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GRUPE: 17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29


Do you read detective stories? What are your favourite ones?
Who are your favourite detectives?
Who can tell us ,in just a few words, the last detective story he/she has
Private investigators investigated
David Lee investigates the world of the private eye - and uncovers some surprising truths.

When I walk into the offices of Wright & Wrong Ltd, a predominantly female firm of private
investigators, I have to say I am a little disappointed. My only previous contact with private detective agencies
has been through crime novels read during my far-off student days, or black and white films from the golden
age of Hollywood. So, I am half expecting to see a small, dark, smoke-filled room, a single desk with an empty
in-tray and a long scruffy raincoat hanging from a hat stand in the corner.
Clearly, my romantic image of the profession needs updating. Wright & Wrong Ltd's offices are light
and spacious and there are no ashtrays in sight on any of the dozen or so desks. These are tidy and free of paper,
but concentrated faces at large computer screens give the place a busy feel.
Jenny Wright, founder of the agency, is not surprised at my error, and with a note of irritation in her
voice, points to further misconceptions. "Cinema and television are mostly to blame for our reputation. Contrary
to popular belief, we always work very strictly within the law - there's no violence, no break-ins, and certainly
no guns. The laws relating to our activities are very tight, and if we don't stick to them there's a very real danger
that the evidence we obtain will not be accepted in court".
The types of cases her agency deals with are varied but the day-to-day work is often far from
stimulating. Wright & Wrong Ltd handles anything from infidelity in a marriage or tracing a missing person to
insurance fraud, employee theft and advising companies on security measures. "Resolving a case is very
rewarding", says Jenny, "but the actual investigation can be rather dull. When we are not dealing with
paperwork or Internet searches, we're usually involved in surveillance. And that normally means just sitting
around in cars or cafes for hours, waiting for something to happen".
Not surprisingly, then, patience is an important asset for anyone doing thiskind of work. Is that why nine
of the twelve investigators in her team are women? " Obviously, women don't have a monopoly on patience",
replies Jenny, diplomatically, for my benefit, I sense, " but perhaps it's no coincidence that they tend to stay in
the job a lot longer that men - at least in my experience, anyway."
Jenny tells me that people's perceptions of women make them popular with clients, and also,
consequently, with her as an employer. Women are often considered to be more sensitive than men. They're
looked upon as less threatening when it comes to making inquiries or serving court papers. " People open up to
women more readily", she says, " and are relieved when a woman picks up the phone to speak to them. We're
also good at breaking bad news. What may be a victory for the agency- filming someone doing something they
shouldn't be doing, for example - tends not o be such a pleasant discovery for the client, and there's a right way
and a wrong way of handling that information."
Most of Jenny's clients are wealthy. The hourly rate is anything between 50 and 80 pounds, so the cost
of a single case will often run into thousands of pounds. Even with the latest high-tech equipment, such as GPS
and long-range listening devices, a surveillance campaign can last several days. " The technology is freely
available and most of what we do could be done be the clients", explains Jenny, " but they're reluctant to get
involved. Finding out the truth is often just too painful to do on your own."
I ask Jenny, a former night club owner, how she came to be a private detective. Her face turns red, she
gives a slight grin and drops her voice to a whisper so as not to be overheard by her staff. " I used to read a lot
of crime novels during the daytime", she confides, " and I started to think 'I could do that '. I went on a training
course and realized I was in the wrong job. " I am about to ask her whether she ever wears a long, scruffy
raincoat, when her mobile phone rings and she is called away on business.

2.For questions 1-8, choose the answer ( A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

1. What does the writer discover on his visit to the offices of Wright & Wrong Ltd?
A the firm is not as dynamic as he had been told
B the offices have recently been modernized
C all the private detectives are women
D he has an old fashioned idea of private detectives.

2. What does " these " in paragraph 2 refer to?
A offices
B ashtrays
C desks
D computer screens

3. Jenny Wright is annoyed by
A the strict laws controlling private detectives
B the inflexibility of the law courts
C the her profession is represented in films
D the violence used by other detective agencies

4. According to Jenny, most of the work of a private detective is
A monotonous
B challenging
C exhausting
D enjoyable.

5. The writer uses the word " diplomatically" in paragraph 5 to imply that Jenny
A had no strong views of her own
B was trying not to offend him
C was being oversensitive
D was unsure of her answer.

6. Jenny is influenced in her decision to take on women by
A women's ability to get results
B the speed at which women work
C women's tendency to speak openly
D the way clients see the women

7. What do we learn about Jenny's clients?
A they cannot afford to buy the surveillance equipment
B they object to paying such high prices for the work
C they do not want to do the detective work themselves
D they prefer more than one detective to work on a case.

8. How does Jenny feel about telling her story in the last paragraph?
A embarrassed
B frightened
C proud
D angry

3.Match each of the following definitions with the word from the box. There is one extra word which you do
not need to use.

Vandal kidnapper arsonist blackmailer shoplifter smuggler mugger
drug trafficker hijacker pickpocket murderer

A person who
1 kills someone______________
2 takes goods into or out of a country illegally_______________
3 deliberately sets fire to a building_____________________
4 steals things from peoples pockets or bags in public places__________________
5 threatens to give away secrets unless he is given money________________
6 takes things from shops without paying for them________________
7 holds someone prisoner until he is given money__________________
8 takes control of an aeroplane by force________________
9 deliberately damages other peoples property___________________
10 attacks people in the street and steals their money__________________

Reported speech
we use reported speech when we want to say what someone else said.
with the reported speech we have to change the tense of the verb, some pronouns and determiners and
words or phrases connected to time and place

1.Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do
not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
1. You must wear a tie, the teacher told him. ( TO )
The teacher told him he................................................................................................ a tie.
2. We were trying to phone you, they said. ( BEEN )
They said ......................................................................................................... to phone me.
3. Where did you buy you shoes, Sally? asked Gail. ( HAD )
Gail asked
4. Don't swim too far out, she warned him. ( WARNED )
She .............................................................................................................swim too far out.
5. Sean said I ought to lie down for a while. ( LIE )
Sean suggested.....................................................................................................for a while.
6. She gave me very little help with the homework. ( NOT )
She with my homework.
2.Pass the following sentences into reported speech. Use verbs like say, tell, ask, wonder, want to know,
promise, order, advise. Ex. He said.../ He asked ... etc.
1. I watched TV last night.
2. What are you studying?
3. You must hurry.
4. Will you call me a taxi?
5. My father may be at the meeting.
6. Smoking is bad for young people.
7. Help me with the washing please.
8. Don't go away.
9. Don't talk while you are eating.
10.She lost her purse.
11.Paul has brought you a message.
12.They will leave soon.
13.She came back two hours ago.
14.I went to the beach every day when I was living in France.
15. I don't like sugar in my tea.
16. Lisa can play the piano.
17. It has been raining since Sunday.
18. They had finished he project before the deadline.
19. She wanted to play tennis yesterday.
20. They were cooking yesterday morning.

What do you think are the main causes of crime in your country?
Do you have any suggestions for reducing crime in your local area?
What do you think should be the police attitude in order to reduce crime?
What punishment suggestions do you have?


Reading comprehension and problemsolving exercise.
You will read a detective story about a man, Dr. DeLator, who solves cases using the same logical reasoning as
Sherlock Holmes. Read the story and try to answer the final question in it:

(sound of telephone ringing)

DeLator: hello.

Narrator: When Dr.DeLator answered the phone he heard the frantic voice of Ted Petrie, a rare book collector.

Petrie:(over the telephone) A thief took the hinges off the door of one of my book cabinets and made off with a
valuable 16
-century manuscript. Can you come right over to my place?

Narrator: Half an hour later, De Lator stood on the second floor of Petries home and examined the small,
empty book cabinet. The glass door, unhinged, lay on the carpet.

Petrie: I was downstairs, watching TV.I went to the kitchen for a bite to eat, and suddenly a man dashed down
the stairs and out the front door. He was carrying the book. Of course I chased him. At the corner of Vine and
Davis *, I lost him in the crowd watching the St. Patricks Day parade.** I stopped at the first telephone booth
and called you. I always keep the cabinet locked. I suppose the noise of the television kept me from hearing the
thief at work upstairs.

Narrator: At this point Dr.DeLator interrupted with a question:

DeLator: Is the book insured?

Petrie: Yes, for a fortune! But money cant replace such a book!

DeLator: Then I suggest you put it back. I dont believe a word of your story!

Narrator: Why didnt Dr. DeLator believe Mr .Petries story?

a)Who was Petrie?
b)What did the thief steal from his book cabinet?
c)How did the thief steal the book?
d)Where was Petrie and what was he doing while the thief was stealing the book?
e)What did he do when he saw the thief with the book?
f)Did he catch the thief? Why/why not?
g)What did he do after he had lost the thief?
h) Was the book insured?

Vocabulary practice: (Contest) Find out in the text words or phrases which mean:
2.come here immediately= home=
4.a little bit of food=
5.I lost sight of him=
6.the first public telephone=
7.return it to its place=

*Vine and Davis=Vine Street and Davis Street
**St Patrick s Day parade=New York and some other cities that have many residents of Irish origin have parades on
March 17 to celebrate St Patricks day

A walk in the midday sun

Warm up:
How much water do you drink every day?
Can you tell us some of the water drinking benefits?
Is water available everywhere in the world?

When the heat is on, walkers need to be on their guard.

Hot weather makes your heart pump harder, and if you're not very fit,
you start to understand why the majority of mountain rescue statistics
are made up from summer walkers suffering heart attacks. Heat
exhaustion is quite easy to get when you're making a great physical
effort. It happens when your body can't produce enough sweat to keep
you cool.

The answer is to keep up your water intake. It's a good idea to drink a
pint of water for every 10 degrees Fahrenheit every 24 hours. So, if the temperature is in the 70s, and you are
doing a five-hour walk, you'll need a minimum of around one and a half pints of water. It's vital that you don't
wait until you develop a raging thirst before you stop for a drink - keep taking regular swigs from your water

Many walkers flavour their water with fruit juice, which makes it a lot more palatable. You could even use one
of the isotonic drinks made for athletes, which replaces the body's salts lost through sweating.

Given that evaporation is your body's cooling mechanism, you can help things along with an external
application of water. Soaking your hat with water is a great way to cool the head, though if the sun is beating
down, it will probably dry off almost immediately. Better still then if you can plunge into a river or the sea fully
- clothed. And if that's not possible, then at least take off your boots and socks and paddle in a cool stream.

Walking in the heat increases the rate at which your feet swell, which can lead to them feeling tight in your
boots. Cool water from a stream reduces swelling and helps general foot comfort. At the same time, you can
check out your feet for signs of blisters. Extra sweating makes the skin softer and increases the chance of
blisters forming, in the same way as when water leaks into your boots and get to your feet.

As for what clothing you wear, this should be lightweight and reasonably loose-fitting. Tight clothing will feel
uncomfortable and may even lead to the formation of an irritating rash on your skin. The answer, if this
develops, is to try and stay cool as much as possible. Do this by either keeping in the shade, or washing the
affected area with cold water, but without soap. But prevention is by far the best approach, so keep your
clothing light.

It's understandable to want to remove any extraneous clothing when it's extremely hot, but it doesn't really make
much sense to take off T-shirts. The sun rays can be quite strong, and shoulders are always very sensitive to
sunburn. This is the worst place to be red and sore when you're wearing a heavy rucksack on your back.
Wearing shorts can also create problems for walkers, as the backs of the leg can catch the sun very easily.

In fact, those days when an apparently harmless breeze is blowing can be the most deceptive. It might not feel
so hot, so you probably won't notice the damage being done so soon. As on every other day then, a good strong
sun cream should therefore be applied to any skin which is exposed. Make the most of the summer, but treat the
sun with the respect it deserves.
For questions 1-8, choose the answer ( A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

1. The writer says that hot weather
A is the main cause of heart attacks.
B requires walkers to have frequent drjnks.
C is the worst type of weather for mountain walking.
D ensures that mountain walkers stay fit.

2. What does the writer say about isotonic drinks?
A it helps to reduce sweating.
B it prevents the loss of body salts.
C it is no better than fruit juice.
D it will prevent you getting sunburnt.

3. It - in paragraph 4 refers to
A the sun.
B your hat.
C the head.
D water.

4. According to the writer , it is better to wear loose-fitting clothing because
A it keeps you cool.
B it is very light.
C it is less likely to create problems for your skin.
D it lasts longer than tight-fitting clothing.

5. According to the text, when might your feet suffer?
A when they cool down.
B if you are wearing tightly-fitting boots.
C when they are wet.
D if you have to walk through water.

6. What does the writer mean by extraneuos clothing in paragraph 7?
A clothing which is no longer needed to keep you warm.
B clothing which most people would consider unusual in hot weather.
C clothing which is too tight.
D clothing which is too heavy to wear.

7. According to the writer, when are the walkers particularly at risk from the effects of the sun?
A when they are unaware of the heat.
B if their sun cream is not strong enough.
C when there is a strong wind.
D if they have suffered an injury.

8. Who has the text been written for?
A people who go walking in the mountains.
B walkers who are unfit.
C people who go walking in hot weather.
D people who only go walking in summer.
Complete the spaces with one of the words from the box.
Ear stomach nose heart blood

1 If you get a ___________ bleed, pinch it with two fingers until it stops.
2 Shell have a ____________ attack when she sees what youve done.
3 Of course he had a _________ ache. He ate far too many cream cakes.
4 With such high____________ pressure you should eat less salt.
5 Shes got a bad____________ infection, so she cant come swimming.
Ankle nose eye throat

1 Thats a nasty black____________. Did somebody hit you?
2 Shes got a very sore_____________. She can hardly speak.
3 Youve got a runny_______________. Would you like a handkerchief?
4 Its just a badly sprained____________. You havent broken anything.

The passive voice
Noun + be ( in the correct form) + past participle
1.Choose the correct word or phrase
1. The prime minister was / has criticised for his recent actions.
2. When I walked past the Wilsons house, their new sofa was / has being delivered.
3. Our teacher was / has told us to take our favourite book to school tomorrow.
4. I think my mobile was / has been stolen.
5. Jonathan was / has chosen to play the lead role in the school play.
6. Im sleeping downstairs because my bedroom is being painted / has been painting.
7. This picture was / has probably taken during the winter.
8. Your essays must be / have handed in on Friday morning.
9. Someone was / has left their wallet on the floor.
10. Did you hear about the bank being / having robbed?
11. Treasure Island was / has written by Robert Louis Stevenson.
12. It was a real shock when my dad was / has fired from his job.
13. The Vikings had visited America before it was / has discovered by Columbus.
14. Was / has your ticket for the concert for tomorrow paid for by you or your parents?
15. When we got to the airport, we learned that our flight was / had been delayed.

2.Complete using the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets.
1 The Earth (hold)by the gravity of the sun and orbits around it.
2 The first feature- length comedy film ( create) Charlie Chaplin.
3 The award for best video ( present) . later this evening.
4 By the time you read this, I (arrest).for murder.
5 I dont know whether our tests ( mark) yet or not.
6 Radio waves ( discover)by Marconi.
7 You wouldnt think it to look at him now, but Jack ( bully). When he was at school.
8 Your application ( consider)..and we will let you know as soon as weve made a decision.
9 The roof of the car can ( lower) by pressing this button here.
10 Our tent ( blow)over in the night by the wind.
11 Chess ( play) .. for around 2000 years now.
12 Two men ( question). at this moment by police in connection with the burglary.
3.Complete the second sentence using the word given so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
Use between 2 -5 words in each gap.
1 Someone has scratched my car on the door. ( been)
My car ..on the door.
2 Tommy is having an operation right now . ( being)
Tommy.... right now.
3 Has Fiona invited you to her party? ( been)
4 Shakespeare probably wrote this play in 1587. ( written)
This play..Shakespeare in 1587.
5 The government is considering a new law to ban smoking following new research. (considered)
A new law to ban smoking. following
new research.
6 My mum told me to go to Megagrocers. ( sent)
I .my mum.
7 I didnt understand a word so I asked my teacher and she explained it to me. ( got)
I didnt understand a word so I . it to me.
What kind of sports do you practice?
What activities do you do in order to keep fit?
How does the day-by-day life affects our health?
What means in your opinion a healthy life?

UFOs - have we been visited?

Is there a scientific explanation for UFOs or do alien life forms
really exist? Kevin McCullough investigates two cases of UFO

On a cold dark winter's evening in 1988, Jon Hickes and Richard
Williams were driving to a friend's house near Canterbury when
they saw a bright red object glowing above the fields about 500
metres in front of them. As they drove nearer to investigate they
were amazed to find a large area of molten metal, bubbling on the
ground like a pool of volcanic lava. When firemen arrived shortly
after, it took them over an hour to cool down the boiling mass and
make it safe.
Samples of the solidified metal were taken to the nearby University
of Kent where they were found to contain iron and small amounts
of tin and chromium. James Radcliffe, a specialist at the university,
concluded that material such as this could not have come from a
meteor , and military experts, for their part, were quick to point out
that it could not have fallen from any aeroplane or spacecraft; space
debris does not hit the earth's surface in a liquid state.
Of course, there were suggestions that the whole thing might have
been a hoax, but a practical joke on this scale would have been very
difficult to set up. The only factory in the area capable of producing molten metal had recently closed down,
and besides, arranging for large quantities of the metal to be dropped from the sky would not be very easy.
Clearly, this was not a simple open-and-shut matter.
Unexplained aerial phenomena of this nature have been observed and noted down for centuries, but the modern
preoccupation with UFOs began in 1947, when there was an unusually large number of reported sightings. In
the last 50 years there have been over 10,000 such reports in Britain alone. Most of these can be attributed to
man-made objects such as aircraft and satellites, or astronomical phenomena such as shooting stars. Just over
five per cent of cases, however, remain unexplained, leading many UFO experts to the conclusion that aliens
have indeed visited our planet.
In another case in the 1980s Les and Linda Burnham were cycling together along a country road near Rye in
Sussex when a sudden, blinding light almost caused them to fall off their bicycles. As the couple stopped to
cover their eyes, they felt intense heat and heard a deafening roar like the sound of a high-speed train. A minute
or so later they were able to look up again , and were greeted with the sight of a huge, diamond-shaped metal
object floating above the treetops, spitting flames and emitting a loud , high-pitched noise. They watched in
shocked silence as the gigantic structure climbed high into the air and disappeared at great speed out to sea.
Then, they claimed, five or six jet aircraft appeared from nowhere and raced off after the mysterious object.
As they cycled the short distance home, Les and Linda suffered headaches and sickness, and during the next
few days experienced minor skin burns. As a result of illness and depression Linda was unable to go work for
nearly six weeks.
Underneath where the object had been floating, an area of woodland had burnt down, electricity cables had
snapped and the road surface had melted. Whatever caused it, the heat must have been incredibly intense to do
all that. As for the jet aircraft, military bases denied all knowledge of them and to this day their origin, like that
of the diamond-shaped object, remains a mystery.
Secret military activities or rare atmospheric phenomena may account for some of the unexplained sightings but
the origin of others could lie elsewhere. And until the opposite is proved, that 'elsewhere' might include visits
from extraterrestrial beings.
1.For questions 1-8, choose the answer ( A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.
1. Which of the following sentences best sum up the writer's views?
A aliens have visited our planet.
B all UFO sightings can explained scientifically.
C alien life forms may exist.
D most UFOs are practical jokes.
2. What are we told about the object which Jon Hickes and Richard William witnessed?
A it is very hot.
B it came up through the ground.
C they watched it change from solid to liquid.
D it was 500 metres wide.
3. 'It' in paragraph 2 refers to
A a meteor
B a spacecraft
C the metal
D the university
4. What does the writer mean when he says ' this is not a simple open-and-shut matter' in paragraph 3?
A it was a complicated hoax.
B the factory was no longer open.
C the sighting is still being investigated
D there was no obvious explanation for the incident.
5. Records of mysterious happenings in the sky were first made
A 50 years ago.
B in 1947
C hundreds of years ago.
D in the nineteen eighties.
6. The object which Les and Linda saw
A was travelling at the same speed as a train.
B made two different sounds.
C was made of metal and diamonds.
D was on fire.
7. As a result of their experience Les and Linda
A began to feel unwell soon
B were ill for several weeks
C were badly burnt
D started feeling sick when they got home.
8. According to Les and Linda, the jet aircraft they saw
A were involved in secret military activity
B followed the strange object
C probably came from a nearby military base
D were the same shape as the unidentified object.
2.Match each sentence beginning on the left with an appropriate ending on the right.
1 As soon as I gave up a )state secrets, he was arrested and held in jail.
2 The cooker was giving off b) the homework tomorrow morning.
3 Suspected of giving away c) smoking, I felt a lot better.
4 He listened closely as they gave out d) food to homeless people.
5 She said we had to give in e) a strange smell, so I got someone to look at it.
6 Street Aid is a charity which gives out f )the money I lent him until Friday.
7 He says he cant give back g) the winning lottery numbers on the news.
Grammar: Conditionals
1.Complete the sentences using your own ideas
1 If you trust him,
2 If you trusted him,
3 If you had trusted him,
4 If you leave at 5 o'clock,
5 If she had called you,
6 If he ate that cake,
7 If she is lazy,
8 If they had looked in his pocket,
9 If Mike found his wallet,
10 If he came to the party,
11 If I'd started learning English a year earlier,
12 If a meteor had struck the Earth,
13 If I won the lottery,
14 If my parents were here,
15 If he does his homework,

2.Complete the gaps in the following sentences with the appropriate form of the verb in brackets.
1 If I ( have )___________ more time, I ( help)_____________ you, but I'm afraid I'm just too busy.
2 I (buy) ___________you a new pair of shoes if you ( promise)___________ to look after them properly.
3 Why did you tell your parents? If you ( not say ) ________________ anything, we (not get )
__________________ into trouble.
4 If he (sleep) ____________ for less than eight hours, he ( be) ____________ bad-tempered all morning.
5 It's a shame you weren't at the party. If you ( go)______________, you ( meet) ________________ my sister.
6 If we ( beat ) _______________ United next Saturday, we ( go) _____________ to the top of the league.
7 There's a quicker way to do it. If you ( press) "control" and "U", it ( underline) ____________ your work as
you write.
8 If I ( be )___________ you, I ( go)___________ to the doctor's.
9 We ( be) ____________ there by 6 o'clock this evening, if the manager ( leave ) ___________ early from the
10 I had to wait two hours to see the doctor. If I ( not take ) _____________ my book with me to read, I ( get )
_____________ so bored.
3.Rewrite sentences below to form second, third or mixed conditional sentences.
1 I don't have to pay to get into the museum because I am unemployed.

2 We didn't go sailing because there wasn't enough wind.

3 We don't go abroad on holiday because I'm afraid of flying.

4 He's broken his leg so he can't drive.

5 I couldn't take any photos because I forgot to pack my camera.

6 He isn't going to the wedding because he hasn't got a suit.

7 He's feeling ill because he drank too much last night.

8 She didn't pass her exams so she couldn't go to university.

9 They didn't watch the news so they didn't hear about the earthquake.

Do you believe in the existence of UFOs?
Have you heard a story about a UFO visiting your country ?
Do you like science-fiction films?
Tell us about your favourite science-fiction film.
5.Describe these images in your own words:

Travel narrows the mind

Is your journey really necessary? John Rentoul makes the case against travel and tourism.

I do not understand the modern fashion for long-distance travel. Of course, there was once an evolutionary
advantage to it all; people moved around in the search for food and better living conditions. But now we do so
without a purpose. We travel thousands of miles to get to the other side of the world, and then two weeks later
we come back again. What for? To see the sights. and make a mess of them ? To get to know other cultures?
You must be joking.

The instinct to explore has been exhausted. Humans have been everywhere, done everything. They have
climbed to the top of Everest so often the summit resembles a rubbish dump. Driven be their genes to invent
ever more absurd frontiers to cross, the sort of people who might once have trekked across the Rocky Mountain
are now chartering jets so they can free fall parachute over Antarctica.

This restlessness and our ever increasing desire to travel long distances is disastrous for the environment. Air
travel burns up unimaginable quantities of fuel and is the most energy-hungry thing that people can do. It is a
scandal that aviation fuel for international flights is not taxed. If the governments of the world could agree to do
something about it, they would have a permanent source of income - and put the brakes on the fastest growing
source of global warming gases.

As for the idea that travel broadens the mind, widens people's horizons and promotes international
understanding, this is just nonsense. You can only really learn anything about foreign countries by living and
working in them and I applaud those who do it. It is tourism I object to, and especially the desire to go to the
remotest, wildest and often purest places in the world and build four-star hotels in them. It does not do the local
people much good: the hotels are owned by foreign companies and only thirty per cent of the profits stay in the
country. Instead, it encourages the demand for Coca Cola and McDonalds and accelerates the homogenization
of world culture. Go abroad and do exactly what you do at home.

But it is not just travel to remote places which is unwise. Even in the United Kingdom, there is no way I would
travel long distances by car. As with air travel, statistics may tell us that motorways are not dangerous, but no
one can tell me that it is safe for people to be hurtling along within feet of each other at more than 70 miles per
hour. If you have to travel long distances, the only civilized way is by train.

Next summer, as you hold on to your seat nervously during take-off, and prepare yourself for a week or two of
jet lag and sunburn, think of me, enjoying uninterrupted sleep on the overnight train to Glasgow.
For questions 1-5, choose the answer ( A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

1. What does the author mean say about the fashion for long distance travel?
A it enables us to understand other cultures
B there is no longer any point to it
C it helps us to relax
D it takes up a lot of time

2. Why do people do things such as free fall parachuting in Antarctica. according to the author ?
A they are trying to solve personal problems
B they feel the need for greater challenges
C it is safer than climbing mountains
D they want to go trekking in isolated places

3. Why, according to the author, should aviation fuel be taxed?
A it would ultimately help reduce pollution
B it would enable governments to buy more fuel
C it would help governments stay in power
D other types of fuel are taxed

4. What does the author mean when he says that tourism " accelerates the homogenization of world cultures" (
paragraph 4)?
A everyone is eating fast food
B people are rapidly becoming the same wherever you go
C people in remote places are becoming purer
D the pace of life is speeding up

5. What does the author feel about road travel?
A distances are too long
B motorways are safe
C other countries are safer than the United Kingdom
D driving can be dangerous.

Choose the correct alternative in each sentence 1 10.
1. Everyone thought the holiday was great fun / funny but I didn't have such a good time.
2. The area near the palace was full / crowded with tourists.
3. The facilities on this camping / campsite are excellent.
4. Have you decided where you're going on holiday / holidays yet?
5. We always stay / live in the same hotel when we go to London.
6. All the hotel at the ski station / resort are fully booked, unfortunatelly.
7. We didn't bring back any souvenirs / memories from our holiday. We didn't see anything worth buying.
8. From the top of cathedral tower there are some spectacular sights / sites / views of the surroundings
9. The cost of the trip / journey / travel includes two nights in a four star hotel with half-board.
10. She didn't enjoy the Mediterranean voyage / cruise / tour at all; she was seasick most of the time.
Grammar: Countable and Uncountable Nouns / Quantifiers
Complete each of the spaces with one of the words from the box. Some words will be used more than once and
more than one answer may be possible for each space.
little few much many some any no deal number piece lot plenty several

1. You drink nothing but lemonade with _________ salt and pepper for about seven days
without__________ food.
2. I wasn't earning a great _________ of money and I simply couldn't afford to buy that car.
3. I used to eat a _________ of junk food.
4. I ate very ________ fresh food and this had a serious effect on my health.
5. And now if I get hungry between meals, I have a ________ cheese or ________nuts, just to fill the hole.
6. When I want to treat myself I have a ________ of cake or a ___________ biscuits.
7. As long as you eat sweet things after a meal, then there's _________ problem.
8. I only ever eat chocolates after lunch or dinner. And never too___________ of course- just one or two.
9. A sensible, balanced diet: __________ of fresh fruit and vegetables ..._______ glasses of water a day
and ___________ snacks between meals.
10. A large _______ of people follow diets, but very __________ of them are happier as a result.
11. I don't pay _____________ attention to what others think or say.

Complete with the words in the plural form.
1. How many (cinema)_______________ are there in London?
2. How many (fly) ____________have you swatted?
3. How many (house)_____________ are there in your street?
4. Is your cat catching ________________ (mouse)?
5. How many (goose)______________ do you have on your farm?
6. Where do (deer) ________________live?
7. How many (fish)_______________ are there in the sea?
8. How many (child)____________ are there in the yard?
9. How many (pencil case) ______________do we have in stock?
10.How many (sheep)_______________ do you have on your farm?

Find the correct answer.
1. Do you know the story where the fairy grants a little girl three (wish)_________.
2. It's the cackling of ( goose)__________ which save Rome from the Gauls.
3. ' There will be blue birds over the white (cliff)________ of Dover ' (a popular song of world war II)
4. Do turtles have (tooth)_________ ?
5. You should place the (knife)_________ and forks to the left of the plates.
6. The hunters never noticed the two (deer)__________ by the apple tree.
7. Please keep your hands and (foot)__________ inside the car.
8. John screamed and the(echo)___________ of his screams sounded in the cave.
9. The children stood on (box)___________ to see the parade.
10. James Bond and George Smiley are popular fictional (spy)_____________
Fill in the following words
advice, chocolate, jam, lemonade, meat, milk, oil, rice, tea, tennis
and form meaningful phrases.
Example: a cube of _____ Answer: a cube of sugar
1) a piece of _________________2) a packet o__________________3) a bar of ___________ 4) a glass
of_______________ 5) a cup of______________ 6) a bottle of _______________ 7) a slice
of______________ 8) a barrel of _____________9) a game of ________________ 10)a jar
Choose the correct form of the verb "to be ". Mind the noun (singular or plural).
1) Ladies and gentlemen, here _______ the news.
2) Where _______my jeans.
3) Further information ______ available in the office.
4) The stairs _______ over there, Sir.
5) The furniture in our classroom ________ uncomfortable.
6) The USA ______ a very nice country.
7) Your sunglasses ________ on the table.
8) Homework _______boring.
9) The scissors on the table________ mine.
10) Physics _______ not easy.

Finish the sentences with the singular or plural form of the nouns.
Example: There is a ____ on the table.
Answer: There is a book on the table.
1) The cat is sitting on my bed / beds.
2) There are five pencil / pencils on my desk.
3) I have two sister / sisters .
4) They are riding their bike / bikes.
5) We have a dog / dogs.
6) How many book /books do you have in your bag?
7) My mother has a new computer / computers .
8) There are three windows in the room / rooms .
9) Susan has four poster / posters .
10) There is one pen / pens on the floor.

Underline the alternative which cannot be used.
1. Have you heard any / a / thenews about the accident ?
2. I didn't speak a large number / a great deal / a lot of English when I was in London.
3. Many / Several / Every people in our neighbourhood have complained about the smell from the factory.
4. They didn't give us very much advice / suggestion / information about where to look for a cheap guest
house / hotel / accommodation in the town.
5. Could you pass me a piece / bar / sliceof bread please?
6. Would you like some / any / few more chips? - No, thanks. I've already got plenty / much /
7. We haven't got no / any / much cheese left. Could you buy a few / a little / someon your way home
8. Come on, let's go out for a meal. We've still got a little / little / plenty of money.
Where do you usually spend your holidays?
What types of activities do you like doing on your holiday?
Is there anywhere you would particularly like to visit ? Why?
Would you like to go on a cruise? Why ? / Why not ?
Do you usually travel by car / train / plane on your holiday?
What is the most beautiful place you visited ?

Meet Bao Bao the Panda

1. Read the text below and try to guess the meaning of the words in bold:

Fans of all things soft and cuddly queue up to hear the name of the latest addition to this US zoo's giant panda
family. In keeping with Chinese tradition, the naming ceremony happened as Bao Bao, which means 'precious
baby', turned 100 days old.
Bao Bao herself was too busy snuggling up to mum in their den to see this special message from a famous

2. Now read these definitions to see if you were right:

something you want to hug

in keeping with:
following the usual way of doing things

naming ceremony:
event at which a person, animal or thing is given a name

snuggling up to:
moving itself close to another thing for comfort

home for (some) animals

3. Use one of the words or phrases below to complete each of these sentences from news reports. Note that
you may have to change the form of a word to complete the sentence correctly.

cuddly / in keeping with / naming ceremony / snuggled up / dens

a. Over the course of the three-day event, there are public prayers, two marriages, and a __________, where
followers choose an ancient name - like Calisto, Hermis or Orpheus - and "cleanse" themselves of their modern
Christian ones.

b. Kipling had probably read a pamphlet by Sir William Henry Sleeman - An Account of Wolves Nurturing
Children in Their __________ - before he created Mowgli.

c. They flew over Belarus, dropping __________ toys with pro-democracy slogans over the town of Ivenets and
a suburb of the capital Minsk, before flying back unmolested to neighbouring Lithuania.

d. For the first 10 years, she __________ between the couple, but now at 130kg (287lbs) she has to have a bed
of her own.

e. The island - which is not populated by humans - is popular with birdwatchers, many hundreds of them flocking there
every year to enjoy the peace and tranquillity. And the cliff-side loo, on the east of the island, is totally __________ that

4. Relative pronouns

Who and whom are for people and which is for things.

Whom is not used much in conversation and refers to an object of a verb or a preposition.
After nouns referring to times and places, when and where can be used to mean at which or in which and why can be
used to mean for which.

Whose is a possessive relative word, referring to people and things.
Prepositions can come before the relative pronoun or at the end of the clause but you cannot use that or who after a

That can often replace whom, who and which. It is used mainly:
a) For people and things and in conversation.
b) After the following: all, everything, something, anything, nothing, none, little, few, much.
c) After superlatives.

Defining and non-defining relative clauses
George, who lives next door, always watches television. (non defining)
The couple who live next door always watch television. (defining)
He showed me a photo that upset me. (_____________________)
He tore up the photo, which upset me. (______________________)
In a non-defining relative clause that cannot be used.

Practice the relatives by filling in the gaps in the text below:

I had one like that, an aunt _______________ name was Enid. In fact whenever I hear the name spoken or read it in a
book, I always conjure up in my mind that aunt ______________ must have been the strangest member that my family
has produced. As a child I had heard stories about her _______________ may or may not have been true. The best one I
remember was ______________ she ended up in hospital with a broken leg. Apparently she was very proud of her
house, _______________ she kept in an immaculate condition, and in this particular incident ___________________
illustrates her eccentricity, she had seen a mess on one of the rugs she kept in her sitting room. As she was expecting a
visitor, ____________________ was due any minute, she opened the door to the garden and threw out the rug
____________________ was causing the trouble and ________________ stain was upsetting her. Unfortunately she
forgot to get off the rug first and threw herself out into the garden as well. That was ________________ she ended up in
the hospital with a broken leg. There were endless stories like those, ________________ were probably exaggerated
and _________________ had been added to over the years. Nobody really knew _______________ was true and
______________ was complete fabrication. The one thing ______________ nobody could understand or explain was
why she had gone to live in another country ______________ she had stayed for more than twenty years. Everybody
had something to say on the matter: she had had an unhappy love affair with a man ______________ was married, she
wanted to make a fresh start in a place ______________ no-one knew her, she wanted to get away from her family
________________ she couldn't put up with. Such stories, ___________ grew in number as the years went by,
fascinated me. The strange thing was that not one of these stories fitted with the generally accepted belief
______________ Aunt Enid was supposed to be a very shy person, _________________ wouldn't have the courage to
say boo to a goose.

5. Choose the option that best completes the sentences below:

Can you hear what he is .......?
(a) saying (b) speaking (c) telling (d) talking

She hasn't come home ........
(a) still (b) already (c) yet (d) till

I ....... TV yesterday evening.
(a) saw (b) looked (c) viewed (d) watched

We live ....... the city centre.
(a) near (b) next (c) by (d) nearby

She looks ....... a famous film star.
(a) as (b) like (c) similar (d) same

This television gives you the ....... news.
(a) last (b) latest (c) least (d) later

I only ....... one mistake in last night's test.
(a) made (b) done (c) did (d) make

I want you to tell me the ....... truth.
(a) all (b) exact (c) real (d) whole

He is looking ....... a present to buy his girlfriend.
(a) for (b) at (c) in (d) on

That's what I would like ....... Christmas.
(a) for (b) at (c) in (d) on


Robot Bike Park in Japan

1. Read the text below and try to guess the meaning of the words in bold:

Where do you park your bicycle in a crowded, thronging city like Tokyo? The answer in a subterranean cycle park.
A robot gracefully whisks your bike 11 metres underground. It stores hundreds of them and returns each one to its
rightful owner in seconds. Just don't forget your ID card.

2. Now read these definitions to see if you were right:

crowded, full of people

under the ground

takes something somewhere else suddenly and quickly

rightful owner:
person who owns something legally

ID card:
identity card

3. Use one of the words or phrases below to complete each of these sentences from news reports. Note that you may
have to change the form of a word to complete the sentence correctly.

thronging / subterranean / whisks / rightful owner / ID card

a. Two sisters in Peru are claiming to be the _________ of the land on which the Unesco World Heritage site Machu
Picchu is located.

b. A big black suburban SUV lurked by the door of number 11 Downing Street as Mitt Romney spoke to the assembled
press, ready to _________ him away when he had answered their last question about the Olympics.

c. The nurses who remained during the SARS outbreak described the hospital as having become like a "desert island" -
suddenly isolated and alone in the centre of an otherwise _________ city.

d. The London Underground is celebrating its 150th anniversary and is the oldest _________ railway in the world.

e. Janice "Lokelani" Keihanaikukauakahihuliheekahaunaele's name is so long - containing 36 letters and 19 syllables -
that it would not fit on the documentation
Hawaii government computer systems are to be upgraded by the end of the year, allowing her to have her full name on
her driving licence and _________.

4. Modal verbs

Must often expresses someones opinion, while have to refers to rules, laws or need.
We must get the fence repaired.
You have to wear protection gear.
I dont have to put up with this.

Be able to is more common when referring to ability/capability and it often is used to suggest managing to accomplish
something or coping with difficulty. Could is more vague: it can refer to someones (in)ability to do something in the past
(but not any longer) or to express possibility.
We were able to make friends with the dolphins in just a few days.
This could be quite difficult.
I tried to open the door but I couldnt.

Need is modal and it is nearly always negative. Need to refers to need or obligation and often carries personal opinion. It
behaves like any other verb (-s for present simple 3
person singular, -ed for past participle form etc).
You neednt have given him food.
She needs to get some help.
You dont need to leave right now.

Rephrase the following sentences using the word given in brackets. Do not change the word given:

a. Im so sorry I never got round to seeing that movie.
(MANAGED) _____________________________________

b. I dont want us to be late, please hurry up!
(COULD) ______________________________________

c. Please come this way.
(WILL) ________________________________________

d. Maybe moving out was not such a good idea.
(SHOULD) ____________________________________

e. My name is Ethel, I think she said, though I am not sure at all!
(HAVE) _______________________________________

5. Look at the picture and, using modal verbs, write what you think the people in the picture might be thinking or

a. __________________________________________

b. __________________________________________

c. __________________________________________

d. __________________________________________

e. __________________________________________

f. __________________________________________

6. Use modal verbs SHOULD, MUST or OUGHT TO to make sentences starting from the following prompts, according to
the model given.

Sarah/eat a lot of meat/high cholesterol
Sarah shouldnt eat a lot of meat, she has rather high cholesterol.

diabetic people/eat sweets/coma
stars/drink a lot/role models
children/respect parents/family harmony
I/do more exercise/weight
friends/support each other/times of difficulty.
people/ride bikes/pollution

7. Choose the colour that best completes the following sentences:

Don't talk to him about politics because it's like a ....... rag to a bull.
(a) blue (b) white (c) red (d) black

He takes the optimistic view and talks about a ....... skies scenario.
(a) red (b) blue (c) white (d) yellow

She hasn't worked here very long and is therefore a little ....... on matters of procedure.
(a) red (b) blue (c) white (d) green

Now that they have read it in ......., they believe me.
(a) red and blue (b) blue and red (c) white and black (d) black and white

The reason why I feel so ....... today is because it's my birthday and no-one has sent me any cards.
(a) red (b) blue (c) white (d) black

She lost the company a lot of money last week and as a result has got a ....... mark against her name.
(a) red (b) blue (c) white (d) black

In this business you cannot afford to make any mistake and must be seen to be lily ........
(a) red (b) blue (c) white (d) green

As they turned round and ran away, people thought they were ........
(a) red (b) blue (c) white (d) yellow

Ask her to help you with your calculations because she's ....... hot at mathematics.
(a) red (b) blue (c) white (d) black

I know he doesn't like you because the moment you came in the room I saw him give you a ....... look.
(a) red (b) blue (c) white (d) black

Surgery App

1. Read the text below and try to guess what the words in bold mean:

The operating theatre can be a daunting place for patients. And for trainee surgeons, limited time and resources mean
not all get enough hands-on experience. Which is why four surgeons in London developed an app to practise surgery.
It has training modules which give step-by-step guides to common surgical procedures.

2. Now read these definitions to see if you were right:

operating theatre:
a room in a hospital in which people are operated on

making you feel slightly scared or worried about your ability to achieve something

trainee surgeons:
people who are learning to be surgeons; surgeons are doctors who are specially trained to perform medical operations

hands-on experience:
experience gained by doing something yourself

doing one thing and then another thing in a fixed order

3. Use one of the words or phrases below to complete each of these sentences from news reports. Note that you may
have to change the form of a word to complete the sentence correctly.

operating theatre / daunting / trainee surgeons / hands-on experience / step-by-step

a. "We've been working on this for seven years, _______, so we're very excited it's finally going to happen," Esencia's
CEO Andrew McDonald said on a tour of the 170-hectare (420-acre) site.

b. Relocating to another country can be a ________ prospect, particularly if you don't speak the language.

c. Stamford Hospital has an outpatients department, a minor injury unit, one __________ and a day surgery unit.

d. By learning online, _________ can do more in their spare time without travelling long distances.

e. The CBI says teenagers will develop a serious interest in science only if they have the chance to get _________ in the

4. Reflexives

a. Narcissus himself saw it in the water. (emphasis)

b. Narcissus saw himself in the water. (reflexive proper)

c. Narcissus himself didnt see anything in the water, but others did. (50-50)

Which is which in the story?

Personally I myself have always prided myself on being able to look after myself in whatever situation I happen to find
myself. My father himself always taught me to take decisions. You should make your own mind up yourself and let
other people get on with things by themselves. Those are the very words themselves that he used. I don't know what
you yourself do. I mean we are all supposed to try and make the best of ourselves. I guess or I imagine from what you
yourself look like that you have a reasonable job. I don't imagine that you earn as much as I myself do. I assume that you
and your family are yourselves struggling to pay the rent or the mortgage? What exactly do you yourself do for a living?'
For a moment the pompous young man turned round on himself. When he turned back he found himself staring at
himself in the mirror. The other 'self' had slipped away and was now enjoying herself in another part of the room talking
to a young man who was looking very pleased with himself.

5. Use the words in the box to derive words that will fill in the blanks in the text below. The words are listed in the
order you need to use them.

Ever since primitive man traded rocks for dead rabbits, there have been (1) _________. A thought like 'those rocks are
too small' in those days is a 'your service is too (2) _________' nowadays. Objections are rife in sales, and if you're selling
your own (3) _________ or services, you're bound to have been hit hard when you (4) _________ them.
Many people in the same situation as you have (5) _________ tired of objections and often told the (6) _________
customer to 'go find someone else' or ignored them and hoped they'd go away. That's the wrong attitude! If you could
(7) _________ all of the customers who've had objections with your (8) _________ into happy customers who love you
to bits, you'd have many more customers wouldn't you?

6. Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown:

1. I have an appointment for a haircut this afternoon.
Im having .
2. I remembered I had forgotten to buy any eggs after I arrived home.
Only .
3. I wouldnt tell her now if I were you.
You .
4. The sooner the job is over the better.
Lets .
5. What would you do if you won the game?
Supposing .

7. Choose the option that best completes each of the following sentences:

1. Doug ___ the rented video on his way to work. He asked if there was a sequel to the movie but they told him there
was none.
a. returned
b. must not have returned
c. had returned

2. The computers not working. It _ during shipping.
a. got damaged
b. has gotten damaged
c. is getting damaged

3. The package ___ tomorrow afternoon. Express mail always works without a flaw.
a. will be delivered.
b. should have been delivered.
c. would be delivered.

4. Mike decided not to join us for lunch. He ___ at work to finish the marketing report.
a. was staying
b. had to stay
c. would stay

5. She ___, so no wonder she was crying.
a. was losing her keys
b. had lost her keys
c. would have lost

6. I ___ to Paris, but I know I will go one day!
a. was never
b. have never been
c. wasnt traveling

7. She said she ___ for sure, so I wouldnt worry.
a. is going to call
b. will call
c. would call

8. Choose the best solution for the gaps in the sentences below:

Some people only read the ....... lines in a newspaper.
(a) top (b) big (c) main (d) head

You should always check the sell ....... date of things you buy in the supermarket.
(a) in (b) through (c) by (d) off

When the building was completed, all the workers were paid ........
(a) off (b) through (c) out (d) over

The boss was good enough to ....... my mistake.
(a) oversee (b) overtake (c) overdo (d) overlook

It is always ....... when you misunderstand the customs of other countries.
(a) embarrassing (b) peculiar (c) singular (d) attitude

Newspapers are ....... to people's doors every day.
(a) taken (b) distributed (c) delivered (d) handed

In her speech she expressed her ....... for all the help she had been given.
(a) thankfulness (b) gratitude (c) gratefulness (d) thanking

In ....... nothing much happened at the meeting.
(a) quick (b) briefly (c) short (d) shortly

At the end of the speech the whole assembly gave the speakers a standing ........
(a) ovation (b) applause (c) cheering (d) support

Politicians pretend to ignore opinion ........
(a) votes (b) figures (c) numbers (d) polls

Broken Hearts and Fish Out of Water
Have you ever had an accident while eating?
What kind of accidents may take place during meals?
Can you describe these pictures?

2. Read the story silently
Yesterday Tad and Hannah went to a seafood restaurant for lunch. While they were
eating, Hannah noticed a very cute guy at the next table. Later, when Tad went to the
restroom, Hannah started talking to the man, Jim. Tad came back while they were talking,
and he got very angry. He yelled at Jim and grabbed him by the neck. Suddenly, Jim
fainted. Tad didnt know what to do, but Hannah started to perform CPR on Jim. While
Hannah was performing CPR, Jims girlfriend, Tammy, walked into the restaurant.
Tammy thought Hannah was kissing Jim, and she suddenly fainted. Unfortunately, when
she fainted, she crashed into a giant fish tank. The fish and water spilled everywhere.
After the fish tank fell over, the restaurant manager left the cash register and ran over to
see what was happening. Before he returned to the cash register, someone robbed it. Both
Jim and Tammy recovered, but the restaurant lost a lot of money and fish. The restaurant
manager is suing Tad, Hannah, Jim and Tammy.

Comprehension Questions
1. Why did Tad get angry?
2. Why did Jim faint?
3. Why did Tammy faint?
4. Why did the fish tank fall over?
5. Why was it easy for someone to rob the cash register?
3.In pairs, retell the story to each other without looking
back at it.
4.Time Clause Exercise
Using the words below, write sentences that match actions in the story.
Example: Hannah/ notice/ eat
Hannah noticed a cute guy at the next table while she and Tad were eating.
Example: Tad and Hannah/eat/notice
While Tad and Hannah were eating, Hannah noticed a cute guy at the next table.
1. Hannah/ start talking/go to the restroom
2. Tad/go to the restroom/start talking
3. Tad/come back/talking
4. Tad/yell/grab

5. Hannah/do CPR/walk into
6. Tammy/walk into/do CPR

7. Tammy/crash/faint
8. Tammy/faint/crash

9. Water/spill/fall over

5.In pairs, prepare questions for Tad, Hannah, Jim, Tammy and the restaurant
manager to determine who was responsible for the damage.
Try to make some questions for one of the fish, too. Make questions containing time clauses.
e.g. (Question for Tad: What did you do when Jim
6.The students who impersonate Tad, Hannah, the restaurant manager and the fish will answer their
interviewers questions and another group of 4 students-The Jury- will decide who was guilty for the damage.
7.Follow-Up Assignment
Write a description of the accident from the point of view of one of the
characters in the story. Try to use time clauses in the assignment, but
do not copy those used in the story or the time clause exercise.

Direct speech Reported speech
Close the windows, please!, said the teacher. The teacher asked the pupils to cole the windows.
Dont drink that! the boy told me. The boy told me not to drink that.
Lets hurry now!, he said. He suggested that they should hurry then.

Reporting exclamations involves the right choice of reporting verbs( greet, thank, wish, call, etc) and of equivalent
phrases (to exclaim in surprise, in disgust, etc.)
Direct speech Reported speech
Merry Christmas!, she said. She wished me a Merry Christmas.

Good morning!, he said. He greeted me.
What a glorious day!, she exclaimed. She exclaimed/remarked that it was a glorious day.
well done, Tom! I congratulated Tom.
Should, ought to You ought to be more polite,
she told Joe.
She told Joe that he ought to be
more polite.
Might I could ski at the age of 3, he
told us.
He told us that he had been able
to ski at the age of 3.
Used to I must take this medicine, he
He said that he had to take that
Had better-all these DO NOT
You must keep a diet, the
doctor told Ted.
The doctor told Ted that he
should keep a diet.
You neednt write this, the
teacher told us.
The teacher told us that we
didnt have to write that.

Turn these sentences into Reported Speech:
1.Please, come back soon!Tom said.
2.Good afternoon, Louise! How are you?,She said.
3.Sally told me:Happy birthday!
4.Lets go by train!, the girls said.
5.Well done, Peter!, said the teacher.

1.Funny medical jokes : Turn these jokes into Reported Speech:
Smile:A note on dentists' door: "Smile. You might be doing this for the last time".
Pulling out a tooth
- Dont worry, it will take me only a minute to pull your tooth out.
- And how much will it cost me?
- 100$.
- For a 1 minute job?!
- If you prefer, I can be pulling it out for one hour.
Doc to a patient:
- There are no doubts - you have been poisoned!
- For goodness' sake, With what, Doc?
- Don't worry, we'll find that out during dissection..
At psychiatrist:
- Do you consume alcohol?
- No.
- Do you smoke?
- No.
- Do you use drugs?
- No.
- Do you play cards?
- No.
- Do you run after other women?
- No.
- So why did you come to me?
- You see, doc, I have one little problem - I lie a lot..
Prepare your husband
- Madam, please prepare your husband for the worst!
- Oh God, will he die?
- No. He will not be allowed to drink any beer!
New Russian says to a doctor after he gives his diagnosis:
- Doc, you have to make the decision. Either I will live or you will die....
Doctor tells to patient:
- I have some bad news and worse news.
- What is it, doctor?
- The laboratory test results show that you have only 24 hours to live.
- Oh my God!
- The worse news is that I was tried telling this to you yesterday but your cell phone was unreachable.
2. Find the reply:
a)Dentist: Calm down. I havent touched your tooth yet.
b)Patient: Is it serious, doctor?
c)Patient: Doctor, please, help me. I cant stop telling lies.
d)Doctor: Are the pills I gave you to improve your memory helping you?
e)Doctor: Well. Mrs Smith, you seem to be coughing much more easily this morning.
Patient: ..
1.What pills?
2.I wouldnt start watching any new television serials.
3.I dont believe you.
4.I know, but youre standing on my foot.
5.Thats because Ive been practicing all night.

Ive got a headache,Ive got a headache,
I dont want to go to bed,
Ive got a fever,Ive got a fever
I dont want to do my homework!
Ive got a stomach-ache, Ive got a stomach-ache.
I dont want to eat my lunch,
Ive got a blister, Ive got a blister,
I dont want to see my sister!
Every time I get a headache
Mamma takes me to the doctor,
Every time I get a fever
Mamma takes me to the nurse;
Every time I get a toothache
Mamma takes me to the dentist,
Every time I see the dentist
I always come home feeling worse!!!

I. Lead- in
1. Do you live in a house or a flat? What are the advantages/disadvantages of living in a house/flat?
2. What other types of houses are you familiar with?
II. Reading
You are going to read two articles. Look at the two pictures and read the headings. What are the articles about? Read
and check.

The lighthouse

Luke Matthews says that as soon as he saw the lighthouse he
wanted to live in it.

I was looking for a place in the country where I could
concentrate on my writing without any disturbances. Having
become a successful novelist I was getting fed up with people
ringing the doorbell, so the lighthouse was the perfect answer.

It definitely prevents passers by from popping in the lighthouse is in a remote part
of the country. Theres a rough track from it that leads to the main road, and the
nearest village is a 15-minute drive away so its certainly secluded. Does Luke feel
isolated or lonely?

Not at all, I work much better alone and enjoy my own company. I prefer to work with the phone switched off too I
just dont want anything to disrupt my train of thought. If I feel the need for some company I can always drive to the
local pub or pop back to London for the weekend. Besides, the views from the lighthouse are inspirational. I get up early
to see the dawn and love watching the sun setting over the sea too. Of course I have a 360-degree view so whenever I
look up from my work theres a beautiful scene. I especially love watching the thunderstorms and lightening, luckily the
lighthouse is very solidly built because it can get very windy at times!

In fact the walls of the lighthouse are made from granite and the glass in the windows is one inch thick, enabling it to
have stood for over one hundred years.

People think I live in a quiet place but this isnt true. Not only is the wind quite noisy but there are also lots of sea birds
like gulls that squawk and screech all day. The waves crashing on the rocks can be deafening too but I like that. When its
calmer I scramble down and do a bit of fishing theres nothing nicer than eating freshly caught lobster and crab. I
sometimes see whales, occasionally dolphins and quite often seals playing near the rocks. I love all this and Im finding it
increasingly difficult to return to London I just want to be here with the smell of the sea and the wind in my hair.

Inside the lighthouse it is surprisingly comfortable, and a lot quieter too. The front door leads into the largest of the
circular rooms the kitchen cum dining room. Luke
explains that the gas stove is on because hes baking some bread. We climb the spiral staircase and reach the living room
which has a number of large armchairs, hundreds
of books and no TV. I didnt see the point in hanging any pictures the wonderful views are enough to look at! Next
floor up is a bedroom and small bathroom, and right at the top is the study. Here there are a lot more books, a computer
sitting on a small table and, of course, the same wonderful views west across the sea and east towards the countryside.

My only regret is that its too windy to grow vegetables, but the rabbits would eat everything anyway. Otherwise for
me this is simply the best place in the world!

The narrowboat

Nicole Fayolle has been living on her narrowboat for
almost five years now. She bought it in Belgium and
has been travelling around the canals and waterways
of Europe ever since.

I love travelling so when a friend suggested I bought a narrowboat it seemed such a good idea to be able to see lots of
different places without having to leave home! It also means that Nicole can take all her painting equipment with her
wherever she
goes. Before, most of my baggage was taken up with my easel and paints and brushes but now I have everything at
hand all the time. I love sitting on the deck and painting and then popping downstairs for a cup of coffee!

Most of the time Nicole stays overnight in official moorings where water and electricity are provided. Sometimes
however, if she finds a nice spot, shell tie the boat up to a tree. The countryside in France for example can be very
beautiful. There are usually lots of river birds, including herons, and its wonderfully peaceful. For me its the perfect
place to sit and paint for hours and its especially nice knowing that I dont have to leave.

The narrowboat, which is called Libert, is just over 20 metres long and inside the rooms are low and narrow. The small
kitchen has a boiler that heats up the radiators (It can get very cold in the winter so good heating is essential.) and lots
of jars of homemade marmalade. Theres a small bedroom and a tiny bathroom. Nicole has put most effort into making
the living room a nice place to be in. There are many days when its just too cold to be outside so I wanted to feel ok
about being inside a small space for a long time. Luckily the windows are quite large so theres plenty of light. Otherwise
I prefer sitting up on the deck here with Candy. At the mention of its name a small dog appears, wagging its tail. Does
she need the dog for company?

Not really, the narrowboat community is very sociable its rather like a moving village. We keep in touch either by
phone or email. When it starts getting colder we arrange to meet in the same place and then book ahead because most
of the winter ports all have waiting lists. We then stay there together until the spring. I would say that most of us stay
about five or six months, it adds some continuity to my life and also helps to make and keep friends. However, I do like
dogs and having Candy means never feeling alone. She loves the water and is a good swimmer so I never worry about

Nicole doesnt spend all day and night on her boat. She has a bicycle and often rides to the nearest villages for
provisions. Coming back with warm, fresh bread is great, and fresh coffee too. I usually cook for myself and love using
home grown herbs but its been difficult growing things on the boat there really isnt too much space for many pots

Otherwise Nicole is more than happy with her nomadic lifestyle. My only regret is that I didnt start to do this earlier!

III. Reading tasks

1. Ask and answer these questions with another student:

Where would you prefer to live in a lighthouse or on a narrowboat?
What do you think are the main differences between the two homes?
What kind of person would like to live in these homes?

2. Read either about the lighthouse or the narrowboat person and answer the questions.

What does the person do?
What is their main reason for choosing this type of home?
How does their choice of home affect their work?
What adjectives are used to describe the place?
What does he/she do for companionship?
Which aspect of the weather causes most problems? And what is/are the solutions to this?
What words would you use to describe the persons personality?
What examples of self-reliance* are given?
* Not dependent on other people for help.

3. What do you think? Ask and answer these questions with another student:

Do you think you need to be an artistic person to have an alternative lifestyle?
Which person may want to leave and move back to a more conventional home?
How would your friends and family react if you wanted to live in a very different kind of home?
Whats important for you in a home? Put these in order of priority for you:
the size number of bedrooms etc / an outdoor area balcony, terrace or
garden / nice views / friendly neighbours / security / convenient location
near shops or transport / privacy. You can add something else if you want.

IV. Vocabulary Practice
1. Study the phrases. Can you think of any more adjectives? Use as many phrases as possible to talk about where a)
you live and b) a friend lives.
- shop: busy, corner, local, expensive;
- street: tree-lined; narrow; congested; wide;
- village: quiet; isolated; pretty; small;
- house: semi-detached; comfortable; traditional; terraced; spacious;
- town: industrial; large; modern; clean;
- restaurant: elegant; crowded; cheap; popular; fast-food.
2. Match the words below with their definitions:
Stadium, port, tower, square, pedestrian area, underground, statue
a. this electric train network runs under some cities
b. sports events and concerts are held here
c. this model of an important person is usually placed where everyone will see it
d. cars and motorbikes are not allowed here
e. this tall building may stand alone or be part of another building
f. this is where ships are loaded and unloaded
g. markets or events are often held in this open space

1. Write a short article for a teen magazine about yourself and the place you live in (60-80 words). Write: full
name; job/studies/habits; name of the place you live in; reasons why you (dont) like it.
2. Collect information to write a short quiz about the capital city of your country.

Revision of PAST SIMPLE

A. Put one of these verbs in each sentence:
buy catch cost drink fall hurt sell spend teach throw win write
1. Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music.
2. 'How did you learn to drive?' 'My father --- me.'
3. We couldn't afford to keep our car, so we --- it.
4. I was very thirsty. I --- the water very quickly.
5. Paul and I played tennis yesterday. He's much better than me, so he --- easily.
6. Don --- down the stairs this morning and --- his lag.
7. Jim --- the ball to Sue, who --- it.
8. Ann --- a lot of money yesterday. She --- a dress which --- l100.

B. A friend has just come back from holiday. You ask him about it. Write your questions.
1. (where/go?) Where did you go?
2. (go alone?) ---
3. (food/good?) ---
4. (how long/stay there?) ---
5. (stay/at a hotel?) ---
6. (how/travel?) ---
7. (the weather/fine?) ---
8. (what/do in the evenings?) ---
9. (meet anybody interesting?) ---

C. Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative.
1. It was warm, so I _took_ off my coat. (take)
2. The film wasn't very good. I didn't enjoy it very much. (enjoy)
3. I knew Sarah was very busy, so I --- her. (disturb)
4. I was very tired, so I --- to bed early. (go)
5. The bed was very uncomfortable. I --- very well. (sleep)
6. Sue wasn't hungry, so she --- anything. (eat)
7. We went to Kate's house but she --- at home. (be)
8. It was a funny situation but nobody --- (laugh)
9. The window was open and a bird --- into the room. (fly)
10. The hotel wasn't very expensive. It --- very much. (cost)
11. I was in a hurry, so I --- time to phone you. (have)
12. It was hard work carrying the bags. They --- very heavy. (be)

I. Lead-in
1. What is the punishment for cheating in your school?
2. Do you know/have you heard of anyone who has ever caught cheating?
3. Have you ever cheated (on any tests or otherwise)?
4. What does plagiarism mean?

II. Reading
You are going to read an article about cheating. Were any of your previous answers/ideas present in the text?


Everybody cheats. Whether its the taxi driver who tricks a visitor and takes them the long way round, or the shop
assistant who doesnt give the correct change, or the police officer who accepts a bribe everybodys at it. Cheats in the
news include the scientist
whose research was based on fake data, the game show contestant who collaborated with a friend in the audience to
win a million pounds, and the doctor who forged his qualifications and wasnt really a doctor at all. Everybody cheats;
nobodys playing the game.

Is cheating acceptable, a natural way of surviving and being successful? Or is it something that should be frowned on,
and young people discouraged from doing? If its the latter how can we explain to children why so many bend the rules?

Take sport for example. The pinnacle of football, the World Cup, was rife with cheating. Whether diving, pretending to
be hurt or denying a handball, footballers will do anything for a free-kick or a penalty shot. France striker Henry denied
cheating to win the free-kick which led to his sides second goal in their 3-1 victory over Spain. Many footballers,
however, are often putting it on. Whatever the nationality theres one common ploy: the player rolls over holding their
leg, ankle or head seeming to be in great pain. As a result a yellow card and/or free-kick is given for the foul and then, a
few seconds later, the player is up and about as if nothing had happened! The ref may be taken in by it but youngsters
watching the game arent. They also see their heroes getting away with it.

Its not just the footballers. In June 2006 Fifa suspended Greece and its member clubs from International competition.
As a result Greek clubs and officials are banned from European competition, including the Champions League and the
EUFA cup. Meanwhile four leading Italian clubs are on trial for match-fixing. If found guilty the clubs could also be
banned from European competition. Whatever, football suffers from unsportsmanship and it sets a bad example to

Of course its not just football either. In 1998 the Tour de France, the worlds greatest cycling event, was hit by a drug-
taking scandal. The 40 bottles of doping products found with the Festina team triggered a massive investigation that
almost caused the Tour to be abandoned. One rider, Virenque, was banned for 9 months. He claimed: "You have cheats
in sport, just as you do in business -there will always be people trying to take a short cut. At least we're not turning a
blind eye to the problem, which other sports are."

Cycling certainly does test more than others but whether its now cleaner than the 98 fiasco remains to be seen. The
day before the 2006 Tour started 13 riders were withdrawn by their teams under suspicion of doping. A climate of
mistrust surrounds everyone and anyone connected with the sport.

Is it all inevitable? Theres tremendous pressure on all athletes to perform for their fans
and for their sponsors. Its success, money and power that rule professional sport rather than an honest attempt to do
the best one can.
As for business, Virenque certainly has a point. The former bosses of Enron were convicted on fraud charges following
one of the most infamous scandals in corporate history. Enron, which was Americas seventh-largest company, collapsed
in 2001 causing thousands of people to lose their jobs and life savings. They had fooled investors into believing the
company was healthier than it really was. One boss now faces the rest of his life in prison.

Meanwhile companies around the world are losing billions of dollars to the counterfeit trade. From cut-price CDs and
DVDs to sportswear and cosmetics, cheap fake products are everywhere. The piracy business has never been so lucrative
for the high street cheat. It has become socially acceptable to buy phoney Gucci bags and illegal copies of films. If
parents are doing this, their children will follow.

So perhaps its not surprising that around the world more pupils than ever are caught cheating during exams. In one
case missing exam papers were put up for sale on the Internet. In another, widespread cheating took place by pupils
using their mobile phones to receive texted answers. In a third case pupils admitted to candidate substitution. They
blame the pressure put on them to do well in exams. It doesnt help that their role models are also cheats. Surely we
cant complain when were setting such a bad example?

Reading tasks

1. In what ways can the following people cheat?
a taxi drivers d scientists
b shop assistants e game show contestants
c police officers f doctors

2. Read the text and decide which is the best summary:
a Exams are not a good way of testing children.
b Children are natural cheats.
c If adults cheat, children will cheat too.

3. Read the text again and fill in the table about who cheats, how they do it, and why they do it. If the information isnt
in the text then guess the answer. Then compare your answers with another student.

Who? How? Why?
Italian football


Sellers of

Pupils taking

4. There is a lot of vocabulary to do with cheating. Find the following 4 idioms in
the text (paragraphs 1,2 and 5):
to play the game
to bend the rules
(to take) a short cut
to turn a blind eye (to sth)

Remember that an idiom is an expression whose meaning is different from the meaning of the individual words. For
example, to have your feet on the ground is an idiom meaning to be sensible. (Macmillan Essential Dictionary)

Look how the idioms are used and then choose an idiom for each of the
sentences below:
a The bosses of Enron didnt _______.
b The finals on really late tonight can you _______ if were not in at 9am?
c There arent any _______ to learning English; its all hard work!
d Theres a holiday tomorrow can you _______ and not give us any homework?

5. There are also some idiomatic phrasal verbs too. See how they are used in paragraph 3 and then match the verb with
a definition.
a to put it on to escape without getting caught
b to take sb in (often passive) to pretend (to be hurt etc)
c to get away with sth to deceive sb in order to get what you want

Now choose a verb, and correct tense, for each of the following sentences:
d He looked so kind, I was completely _______ and now hes got my money!
e The police cant help, so he _______ !
f I really thought he needed help, but he _______ .

6. Read the text and either find four adjectives or find four nouns which are connected with cheating. Use a dictionary to
find the meanings of the words. Then write a sentence for each word so that the meaning is clear. Then share your four
sentences with another student to complete the table.



7. Do you agree or disagree with these statements from the reading?
a Everybody cheats.
b The World Cup was rife with cheating.
c Football suffers from unsportsmanship.
d Its success, money and power that rule professional sport.
e It has become socially acceptable to buy illegal copies of films.
f Its not surprising that pupils cheat when taking exams.

8. Write a letter to a sports magazine. Depending on your view you can either complain because so many
sportsmen and women cheat nowadays, or stand up against the criticisms made in the reading about cheating in
sport. Write 100-150 words. Try and use as many new words and phrases from the reading.


I. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use the past continuous.
1. Tom burnt his hand while he was cooking the dinner.
2. The doorbell rang while I ---
3. We saw an accident while we ---
4. Mary fell asleep while she ---
5. The television was on but nobody ---

II. Put the verbs into the correct form, past continuous or past simple.
1. Jane was waiting (wait) for me when I arrived (arrive).
2. 'What --- (you/do) this time yesterday?' 'I was asleep.'
3. '--- (you/go) out last night?' 'No, I was too tired.'
4. 'Was Carol at the party last night?' 'Yes, she --- (wear) a really nice dress.'
5. How fast --- (you/drive) when the accident --- (happen)?
6. John --- (take) a photograph of me while I --- (not/look).
7. We were in a very difficult position. We --- (not/know) what to do.
8. I haven't seen Alan for ages. When I last --- (see) him, he --- (try) to find a Job in London.
9. I --- (walk) along the street when suddenly I --- (hear) footsteps behind me. Somebody --- (follow) me. I was frightened and I
--- (start) to run.
10. When I was young, I --- (want) to be a bus driver.