Instabilities

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Instabilities

© All Rights Reserved

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Aircraft Structures

Instabilities

Aircraft Structures - Instabilities

Ludovic Noels

Computational & Multiscale Mechanics of Materials CM3

http://www.ltas-cm3.ulg.ac.be/

Chemin des Chevreuils 1, B4000 Lige

L.Noels@ulg.ac.be

Elasticity

Balance of body B

Momenta balance

Linear

Angular

Boundary conditions

Neumann

Dirichlet

Small deformations with linear elastic, homogeneous & isotropic material

(Small) Strain tensor , or

Hookes law , or

with

Inverse law

with

b

T

n

2m l = K - 2m/3

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 2

General expression for unsymmetrical beams

Stress

With

Curvature

In the principal axes I

yz

= 0

Euler-Bernoulli equation in the principal axis

for x in [0 L]

BCs

Similar equations for u

y

Pure bending: linear elasticity summary

x

z f(x)

T

z

M

xx

u

z

=0

du

z

/dx =0 M>0

L

y

z

q

M

xx

a

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 3

General relationships

Two problems considered

Thick symmetrical section

Shear stresses are small compared to bending stresses if h/L << 1

Thin-walled (unsymmetrical) sections

Shear stresses are not small compared to bending stresses

Deflection mainly results from bending stresses

2 cases

Open thin-walled sections

Shear = shearing through the shear center + torque

Closed thin-walled sections

Twist due to shear has the same expression as torsion

Beam shearing: linear elasticity summary

x

z f(x)

T

z

M

xx

u

z

=0

du

z

/dx =0 M>0

L

h

L

L

h

t

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 4

Shearing of symmetrical thick-section beams

Stress

With

Accurate only if h > b

Energetically consistent averaged shear strain

with

Shear center on symmetry axes

Timoshenko equations

&

On [0 L]:

Beam shearing: linear elasticity summary

h

t

z

y

z

t

b(z)

A

*

t

h

x

z

T

z

dx

T

z

+

x

T

z

dx

g

max

g

g dx

z

x

g

q

y

q

y

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 5

Shearing of open thin-walled section beams

Shear flow

In the principal axes

Shear center S

On symmetry axes

At walls intersection

Determined by momentum balance

Shear loads correspond to

Shear loads passing through the shear center &

Torque

Beam shearing: linear elasticity summary

x

z

y

T

z

T

z

T

y

T

y

y

z

S

T

z

T

y

C

q

s

y

t

t

h

b

z

C

t

S

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 6

Shearing of closed thin-walled section beams

Shear flow

Open part (for anticlockwise of q, s)

Constant twist part

The completely around integrals are related to the

closed part of the section, but if there are open parts,

their contributions have been taken in q

o

(s)

Beam shearing: linear elasticity summary

y

z

T

T

z

T

y

C

q

s

p

ds

dA

h

y

z

T

T

z

T

y

C

q

s

p

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 7

Shearing of closed thin-walled section beams

Warping

With

u

x

(0)=0 for symmetrical section if origin on

the symmetry axis

Shear center S

Compute q for shear passing thought S

Use

Beam shearing: linear elasticity summary

y

z

T

T

z

T

y

C

q

s

p

ds

dA

h

y

z

S

T

z

C

q

s

p

ds

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 8

Torsion of symmetrical thick-section beams

Circular section

Rectangular section

If h >> b

&

Beam torsion: linear elasticity summary

t

z

y

C

M

x

r

h/b 1 1.5 2 4

a 0.208 0.231 0.246 0.282 1/3

b 0.141 0.196 0.229 0.281 1/3

z

y

C

t

max

M

x

b

h

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 9

Torsion of open thin-walled section beams

Approximated solution for twist rate

Thin curved section

Rectangles

Warping of s-axis

Beam torsion: linear elasticity summary

y

z

l

2

t

2

l

1

t

1

l

3

t

3

t

t

z

y

C

M

x

t

n

s

t

R

p

R

u

s

q

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 10

Torsion of closed thin-walled section beams

Shear flow due to torsion

Rate of twist

Torsion rigidity for constant m

Warping due to torsion

A

Rp

from twist center

Beam torsion: linear elasticity summary

y

z

C

q

s

p

ds

dA

h

M

x

y

z

R

C

p

p

R

Y

u

s

q

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 11

Panel idealization

Booms area depending on loading

For linear direct stress distribution

Structure idealization summary

b

s

xx

1

s

xx

2

A

1

A

2

y

z

x

t

D

b

y

z

x

s

xx

1

s

xx

2

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 12

Consequence on bending

If Direct stress due to bending is carried by booms only

The position of the neutral axis, and thus the second moments of area

Refer to the direct stress carrying area only

Depend on the loading case only

Consequence on shearing

Open part of the shear flux

Shear flux for open sections

Consequence on torsion

If no axial constraint

Torsion analysis does not involve axial stress

So torsion is unaffected by the structural idealization

Structure idealization summary

T

z

y

z

x

dx

T

y

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 13

Virtual displacement

In linear elasticity the general formula of virtual displacement reads

s

(1)

is the stress distribution corresponding to a (unit) load P

(1)

D

P

is the energetically conjugated displacement to P in the direction of P

(1)

that

corresponds to the strain distribution e

Example bending of semi cantilever beam

In the principal axes

Example shearing of semi-cantilever beam

Deflection of open and closed section beams summary

x

z

T

z

u

z

=0

du

z

/dx =0 M>0

L

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 14

Torsion of a built-in end closed-section beam

If warping is constrained (built-in end)

Direct stresses are introduced

Different shear stress distribution

Example: square idealized section

Warping

Shear stress

Structural discontinuities summary

z

y

M

x

x

L

b

h

dx

q

b

q

h

u

x

m

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 15

Shear lag of a built-in end closed-section beam

Beam shearing

Shear strain in cross-section

Deformation of cross-section

Elementary theory of bending

For pure bending

Not valid anymore because of the

cross section deformation

Example

6-boom wing

Deformation of top cover

Structural discontinuities summary

z

y

x

L

d

h

T

z

/2

d

A

1

A

2

A

1

q

h

q

d

T

z

/2

d

y

x

d

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 16

Torsion of a built-end open-section beam

If warping is constrained (built-in end)

Direct stresses are introduced

There is a bending contribution

to the torque

Examples

Equation for pure torque

with

Equation for distributed torque

Structural discontinuities summary

M

x

M

x

M

x

x

z

y

m

x

M

x

+

x

M

x

dx

dx

M

x

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 17

2 kinds of buckling

Primary buckling

No changes in cross-section

Wavelength of buckle ~ length of element

Solid & thick-walled column

Secondary (local) buckling

Changes in cross-section

Wavelength of buckle ~ cross-sectional dimensions

Thin-walled column & stiffened panels

Pictures:

D.H. Dove wing (max loading test)

Automotive beam

Local buckling

Column instabilities

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 18

Assumptions

Perfectly symmetrical column (no imperfection)

Axial load perfectly aligned along centroidal axis

Linear elasticity

Theoretically

Deformed structure should remain symmetrical

Solution is then a shortening of the column

Buckling load P

CR

is defined as P such that if a

small lateral displacement is enforced by a

lateral force, once this force is removed

If P = P

CR

, the lateral deformation is constant

(neutral stability)

If P > P

CR

, this lateral displacement increases &

the column is unstable

If P < P

CR

, this lateral displacement disappears &

the column is stable

Practically

The initial lateral displacement is due to

imperfections (geometrical or material)

Euler buckling

P

P P

F

P

P < P

CR

P

P > P

CR

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 19

Euler critical axial load

Bending theory

Solution

General form: with

BCs at x = 0 & x = L imply C

1

= 0 &

Non trivial solution with k = 1, 2, 3,

In that case C

2

is undetermined and can

Euler critical load for pinned-pinned BCs

with k = 1, 2, 3,

Euler buckling

P

u

z

x

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 20

Euler critical axial load (2)

Euler critical load for pinned-pinned BCs (2)

with k = 1, 2, 3,

Buckling will occur for lowest P

CR

In the plane of lowest I

For the lowest k k = 1

In case modes 1, .. k-1 are prevented, critical load becomes the load k

Euler buckling

P

u

z

x

z

P

x

z

P

x

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 21

Euler critical axial load (3)

For pinned-pinned BCs

(compression) with gyration radius

General case

Euler critical loads , (compressive)

With l

e

the effective length

Euler buckling

P

u

z

x

z

P

l

e

= L/2

l

e

= L/2

P

l

e

= 2L

P

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 22

Practical case: initial imperfection

Let us assume an initial small curvature of the beam

As this curvature is small the equation of bending

for straight beam can still be used, but with the

change of curvature being considered for the strain

The general form of the initial deflection satisfying the BCs is

the deflection equation becomes

Solution

With

Initial imperfection

u

z0

x

z

P

u

z

x

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 23

Practical case: initial imperfection (2)

Solution for an initial small curvature of the beam

With

BCs at x = 0 & x = L imply C

1

= C

2

= 0, & as

Clearly near buckling, so PP

CR

, and the dominant term of the solution is for n = 1

Initial imperfection

u

z0

x

z

P

u

z

x

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 24

Practical case: initial imperfection (3)

Solution for an initial small curvature of the beam

near buckling

If central deflection is measured vs axial load

As u

z0

(L/2) ~ A

1

Southwell diagram

Allows measuring buckling loads without

breaking the columns

Remark

Critical Euler loading depends on BCs

Initial imperfection

u

z0

x

z

P

u

z

x

z

D

D/P

A

1

1/P

CR

1

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 25

Thin-walled column under critical flexural loads

Can twist without bending or

Can twist and bend simultaneously

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 26

Kinematics

Consider

A thin-walled section

Centroid C

Cyz principal axes

Shear center S

Section motion (CSRD)

Translation

Shear center is moved

By u

y

S

& u

z

S

To S

Rotation around shear (twist) center

We assume shear center=twist center

By q

Centroid motion

To C after section translation

To C after rotation

Resulting displacements u

y

C

& u

z

C

Same decomposition for other

points of the section

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

z

S

C

q

C

u

y

S

u

z

S

u

y

S

u

z

S

S

C

a

a

u

y

C

u

z

C

y

z

S

C

q

C

u

y

S

u

z

S

u

y

S

u

z

S

S

C

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 27

Kinematics (2)

Relations

Centroid

Other points P of the section

Considering axial loading

If q remains small, the induced momentums are

As we are in the principal axes (I

yz

=0), and

as motion resulting from bending is u

S

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

P

u

z

x

z

P

u

y

x

y

y

z

S

C

q

C

u

y

S

u

z

S

u

y

S

u

z

S

S

C

a

a

u

y

C

u

z

C

P

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 28

Torsion

Any point P of the section

As torsion results from axial loading,

this corresponds to a torque with

warping constraint

See previous lecture

Analogy between

beam bending/pin-ended column

As

The momentum at point P can be substituted by lateral loading

Contributions on ds

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

z

S

C

q

u

y

S

u

z

S

S

C

P

P

ds

df

z

df

y

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 29

Torsion (2)

Lateral loading analogy

Contributions on ds

As axial load leads to uniform

compressive stress on section

of area A

Resulting distributed torque (per unit length) on ds

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

z

S

C

q

M

xx

u

z

S

u

y

S

u

z

S

S

C

P

P

ds

df

z

df

y

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 30

Distributed torque

As

As C is the centroid

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 31

Distributed torque (2)

The analogous torque by unit length resulting from the bending reads

Polar second moment of area around S:

For a built-in end open-section beam

Warping is constrained

Bending contribution to the torque

New equation

For a constant section

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

M

x

x

z

y

m

x

M

x

+

x

M

x

dx

dx

M

x

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 32

Equations

In the principal axes

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 33

Example

Column with

Deflection and rotation around x

constrained at both end

u

y

(0) = u

y

(L) = 0 & u

z

(0) = u

z

(L) = 0

q(0) = 0 & q(L) = 0

Warping and rotation around y & z allowed at both ends

Twist center = shear center

M

y

(0) = M

y

(L) = 0 u

y,xx

(0) = u

y,xx

(L) = 0

M

z

(0) = M

z

(L) = 0 u

z,xx

(0) = u

z,xx

(L) = 0

As warping is allowed

are equal to zero

q

,xx

(0) = 0 & q

,xx

(L) = 0

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

x

z

y

P

L

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 34

Resolution

Assuming the following fields satisfying the BCs

The system of equations

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

x

z

y

P

L

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 35

Resolution (2)

Non trivial solution leads to buckling load P

Buckling load is the minimum root

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

x

z

y

P

L

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 36

If shear center and centroid coincide

System becomes

This system is uncoupled and leads to 3 critical loads

Buckling load is the minimum value

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

x

z

y

P

L

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 37

Example

Column

Length: L = 1 m

Young: E = 70 GPa

Shear modulus: m = 30 GPa

Buckling load?

Deflection and rotation around x

constrained at both ends

u

y

(0) = u

y

(L) = 0 & u

z

(0) = u

z

(L) = 0

q(0) = 0 & q(L) = 0

Warping and rotation around y & z allowed

at both ends

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y,0 )

O

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 38

Centroid position

By symmetry on Oy

Second moment of area

By symmetry

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

,0 )

O

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 39

Shear center

On C

y

by symmetry

Consider shear force T

z

As I

yz

= 0

Lower flange, considering frame Oyz

Upper flange by symmetry

As Tz passes through the shear center: no torsional flux

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

, 0)

O

s

T

z

q

q

q

M

O

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 40

Uncoupled critical loads

Using following definitions

These values would be the critical loads

for an uncoupled system (if C = S)

?

Some values are missing

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

,0 )

O

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 41

Uncoupled critical loads (2)

Requires A

Rp

(s)

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

, 0)

O

s

T

z

q

q

q

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 42

Uncoupled critical loads (3)

Evaluation of the A

Rp

(s)

Lower flange

Web

Upper flange

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

, 0)

O

+

<0

+

<0

>0

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

, 0)

O

+

<0

>0

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

, 0)

O

<0

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 43

Uncoupled critical loads (4)

Lower flange:

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

, 0)

O

s

T

z

q

q

q

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 44

Uncoupled critical loads (5)

Web:

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

, 0)

O

s

T

z

q

q

q

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 45

Uncoupled critical loads (6)

Upper flange:

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

, 0)

O

s

T

z

q

q

q

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 46

Uncoupled critical loads (7)

Upper flange (2):

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

, 0)

O

s

T

z

q

q

q

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 47

Uncoupled critical loads (8)

All contributions

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 48

Uncoupled critical loads (9)

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

, 0)

O

s

T

z

q

q

q

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 49

Critical load

As the uncoupled critical loads read

, &

& as z

S

= 0, the coupled system is rewritten

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

y

t = 2 mm

h

=

1

0

0

m

m

b = 100 mm

z

y

z

C

t = 2 mm

t = 2 mm

S(y

S

, 0)

O

s

T

z

q

q

q

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 50

Critical load (2)

Resolution

Flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled columns

>

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 51

Thin plates

Are subject to primary buckling

Wavelength of buckle ~

length of element

So they are stiffened

Buckling of thin plates

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 52

Primary buckling of thin plates

Plates without support

Similar to column buckling

Same shape

Use D instead of EI

zz

Supported plates

Other displacement buckling shapes

Depend on BCs

Buckling of thin plates

p

b a

E

1

E

2

E

3

A

f

f

b a

E

1

E

2

E

3

A

f

f

0

0.5

1

0

0.5

1

0

2

4

x 10

-3

x/a

y/a

u

3

D

/

(

p

0

a

4

)

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 53

Kirchhoff-Love membrane mode

On A:

With

Completed by appropriate BCs

Dirichlet

Neumann

Buckling of thin plates

N

A

n

n

0

= n

a

E

a

E

1

E

2

E

3

A

D

A

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 54

Kirchhoff-Love bending mode

On A:

With

Completed by appropriate BCs

Low order

On

N

A:

On

D

A:

High order

On

T

A:

with

On

M

A:

Buckling of thin plates

N

A

T

n

0

= n

a

E

a

E

1

E

2

E

3

A

D

A

p

M

A

M

n

0

= n

a

E

a

E

1

E

2

E

3

A

T

A

p

D

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 55

Membrane-bending coupling

The first order theory is uncoupled

For second order theory

On A:

Tension increases the bending

stiffness of the plate

Internal energy

In case of small initial curvature (k >>)

On A:

Tension induces bending effect

Buckling of thin plates

11

E

1

E

2

E

3

A

22

12

21

E

1

E

2

E

3

A

22

12

21

j

03

u

3

11

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 56

Primary buckling theory of thin plates

Second order theory

On A:

Simply supported plate

with arbitrary pressure

Pressure is written in a Fourier series

Displacements with these BCs can also be written

with

There is a buckling load

11

leading to

infinite displacements for every couple (m, n)

Lowest one?

Buckling of thin plates

11

E

1

E

2

E

3

A

22

12

21

p

b a

E

1

E

2

E

3

A

11

11

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 57

Primary buckling theory of thin plates (2)

Simply supported plate

Displacements in terms of

Buckling load

11

Minimal (in absolute value) for n=1

Or again

with the buckling coefficient k

Depends on ration a/b

Buckling of thin plates

p

b a

E

1

E

2

E

3

A

11

11

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 58

Primary buckling theory of thin plates (3)

Simply supported plate (2)

Buckling coefficient k

Mode of buckling depends on a/b

k is minimal (=4) for a/b = 1, 2, 3,

Mode transition for

For a/b > 3: k ~ 4

This analysis depends on the BCs, but same behaviors for

Other BCs

Other loadings (bending, shearing) instead of compression

Only the value of k is changing (tables)

Buckling of thin plates

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 59

0 2 4 6

0

2

4

6

8

10

2

0.5

6

0.5

12

0.5

a/b

k

m=1

m=2

m=3

m=4

/

Primary buckling theory of thin plates (4)

Shape of the modes for

Simply supported plate

In compression

n=1

Buckling of thin plates

0

0.5

1

0

0.5

1

-1

0

1

x/a

y/a

u

3 m

=

1

0

0.5

1

0

0.5

1

-1

0

1

x/a

y/a

u

3 m

=

2

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 60

Primary buckling theory of thin plates (5)

Critical stress

We found

Or again

This can be generalized to other loading

cases with k depending on the problem

Picture for simply supported plate in

compression

As

k ~ cst for a/b >3

We use stiffeners to reduce b

to increase s

CR

of the skin

As long as s

CR

< s

p

0

Buckling of thin plates

b

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 61

0 2 4 6

0

2

4

6

8

10

2

0.5

6

0.5

12

0.5

a/b

k

m=1

m=2

m=3

m=4

/

Primary buckling theory of thin plates (6)

What happens for other BCs?

We cannot say anymore

But buckling corresponds to a stationary point of the internal energy

(neutral equilibrium)

So we can plug any Fourier series or displacement approximations in the form

and find the stationary point

Buckling of thin plates

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 62

Primary buckling theory of thin plates (7)

Energy method

Let us analyze the simply supported plate

Internal energy

First term

As the cross-terms vanish

Buckling of thin plates

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 63

Primary buckling theory of thin plates (8)

Energy method (2)

Internal energy

As

And as cross-terms vanish

Buckling of thin plates

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 64

Primary buckling theory of thin plates (9)

Energy method (3)

As

Buckling of thin plates

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 65

Primary buckling theory of thin plates (10)

Energy method (4)

As

At buckling we have at least for one couple (m, n)

Most critical value for n=1

In general

Buckling of thin plates

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 66

Experimental determination of critical load

Avoid buckling Southwell diagram

Plate with small initial curvature

Particular case of p = 0, tension

11

,

simply supported edges

For

with

When

11

Term b

m1

is the dominant one in the solution

Displacement takes the shape of buckling mode m (n=1)

Buckling of thin plates

E

1

E

2

E

3

A

j

03

u

3

11

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 67

Experimental determination of critical load (2)

Particular case of p=0, tension

11

, simply supported edges (2)

When

11

Term b

m1

is the dominant one in the solution

As

with

Rearranging:

m depends on ratio a/b

Buckling of thin plates

u

3

-u

3

/

11

b

m1

-1/

11

CR

1

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 68

Primary to secondary buckling of columns

Slenderness ratio l

e

/r with

l

e

: effective length of the column

Depends on BCs and mode

r: radius of gyration

High slenderness (l

e

/r >80)

Primary buckling

Low slenderness (l

e

/r <20)

Secondary (local) buckling

Usually in flanges

In between slenderness

Combination

Secondary buckling of columns

l

e

= L/2

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 69

Example of secondary buckling

Composite beam

Design such that

Load of primary buckling >

limit load >

web local buckling load

Final year project

Alice Salmon

Realized by

How to determine secondary buckling?

Easy cases: particular sections

Secondary buckling of columns

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 70

Secondary buckling of a L-section

Represent the beam as plates

Take critical plate and evaluate

k from plate analysis

k = 0.43, mode m=1

Deduce buckling load

Check if lower than s

p

0

This method is an approximation

Experimental determination

Secondary buckling of columns

Loaded edges simply

supported

One unloaded edge free

one simply supported

(? Assumption)

0.43

b

a=3b

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 71

Primary buckling of thin plates

We found

With k ~ constant for a/b >3

In order to increase the buckling stress

Increase h

0

/b ratio, or

Use stiffeners to reduce effective b of skin

Buckling of stiffened panels

b

w

t

st

t

sk

b

sk

b

st

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 72

Buckling modes of stiffened panels

Consider the section

Different buckling possibilities

High slenderness

Euler column (primary) buckling with cross-section depicted

Low slenderness and stiffeners with high degree of strength compared to skin

Structure can be assumed to be flat plates

Of width b

sk

Simply supported by the (rigid) stringers

Structure too heavy

More efficient structure if buckling occurs in stiffeners and skin at the same time

Closely spaced stiffeners of comparable thickness to the skin

Warning: both buckling modes could interact and reduces critical load

Section should be considered as a whole unit

Prediction of critical load relies on assumptions and semi-empirical methods

Skin can also buckled between the rivets

Buckling of stiffened panels

w

t

st

t

sk

b

sk

b

st

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 73

A simple method to determine buckling

First check Euler primary buckling:

Buckling of a skin panel

Simply supported on 4 edges

Assumed to remain elastic

Buckling of a stiffener

Simply supported on 3 edges &

1 edge free

Assumed to remain elastic

Take lowest one (in absolute value)

Buckling of stiffened panels

w

t

st

t

sk

b

sk

b

st

0.43

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 74

Shearing instability

Shearing

Produces compression in the skin

Leads to wrinkles

The structure keeps some stiffness

Picture: Wing of a Boeing stratocruiser

Buckling of stiffener/web constructions

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 75

References

Lecture notes

Aircraft Structures for engineering students, T. H. G. Megson, Butterworth-

Heinemann, An imprint of Elsevier Science, 2003, ISBN 0 340 70588 4

Other references

Books

Mcanique des matriaux, C. Massonet & S. Cescotto, De boek Universit, 1994,

ISBN 2-8041-2021-X

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 76

Example

Uniform transverse load f

z

Pinned-pinned BCs

Maximum deflection?

Maximum momentum?

Annex 1: Transversely loaded columns

P

x

z

f

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 77

Equation

Euler-Bernouilli

This assumes deformed configuration ~ initial configuration

But near buckling, due to the deflection, P is exerting a moment

So we cannot apply superposition principle as the axial loading also produces a

deflection

Going back to bending equation

Annex 1: Transversely loaded columns

P

x

z

f

z

P

M

xx

f

z

L/2

x

z

f

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 78

Solution

Going back to bending equation

General solution

with

BC at x = 0:

BC at x = L:

Deflection

Deflection and momentum are maximum at x = L/2

Annex 1: Transversely loaded columns

P

x

z

f

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 79

Maximum deflection

Deflection is maximum at x = L/2

Annex 1: Transversely loaded columns

P

x

z

f

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 80

Maximum deflection (2)

Deflection is maximum at x = L/2 (2)

From Euler-Bernoulli theory

As for plates, compression induces bending

due to the deflection (second order theory)

Annex 1: Transversely loaded columns

P

x

z

f

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 81

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

10

0

10

1

10

2

P/P

CR

u

z

/

u

z

(

P

=

0

)

/

( = 0)

Maximum moment

Maximum moment at x = L/2

With

Annex 1: Transversely loaded columns

P

x

z

f

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 82

Maximum moment (3)

Maximum moment at x = L/2 (2)

Remark: for large deflections the bending equation which assumes linearity is no

longer correct as curvature becomes

Annex 1: Transversely loaded columns

P

x

z

f

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 83

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

10

0

10

1

10

2

P/P

CR

M

x

x

/

M

x

x

(

P

=

0

)

/

( = 0)

Spar of wings

Usually not a simple beam

Assumptions before buckling:

Flanges resist direct stress only

Uniform shear stress in each web

The shearing produces compression

in the web leading to a-inclined wrinkles

Assumptions during buckling

Due to the buckles the web can only

carry a tensile stress s

t

in the wrinkle

direction

This leads to a new distribution of

stress in the web

s

xx

& s

zz

Shearing t

Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions

T

b

d

A

B

C

D

t

a

Thickness t

a

C

s

t

A

B

C

D

F

t

a

s

zz

s

t

s

t

A

B

D

F

t

a

s

xx

s

t

E

x

E

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 84

New stress distribution

Use rotation tensor to compute in terms of s

t

Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions

C

s

t

A

B

C

D

F

t

a

s

zz

s

t

s

t

A

B

D

F

t

a

s

xx

s

t

E

x

E

z

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 85

New stress distribution (2)

From

Shearing by vertical equilibrium

Loading in flanges

Moment balance around bottom flange

Horizontal equilibrium

Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions

T

b

d

A

B

C

D

t

a

Thickness t

a

P

T

t

s

xx

E

x

E

z

P

B

L-x

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 86

New stress distribution (3)

From

Loading in stiffeners

Assumption: each stiffener carries the loading

of half of the adjacent panels

Stiffeners can be subject to Euler buckling if this load is too high

Tests show that for these particular BCs, the equivalent length reads

Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions

b

E

x

E

z

s

zz s

zz

P

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 87

New stress distribution (4)

From

Bending in flanges

In addition to the flanges loading P

B

& P

T

Stress s

zz

produces bending

Stiffeners constraint rotation

Maximum moment at stiffeners

Using table for double cantilever beams

Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions

b

E

x

E

z

s

zz s

zz

P

b

E

x

E

z

P

s

zz

s

zz

s

zz

s

zz

M

max

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 88

Wrinkles angle

The angle is the one which minimizes

the deformation energy of

Webs

Flanges

Stiffeners

If flanges and stiffeners are rigid

We should get back to a = 45

Because of the deformation of

flanges and stiffeners a < 45

Empirical formula for uniform material

As non constant, a non constant

Another empirical formula

Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions

T

b

d

A

B

C

D

t

a

Thickness t

a

Load in flange / Flange section

Load in stiffener / Stiffener section

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 89

Example

Web/stiffener construction

2 similar flanges

5 similar stiffeners

4 similar webs

Same material

E = 70 GPa

Stress state?

Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions

T =5 kN

b = 0.3 m

d

=

4

0

0

m

m

t

a

t = 2 mm

a

A

S

= 300 mm

2

A

F

= 350 mm

2

(I

yy

/x)

= 750 mm

3

E

x

E

z

I

xx

= 2000 mm

4

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 90

Wrinkles orientation

Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions

T =5 kN

b = 0.3 m

d

=

4

0

0

m

m

t

a

t = 2 mm

a

A

S

= 300 mm

2

A

F

= 350 mm

2

(I

yy

/x)

= 750 mm

3

E

x

E

z

I

xx

= 2000 mm

4

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 91

Stress in top flange (> than in bottom one)

1

st

contribution: uniform compression

Maximum at x = 0

2

nd

contribution: bending

Maximum at stiffener at x=0

Maximum compressive stress

Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions

T

b

d

A

B

C

D

t

a

Thickness t

a

P

T

t

s

xx

E

x

E

z

P

B

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 92

Stiffeners

Loading

Buckling?

As b < 3/2 d:

Assuming centroid of stiffener lies in webs plane

We can use Euler critical load

No buckling

Annex 2: Buckling of stiffener/web constructions

b

E

x

E

z

s

zz s

zz

P

2013-2014 Aircraft Structures - Instabilities 93

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