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# 1

## BFC 10403 Fluid Mechanics

Section 3 & 4
Instructors: 1. Tan Lai Wai (Office: D1-309)
Lecture Hours: Wednesdays 4 pm to 6 pm
Thursdays 8 am to 10 am
Chapter 1. Properties of Fluids
Fluid Mechanics concerned with the static and dynamics of
fluids - both liquids and gases
Learning Outcomes:
1. Define the nature of a fluid
2. Introduce viscosity and show what are Newtonian and
non-Newtonian fluids
3. Define the physical properties of fluids
1.1 Units
International System (S.I.):
Temperature
Force
Time
Distance
Mass
Units Quantities
kg
m
s
N
C or K
S.I. units is written in small caps, e.g. kilogram (kg), meter (m),
and second (s).
If the unit is named after someone, the units start with a capital
letter, e.g. Watt (W), Pascal (P), and Newton (N).
An exception is for the unit of liter (L).
1.2 Fluid Properties
a. Density
V
m
=
Density of a fluid is the ratio of mass to volume.
The density of fluid changes with temperature and pressure.
Unit of density is kg/m
3
.
For simplicity, the density of water is assumed to be 1000 kg/m
3
.
958.4 100
965.3 90
971.8 80
977.8 70
983.2 60
988.0 50
992.2 40
995.7 30
997.0 25
998.2 20
999.1 15
999.7 10
1000.0 5
999.8 0
Density (kg/m
3
) Temperature (C)
Table. Density of water as standard sea-level atmospheric pressure
Example 1.1
The weight of a 3 m
3
liquid is 15 kN. Find its density.
Mass of liquid
on accelerati gravity
weight
= m
81 9
10 15
3
.

=
kg 1 1529. =
Density
V
m
=
3
1 1529.
=
3
kg/m 7 509. =
2
Relative density SG of a liquid is the ratio of liquid density to the density of
pure water, i.e. 1000 kg/m
3
(at pressure 101 kN/m
2
and temperature 4
o
C).
1.2 Fluid Properties
b. Relative Density (or Specific Gravity) SG
Relative density of a gas is the ratio of the gas density to the density of
hydrogen or air at certain pressure and temperature.
Relative density is dimensionless.
C 4 atm, kN/m 101 at water
liquid
2
SG
o

=
Example 1.2
Calculate the specific density for:
a. engine oil
oil
= 880 kg/m
3
,
b. seawater
seawater
= 1025 kg/m
3
, and
c. mercury
mercury
= 13570 kg/m
3
.
This shows that mercury and seawater are denser than water.
88 0
1000
880
SG a.
oil
. = =
025 1
1000
1025
SG b.
seawater
. = =
57 13
1000
13570
SG c.
mercury
. = =
g =
Specific weight is the weight per unit volume of fluid at certain temperature
and pressure.
where g is gravity acceleration.
Unit of specific weight is N/m
3
.
Specific weight of water is 9.81 kN/m3 at 4C.
1.2 Fluid Properties
c. Specific Weight

1
= =
m
V
v
Specific volume v is the volume per unit mass of fluid.
Unit of specific volume is m
3
/kg.
1.2 Fluid Properties
d. Specific Volume v
Example 1.3
Find specific weight, density, specific weight and relative density of a
liquid with volume 6.5 m
3
and weight 55 kN.
g =
81 9
5 8461
.
.
=
Specific weight g
V
m
=
V
W
=
5 6
10 55
3
.

=
3
N/m 5 8461. =
Density
g

=
3
kg/m 5 862. =
Specific volume

1
= v
5 862
1
.
= /kg m 10 1594 1
3 3
= .
Relative density
water
liquid
SG

=
1000
5 862.
= 8625 0. =
A
F
p =
Pressure P is the force per unit area applied perpendicular to the surface,
Unit of pressure is N/m
2
or Pa or bar. 1 N/m
2
= 1 Pa = 1 10
5
bar.
1.2 Fluid Properties
e. Pressure
Pressure can be given in terms of fluid pressure head,
gh p =
where h is also the height of the water column. Unit of h is m.
g
p
h

=
3
Example 1.4
Pressure p = gh = 1000 9.81 5 = 49050 Pa = 49.05 kPa
Calculate the pressure of water with pressure head of 5 m.
Exercises
1. A mass has a weight of 105 kg on earth. Find the weight (in kg) of
the mass on:
i. moon (gravity acceleration = 1.7 m/s
2
)
ii. sun (gravity acceleration = 270 m/s
2
)
2. Write the value of 1.5 GPa in Pa.
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of fluid against shear stress or
tensile stress (or simply, viscosity is a measure of fluid friction).
According to Newton's Law of Viscosity,
Shear stress
1.2 Fluid Properties
f. Dynamic Viscosity
A
F
=
where F = shearing force
A
x
y
F

dx
dy
P
Shear strain
y
x
d
d
d =
Rate of shear strain
t d
d
t y
x
d
1
d
d
=
y
u
d
d
=
Shear stress is proportional to the rate of shear strain,
y
u
d
d
constant =
y
u
d
d
=
where is the dynamic viscosity. Unit of dynamic viscosity is N.s/m
2
.
1.3 Newtonian Fluids
Newtonian fluids - shear stress is linearly proportional to the rate of shear strain
(satisfy Newton Law of Viscosity)
- the line passes through origin
- e.g. water, air, kerosene and mercury
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
a
l
s
o
l
i
d
Shear stress
(N/m
2
)
Shear rate du/dy
(s
1
)
Universal fluid ( = 0)
Fluid plastic
U
niversal plastic
Real plastic
N
o
n-ne
w
to
n
ia
n
fluid
s
Newtonian fluids
N
o
n
-n
e
w
to
n
ia
n
flu
id
s
Non-newtonian fluids - paint, polymer solvent, mudflow, blood, etc.
Effect of Temperature on Viscosity
Liquid - the viscosity reduces with increasing temperature
- the cohesive forces between molecules reduces when temperature
increases
Gas - the viscosity increases with increasing temperature
- cohesive forces between molecules is negligible
- molecular momentum transfer increases that it increases the viscosity
of gas
4
1.0
Viscosity
, Ns/m
2
20
Temperature,
o
C
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
10.0
1 10
1
1 10
2
1 10
3
1 10
4
1 10
5
1 10
6
Methane
Carbon dioxide Air
Helium
Heptane
Octane
W
ater
Carbon tetrachloride
Mercury
Kerosene
S
A
E
1
0W
oil
G
ly
c
e
rin
C
a
s
to
r o
il
S
A
E
3
0
o
il
S
A
E
1
0
W
-3
0
o
il
Effect of Temperature on Viscosity
Effect of Pressure on Viscosity
The effect of pressure on viscosity is not obvious under normal conditions.
However, the viscosity for certain oil increases under pressure.
Example 1.5
A thin plate located 0.1 mm away from a rigid boundary requires 1.2
N/m
2
force to move at a speed of 2.5 m/s. Compute dynamic viscosity
of the fluid contained between the plate and the rigid boundary.
Plate u = 2.5 m/s
0.1 mm
Rigid boundary
Given: Distance between plate and rigid boundary dy = 0.1 mm = 0.1 10
3
m
Plate velocity u = 2.5 m/s
Change in plate velocity du = u 0 = 2.5 m/s
Force on plate F = 1.2 N/m
2
y
u
d
d
= Shear stress
3
10 1 0
5 2
2 1

=
.
.
.
2 5
Ns/m 10 8 4

= . Dynamic viscosity
Example 1.6
The velocity distribution for a flow over a plate is given as u = 5y 4y
1/2
where u is the velocity (m/s) at a distance y measured above the plate.
If the dynamic viscosity is 0.85 Ns/m
2
, calculate the velocity and shear
stress on the boundary and at 0.25 m from the boundary.
Find: u and at y = 0 m and at y = 0.25 m above the plate.
Given: = 0.85 Ns/m
2
and
2
1
4 5 y y u =
y
u
d
d
= Shear stress
2
1
4 5 y y u =
2
1
2 5
d
d
= y
y
u
y
u
.
d
d
85 0 =
At y = 0:
1 - 2
1
s 5 2 5
d
d
= =

y
y
u
2
N/m 25 4
d
d
85 0 .
y
u
. = =
At y = 0.25 m:
1 - 2
1
s 1 2 5
d
d
= =

y
y
u
2
N/m 85 0
d
d
85 0 .
y
u
. = =
Kinematic viscosity is defined as the ratio between dynamic viscosity and
density of fluid, i.e.
Unit of kinematic viscosity is m
2
/s
1.2 Fluid Properties
g. Kinematic Viscosity

=
Example 1.7
A rod of diameter 20 mm and length 150 mm moves at a speed of 25
m/s in a 50 mm diameter cylinder filled with oil. If a 12 N of force is
required to maintain the speed of the rod, calculate:
i. the dynamic viscosity of the oil, and
ii. the kinematic viscosity of the oil if relative density of the oil is 0.92.
Given: F = 12 N, D
rod
= 20 mm, L
rod
= 150 mm, u = 20 m/s, D
cylinder
= 50 mm

d
rod
= 20 mm
L
rod
= 150 mm
d
cylinder
= 50 mm Oil-filled
15 mm
Area impacted by the shear force A = DL = 9.425 10
3
m
2
[ = (50 20)/2 ]
5
A
F
= Shear stress
3
10 425 9
12

=
.
2
N/m 24 1273. =
y
u
d
d
= Also, shear stress
015 0
25
24 1273
.
. =
2
Ns/m 7639 0. = Dynamic viscosity

= Kinematic viscosity
920
7639 0.
=
/s m 10 30 8
2 4
= .
- important when temperature affect fluid properties
1.2 Fluid Properties
h. Thermodynamic properties
nRT pV =
- Ideal gas law
where, p = absolute pressure (in kPa), V = volume of gas (in L), T =
absolute temperature (in Kelvin), m = moles of gas, R = gas constant =
8.314 JK
1
mol
1
Periodic table of elements
Example 1.8
What pressure will be exerted by 20.16 g hydrogen gas in a 7.5 L
cylinder at 20C?
Given: V = 7.5 L, T = 20C = 20 + 273.15 = 293.15 K,
Mass = 20.16 g, Atomic weight H
2
= 2 1.008 = 2.016 g/mol
No. of moles = 20.16/ 2.016 = 10 mol
nRT pV = Ideal gas law
5 7
15 293 314 8 10
.
. .
p

=
kPa 67 3249. p =
Example 1.9
The absolute pressure and temperature of carbon monoxide in a ship
are 500 kN/m
2
and 27C, respectively. Compute the density, specific
weight and specific volume for the gas.
Given: p = 500 kPa, T = 27C = 27 + 273.15 = 300.15 K,
Atomic weight of CO = 12.01 + 16 = 28.01 g/mol
nRT pV = Ideal gas law
RT
p
V
n
=
15 300 314 8
500
. .
=
/mol kg/m 2004 0
3
. =
g =
81 9 2004 0 . . =
/mol N/m 966 1
3
. =
Specific weight
Density

1
= v Specific volume
2004 0
1
.
v =
/kg/mol m 99 4
3
. v =
- is a property of the surface of a fluid that allows it to resist external force.
1.2 Fluid Properties
i. Surface tension
- due to cohesive forces between molecules.
- Unit of surface tension is force per unit length or energy per unit area,
i.e. N/m
Examples of surface tension values are:
Water and air = 0.073 N/m at 20
o
C
Water and air = 0.058 N/m at 100
o
C
Mercury and air = 0.1 N/m length
6
The cohesive forces between molecules below the surface are shared with
all neighboring atoms.
Those on the surface have no neighboring atoms above, and exhibit
stronger attractive forces upon their nearest neighbors on the surface.
This enhancement of the intermolecular attractive forces at the surface is
called surface tension.
Liquid
Molecule
Free surface
A
B
C
D
Air
Water Droplet
Atmospheric
pressure

p
(b) Forces

## (c) Surface tension

Total of pressure force
(d) Forces acting on the droplet
d

p
2
4
d p

## Total of tension force d

d d p

=
2
4
In equilibrium,
pressure force = surface tension force
d
p
4
=
Soap bubble
p
d
( ) d d p

= 2
4
2
In equilibrium,
d
p
8
=
Example 1.10
A water tank is filled with air through a pipe to produce bubbles. Compute
air pressure required by the pipe to form bubbles with diameter 10 mm at
temperature 30C. Assume atmospheric pressure is zero.
Given: d = 10 mm = 0.01 m
surface tension of water at 30C, = 0.0712 N/m
d
p
4
= Therefore, the pressure required
01 0
0712 0 4
.
.
p

=
2
N/m 48 28. p =
Table: Properties of water at atmospheric pressure
0.0589
0.0608
0.0626
0.0644
0.0662
0.0679
0.0696
0.0712
0.0728
0.0742
0.0756
Surface
tension*
N/m
101.33
70.10
47.34
31.16
19.92
12.33
7.38
4.24
2.34
1.230
0.611
Saturation
vapor pressure
kN/m
2
abs
2.82 10
-4
9400 958 100
3.11 10
-4
9470 965 90
3.50 10
-4
9530 971 80
4.02 10
-4
9590 978 70
4.60 10
-4
9650 984 60
5.41 10
-4
9690 988 50
6.51 10
-4
9730 992 40
8.00 10
-4
9770 996 30
1.02 10
-3
9790 998 20
1.30 10
-3
9810 1000 10
1.75 10
-3
9810 1000 0
Dynamic
viscosity
Ns/m
2
Specific
weight
N/m
3
Density

kg/m
3
Temperature
o
C
*Interface with water
7
- occurs when one end of a capillary tube is immersed in a liquid.
1.2 Fluid Properties
j. Capillary action
All forces holding a liquid together are called cohesive forces.
The forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface are
Water rises in the capillary tube
the water and the glass are quite
strong, sufficiently strong to draw the
liquid up against the force of gravity.
For liquid mercury, the cohesive forces
are greater than the adhesive forces,
so the level of the liquid inside the tube
is actually depressed.
- contributes to ability of plants roots to take up water and dissolved
nutrients from the soil and transmit them up the stems, and the ability of
paper and cloth towels to absorb water.
SiO
2
H
2
O
Hg
The meniscus on the liquid
surface is concave (U-shaped)
because the forces between the
water and the glass are stronger
than between water molecules
The meniscus on the surface of
the mercury is convex (dome-
shaped) because the attractive
forces between mercury atoms
are stronger than the attraction
between mercury and the glass
Capillary tube
Water
h = Capillary rise

(Concave meniscus)
Mercury
d
Glass tube
h = Capillary depression

> /2
(Convex meniscus)
For water and glass, 0
For mercury and glass, 130 - 150
Surface tension forces = cos d
Weight of water column in tube =

h d
2
4
In equilibrium,

h d d
2
4
cos =
d
h

cos 4
=
Example 1.11
Compute the minimum diameter of a glass tube if the capillary rise in the
tube does not exceed 0.25 mm. Assume the surface tension of the water is
0.075 N/m.
Given: h = 0.25 mm, = 0.075 N/m
d
h

cos 4
= Capillary action
d
h

4
=
d
.
.

=

9810
075 0 4
10 25 0
3
m 1223 0. d =
Example 1.12
Compute the rise of water when a glass tube of diameter 1.2 mm is placed
inside a water tank at 20C.
Surface tension at 20C = 0.0728 N/m
Capillary rise
d
h

4
=
0012 0 9810
0728 0 4
.
.
h

=
m 0247 0. h =
= 0.072 N/m
2.0 mm
1.5 mm
Example 1.13
A U-tube has two capillaries with diameter 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm,
respectively. The tube is filled with liquid of surface tension 0.072 N/m and
contact angle = 0. Compute the density of fluid if the difference in meniscus
rise is 5.5 mm.
5.5 mm
2 1
4 4
d d

## = The difference in capillary rise

=
2 1
1 1 4
d d

=
002 0
1
0015 0
1 072 0 4
0055 0
. .
.
.

81 9
27 8727
.
.
= Density
3
kg/m 63 889. =
8
1.2 Fluid Properties
k. Compressibility and Bulk Modulus
Bulk modulus E is defined as the ratio of the change in pressure to the
rate of change of volume due to the change in pressure.
( ) V V
p
E
d
d
=
( ) d
dp
E = or
where dp is the change in pressure causing a change in volume dV when
the original volume was V. The unit is the same as that of pressure, N/m
2
.
At normal temperature and pressure,
E
water
= 2.07 10
6
kN/m
2
E
air
= 101.3 kN/m
2
F
Gas
Piston
dV
V
Volume strain
Shear
stress
dp
V
V d
A
F
p =
Compressibility is a measure of the relative volume change of fluid as a
response to external pressure.
Compressibility
E
1
=
Compressibility of water is so small that it is usually neglected.
Example 1.14
The volume of a liquid reduces as much as 0.09% when subjected to a
pressure of 3.5 10
6
N/m
2
. Compute the bulk modulus of the liquid.
Given: p = 3.5 10
6
N/m
2
, dV/V = 0.09/100
( ) V V
p
E
d
d

= Bulk modulus

=
100
09 0
10 5 3
6
.
.
E
2 9
N/m 10 89 3 = . E
2
GN/m 89 3. E =
Example 1.15
At a depth of 5 km below the sea surface, the pressure is 60 MN/m
2
. The
specific weight of seawater at the surface is 10.24 kN/m
3
and average bulk
modulus is 2.4 10
6
kN/m
2
. At the depth of 5 km below the surface, compute:
Given: dp = 6 10
7
kN/m
2
, = 10.24 kN/m
3
, E = 2.4 10
9
kN/m
2
g

=
seawater Density

1
= v
a. change in volume,
b. specific volume, and
c. specific weight of seawater
81 9
10 24 10
3
.
.
=
3
kg/m 83 1043. =
Specific volume at surface
83 1043
1
.
= /kg m 10 58 9
3 4
= .
( ) V V
p
E
d
d
= Bulk modulus
( )
4
7
9
10 58 9 d
10 6
10 4 2

=
. V
.
/kg m 10 395 2 d
3 5
= . V Change in volume
Specific volume of seawater
5 4
10 395 2 10 58 9

= . .
/kg m 10 341 9
3 4
= .
Specific weight of seawater g
v
1
=
81 9
10 341 9
1
4
.
.

3
N/m 09 10502. =
Example 1.16
A tank with diameter 6 m and depth 2 m is completely filled with water at 20C.
If the water is heated to 50C, how much volume of water will be spilled?
Volume of water at 20C = volume of tank
From Table of Water Properties,
h
d
4
2

= 2
4
6
2

=
3
m 55 56. =
At 20C, density = 998 kg/m
3
At 50C, density = 988 kg/m
3
Volume of water at 50C = volume of water at 20C
C 50
C 20
o
o

988
998
55 56 = .
3
m 12 57. =
Volume of water spilled at 50C = 57.12 56.55 = 0.572 m
3
9
1.2 Fluid Properties
l. Vapor pressure p
v
Liquids can vaporize and evaporate.
A liquid at any temperature will have some molecules with more kinetic
energy than other molecules. The molecules with higher kinetic energy will
be able to escape the intermolecular attractive forces in the liquid and
enter the gas phase.
Vapor pressure is the concentration of the material in the gas stream at
the equilibrium condition.
When pressure is too low, liquid will turn into vapor. This phenomenon is
called cavitation.
A
F
p
v
=
1.2 Fluid Properties
m. Newton's Law
Newton's First Law of Motion: Every object remains in a state of rest or
uniform motion unless subjected by an
external force.
Newton's Second Law of Motion: A body of mass m subject to a force F
undergoes an acceleration a that has the
same direction as the force and a
magnitude that is proportional to the
force., i.e. F = ma
Newton's Third Law of Motion: The mutual forces of action and reaction
between two bodies are equal, opposite
and collinear.
1. Calculate the weight of water required to fill a tank of size 1.5 m 1.5 m 1.0 m.
Assigment No. 1 (due January 12, 2010)
2. Find the specific weight and relative density of a liquid of density 905 kg/m
3
.
1. Calculate the weight of water required to fill a tank of size 1.5 m 1.5 m 1.0 m.
Mass m = V = 1000 1.5 1.5 1.0 = 2250 kg
Weight W = mg = 2250 9.81 = 22.07 kN
Assigment No. 1 (due January 12, 2010)
2. Find the specific weight and relative density of a liquid of density 905 kg/m
3
.
Specific weight = g = 905 9.81 = 8878.05 N/m
3
Relative density 905 0
1000
905
SG
water
liquid
. = = =

Test No. 1
covers Chapter 1 and Chapter 2
Date: January 27, 2011
Time: 8 pm to 9.30 pm
Venue : Upper F2
Test No. 2
covers Chapters 3, 4 and 5
Date: March 17, 2011
Time: 8 pm to 9.30 pm
Venue : Upper F2