCLUSION

The exciting study of PBG structures has until now been constrained to modeling via custom algorithms or -- in those

few cases where sufficient symmetry exists to use a waveguide simulation approach -- to a finite number of periods in

transmission-only models. With the advent of Ansoft HFSS' eigensolution capability and its integration with the

parametric analysis capabilities of Optimetrics, the RF designer can now utilize a commercially available, commercially

supported software package for more general categories of PBG analysis and design. Analysis can obtain direct finite

period transmission, true eigensolution dispersion results and field data for a wide variety of possible lattice shapes and

symmetry conditions.

References

1. F.R. Yang, K.P. Ma, Y. Qian and T. Itoh, "A Novel TEM Waveguide Using Uniplanar Compact

Photonic-bandgap (UC-PBG) Structure," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques , Vol. 47, No.

11, November 1999, pp. 20922098.

2. J.D. Shumpert, W.J. Chappell and L.P.B. Katehi, "Parallel-plate Mode Reduction in Conductor-

backed Slots Using Electromagnetic Bandgap Substrates," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and

Techniques , Vol. 47, No. 11, November 1999, pp. 2099 2104.

3. I. Bardi and Z. Cendes, "New Directions in HFSS for Designing Microwave Devices," Microwave

Journal , Vol. 41, No. 8, August 1998, pp. 22 36.

4. D. Sievenpiper, L. Zhang, R.F.J. Broas, N.G. Alexópolous and E. Yablanovitch, "High-impedance

Electromagnetic Surfaces with a Forbidden Frequency Band," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and

Techniques , Vol. 47, No. 11, November 1999, pp. 2059 2074.

5. R. Coccioli, F.R. Yang, K.P. Ma and T. Itoh, "Aperture-coupled Patch Antenna on UC-PBG

Substrate," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques , Vol. 47, No. 11, November 1999, pp.

2123 2130.

Richard T. Remski received his BSEE from the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, in 1988, having

specialized in microwave and antenna design. Before coming to Ansoft, he worked for various aerospace

contractors, performing design and analysis tasks on classified airborne antenna and avionics system

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 13/14

applications to support the F-16, A-12, B-2, F-22 and V-22 aircraft programs. He has been with Ansoft for

nearly three years, where his tasks include technical support, application development, software Q/A and user

training.

Post a comment to this article

Name*

E-mail (will not be displayed)*

Title

Comment*

Create Comment Reset

Advertisement

Home

About Us

Contact Us

Advertise With Us

Submit An Article

Reprints

Privacy

Copyright © 2014 All Rights Reserved. Design, CMS, Hosting & Web Development :: ePublishing.

5/7/2014 Analysis of Photonic Bandgap Surfaces Using Ansoft HFSS

http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/3044-analysis-of-photonic-bandgap-surfaces-using-ansoft-hfss 14/14

Sign-In

Email

Password

Remember me Forgot your password?

No Account? Sign Up!

Get access to premium content and e-newsletters by registering on the web site. You can also subscribe to Microwave

Journal magazine.

Sign-Up

Advertisement

- bamboo 1Uploaded bybioenviron
- B.E. ECE- 2013 Regulation Updated as on 31-01-2015Uploaded byJesintha Charles
- hw0455Uploaded byhatem
- Crystal DefectsUploaded bystevenko
- posiciones picos DRXUploaded byfadark
- Diffractometric Measurements to Determine the Intensity of Debye-Scherrer ReflexesUploaded byJose Galvan
- fases PbF2Uploaded byJasonLopez
- 18.%20E&I.pdfUploaded byArun Chezian
- qstnprsUploaded byshriya418shritha
- Mathematical Modeling of Light Transmission Characteristics by Multi Layer Periodic Structures in Complex SystemsUploaded byHippolyte Hirwa
- Geometry of Crystal part 5Uploaded byMehdi
- Role of as Doping in Energy Gap of InP1-xAsx III-V Ternary SemiconductorUploaded byallasrivani
- B.E.ECE-SYLLABUSUploaded byantmonibritto
- XRay LaboratoryUploaded bydejavu77
- lecture1_shortUploaded byAlice Lighton
- Design of CPW-fed Capacitive Coupled Patch Antenna for WiGig ApplicationsUploaded byinventy
- Tinh thể học (Crystallography) - QNU, MChem programUploaded byDạy Kèm Quy Nhơn Official
- Ze CrystallographyUploaded byJennifer Thompson
- 26980346 Thesis on Solar Power ProjectUploaded byYatheesh Kaggere
- A Λby2 Loop Antenna for GPS Application in Mini-laptopUploaded byJon Himes
- FeritinUploaded bymarinarosa9714

- A CIRCULARLY POLARIZED QUASI-LOOP ANTENNA.pdfUploaded byaju
- 06206725Uploaded byaju
- 06293859Uploaded byaju
- Isolator & Circulator BasicsUploaded byaju
- 3 2 1 Fundamental Mechanisms of Planar EBG Structures for PISI ApplicationsUploaded byaju
- A Bidirectional Multiband Antenna WithUploaded byaju
- 05575105Uploaded byaju
- 04516876.pdfUploaded byaju
- A515Y26Application.pdfUploaded byaju
- Design of a Printed Multiband MIMO AntennaUploaded byaju
- Geometric and Compaction Dependence of Printed Polymer-Based RFID Tag AntennaUploaded byaju
- 24571_ftp (1).pdfUploaded byaju
- 05068084Uploaded byaju