A cement and concrete industry publication

User Guide to RC Spreadsheets: v4
(Addendum to v3)

User Guide to Excel Spreadsheets for reinforced concrete design to BS EN 1992:2004
Part 1-1 and its UK National Annex (incl AMD 1) and BS 8110: Part 1, 1997 (incl Amd 4)
C H Goodchild BSc CEng MCIOB MIStructE
R M Webster CEng FIStructE
This 4th edition or version 4 of the User Guide to the RC Spreadsheets is intended to be read as an addendum
to the version 3 publication
published in July 2006. This 4th edition covers revisions to the Eurocode series of
spreadsheets (produced by The Concrete Centre) that have proved necessary following publication of amendment
AMD 1 to the UK National Annex to Eurocode 2 in December 2009 and subsequent withdrawal of BS 8110
in March 2010. It also formally introduces five new spreadsheets in the Eurocode series and gives additional
commentary on others.
RC-spreadsheets:v4 is intended to help with the rapid production of clear and accurate design calculations for
reinforced concrete elements to both Eurocode 2 and BS 8110-1:1997.
The first version of this publication and the spreadsheets were produced by the Reinforced Concrete Council (RCC).
Since its release in 2000 the spreadsheets have proved enormously popular and have been maintained by the RCC
and its successor, The Concrete Centre.
The ideas and illustrations come from many sources. The help and guidance received from many individuals are
gratefully acknowledged.
Thanks are due to members of the original project’s Advisory Group for their time and effort in helping to make the
project feasible and in bringing it to fruition. The members of the Advisory Group are listed on the inside back cover.
TCC55X Axial Column Shortening (24 storeys) was sponsored by Adams Kara Taylor.
Published by MPA - The Concrete Centre
Riverside House, 4 Meadows Business Park, Station Approach, Blackwater, Camberley, Surrey GU17 9AB
Tel: +44 (0)1276 606800 Fax: +44 (0)1276 606801
CCIP-053. Published August 2010. © MPA - The Concrete Centre
User Guide v1 published by the British Cement Association on behalf of the Reinforced Concrete Council.
User Guide v2 published electronically by The Concrete Centre.
User Guide v3 published by The Concrete Centre. CCIP-008 - July 2006
CCIP publications are produced on behalf of the Cement and Concrete Industry Publications Forum – an industry
initiative to publish technical guidance in support of concrete design and construction.
CCIP publications are available from the Concrete Bookshop at www.concretebookshop.com
Tel: +44 (0)7004 607777
All advice or information from MPA - The Concrete Centre is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents
and take responsibility for its use and application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information
is accepted by MPA - The Concrete Centre or their subcontractors, suppliers or advisors. Readers should note that MPA - The Concrete Centre
publications are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version.
User Guide to
RC Spreadsheets: v4
(Addendum to v3)
TCC15 Axially Loaded Walls and Columns 11
TCC22 FE Assistant 12
TCC55X Axial Column Shortening 14
TCC62 Retaining Wall Design 16
TCC63 Core Wall Design 21
TCC94 Two Way Slab 24
User Guide
v3 v4
Using the spreadsheets 10 8
Amendments to V3 spreadsheet descriptions 9
Menu.xls 16
General notes to Eurocode 2 versions 181
Elements TCC11 Element Design.xls 185
TCC12 Bending and Axial Force.xls 194
TCC13 Slab Punching.xls 196 9*
TCC14 Crack Width.xls 201
TCC15 Resistance of Axially Loaded Walls/Slabs 11
Analysis TCC21 Subframe Analysis.xls 205
TCC22 FE Assistant 12
Slabs TCC31 One-way Slabs.xls 208
TCC31R Rigorous One-way Slabs.xls 214
TCC32 Ribbed Slabs (A&D).xls 221
TCC33 Flat Slabs (A&D).xls 228
TCC33X Flat Slabs (A&D).xls 237
Beams TCC41 Continuous Beams.xls 243 9*
TCC41R Rigorous Continuous Beams.xls 249
TCC42 Post-tensioned Analysis & Design.xls (Beta) 256
TCC43 Wide Beams (A & D).xls 264
Columns TCC51 Column Load Take-down Design.xls 270
TCC52 Column Chart generation.xls 276
TCC53 Column Design.xls 278
TCC54 Circular Column Design.xls 280
TCC55 Axial Column Shortening.xls 282 10*
TCC55X Axial Column Shortening (24 storeys) 14
Walls TCC62 Retaining Wall Design.xls 16
TCC63 Core Wall Design 21
Stairs TCC71 Stair Flight & Landing - Single.xls 284
Foundations TCC81 Foundation Pads.xls 287
TCC82 Pilecap Design.xls 291
Tabular versions TCC94 Two Way Slab 24
Contents in full and location of guidance
Contents in full and location of guidance in User Guides to RC Spreadsheets: v3 and v4
* Amendment
Contents in full and location of guidance
User Guide
v3 v4
Elements RCC11 Element Design.xls 19
RCC12 Bending and Axial Force.xls 26
RCC13 Punching Shear.xls 28
RCC14 Crack Width.xls 33
Analysis RCC21 Subframe Analysis.xls 35
Slabs RCC31 One-way Solid Slabs (A & D).xls 38
RCC31R Rigorous One-way Slabs.xls 43
RCC32 Ribbed Slabs (A & D).xls 50
RCC32R Rigorous Ribbed Slabs.xls 56
RCC33 Flat Slabs (A & D).xls 64
Beams RCC41 Continuous Beams (A & D).xls 72
RCC41R Rigorous Continuous Beams (A & D).xls 78
RCC42 Post-tensioned Slabs & Beams (A & D).xls 85
RCC43 Wide Beams (A & D).xls 107
Columns RCC51 Column Load Take-down & Design.xls 113
RCC52 Column Chart generation.xls 118
RCC53 Column Design.xls 120
RCC54 Circular column charting.xls 123
Walls RCC61 Basement Wall.xls 125
RCC62 Retaining Wall.xls 132
Stairs RCC71 Stair Flight & Landing - Single.xls 139
RCC72 Stairs & Landings - Multiple.xls 142
Foundations RCC81 Foundation Pads.xls 146
RCC82 Pilecap Design.xls 149
Tabular versions RCC91 One-way Solid Slabs (Tables).xls 158
RCC92 Ribbed Slabs (Tables).xls 161
RCC93 Flat Slabs (Tables).xls 166
RCC94 Two-way Slabs (Tables).xls 173
RCC95 Continuous Beams (Tables).xls 175
The RC spreadsheets were originally produced
under the Reinforced Concrete Council’s project,
‘Spreadsheets for concrete design to BS 8110 and EC2’.
They were released in January 2000 and have been
maintained and extended by the RCC and its successor
The Concrete Centre. They continue to be supported by
The Concrete Centre.
Version 4 of the User Guide covers version 4 of
the spreadsheets. The Concrete Centre series
of spreadsheets have been updated in line with
amendment 1 of the UK National Annex to Eurocode 2
in December 2009. Whilst BS 8110 was ‘withdrawn’ by
BSI early in 2010, it was recognised that some projects
and indeed some practitioners may wish to continue
using this standard in the short to medium term. Thus
the RCC series of spreadsheets have been updated and
are reissued.
In 2006, the introduction of Eurocode 2
, its
National Annex and Amendment of BS 8110:1997

necessitated the revision of all the spreadsheets
produced to that date and the publication of version 3
of the User Guide. The third edition of the User Guide
provided guidance on the use of all spreadsheets
produced to July 2006.
The vast majority of version 3 of the User Guide
remains valid and the decision was made that
version 4 should take the form of an addendum
to version 3. Therefore only those areas that are
significantly different or new are contained in version
4. For instance, version 4 formally introduces five new
spreadsheets to the Eurocodes. Detailed descriptions
of the majority of spreadsheets will be found in version
3 of the User Guide.
For the experienced engineer, the spreadsheets allow
the rapid production of clear and accurate design
calculations. The spreadsheets allow younger users to
understand concrete design and help them to gain
experience by studying their own ‘what if’ scenarios. The
individual user should be able to answer his/ her own
questions by chasing through the cells to understand
the logic used. Cells within each spreadsheet can be
interrogated and can have their formulae checked
and values traced. The original spreadsheets reflected
a consensus of opinion on several design issues.
The version 3 Eurocode 2 spreadsheets reflected
a consensus of opinion of a limited number of
engineers. Version 4 Eurocode spreadsheets benefit
from a few years use - students and young engineers
may follow the ‘model’ calculations presented in the
spreadsheets to form an understanding of current
reinforced concrete design.
The spreadsheets are intended to follow normal design
practice and cater for the design of low- to medium-
rise multi-storey concrete framed buildings. They are
offered as shareware. However, users are required to
register when using them in any commercial capacity*.
The original project was jointly funded by the RCC and
the Department of the Environment Transport and the
Regions (DETR) under its Partners in Technology scheme.
It was made possible by the support and contributions
of time given by individual members of industry.
The project was managed by the RCC and guided by
an 80-strong Advisory Group of interested parties,
including consulting engineers and software houses.
In producing the original spreadsheets several issues
had to be addressed. Firstly, which spreadsheet package
should be used? Excel (© Microsoft Corporation)
appeared to hold about 70% of the market amongst
structural engineers and was thus adopted. More
specifically, Excel ’97© was originally adopted as
being de facto the most widely available spreadsheet
in the field. To avoid complications, it was decided
not to produce corresponding versions using other
spreadsheet packages. The spreadsheets are compatible
with later versions of Excel.
Whilst the spreadsheets to BS 8110 provide a
consensus of current commercial reinforced concrete
design practice, the spreadsheets to Eurocode 2,
provide a consensus of design procedures to this
new design code. The introduction of Eurocode 2 will
provide commercial opportunities for those who are
prepared to use it. The spreadsheets should help with
the transition between Eurocode 2 and BS 8110.
It is believed that both novices and experienced users
of spreadsheets will be convinced that spreadsheets
have a great potential for teaching BS 8110 and
Eurocode 2, improving concrete design and, above
all, improving the concrete design and construction
Version 2.x
The version 2.x released in 2003
introduced new
spreadsheets to BS 8110, to the more finalised EN
1992-1-1 (Eurocode 2) and an overarching menu
spreadsheet. Previously issued spreadsheets to BS
8110 were updated.
* Registration is through The Concrete Bookshop
The new spreadsheets introduced were:
ƒ Menu
BS 8110
ƒ RCC31R Rigorous One-way Slabs
ƒ RCC32R Rigorous Ribbed Slabs
ƒ RCC41R Rigorous Continuous Beams
ƒ RCC43 Wide Beams (A&D)
ƒ RCC54 Circular Column Design
ƒ RCC82 Pilecap Design
Eurocode 2
ƒ RCCen11 Element Design
ƒ RCCen12 Bending and Axial Force
ƒ RCCen13 Punching Shear
ƒ RCCen14 Crack Width
ƒ RCCen21 Subframe analysis
ƒ RCCen31 One-way Solid Slabs (A & D)
ƒ RCCen31R Rigorous* One-way Solid Slabs
ƒ RCCen32 Ribbed Slabs (A & D)
ƒ RCCen33 Flat Slabs (A & D)
ƒ RCCen41 Continuous beams (A & D)
ƒ RCCen41R Rigorous* Continuous Beams
ƒ RCCen43 Wide Beams (A&D)
ƒ RCCen52 Column Chart generation
ƒ RCCen53 Column Design
ƒ RCCen55 Axial Column Shortening
ƒ RCCen81 Foundation Pads
ƒ RCCen82 Pilecap Design
Version 3
The release of version 3 of the spreadsheets followed
the publication of BS EN 1992-1-1 (Eurocode 2)

and the UK National Annex and the publication
of Amendment 3 to BS 8110 Part 1: 1987. The
requirements within these documents necessitated the
revision of all previously published spreadsheets. The
opportunity was taken to introduce new spreadsheets
as follows:
BS 8110
ƒ RCC82 Pilecap Design
Eurocode 2
ƒ TCC33X Flat Slabs (Whole floor)
ƒ TCC41R Rigorous Continuous Beams
ƒ TCC42 Post-tensioned Slabs and Beams
(A&D) (b version)
ƒ TCC43 Wide Beams (A&D)
ƒ TCC54 Circular Column Charting
ƒ TCC71 Stair Flight and Landing - single
ƒ TCC81 Foundation Pads
ƒ TCC82 Pilecap Design
Spreadsheets numbered RCCen11, RCCen12 etc
released as Beta versions were released for use as
TCC11, TCC12 etc.
Version 4
The release of version 4 of the spreadsheets follows
the publication of amendment AMD 1 of the UK
National Annex to Eurocode 2 to BS EN 1992-1-1
(Eurocode 2)
Whilst BS 8110 was ‘withdrawn’ by BSI
early in 2010, it was recognised that some projects and
indeed some practitioners may wish to continue using
this standard in the short to medium term. Thus the
RCC series of spreadsheets have been updated and are
reissued. The opportunity has been taken to formally
introduce new spreadsheets as follows:
Eurocode 2
ƒ TCC15 Resistance of Axially Loaded Walls/slabs
ƒ TCC22 FE Assistant
ƒ TCC62 Retaining Wall Design
ƒ TCC63 Core Wall Design
ƒ TCC94 Two Way Slab
Using and improving the
Since their release in 2000 the spreadsheets have
proved to be enormously popular. They may now be
regarded as having now been thoroughly tested by
engineers in practice but this does not mean that
they are infallible! The user is referred to Managing
the spreadsheets and other General Notes that follow.
The usefulness and robustness of previous spreadsheets
have been enhanced by user feedback. Please email
helpdesk@concretecentre.com with any suggestions or
comments. Comments or suggestions for improvement
are welcomed. Contact The Concrete Centre’s Helpdesk
at helpdesk@concretecentre.com.
Managing the spreadsheets
Spreadsheets can be a very powerful tool. Their use
has become increasingly common in the preparation
of design calculations. They save time, money and
effort. They provide the facility to optimise designs
and they can help instill experience. However, these
benefits have to be weighed against the risks associated
with any endeavour. These risks must be recognised
and managed. In other words appropriate levels of
supervision and checking, including self-checking, must,
as always, be exercised when using these spreadsheets.
For the experienced engineer, the spreadsheets help
in the rapid production of clear and accurate design
calculations for reinforced concrete elements. The
contents are intended to be sufficient to allow the
design of low to medium-rise multi-storey concrete
framed buildings.
Spreadsheets allow users to gain experience by studying
their own ‘what if’ scenarios. Should they have queries,
individual users should be able to answer their own
questions by chasing through the cells to understand
the logic used. Cells within each spreadsheet can be
interrogated, formulae checked and values traced.
suggested that, in understanding structural
behaviour, doing calculations is probably not a great
advantage; being close to the results probably is.
Other benefits include quicker and more accurate
reinforcement estimates, and the possibilities for
electronic data interchange (EDI). Standardised, or at
least rationalised, designs make the checking process
easier and quicker.
Appropriate use
In its deliberations
the Standing Committee on
Structural Safety (SCOSS) noted the increasingly
wide-spread availability of computer programs and
circumstances in which their misuse could lead to
unsafe structures.
These circumstances include:
ƒ People without adequate structural engineering
knowledge or training may carry out the
structural analysis.
ƒ There may be communication gaps between
the design initiator, the computer program
developer and the user.
ƒ A program may be used out of context.
ƒ The checking process may not be sufficiently
ƒ The limitations of the program may not be
sufficiently apparent to the user.
ƒ For unusual structures, even experienced
engineers may not have the ability to spot
weaknesses in programs for analysis and detailing.
The committee’s report continued: “Spreadsheets are,
in principle, no different from other software…” With
regard to these spreadsheets and this publication,
The Concrete Centre hopes to have addressed more
specific concerns by demonstrating “clear evidence of
adequate verification” by documenting the principles,
theory and algorithms used in the spreadsheets. The
spreadsheets have also had the benefit of the Advisory
Group’s overview and inputs. Many, especially the
spreadsheets to BS 8110, have had several years
use and maintenance. Inevitably, some unconscious
assumptions, inconsistencies, etc. will remain.
A fundamental condition of use is that the user
accepts responsibility for the input and output of the
computer and how it is used.
As with all software, users must be satisfied with the
answers these spreadsheets give and be confident
in their use. These spreadsheets can never be fully
validated but have been through Beta testing, both
formally and informally. However, users must satisfy
themselves that the uses to which the spreadsheets
are put are appropriate.
Users and managers should be aware that spreadsheets
can be changed and must address change control
and versions for use. The flexibility and ease of use
of spreadsheets, which account for their widespread
popularity, also facilitate ad hoc and unstructured
approaches to their subsequent development.
Quality Assurance procedures may dictate that
spreadsheets are treated as controlled documents
and subject to comparison and checks with previous
methods prior to adoption. Users’ Quality Assurance
schemes should address the issue of changes. The
possibilities of introducing a company’s own password
General notes
General Notes
to the spreadsheets and/ or extending the revision
history contained within the sheet entitled Notes!
might be considered.
The spreadsheets have been developed with the
goal of producing calculations to show compliance
with codes. Whilst this is the primary goal, there is a
school of thought
that designers are primarily paid
for producing specifications and drawings that work
on site and are approved by clients and/ or checking
authorities. Producing calculations happens to be a
secondary exercise, regarded by many experienced
engineers as a hurdle on the way to getting the project
approved and completed. From a business process
point of view, the emphasis of the spreadsheets might,
in future, change to establishing compliance once
members, loads and details are known. Certainly this
may be the preferred method of use by experienced
The spreadsheets have been developed with the ability
for users to input and use their own preferred material
properties, bar sizes and spacings, etc. However, user
preferences should recognise moves for efficiency
through standardisation.
Another long-term objective is automation. To this
end, spreadsheet contents might in future be arranged
so that input and output can be copied and pasted
easily by macros and/ or linked by the end-user. There
are counter arguments about users needing to be
closer to the calculations and results in order to ensure
they are properly considered – see Appropriate use on
the previous page.
We emphasise that it is up to the user how he/ she uses
the output. The spreadsheets have been produced to
cater for both first-time users and the very experienced
without putting the first-time user off. Nonetheless,
their potential applications are innumerable.
With spreadsheets, long-term advantages and savings
come from repeated use but there are risks that
need to be managed. Spreadsheets demand an initial
investment in time and effort, but the rewards are
there for those who make the investment. Good design
requires sound judgement based on competence
derived from adequate training and experience, not
just computer programs.
For further general notes on use, familiarisation and
layout of the spreadsheets the user is urged to consult
the handbook to version 3, to which this booklet is an
Frequently Asked Questions
When loading the individual spreadsheets, Excel may
warn about the presence of macros. All the macros
provided in the files are either to allow automated
printing of the ‘calculations’ or to provide choices by
way of combo-boxes. The printing macros have been
assigned to buttons. Turning the macros off may affect
the actual function of the spreadsheets but will
certainly make printing of the sheets as configured
more difficult and make the choice of options very
much more difficult.
Unless the appropriate fonts Tekton and Marker
(supplied in the CD-ROM) have been installed by the
user, the appearance on screen will be different from
that intended. These upright fonts have been used
to emulate a designer’s handwriting and to allow
adequate information to be shown across the page
and in each cell.
If problems are experienced it is most likely that the
fonts on your computer screen will have defaulted to
the closest approximation of the fonts intended (e.g.
the toolbar may say Tekton but a default font such as
Arial will have been used). The spreadsheets will work
but not as intended – ends of words may be missing,
numbers may not fit cells resulting in a series of hashes,
#####. Column width and cell overlap problems only
occur when the correct fonts are not loaded.
It is strongly recommended that the Tekton and Marker
fonts are copied into your computer’s font library. The
Freeware fonts may be found in the Fonts folder on
the CD-ROM.
They may be copied in the following manner, either:
ƒ Start/Settings/Control Panel/Fonts/ File/ Add
Fonts and when asked ‘copy fonts to system
directory?’ answer ‘yes’.
ƒ Through Microsoft Explorer and copying (or
dragging) the font files into your font library,
usually contained in Windows/ Set-up/ Fonts
A printed copy of this User Guide is available from The
Concrete Bookshop www.concretebookshop.com. The
User Guide is also available as an Adobe Acrobat file
User Guide pdf (on the CD-ROM). A copy of Adobe
Acrobat Reader will be required to read this file.
Help is also available at the following places:
ƒ Within Excel under Help to the right hand side
of the spreadsheets, cells under Operating
Instructions contain help and error messages.
ƒ Queries may be emailed to
helpdesk@concretecentre.com. Preference will
be given to those who have registered.
Any questions, comments, developments and
suggestions are welcomed. Please email them to
Preference will be given to those who are registered,
as detailed above.
The spreadsheets may not be used for commercial
purposes until the user has purchased and validated a
licence. Licences may be purchased from The Concrete
Bookshop www.concretebookshop.com or via The
Concrete Centre website. Licences may be validated
via www.concretecentre.com/rcspreadsheets. The
purchase price includes:
ƒ Permission to use the spreadsheets
for commercial purposes for at least one year
ƒ A hard copy of this publication and User Guide
to RC Spreadsheets: v3
ƒ CD-ROM containing RC Spreadsheets: v4,
together with Admin files, which themselves
contain fonts, issue sheets, user guide files etc.
ƒ Occasional e-mails to inform registrants of any
revisions or changes to the spreadsheets or
other relevant information
ƒ Details of how to download updates of the
ƒ Preferential treatment with regard to support
Further information, updates, FAQs, free trial download
versions of some spreadsheets, latest news and other
information on the RC-Spreadsheet suite is available
on www.concretecentre.com/rcspreadsheets
Overseas use
The spreadsheets have been developed and maintained
for use within the UK. The Concrete Centre reserves the
right to pass details of non-UK registrants to any future
owner of the non-UK copyright or overseas distributor
of the spreadsheets.
Registrants will be provided with information on how
to download updates.
Using the spreadsheets
Amendments to v3 spreadsheet descriptions
Users should be aware of the following changes to the
descriptions given in version 3 of the User Guide.
All TCC spreadsheets
All of the TCC series of spreadsheets to Eurocode 2
have been revised in line with amendment AMD 1
of the UK National Annex to Eurocode 2 published
in December 2009. They have also been rebranded
to reflect The Concrete Centre becoming part of The
Mineral Products Association.
Changes to the National Annex included:
ƒ Use of BS 8500 for recommendations for
concrete quality for a particular exposure class
and reinforcement cover.
ƒ Values of k
and k
in Cl (cover to
foundations rationalised)
ƒ Limiting value of cot y where shear coexists with
applied tension
ƒ Strength reduction factor for concrete cracked in
shear (v
in Cl 6.2.3(3))
ƒ Limit of v
< 2 v
at the first punching shear
perimeter (Cl 6.4.5(4))
ƒ Spacing of links in columns using concrete
stronger than C50/60
ƒ Clarification of crack width calculation
(Table NA.4)
ƒ Revisions to span : depth verification of
deflection (Table NA.5, Notes 5 and 6)
Details of changes to individual spreadsheets may
be found in the Notes! sheet of each spreadsheet or
within the latest version of Spreadsheet Issue sheet .xls
within the ADMIN folder. Changes to span : depth and
punching shear calculations caused the more major
amendments to the spreadsheets. Amendments that
warrant further discussion are outlined below.
It should be noted that the encastré option available
in many spreadsheets is intended to enable modelling
of continuity of more than 6 spans.
All RCC spreadsheets
All RCC spreadsheets have been subject to minor
revisions and have been rebranded to reflect The
Concrete Centre becoming part of The Mineral
Products Association. These spreadsheets are suitable
for design calculations to the now withdrawn BS 8110
(up to and including Amendment 4).
TCC13 Slab Punching.xls
Version 4 has been updated to revised UK National
In version 4, the options for determining the shear
enhancement factor b have been changed. Instead
of a choice between the using the default factors to
Clause 6.4.3(6) of EC2 and a manual input of
, one can now choose either the default factors or
to calculate b by inputting additional data.
The methods used for determining b are described in
Clauses 6.4.3(3) for internal columns, 6.4.3(4) for edge
columns and 6.4.3(5) for corner columns. However at
the time of writing [July 2010], there is a gap in the
perimeter column clauses in that no method is given
for calculating U
* when the slab edge does not align
with the outside face of the column. This omission
has been queried with BSI committee B525/2, but in
the meantime, the following assumptions have been
ƒ Slab edge outside column - U
* unchanged
but U
ƒ Slab edge inside column - U
* unchanged
but MIN[1.5d, 0.5C
] replaced by MIN[1.5d,
If the Eurocode 2 committee decide that a differing
method is more appropriate in these situations, the
spreadsheet will of course be updated. In the meantime,
we are confident that the methods currently used are
safe to use.
Other recent changes to this spreadsheet include:
ƒ v
corrected to 0.5vf
ƒ Correction to edge column face shear when hole
on North face of column.
ƒ New routine for hole reductions at column faces.
In the determination of punching shear stresses,
Version 4 deducts loads within the loaded area.
TCC41 Continuous Beam
(A & D).xls
TCC41 now uses a tension flange width for span top
steel if a span hogs between 0.4L and 0.6L; otherwise
is selected. The mid span tension flange width has
been set to the average b
of the supports at either
end. This seems to give the best detailing arrangement
both for cantilevers and normal spans. An extra line has
been added for each span on the SPANS page, so the
user knows what width to place the top steel within.
Amendments to v3 spreadsheet descriptions
TCC55 Axial Column Shortening
Following the release of TCC55 a number of enquiries
were received which resulted in the following FAQ
being released giving additional guidance for the axial
column shortening spreadsheet.
Q1: If I have a building less than 11 storeys how is the
information input? Is the load just input as zero on the
upper floors?
A1: No – start at the top, and leave the bottom line
Q2: If I have a building of 10 storeys, taking 14 days
construction per floor, giving 140 days to occupancy.
How could I look at the effects say, mid way through
A2:The plot of vertical displacement on the RESULTS
page is the amount of displacement occurring after
the floor at the indicated level is cast. Ie. it may be
that the slab should be constructed this amount
“high”. You should not need any other value. It is the
differential between adjacent columns/walls that
can be critical, but remember that moments induced
by differential shortening will redistribute column
reactions, so this effect should not be neglected.
Q3: Would I adjust the “days to occupancy” figure to
reflect the moment in time I want the results for?
A3: No – this will not work. This input only fixes when
the permanent portion of the imposed loading is
Q4: Finally (and most importantly..), is the spreadsheet
available for an increased number of floors? We are
currently about to start construction on a 35 storey
building where creep may be an issue with respect to
the cladding package. Would it be possible to obtain a
spreadsheet of this size?
A4: TCC55X which has input for 24 storeys is included
in the spreadsheet package. To go higher than this,
storeys can be grouped together if care is taken with
the input.(See TCC55X)
TCC15.xls determines the flexural and shear resistances
of slab or wall sections at both ULS and SLS for given
values of axial stress and permissible maximum crack
width. It also generates a plot of axial stress against
moment for the section and a design table for varying
levels of primary reinforcement.
This single sheet contains of all of the main input for
materials and section data. Environmental details and
age at loading are also input as these are required
to calculate the creep factors that determine SLS
For the given parameters, moment and shear
resistances are given together with a value of the SLS
neutral axis depth, as this may affect the permissible
maximum crack with to BS EN 1992-3.
The chart at the bottom of this page shows resistance
curves for both the ultimate and service conditions.
On this sheet a table of resistances for varying
amounts of primary reinforcement can be generated
by clicking the macro button. A warning message
appears if the data displayed do not match those on
the MAIN! page.
This page contains the calculations required to
generate the results. These are quite complex at SLS
where there are a variety of limiting conditions.
Ref! Defines the values of various parameters used in
the spreadsheet.
This sheet gives disclaimers and revision history.
TCC15 Resistance of Retaining Members.xls
TCC15 Resistance of Axially Loaded Walls / Slabs / MAIN!
TCC15 Resistance of Retaining Members.xls
This spreadsheet provides values of creep factors,
concrete tensile strengths and free shrinkage strains for
use with finite element slab design programs that take
account of concrete cracking (non-linear analysis). The
methods used are those recommended in Concrete
Society Technical Report No TR58, “Deflections in
concrete slabs and beams”. With programs that do
not account for cracking, creep factors substantially
HIGHER than those calculated by this spreadsheet
should be employed, to allow for the increased
displacements caused by cracking and shrinkage.
Both creep factors and concrete tensile strength
are related to the loading history of a member, and
are also dependent upon relative humidity, ambient
temperature, cement type and member geometry
(equivalent thickness). The characteristic cylinder
strength of the concrete (fck) is also required. The
user should note that this should be the actual
characteristic strength, which may well be higher than
that specified from minimum strength specifications.

h, f
, e!
This single sheet consists of all of the main input and
output. Most inputs, which are in blue and underlined,
should be self-explanatory. In addition to the loading
history and the inputs mentioned above, there is a
switch which allows for construction loading from
a slab above to be taken into account. In many
instances, this temporary construction loading will
determine the critical values required for FE design.
In the results section values are given for both
the direct concrete tensile strength f
, and the
flexural tensile strength f
. The user should make a
judgement between these two values, depending upon
the degree of restraint that may be present.
There are several explanatory notes and hints at the
right hand side of this page.
Calculations! provides the detailed derivations for
the combined creep factor h, autogenous and free
shrinkage strains e
and e
, and critical concrete
tensile strength f
This sheet gives disclaimers and revision history.
TCC22 FE Assistant.xls
TCC22 FE Assistant /h, f
, e!
TCC22 FE Assistant /h, f
, e!
TCC22 FE Assistant/Calculations!
TCC55X Axial Column Shortening / MAIN!
This spreadsheet works out axial column shortenings
exactly as TCC55, except that it will cater for up to 24
storeys. As it is a larger file, it has been included as a
separate spreadsheet.
The pages in this spreadsheet are as TCC55, except
that results are now located on a new RESULTS! page
in order to gain space.
Operation is identical to spreadsheet TCC55, except
that at the top of the MAIN! page, it is now possible to
enter three different phases for the application of the
permanent portion of the imposed loading.
TCC55X Axial Column Shortening.xls
TCC55X Axial Column Shortening.xls
TCC55X Axial Column Shortening / RESULTS!
TCC62.xls designs simple retaining walls with stems
up to 3.0 m high. While section design is to Eurocode
2, this spreadsheet has been developed using the
geotechnical rules and methods contained in Eurocode
]. In particular, reference has been made to TCC
“How to” leaflets number 8 “Foundations” and
number 9 “Retaining Walls”
. The approach is very
different from that of the earlier BS8110 spreadsheet
(RCC62). Instead of comparing characteristic pressures
with a “permissible” maximum value, two ultimate
combinations of actions are employed together with
two sets of factored resistances.
The spreadsheet is intended to cover only short walls
and to help ‘general’ engineers who, from time to time,
design retaining walls as part of a wider interest in
structures rather than the specialists. The 3.0 m wall
height is an arbitrary limit set for short wall which is
intended to cover over 90% of the cases encountered
in general structural designs. Although many of the
design principles still apply to higher walls, criteria
such as wall movements and the validity of the
assumptions made (e.g. no wall friction or inadequate
drainage behind the wall) require further consideration
and investigation. The spreadsheet does not cover
embedded (e.g. contiguous bored pile) retaining walls.
The effects of compaction pressures are considered for
the wall stem design, but because of their short-term
and localised nature, they are not considered to be
critical in terms of bearing or sliding.
Stability analysis is done about the toe of the base.
(Stability analysis taken about toe of nib is ignored;
the nib is a section sticking down from general level
of the base, and stability analysis about its toe can
give strange answers). Global slope stability checks
are not undertaken in the spreadsheet and should be
addressed using other means. Input is required only on
the first sheet.
This single sheet consists of all of the main inputs.
Most inputs, which are in blue and underlined, should
be self-explanatory. The key diagram at the top of
the sheet defines most input parameters. The active
diagram below serves as a visual check on geometric
data. Operating instructions and error messages are
shown in column L: hints on sizing are given at
L26:L39. The lower ground level must be at least level
with the top of the base. Covers required are nominal
covers to bending reinforcement.
The designer should determine the characteristic soil
parameters’ from the Site Investigation Report, local
knowledge or for estimation purposes from appropriate
text or guidance*. Related design properties are then
automatically derived using the two sets of partial
load and material factors according to the UK National
Annex to BS EN 1997. Thus, Combination 1 and
Combination 2 values of earth pressure coefficients
and factored loads are calculated. Formulae for each
property and action are shown at the right hand side
of the sheet.
In determining earth pressures, the simplified Rankine’s
formula for smooth vertical walls has been employed
(calculation model A in ‘How To’ leaflet 9). However
when the heel projection, b
is too small to strictly
meet Rankine criteria, reduced values of c (angles
of active thrust to horizontal) are used. For the
calculation of ultimate bearing pressures, rectangular
stress blocks are used.
The spreadsheet is based on a number of assumptions
which should be assessed as being true or erring on
the safe side in each case. These are:
ƒ Wall friction is zero
ƒ Granular backfill is used. Even a small value
of effective cohesion, c´, can significantly reduce
active pressures. However, to acknowledge
the fact that many retaining walls are built
with granular backfill for drainage and to err on
the side of caution, the spreadsheet assumes
only cohesionless materials.
ƒ The spreadsheet does not include checks on
rotational slide/ slope failure. The location of any
nib influences potential slip planes.
ƒ The spreadsheet check on deflection of the wall
does not include that due to base rotation.
ƒ The spreadsheet is not intended for walls
over 3.0 m high.
ƒ The spreadsheet includes for concrete self
ƒ Adequate drainage system is provided behind
the wall.
ƒ Checks for temperature/shrinkage effects are
not included.
ƒ The spreadsheet does not include checks on the
effects of seepage of ground water beneath the
Many engineers have reservations about including
the effect of passive pressure in front of the wall
so a combo box is provided at cell L16, where the
inclusion of passive pressure can be switched on or off.
Where passive pressure is allowed, an allowance for
unplanned excavation in front of the base is made in
TCC62 Retaining Wall.xls
TCC62 Retaining Wall.xls
determining the height of the passive pressure, h
. In
accordance with BS EN 1997-1-1
Cl, this
allowance is the lesser of 500 mm or h
In the usage chart, design checks show how efficiently
the selected data are working. Design status is shown
at cell I36.
GEODesign! considers sliding, overturning about the
toe (toppling) and bearing pressures for Combination
1 and Combination 2. Again formulae for each action,
moment and parameter are shown at the right hand
side of the sheet. The relevant partial factors are
not shown in these formulae but are used in the
appropriate cells.
In terms of sliding, the undrained resistance is ignored
if cohesion for the foundation material specified at
DATA!H36 is less than 10 kN/m
. In this case it is
recommended that the allowance of passive pressure
at DATA!L16 is switched off.
The wall stem, base, heel and shear key are in turn
designed and checked for flexure, shear, and bar
spacing. For the concrete section Combination 1 is
critical. In addition a span/depth deflection check is
made on the stem.
Weight gives the approximate weight of reinforcement
required per metre length of wall. Simplified curtailment
rules are used. The figures should be regarded as
estimates as the spreadsheet cannot deal with
designers’ and detailers’ preferences, rationalisation,
steps, changes in levels or direction etc.
Ref! Defines the values of various parameters used
in the spreadsheet. These include NPDs according to
Eurocode 2 and the partial factors for Combination
1 and Combination 2 according to the UK National
Annex to Eurocode 7. Details of compaction plant
loads and basic formulae are given.
This sheet gives disclaimers and revision history.
* Guidance on typical soil densities, angles of shearing resistance and
surcharge loadings is given Guide to the Design and Construction of
Concrete Basements
TCC62 Retaining Wall / DATA!
TCC62 Retaining Wall.xls
TCC62 Retaining Wall / GEODesign!
TCC62 Retaining Wall / RCDesign!
TCC63 Core Wall Design.xls
TCC63.xls determines the distribution of lateral
moments between simple core walls and then finds
the amount of reinforcement required. The program
will accept a maximum of four cores. Input is required
over two pages.
This single sheet contains of all of the inputs for basic
building plan geometry and core dimensions. Most
inputs, which are in blue and underlined, should be
self-explanatory. The legend diagram at the top of the
sheet defines the geometry input parameters, and the
active diagram below serves as a visual check on the
input of core dimension data.
After determining the section data for each core,
percentages of lateral moment to each core and in
each orthogonal direction are displayed. These include
the effects of in-plane torsion due to the eccentricities
of the cores from the centre of the structure.
On this sheet the total characteristic lateral moments
in each direction are input, then after selecting one
of the cores, the local coordinates and characteristic
values of up to eight vertical loads are entered.
After selecting the type of building usage, six ULS
combinations are calculated and stresses (both
compressive and tensile) and required reinforcement
are produced for up to eight locations within the core.
Again, there is an active diagram as a visual check on
the input of vertical loads.
This page contains only data used in generating the
various charts.
Ref! Defines the values of various parameters used in
the spreadsheet. These include NPDs according to
Eurocode 2 and the c values from Table A 1.1 of BSEN
This sheet gives disclaimers and revision history.
TCC63 Core Wall Design.xls
TCC63 Core Wall Design / GEOMETRY!
TCC63 Core Wall Design.xls
TCC63 Core Wall Design / CORE!
This spreadsheet designs restrained two-way solid
slabs in accordance with Eurocode 2. Moment and
shear factors have been taken from Tables 3.14 and
3.15 of BS 8110: Part 1 (these yield-line factors are
equally valid for use with EC2). Input is required on the
first two sheets.
This single sheet consists of the input and main
output. In itself it should prove adequate for the design
of restrained two-way slabs. Inputs are underlined and
most should be self-explanatory.

Self-weight, moment and shear factors are calculated
automatically. The use of these factors is limited by the
conditions for which they were produced, i.e. similar
loads on adjacent spans and similar spans adjacent.
Where these relevant conditions are not met, users
should consider alternative methods of analysis.

Whilst ultimate reactions to beams are given, shear per
se is not checked as it is very rarely critical.

The dimension l
must be greater than l
: bays where l

¢ l
are invalid. It is recognised that B
can be parallel
to l
and the user should specify in which layers the
top and bottom reinforcement are located (see cells
D33 and H33).

In line 32 the user is asked to specify the diameters of
reinforcement to be used. This reinforcement should
be provided at the required centres in accordance
with BS 8110 Clause (1) to (7) (middle strips
and column strips, torsion reinforcement at corners
where an edge or edges is/are discontinuous). The
spreadsheet highlights whether additional
reinforcement for torsion is required or not.

As noted under Deflection, the area of steel required,
, may be automatically increased in order to
reduce service stress, s
, and increase modification
factors to satisfy deflection criteria. An approximate
reinforcement density is given. This is approximate
only and excludes supporting beams, trimming to
holes, etc.
Weight! gives an estimate of the amount of
reinforcement required in a slab. Simplified curtailment
rules are used to determine lengths of bars. The figures
should be treated as approximate estimates only as
they cannot deal with the effects of designers’ and
detailers’ preferences, rationalisation, the effects of
holes, etc. To the right of the sheet are
calculations of bar length, etc.

Support widths are required as input as they affect
curtailments and lengths.
This sheet comprises the values for nationally
determined parameters that have been used in the
spreadsheet. These data reflect the values given in the
UK National Annexes for EN 1990 and EN 1992.
This sheet gives disclaimers and revision history.
TCC94 Two-way slabs (Tables).xls
TCC94 Two-way Slabs (Tables).xls
TCC94 Two-way slabs (Tables).xls / MAIN!
TCC94 Two-way slabs (Tables).xls / Weight!
TCC94 Two-way Slabs (Tables).xls
RC Spreadsheets: v3, CCIP-008. The Concrete
Centre, 2006.
1-1, Eurocode 2 – Part 1-1: Design of concrete
structures – General rules and rules for buildings.
BSI, 2004. Including National Annex to BS EN
1992-1-1, Eurocode 2 – Part 1-1: Design of
concrete structures – General rules and rules for
buildings 2005 incorporating National Amendment
No 1, BSI, 2009.
Structural use of concrete. Part 1. Code of practice for
design and construction. British Standards
Institution, London, 1997 up to and including
Amendment 4.
RC Spreadsheets: v2, The Concrete Centre, Published
electronically based on GOODCHILD C H &
WEBSTER R M User Guide to RC Spreadsheets.
British Cement Association on behalf of the
Reinforced Concrete Council
Eurocode 7 – Geotechnical design Part 1: General
rules. BSI, 2004 Including National Annex to BS EN
1997-1, Eurocode 7 – Geotechnical design
6 BROOKER, O. et al. How to design concrete
structures using Eurocode 2 (compendium), CCIP
006. The Concrete Centre, 2006.
7 NARAYANAN, R S & GOODCHILD, C H, Guide to the
Design and Construction of Concrete Basements,
TCC CCIP-044, Due 2010
8 MACLEOD, I.A. ET AL. Information technology for the
structural engineer. The Structural Engineer, Vol. 77,
No. 3, 2 February 1999. pp. 23 - 25.
Standing Committee on Structural Safety, 10th
Report, July 1992-June 1994, SETO Ltd, London,
1994 pp. 32
The Advisory Group Members
S Alexander
S Alhayderi
Dr H Al-Quarra
I Baldwin
C Barker
M Beamish
A Beasley
T Bedford
G Belton
R Bhatt
R Bickerton
P Blackmore
D Blackwood
M Brady
C Buczkowski
A Campbell
Dr P Chana
G Charlesworth
L Cheng
Mr Chichger
R Collison
A Craddock
M Morton
J Curry
J Dale
H Dikme
C P Edmondson
J Elliot
I Feltham
G Fernando
M Fernando
I Francis
A Fung
P Gardner
J Gay
P Green
A Hall
N Harris
G Hill
D W Hobbs
R Hulse
M Hutcheson
A Idrus
N Imms
P Jennings
D Kennedy
G Kennedy
R Jothiraj
Dr S Khan
A King
G King
S King
K Kus
I Lockhart
M Lord
B Lorimer
M Lovell
Dr Luker
J Lupton
M Lytrides
Prof I Macleod
F Malekpour
A McAtear
A McFarlane
F Mohammad
A Mole
M Morton
R Moss
B Munton
C O’Boyle
Dr A Okorie
T O’Neill
B Osafa-Kwaako
D Patel
D Penman
M Perera
B Quick
Y Raqif
A Rathbone
M Rawlinson
P Reynolds
H Riley
N Russell
U P Sarki
T Schollar
A Stalker
A Starr
M Stevenson
B Stoker
B Treadwell
A Truby
R Turner
T Viney
Dr P Walker
B Watson
J Whitworth
C Wilby
S Wilde
A Wong
E Yarimer
CCIP 053
Published August 2010
© MPA - The Concrete Centre
Riverside House, 4 Meadows Business Park,
Station Approach, Blackwater, Camberley, Surrey, GU17 9AB
Tel: +44 (0)1276 606800 Fax: +44 (0)1276 606801
User Guide to RC Spreadsheets: v4 (Addendum to v3)
This update to the user guide provides guidance
on the use of RC Spreadsheets v4 for the design
of reinforced concrete elements.
The release of version 4 of the spreadsheets and user
guide follows revision of The Concrete Centre series
in line with amendment AMD 1 of the UK National
Annex to Eurocode 2 . The RCC series of spreadsheets
remain suitable for design calculations to the BS
8110 (up to and including Amendment 4), which was
‘withdrawn’ in early 2010.
For more information on the spreadsheets visit
Charles Goodchild is Principal Structural Engineer
for The Concrete Centre where he promotes efficient
concrete design and construction. He was responsible
for the concept, content and management of this
publication and of the RC Spreadsheets.
Rod Webster of Concrete Innovation & Design is
principal author of the spreadsheets. He has been
writing spreadsheets since 1984 and is expert in the
design of tall concrete buildings and in advanced
analytical methods.

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