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PLASTICS

PLASTICS
By Grace B. Dorado
I. Definition
I. Definition
:
:
Solid at ordinary temperatures and
allows appreciable and permanent
change of form without loosing its
coherence on the application of
pressure and/ or heat.
II. Plastic Properties
II. Plastic Properties
Stiffness
Clarity
Mar resistance
Warpage
Temperature range
Water-Vapor Transmission
Gas Permeability
Solvent Permeability
Migration
Chemical Resistance
Tensile Strength
Tear Strength
Impact Strength
Elongation
Density
Melt Index
Fillers & Reinforcement
III.
III.
Types of Plastics
Types of Plastics
1) Thermoplastic Polymers
- soften and melt on heating and
solidify again on cooling
- mostly used in packaging
2) Thermosetting Polymer
- a liquid or solid state at room
temperature; melted and hardened on
heating and converted into infusible
state by some chemical change.
IV. Selected Plastics for
IV. Selected Plastics for
Packaging
Packaging
1.
1.
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
Characteristics:
Low cost
Moderately flexible
Stiffer and has better barrier properties
Chemical resistant
Poor clarity
Translucent in natural state and can be
tinted with any opaque color.
Odorless ant tasteless
High Density Polyethylene
High Density Polyethylene
Stress-crack in the
presence of some product
Perfume or flavoring oil
can transpire rapidly
Not attack by most solvent
Odors and flavors are
sometimes lost
Good moisture barrier
Poor barrier for oxygen
and other gases
Low-cost
Disadvantages Advantages
Applications:
Applications:
For thin-wall blow-moulded containers
Injection moulding of closures
Rotational moulding for large containers such
as carboys
Industrial and consumer bags and
thermoformed trays
2.
2.
Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
Characteristics:
Odorless and tasteless
Easily blended with such coplymers
Highly resistant to most solvent
Poor barrier for gases
Softening temperature is around 210F
Good transparency in thin section;
translucent and waxy in thick-walled
container
Easily pigmented
Low Density Polyethylene
Low Density Polyethylene
Low cost
Heat sealable
Not recommended for oily
products
Light weight
Prone to lacing when
pigmented
Chemical resistant
Stress cracking Tough
Problem in flavors and
odors
Moisture barrier
Not practical for rigid container
and flexible packages
Flexible
Disadvantages Advantages
Applications:
Applications:
Use in squeezable tubes and bottles
Wrappers and bags for different products
Thermoformed into trays, for margarine tubs
and frozen food containers
Coating material for bottle cartons, bacon
wrappers and paperboard milk containers
3.
3.
Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE)
Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE)
Characteristics:
Low-cost
Light weight
Superior toughness
Rigid
Flexible
Moisture barrier
Chemical and stress-crack resistant
Linear Low Density Polyethylene
Linear Low Density Polyethylene
Advantages:
- Good tensile strength
- Puncture resistance
- Good impact and tear properties
- Stress cracking and warding resistance
Application:
For large-sized bagging and wrapping
operations
4.
4.
Polypropylene (PP)
Polypropylene (PP)
Characteristics:
Heat and chemical resistance
Tough & rigid
Resist oil and greases
Stress-crack resistance
Fairly good barrier to moisture and gases
High melting point
Polypropylene
Polypropylene
Less shrinkage
Sharp melting point Low-cost
Low impact strength Light weight
Disadvantages Advantages
Applications:
Applications:
Widely used in closures of all kinds
Suitable for some boil-in-bag packages and containers
Standard plastic in moulded container
5
5
. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC
. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC
)
)
Characteristics:
Crystal clear
Low in impact strength
Tough and has good puncture resistance
Good barrier properties(moisture and gases)
Retains odors and flavors
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Scratches easily seen clear
Yellows when exposed to
heat or UV light
Tough
Corrosive when overheated Relatively inexpensive
Disadvantages Advantages
Applications:
Applications:
Film wraps for meat
Blister packaging for pharmaceutical and capsules
Garment, box and pallet load wrapping applications
For toiletries and cosmetics, household chemicals and oils
6.
6.
Nylon
Nylon
Characteristics:
Structurally strong
Relatively low moisture absorption
Good dimensional stability
Heat sealability
Nylon
Nylon
Excellent stability at both
high and low temp.
Good barrier properties to
gases
Can be oxydized causing
nylon to lose strength
Clear
Disadvantages Advantages
Applications:
Applications:
Coextruded with polyolefins to enhance
packaging properties
Coating on paperboards, papers and foils
Extrusion-blow-molded containers for hard-
to-hold chemicals
7. Polyester(Polyethylene
7. Polyester(Polyethylene
Terephthalate
Terephthalate
)
)
Characteristics:
Excels in strength, toughness and clarity
Resistant to weak acids, bases and most
solvents
Not good barrier for gases
Polyester (Polyethylene
Polyester (Polyethylene
Terephthalate
Terephthalate
)
)
Excellent barrier to aroma and
flavor
Excellent oil, chemical and
solvent resistance
Excellent heat, low
temperature and water
resistance
High cost Excellent transparency
Poor seal property Fairly stiff material
Disadvatages Advatages
Applications:
Applications:
For packaging (fruit juices, softdrinks, bottled
water peanut butter)
8. Polystyrene (PS)
8. Polystyrene (PS)
Characteristics:
Crystal clear and very hard, brittle and rigid
Low melting point (190F)
Poor impact strength
Not good barrier for moisture or gases
Odorless and tasteless
Polystyrene (PS)
Polystyrene (PS)
Builds up static changes
easily
Accept printing, metallizing
and hot-stamping
Can craze and become cloudy Easily molded, thermoformed
and extruded into film
Discolor in strong sunlight Low in cost
Slight tendency to shrink Clear and light weight
Disadvantages Advantages
Applications:
Applications:
For egg cartons, rigid disposable and reusable
boxes, food cups and trays
Container covers and wraps for fresh fruit and
vegetables
Bottles for pharmaceutical tablets and capsules
In molded forms for close containment of fragile
products
9. Polycarbonate
9. Polycarbonate
Characteristics:
Good clarity, impact strength, ductility and
low controllable mold shrinkage
Sterilizable and tolerates gamma radiation
High-priced material
Polycarbonate
Polycarbonate
Sensitive to oxygen and
carbon dioxide
Odorless and non-staining
High permeation of
moisture and gases
Dimensionally stable and
processable
High- cost Great clarity, toughness
and high softening temp.
Disadvantages Advantages
Applications:
Reusable 5-gal water bottles
Dual ovenable trays for foods
V. Plastic Processes
V. Plastic Processes
1. Injection Moulding
- grains of polymer are mixed and heated by
a screw in a molding machine and injected
under a high pressure into a cool mold.
MOVING
MOLTEN
2. Compression Molding
2. Compression Molding
- powdered resin is put
into a heated mold
- mold closes under
high pressure
- Plastic cures in a
minute, then molds
open.
3. Rotational Molding
3. Rotational Molding
- also called rotomolding or rotational casting
- Produces seamless, hollow parts of uniform
thickness and without the internal stresses
that can be created during conventional
molding or thermoformning
4. Blow Molding
4. Blow Molding
- similar to glass making and used either a
single or two stage process for producing
bottles
a. Extrusion Blow Molding
- continuously extruded
tube of softened polymer
trapped between two halves
of mold and inflated by
compressed air to the shape
of the mold.
b. Stretch Blow Molding
b. Stretch Blow Molding
- a preform is injection or extrusion
- reheated to produce biaxial orientaton
of the molecules and finally stretch blown
c. Injection Blow Molding
- polymer is injection molded around a blowing
stick , then transferred to blowing mold.
- compressed air
is used to form
final shape of
container
5. Thermoforming
5. Thermoforming
- film is softened over a mould,
and a vacuum and/ or
pressure is applied
VI.
VI.
Typical Technologies of Converting
Typical Technologies of Converting
Converting
To give new processing to yield new value on
the rolls that are wound thin substrates which are
plastics film sheet, paper, foil and cloth.
1. Coating
- Thin membrane that is coated liquid on the
film sheet
- Process of applying one or more layers of
polymer latices or polymer melt to the surface of
a substrate
2. Laminating
2. Laminating
- made multiple layers by adhesives and
extrusion molten resin
3. Printing
- to express conveyance of eye information
and ornament
4. Metallizing
- metals are vaporized and adhere to
substrate
5. Embossing
5. Embossing
- of set of concave-convex design to substrate
by embossing roll
- to make soft-feeling and mat surface
6. Slitting
- film sheet is continuously slit constant
position width of the product for secondary
processing
7. Winding
- is of set purpose to adjust edge of roll
product and get rid rejective part.
Laminating
Laminating
Production method to bond a substrate
material to the same different materials,
by maintaining the properties of the
substrate material, improve its
weakness and provide additional
properties.
Seven Methods of Lamination
Seven Methods of Lamination
1. Thermal Lamination
-also called heat lamination
a. Laminated two
substrate with heated
roll pressing.
b. Cooled in cooling
roll
c. Products are wound
A C B
Paper/Adhesive/ Non-woven
film fabrics
2. Hot-melt Lamination
- also called wax lamination
a. Base substrate is
coated by heated
molten adhesive.
b. Laminated by
another combining
c. Cooled by chilled
roll
d. Products are wound
A C B
Cellophane/Adhesive/ AL
3. Non-solvent Lamination
a. Lower viscosity
adhesive is heated and
then coated on main
substrate
b. Laminated with
another combining
substrate through
heated wall
c. Products are wound
A C B
ONy /Adhesive/ PE
4. Wet Lamination
a. Base substrate is
coated with aqueous
or emulsion adhesive
b. Laminated with
another combining
substrate on the wetted
surface condition
c. Dried
d. Wound
A C B
AL / Adhesive / Paper
5. Dry Lamination
a. Base substrate is
coated by adhesive
dissolved with solvent
that is evaporated by
hot air
b. Laminated with
another combining
substrate
c. Wound after
cooling
A C B
Ony/ Adhesive / CPP
6. Extrusion Coating
Lamination
a. Thermoplastic resin
is molten by heat
b. Molten resin is
extruded on the
substrate passing
through the screw and
T-die
c. Simultaneously
press-cooled and
laminated
1) A C B
OPP / AC/PE / CPP
2) A C B C
Cellophane/AC/PE/ AL/ PE
7. Co-extrusion
Lamination
* T-die lamination
- multiple type of
extrusion coating
lamination
* Tublar die
Lamination
- Simultaneously co-
extrudes some kind
resins from tublar die
lip
1) A C B C
PET/AC/PE/ AL/ IO/PE
2) B C A C B
PE /Adhesive/Ny/Adhesive/PE
Trends in Plastic Packaging
Trends in Plastic Packaging
Retortable
Plastic
Easy
Open