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# University of Lige

## Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering

Aircraft Structures
Instabilities
Aircraft Structures - Instabilities
Ludovic Noels

Computational & Multiscale Mechanics of Materials CM3
http://www.ltas-cm3.ulg.ac.be/
Chemin des Chevreuils 1, B4000 Lige
L.Noels@ulg.ac.be
Elasticity
Balance of body B
Momenta balance
Linear
Angular
Boundary conditions
Neumann
Dirichlet

Small deformations with linear elastic, homogeneous & isotropic material
(Small) Strain tensor , or
Hookes law , or
with
Inverse law
with
b
T
n
2m l = K - 2m/3
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 2
General expression for unsymmetrical beams
Stress
With
Curvature

In the principal axes I
yz
= 0
Euler-Bernoulli equation in the principal axis
for x in [0 L]

BCs

Similar equations for u
y

Pure bending: linear elasticity summary
x
z f(x)
T
z
M
xx
u
z
=0
du
z
/dx =0 M>0
L
y
z
q
M
xx
a
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 3
General relationships

Two problems considered
Thick symmetrical section
Shear stresses are small compared to bending stresses if h/L << 1
Thin-walled (unsymmetrical) sections
Shear stresses are not small compared to bending stresses
Deflection mainly results from bending stresses
2 cases
Open thin-walled sections
Shear = shearing through the shear center + torque
Closed thin-walled sections
Twist due to shear has the same expression as torsion
Beam shearing: linear elasticity summary
x
z f(x)
T
z
M
xx
u
z
=0
du
z
/dx =0 M>0
L
h
L
L
h
t
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 4
Shearing of symmetrical thick-section beams
Stress
With
Accurate only if h > b
Energetically consistent averaged shear strain
with
Shear center on symmetry axes
Timoshenko equations
&

On [0 L]:
Beam shearing: linear elasticity summary
h
t
z
y
z
t
b(z)
A
*
t
h
x
z
T
z
dx
T
z
+
x
T
z
dx
g
max
g

g dx

z
x
g

q
y
q
y
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 5
Shearing of open thin-walled section beams
Shear flow

In the principal axes

Shear center S
On symmetry axes
At walls intersection
Determined by momentum balance
Shear loads passing through the shear center &
Torque
Beam shearing: linear elasticity summary
x
z
y
T
z
T
z
T
y
T
y
y
z
S
T
z
T
y
C
q
s
y
t
t

h

b

z
C
t
S
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 6
Shearing of closed thin-walled section beams
Shear flow

Open part (for anticlockwise of q, s)

Constant twist part

The completely around integrals are related to the
closed part of the section, but if there are open parts,
their contributions have been taken in q
o
(s)

Beam shearing: linear elasticity summary
y
z
T
T
z
T
y
C
q
s
p
ds
dA
h
y
z
T
T
z
T
y
C
q
s
p
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 7
Shearing of closed thin-walled section beams
Warping

With
u
x
(0)=0 for symmetrical section if origin on
the symmetry axis
Shear center S
Compute q for shear passing thought S
Use

Beam shearing: linear elasticity summary
y
z
T
T
z
T
y
C
q
s
p
ds
dA
h
y
z
S
T
z
C
q
s
p
ds
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 8
Torsion of symmetrical thick-section beams
Circular section

Rectangular section

If h >> b
&

Beam torsion: linear elasticity summary
t
z
y
C

M
x
r
h/b 1 1.5 2 4
a 0.208 0.231 0.246 0.282 1/3
b 0.141 0.196 0.229 0.281 1/3
z
y
C

t
max
M
x
b
h
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 9
Torsion of open thin-walled section beams
Approximated solution for twist rate
Thin curved section

Rectangles

Warping of s-axis

Beam torsion: linear elasticity summary
y
z
l
2
t
2
l
1
t
1
l
3
t
3
t

t
z
y
C

M
x
t
n
s
t

R
p
R
u
s
q
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 10
Torsion of closed thin-walled section beams
Shear flow due to torsion
Rate of twist

Torsion rigidity for constant m

Warping due to torsion

A
Rp
from twist center

Beam torsion: linear elasticity summary
y
z
C
q
s
p
ds
dA
h
M
x
y
z
R
C
p
p
R
Y
u
s
q
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 11
Panel idealization
For linear direct stress distribution

Structure idealization summary
b
s
xx
1
s
xx
2
A
1
A
2
y
z
x
t
D
b
y
z
x
s
xx
1
s
xx
2
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 12
Consequence on bending
If Direct stress due to bending is carried by booms only
The position of the neutral axis, and thus the second moments of area
Refer to the direct stress carrying area only
Consequence on shearing
Open part of the shear flux
Shear flux for open sections

Consequence on torsion
If no axial constraint
Torsion analysis does not involve axial stress
So torsion is unaffected by the structural idealization
Structure idealization summary
T
z
y
z
x
dx

T
y
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 13
Virtual displacement
In linear elasticity the general formula of virtual displacement reads

s
(1)
is the stress distribution corresponding to a (unit) load P
(1)

D
P
is the energetically conjugated displacement to P in the direction of P
(1)
that
corresponds to the strain distribution e
Example bending of semi cantilever beam

In the principal axes

Example shearing of semi-cantilever beam

Deflection of open and closed section beams summary
x
z
T
z
u
z
=0
du
z
/dx =0 M>0
L
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 14
Torsion of a built-in end closed-section beam
If warping is constrained (built-in end)
Direct stresses are introduced
Different shear stress distribution

Example: square idealized section
Warping

Shear stress

Structural discontinuities summary
z
y
M
x
x
L
b
h
dx
q
b
q
h
u
x
m
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 15
Shear lag of a built-in end closed-section beam
Beam shearing
Shear strain in cross-section
Deformation of cross-section
Elementary theory of bending
For pure bending
Not valid anymore because of the
cross section deformation
Example
6-boom wing
Deformation of top cover
Structural discontinuities summary
z
y
x
L
d
h
T
z
/2
d
A
1
A
2
A
1
q
h
q
d
T
z
/2
d
y
x
d
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 16
Torsion of a built-end open-section beam
If warping is constrained (built-in end)
Direct stresses are introduced
There is a bending contribution
to the torque

Examples
Equation for pure torque
with
Equation for distributed torque

Structural discontinuities summary
M
x
M
x
M
x
x
z
y
m
x
M
x
+
x
M
x
dx
dx
M
x

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 17
2 kinds of buckling
Primary buckling
No changes in cross-section
Wavelength of buckle ~ length of element
Solid & thick-walled column
Secondary (local) buckling
Changes in cross-section
Wavelength of buckle ~ cross-sectional dimensions
Thin-walled column & stiffened panels
Pictures:
Automotive beam
Local buckling
Column instabilities
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 18
Assumptions
Perfectly symmetrical column (no imperfection)
Axial load perfectly aligned along centroidal axis
Linear elasticity
Theoretically
Deformed structure should remain symmetrical
Solution is then a shortening of the column
CR
is defined as P such that if a
small lateral displacement is enforced by a
lateral force, once this force is removed
If P = P
CR
, the lateral deformation is constant
(neutral stability)
If P > P
CR
, this lateral displacement increases &
the column is unstable
If P < P
CR
, this lateral displacement disappears &
the column is stable
Practically
The initial lateral displacement is due to
imperfections (geometrical or material)
Euler buckling
P
P P
F
P
P < P
CR
P
P > P
CR
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 19
Bending theory

Solution
General form: with
BCs at x = 0 & x = L imply C
1
= 0 &
Non trivial solution with k = 1, 2, 3,
In that case C
2
is undetermined and can
Euler critical load for pinned-pinned BCs
with k = 1, 2, 3,
Euler buckling
P
u
z
x
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 20
Euler critical load for pinned-pinned BCs (2)
with k = 1, 2, 3,
Buckling will occur for lowest P
CR

In the plane of lowest I
For the lowest k k = 1
In case modes 1, .. k-1 are prevented, critical load becomes the load k
Euler buckling
P
u
z
x
z
P
x
z
P
x
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 21
For pinned-pinned BCs

General case
With l
e
the effective length

Euler buckling
P
u
z
x
z
P
l
e
= L/2
l
e
= L/2
P
l
e
= 2L
P
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 22
Practical case: initial imperfection
Let us assume an initial small curvature of the beam

As this curvature is small the equation of bending
for straight beam can still be used, but with the
change of curvature being considered for the strain

The general form of the initial deflection satisfying the BCs is
the deflection equation becomes

Solution
With
Initial imperfection
u
z0
x
z
P
u
z
x
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 23
Practical case: initial imperfection (2)
Solution for an initial small curvature of the beam

With
BCs at x = 0 & x = L imply C
1
= C
2
= 0, & as

Clearly near buckling, so PP
CR
, and the dominant term of the solution is for n = 1

Initial imperfection
u
z0
x
z
P
u
z
x
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 24
Practical case: initial imperfection (3)
Solution for an initial small curvature of the beam
near buckling
If central deflection is measured vs axial load
As u
z0
(L/2) ~ A
1

Southwell diagram

breaking the columns
Remark
Initial imperfection
u
z0
x
z
P
u
z
x
z
D
D/P
A
1
1/P
CR
1

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 25
Thin-walled column under critical flexural loads
Can twist without bending or
Can twist and bend simultaneously

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 26
Kinematics
Consider
A thin-walled section
Centroid C
Cyz principal axes
Shear center S
Section motion (CSRD)
Translation
Shear center is moved
By u
y
S
& u
z
S

To S
Rotation around shear (twist) center
We assume shear center=twist center
By q
Centroid motion
To C after section translation
To C after rotation
Resulting displacements u
y
C
& u
z
C

Same decomposition for other
points of the section
Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
z
S
C
q
C
u
y
S
u
z
S
u
y
S
u
z
S
S
C
a
a
u
y
C
u
z
C
y
z
S
C
q
C
u
y
S
u
z
S
u
y
S
u
z
S
S
C
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 27
Kinematics (2)
Relations
Centroid
Other points P of the section

If q remains small, the induced momentums are

As we are in the principal axes (I
yz
=0), and
as motion resulting from bending is u
S

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
P
u
z
x
z
P
u
y
x
y
y
z
S
C
q
C
u
y
S
u
z
S
u
y
S
u
z
S
S
C
a
a
u
y
C
u
z
C
P
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 28
Torsion
Any point P of the section

this corresponds to a torque with
warping constraint
See previous lecture
Analogy between
beam bending/pin-ended column
As
Contributions on ds

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
z
S
C
q
u
y
S
u
z
S
S
C
P
P
ds
df
z
df
y
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 29
Torsion (2)
Contributions on ds

compressive stress on section
of area A

Resulting distributed torque (per unit length) on ds

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
z
S
C
q
M
xx

u
z
S
u
y
S
u
z
S
S
C
P
P
ds
df
z
df
y
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 30
Distributed torque
As

As C is the centroid
Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 31
Distributed torque (2)
The analogous torque by unit length resulting from the bending reads

Polar second moment of area around S:

For a built-in end open-section beam
Warping is constrained
Bending contribution to the torque
New equation

For a constant section
Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
M
x
x
z
y
m
x
M
x
+
x
M
x
dx
dx
M
x

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 32
Equations
In the principal axes

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 33
Example
Column with
Deflection and rotation around x
constrained at both end
u
y
(0) = u
y
(L) = 0 & u
z
(0) = u
z
(L) = 0
q(0) = 0 & q(L) = 0
Warping and rotation around y & z allowed at both ends
Twist center = shear center
M
y
(0) = M
y
(L) = 0 u
y,xx
(0) = u
y,xx
(L) = 0
M
z
(0) = M
z
(L) = 0 u
z,xx
(0) = u
z,xx
(L) = 0
As warping is allowed
are equal to zero

q
,xx
(0) = 0 & q
,xx
(L) = 0
Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
x
z
y
P
L
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 34
Resolution
Assuming the following fields satisfying the BCs

The system of equations

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
x
z
y
P
L
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 35
Resolution (2)

Buckling load is the minimum root
Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
x
z
y
P
L
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 36
If shear center and centroid coincide
System becomes

Buckling load is the minimum value
Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
x
z
y
P
L
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 37
Example
Column
Length: L = 1 m
Young: E = 70 GPa
Shear modulus: m = 30 GPa
Deflection and rotation around x
constrained at both ends
u
y
(0) = u
y
(L) = 0 & u
z
(0) = u
z
(L) = 0
q(0) = 0 & q(L) = 0
Warping and rotation around y & z allowed
at both ends

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y,0 )
O
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 38
Centroid position

By symmetry on Oy
Second moment of area

By symmetry
Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
,0 )
O
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 39
Shear center
On C
y
by symmetry
Consider shear force T
z

As I
yz
= 0
Lower flange, considering frame Oyz

Upper flange by symmetry
As Tz passes through the shear center: no torsional flux
Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
, 0)
O
s
T
z
q
q
q
M
O
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 40
Using following definitions

These values would be the critical loads
for an uncoupled system (if C = S)

?

Some values are missing
Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
,0 )
O
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 41

Requires A
Rp
(s)
Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
, 0)
O
s
T
z
q
q
q
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 42
Evaluation of the A
Rp
(s)
Lower flange

Web

Upper flange
Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
, 0)
O
+
<0
+
<0
>0
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
, 0)
O
+
<0
>0
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
, 0)
O
<0
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 43

Lower flange:

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
, 0)
O
s
T
z
q
q
q
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 44

Web:

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
, 0)
O
s
T
z
q
q
q
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 45

Upper flange:

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
, 0)
O
s
T
z
q
q
q
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 46

Upper flange (2):

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
, 0)
O
s
T
z
q
q
q
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 47

All contributions

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 48

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
, 0)
O
s
T
z
q
q
q
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 49

, &

& as z
S
= 0, the coupled system is rewritten

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
y
t = 2 mm
h

=

1
0
0

m
m

b = 100 mm

z
y
z
C
t = 2 mm
t = 2 mm
S(y
S
, 0)
O
s
T
z
q
q
q
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 50
Resolution

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns
>
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 51
Thin plates
Are subject to primary buckling
Wavelength of buckle ~
length of element
So they are stiffened

Buckling of thin plates
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 52
Primary buckling of thin plates
Plates without support
Similar to column buckling
Same shape
zz

Supported plates
Other displacement buckling shapes
Depend on BCs

Buckling of thin plates
p
b a
E
1
E
2
E
3
A
f

f

b a
E
1
E
2
E
3
A
f

f

0
0.5
1
0
0.5
1
0
2
4
x 10
-3
x/a
y/a
u
3

D
/
(
p
0

a
4
)
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 53
Kirchhoff-Love membrane mode
On A:
With

Completed by appropriate BCs
Dirichlet
Neumann
Buckling of thin plates

N
A
n
n
0
= n
a
E
a

E
1
E
2
E
3
A

D
A
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 54
Kirchhoff-Love bending mode
On A:
With

Completed by appropriate BCs
Low order
On
N
A:
On
D
A:
High order
On
T
A:
with
On
M
A:
Buckling of thin plates

N
A
T
n
0
= n
a
E
a

E
1
E
2
E
3
A

D
A
p

M
A
M
n
0
= n
a
E
a

E
1
E
2
E
3
A

T
A
p
D
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 55
Membrane-bending coupling
The first order theory is uncoupled
For second order theory
On A:
Tension increases the bending
stiffness of the plate
Internal energy

In case of small initial curvature (k >>)
On A:

Tension induces bending effect

Buckling of thin plates

11
E
1
E
2
E
3
A

22

12

21
E
1
E
2
E
3
A

22

12

21
j
03
u
3

11
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 56
Primary buckling theory of thin plates
Second order theory
On A:
Simply supported plate
with arbitrary pressure
Pressure is written in a Fourier series

Displacements with these BCs can also be written

with
11
infinite displacements for every couple (m, n)
Lowest one?
Buckling of thin plates

11
E
1
E
2
E
3
A

22

12

21
p
b a
E
1
E
2
E
3
A

11

11
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 57
Primary buckling theory of thin plates (2)
Simply supported plate
Displacements in terms of

11

Minimal (in absolute value) for n=1

Or again

with the buckling coefficient k

Depends on ration a/b
Buckling of thin plates
p
b a
E
1
E
2
E
3
A

11

11
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 58
Primary buckling theory of thin plates (3)
Simply supported plate (2)
Buckling coefficient k

Mode of buckling depends on a/b
k is minimal (=4) for a/b = 1, 2, 3,
Mode transition for

For a/b > 3: k ~ 4
This analysis depends on the BCs, but same behaviors for
Other BCs
Only the value of k is changing (tables)
Buckling of thin plates
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 59
0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
10
2
0.5
6
0.5
12
0.5
a/b
k
m=1
m=2
m=3
m=4
/

Primary buckling theory of thin plates (4)
Shape of the modes for
Simply supported plate
In compression
n=1
Buckling of thin plates
0
0.5
1
0
0.5
1
-1
0
1
x/a
y/a
u
3 m
=
1
0
0.5
1
0
0.5
1
-1
0
1
x/a
y/a
u
3 m
=
2
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 60
Primary buckling theory of thin plates (5)
Critical stress
We found

Or again

cases with k depending on the problem
Picture for simply supported plate in
compression
As

k ~ cst for a/b >3
We use stiffeners to reduce b
to increase s
CR
of the skin
As long as s
CR
< s
p
0

Buckling of thin plates
b
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 61
0 2 4 6
0
2
4
6
8
10
2
0.5
6
0.5
12
0.5
a/b
k
m=1
m=2
m=3
m=4
/

Primary buckling theory of thin plates (6)
What happens for other BCs?
We cannot say anymore
But buckling corresponds to a stationary point of the internal energy
(neutral equilibrium)
So we can plug any Fourier series or displacement approximations in the form

and find the stationary point
Buckling of thin plates
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 62
Primary buckling theory of thin plates (7)
Energy method
Let us analyze the simply supported plate

Internal energy

First term

As the cross-terms vanish
Buckling of thin plates
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 63
Primary buckling theory of thin plates (8)
Energy method (2)
Internal energy

As

And as cross-terms vanish
Buckling of thin plates
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 64
Primary buckling theory of thin plates (9)
Energy method (3)
As

Buckling of thin plates
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 65
Primary buckling theory of thin plates (10)
Energy method (4)
As
At buckling we have at least for one couple (m, n)

Most critical value for n=1

In general
Buckling of thin plates
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 66
Avoid buckling Southwell diagram
Plate with small initial curvature

Particular case of p = 0, tension
11
,
simply supported edges
For

with
When
11

Term b
m1
is the dominant one in the solution
Displacement takes the shape of buckling mode m (n=1)
Buckling of thin plates
E
1
E
2
E
3
A
j
03
u
3

11
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 67
Experimental determination of critical load (2)
Particular case of p=0, tension
11
, simply supported edges (2)
When
11

Term b
m1
is the dominant one in the solution
As
with

Rearranging:
m depends on ratio a/b
Buckling of thin plates
u
3
-u
3
/
11
b
m1
-1/
11
CR
1

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 68
Primary to secondary buckling of columns
Slenderness ratio l
e
/r with
l
e
: effective length of the column
Depends on BCs and mode

High slenderness (l
e
/r >80)
Primary buckling
Low slenderness (l
e
/r <20)
Secondary (local) buckling
Usually in flanges
In between slenderness
Combination
Secondary buckling of columns
l
e
= L/2
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 69
Example of secondary buckling
Composite beam
Design such that
Final year project
Alice Salmon
Realized by

How to determine secondary buckling?
Easy cases: particular sections

Secondary buckling of columns
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 70
Secondary buckling of a L-section
Represent the beam as plates

Take critical plate and evaluate
k from plate analysis
k = 0.43, mode m=1

Check if lower than s
p
0

This method is an approximation
Experimental determination
Secondary buckling of columns
supported
one simply supported
(? Assumption)
0.43
b
a=3b
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 71
Primary buckling of thin plates
We found

With k ~ constant for a/b >3
In order to increase the buckling stress
Increase h
0
/b ratio, or
Use stiffeners to reduce effective b of skin

Buckling of stiffened panels
b
w
t
st
t
sk
b
sk
b
st
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 72
Buckling modes of stiffened panels
Consider the section

Different buckling possibilities
High slenderness
Euler column (primary) buckling with cross-section depicted
Low slenderness and stiffeners with high degree of strength compared to skin
Structure can be assumed to be flat plates
Of width b
sk

Simply supported by the (rigid) stringers
Structure too heavy
More efficient structure if buckling occurs in stiffeners and skin at the same time
Closely spaced stiffeners of comparable thickness to the skin
Warning: both buckling modes could interact and reduces critical load
Section should be considered as a whole unit
Prediction of critical load relies on assumptions and semi-empirical methods
Skin can also buckled between the rivets
Buckling of stiffened panels
w
t
st
t
sk
b
sk
b
st
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 73
A simple method to determine buckling

First check Euler primary buckling:
Buckling of a skin panel
Simply supported on 4 edges
Assumed to remain elastic

Buckling of a stiffener
Simply supported on 3 edges &
1 edge free
Assumed to remain elastic

Take lowest one (in absolute value)
Buckling of stiffened panels
w
t
st
t
sk
b
sk
b
st
0.43
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 74
Shearing instability
Shearing
Produces compression in the skin
The structure keeps some stiffness
Picture: Wing of a Boeing stratocruiser
Buckling of stiffener/web constructions
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 75
References

Lecture notes
Aircraft Structures for engineering students, T. H. G. Megson, Butterworth-
Heinemann, An imprint of Elsevier Science, 2003, ISBN 0 340 70588 4
Other references
Books
Mcanique des matriaux, C. Massonet & S. Cescotto, De boek Universit, 1994,
ISBN 2-8041-2021-X

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 76
Example
z

Pinned-pinned BCs
Maximum deflection?
Maximum momentum?
P
x
z
f
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 77
Equation
Euler-Bernouilli

This assumes deformed configuration ~ initial configuration
But near buckling, due to the deflection, P is exerting a moment
So we cannot apply superposition principle as the axial loading also produces a
deflection
Going back to bending equation

P
x
z
f
z
P
M
xx
f
z
L/2
x
z
f
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 78
Solution
Going back to bending equation

General solution
with
BC at x = 0:
BC at x = L:

Deflection
Deflection and momentum are maximum at x = L/2
P
x
z
f
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 79
Maximum deflection
Deflection is maximum at x = L/2

P
x
z
f
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 80
Maximum deflection (2)
Deflection is maximum at x = L/2 (2)

From Euler-Bernoulli theory

As for plates, compression induces bending
due to the deflection (second order theory)
P
x
z
f
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 81
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
0
10
1
10
2
P/P
CR
u
z
/
u
z
(
P
=
0
)
/

( = 0)
Maximum moment
Maximum moment at x = L/2

With

P
x
z
f
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 82
Maximum moment (3)
Maximum moment at x = L/2 (2)

Remark: for large deflections the bending equation which assumes linearity is no
longer correct as curvature becomes
P
x
z
f
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 83
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
0
10
1
10
2
P/P
CR
M
x
x
/
M
x
x
(
P
=
0
)
/

( = 0)
Spar of wings
Usually not a simple beam
Assumptions before buckling:
Flanges resist direct stress only
Uniform shear stress in each web

The shearing produces compression
in the web leading to a-inclined wrinkles
Assumptions during buckling
Due to the buckles the web can only
carry a tensile stress s
t
in the wrinkle
direction
This leads to a new distribution of
stress in the web
s
xx
& s
zz

Shearing t
Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions
T
b
d
A
B
C
D
t
a
Thickness t
a
C
s
t
A
B
C
D
F
t
a
s
zz
s
t
s
t
A
B
D
F
t
a
s
xx
s
t
E
x
E
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 84
New stress distribution
Use rotation tensor to compute in terms of s
t

Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions
C
s
t
A
B
C
D
F
t
a
s
zz
s
t
s
t
A
B
D
F
t
a
s
xx
s
t
E
x
E
z
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 85
New stress distribution (2)
From

Shearing by vertical equilibrium

Moment balance around bottom flange

Horizontal equilibrium
Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions
T
b
d
A
B
C
D
t
a
Thickness t
a
P
T
t
s
xx
E
x
E
z
P
B
L-x
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 86
New stress distribution (3)
From

of half of the adjacent panels

Stiffeners can be subject to Euler buckling if this load is too high
Tests show that for these particular BCs, the equivalent length reads
Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions
b
E
x
E
z
s
zz s
zz
P
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 87
New stress distribution (4)
From

Bending in flanges
B
& P
T

Stress s
zz
produces bending
Stiffeners constraint rotation
Maximum moment at stiffeners
Using table for double cantilever beams
Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions
b
E
x
E
z
s
zz s
zz
P
b
E
x
E
z
P
s
zz
s
zz
s
zz
s
zz
M
max
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 88
Wrinkles angle
The angle is the one which minimizes
the deformation energy of
Webs
Flanges
Stiffeners
If flanges and stiffeners are rigid
We should get back to a = 45
Because of the deformation of
flanges and stiffeners a < 45
Empirical formula for uniform material

As non constant, a non constant

Another empirical formula
Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions
T
b
d
A
B
C
D
t
a
Thickness t
a
Load in flange / Flange section
Load in stiffener / Stiffener section
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 89
Example
Web/stiffener construction
2 similar flanges
5 similar stiffeners
4 similar webs
Same material
E = 70 GPa
Stress state?
Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions
T =5 kN
b = 0.3 m
d

=

4
0
0

m
m

t
a
t = 2 mm
a
A
S
= 300 mm
2
A
F
= 350 mm
2
(I
yy
/x)

= 750 mm
3
E
x
E
z
I
xx
= 2000 mm
4
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 90
Wrinkles orientation

Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions
T =5 kN
b = 0.3 m
d

=

4
0
0

m
m

t
a
t = 2 mm
a
A
S
= 300 mm
2
A
F
= 350 mm
2
(I
yy
/x)

= 750 mm
3
E
x
E
z
I
xx
= 2000 mm
4
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 91
Stress in top flange (> than in bottom one)
1
st
contribution: uniform compression

Maximum at x = 0

2
nd
contribution: bending
Maximum at stiffener at x=0

Maximum compressive stress
Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions
T
b
d
A
B
C
D
t
a
Thickness t
a
P
T
t
s
xx
E
x
E
z
P
B
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 92
Stiffeners

Buckling?
As b < 3/2 d:

Assuming centroid of stiffener lies in webs plane
We can use Euler critical load

No buckling
Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions
b
E
x
E
z
s
zz s
zz
P
2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 93