G reek Art & A rchitecture Townsend

I. Greek Art

Dilisa V. February 2, 2007

A. Gender 1. men were usually represented a. they were most often nude b. genitals were most often on display 2. women were also represented a. they were most often clothed in a peplos B. Greek art & Architecture placed an emphasis on order, harmony, and balance. C. Casting bronze began being practiced in the 9th century. D. Greek art idealized the human form. 1. Human form was integrated into structures. E. Vase painting 1. only consistent guideline to development of artistic concepts a. early - crude, curvilinear and naturalistic motifs b. middle years - 10th century more proficiently decorated work of a severe, spare type. ~ Proto-Geometric: characterized by bands of sparse, simple geometrical decoration. c. mature - 9th & 8th century ~ narrower bands with more varied decoration ~ included rigid little figures of men & animals 2. In Attica, mature style of vase painting was “highly” developed. 3. Geometric art was the dominant artistic style of ancient Greece from 1000B.C. Through 700 B.C.. 4. Artists who worked in the geometric style adorned many of their pieces with precise curvilinear & rectilinear or geometric patterns. F. Sculpture

1. The origin of monumental Greek sculpture lies within the 7th century. 2. Prior to 650 B.C. Greek sculptures were made of wood and small in size. 3. Stimulus from Egypt & Mesopotamia prompted Greeks to attempt production of large figures in stone and develop their own sculptural style. 4. Votive Sculpture – smaller sculptures of bronze and clay very often represented as animals. a. these presented a better sacrifice than a living victim b. Scholars have suggested the purpose of Korai was to serve as votive offerings. 5. Polychrome is how Greeks decorated their works. G. Archaic Period 1. 650 B.C. Through 480 B.C. 2. Ancient Greek artists came into contact with ideas & styles outside Greece. 3. Greek ideals were reflected in vase painting and sculpture. 4. Kouros (young men) & Kore (maidens) were represented in statue form. a. This brought about a particularly Greek artistic obsession of idealization of the human figure. 5. Vase painting reached a level of technical & artistic excellence. H. Classical 1. Early classical also called severe classical. 2. There was a revolution in Greek statuary. a. this is attributed to the rise of democracy & the end of the autocratic culture associated with the kourai 3. Technical skill of depicting the human form greatly increased. 4. The individual names of the sculptors are known for the first time during the classical period. a. Phidias b. Praxiteles 5. Each transition during the classical period is critical. a. changes were subtle but distinct 6. There were marked difference between the Archaic & Classical styles. 7. A marked interest between youth and old age is seen.

II. Architecture A. common materials used: 1. wood – supports & roof beams 2. unbaked bricks – walls 3. limestone & marble – columns, walls & upper portions of temples & public buildings 4. terracotta – roof tiles & ornamentation 5. metals – decorative details B. Archaic & Classical architects constructed five types of buildings: 1. religious 2. civic 3. domestic 4. funerary 5. recreational C. During the 6th century B.C., buildings went though petrification. 1. slowly replacing wooden columns with stone ones 2. Buildings began being erected with stone at this time. D. Most buildings were rectangular & made of limestone or tufa. 1. tufa is shell limestone E. Marble was used mainly for sculptural decoration, not structural functionality, because it was hard to transport. F. Most buildings were usually surrounded by a columned portico of columns on all four sides. G. Roofs were wood beams covered with overlapping terracotta tiles. H. Between roof & top of column, a row of lintels formed the entabulature. 1. This is where you'd see a frieze. I. Early 5th century Greeks laid out cities in grid-like patterns. J. There were two types of homes built in Greece. 1. small rooms arranged around a colonnaded interior courtyard 2. interior courtyard with large rectangular hall as the primary living space that led to a columned porch

K. There were three architectural styles. 1. Doric a. 7th century B.C. - 5th century B.C. b. characterized by columns that stood directly on flat pavement without a base c. Vertical shafts were fluted with 20 parallel concave grooves. d. topped by a smooth capital that flared to meet a square abacus at the intersection with the horizontal beam they carried the weight of e. Pronounced features of Greek Doric order are: ~ triglphs – decoratively grooved and represent the wooden end beams which rest on the plain frieze that occupies the lower half of the entablature ~ metopes – the spaces between triglphs left plain or carved in low relief 2. Ionic a. Originated in the mid 6th century B.C. In Ionia. b. Columns usually stand on a base. c. Capital has characteristic paired scrolling volutes in the molded cap. d. Below volutes there may be a wide collar or banding separating capital from fluted shaft. e. 24 hollow flutes in shafts. f. More slender than Doric. 3. Corinthian a. Characterized by a slender fluted column and ornate capital decorated with acanthus leaves & scrolls. b. Was seldom used in Greek Architecture. c. Seen as enrichment of Ionic. d. Has no neck beneath its capital. e. Usually fluted. f. More flexible than Doric or Ionic in styling. g. Abacus has concave sides to conform to the out scrolling of capital. h. Term used when at least two orders are combined.

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