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POLI TI CS

POLITICS DEFINED:
! Greek word !polis" meaning city
! Study of the city or the state
PLATO AND ARISTOTLE
! Viewed politics in terms of moral purpose that decision makers out to pursue
! Plato: What is justice?
! Aristotle: What is the highest good?
Many political scientists believed that:
! The core of politics is about the nature of the good like
! Politics is the art of living and working together
Dictionary Meaning: !#is the science dealing with the form, organization and administration of the state, or
part of one, and with the regulations of its relations with other states."
Easton: Political acts are those that authoritatively allocate values in society.
Dahl: Politics is ant present pattern of human relationships that involves, to a significant extent, power, rule
or authority.
! more than just persuasion (power)
! positional (authority)
Laswell: Politics is about who gets what, when and how
! The !economic" is also !political"
! Minority of the population gets majority of the wealth, majority of the population use minority of
the wealth
Redekop: Politics refers to all activity whose main purpose is one or more than the ff:
! to reshape/influence governmental structures/processes
! to influence/replace govt. officials
! to influence formation of public policy
! generate public awareness of, and, response to governmental processes, personnel and policies
! gain place of influence or power within government
Hegwood: Politics as:
! art of government
! the public
! consensus/compromise
! power



TRANSMI SSI ON OF POLI TI CS
! Transmitted through the process called POLITICIAL SOCIALIZATION which is the establishment and
development of attitudes to and beliefs about the political system
! Agencies of POLITICAL SYSTEM:
o Family Religious Institution Mass Media
o Educational Ins. Clubs Legislature
o Employment Political Party
** we are not conscious of it but we learn to conform with authority
POLITCAL PARTY ! GOVERNMENT
INPUT ! OUTPUT
CANDIDATES ! LEADERSHIP
PLATFORM ! PROGRAMS AND SERVICES
PRODUCTIVE SPEHERE:
Goods and services
Monetary value
Men and women
Unequal pay for work
REPRODUCTIVE SPHERE:
People
Nurturing
Women
Double burden


TERRI TORY, POPULATI ON, SOVEREI GHNTY & GOVERNMENT
Government$s function: PUT THE PEOPLE TOGETHER
3 Inherent State Powers:
! Eminent Domain % take private property for public use; like building roads taking away your property
o Limits
" Public use
" Just compensation
" To be exercised by Congress, President, LGU, Public/Quasi-public corporations
! Police Power % implement laws for public welfare/health/safety; regulate behavior
o Limits
" Due process of the law
" Equal protection law
" Congress makes the laws
! Taxation % political necessity to maintain government; power to collect fees; to be implemented by
Congress




Logically, the people (nations) came first but history tells us that states formed nations.
Elements of a State/Nationhood:
! Territory
! People/Population
! Independence/Sovereignty
! Government
Territory
! All states have defined territory
! All territories have states
o Except Antarctica, Jews and Palastinians
Population
! People within territorial borders
! People: !citizens" and !aliens"
! Citizenship: law of the soil (birthplace) / law of the blood (inheritance)
! A family does not make a state
! But population doesn$t really matter

Independence/Soverignty
! Self governing
! The state is the supreme decision-making power within a geographically delineated fronties and
subject to external

STATE I N THE WEST AND EAST
West
! Treaty of Westphalia in 1648
! French Revolution in 1789
East
! Marxism-Leninism: the state will wither way, masses will take over
! Communism by Marx ! anti capitalism
o Lenin was a follower of Marx and leader of Soviet Revolution

Crises of Nation or State-Building
! Identity ! nationhood/belongingness
o Knowing the problems of the state
! Legitimacy ! question your leaders$ right to be leaders
o Ex: GMA$s right to governance
! Penetration ! problem reaching to everyone in the state
o Ex: state cant reach Ampatuan$s army
! Participation: who makes the decisions in society?
o How indusive your state is
! Distribution ! problem of who benefits from the country$s wealth?
** We have issues of identity and penetration, not much of legitimacy, penetration and distribution.

DEMOCRACY
Etymology:
! Greek word !demos" meaning PEOPLE
! Kratia meaning RULE
! RULE OF THE PEOPLE
o Monarchy ! Tyrany
o Aristocracy ! Oligarchy
o Constitutional Government ! Democracy

! A democratic government is based on the consent of the government
! Or government by majority with the consent of the minority
Abraham Lincoln - Government OF the people, BY the people, FOR the people
WHO ARE THE PEOPLE?
! Single Body % sovereign will, collective will, general will
! Heterogeneous % the majority
! Everyone % unanimous decisions are acceptable
HOW SHOULD THE PEOPLE RULE?
! Direct democracy
o Initiative
o Referendum % when congress has a law and people are asked if its OK
o Recall % replace leaders in position
! Representative democracy
! Totalitarian democracy
HOW FAR SHOULD POPULAR EXTEND? ! What is the proper realm of democracy?

Liberal Individualists % democracy restricted to political life; purpose is to establish a framework of laws for
people to pursue private interests
Radical Democrats: principle of democracy applicable to all areas of social existence
Jospeh Schumpter: Democracy is a method % institutional method/arrangement for arriving at political
decisions which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people$s
vote
Samuel Huntington: Democracy is a political system where most powerful decision makers are selected
through fair, honest, periodic elections in which candidates freely compete for votes and in which the adult
population are eligible to vote
Schmitter & Karl: modern political democracy is a system of governance in which rulers are held#.
Christian Ramney: 4 features of democracy
! Popular Sovereignty
! Political Equality
! Popular Consultation
! Majority Rule
Conditions favoring democracy:
! Peaceful revolution
! Socio-economic pluralism
! High level of economic development and modernization
! Ethnic group uniformity
! Leader$s commitment to democracy

WHAT ABOUT THE PHILIPPINE DEMOCRACY?
Elite democracy Patrimonial Oligarchic State
Weak State Bossism
Oligarchic Democracy Clientist Selectional Regime
Low-intensity Democracy Cacique Democracy
Contested Democracy

Kerkvliet:
! Patron % client fractional framework
! Pre-authoritarian period
! Post-colonial ! Marcos Regime

2 Major Political parties then: NACIONALISTA VS LIBERAL
! identical in policies, ideological positions and sources of support
! intra-party solidarity was weakened & intraparty switching was indemic
! root of political dynasty


New Colonial Dependency Framework
! Authoritarian period
! Articulated by Filipino debt wing nationalists
! The US exercised !indirect" colonial rule over the Philippines even of granted Independence in 1946
! The Filipino Elite were just !sub-elite" within an essentially colonial framework
! This framework ! dominant during Marcos$ regime because of his dependence on economic and
military assistance from the US

Elite and Democracy Patrimonial Framework
! Post authoritarian period
! Dominant framework in the post Marcos period
! The rise of Cory Aquino meant the resurrection of an old elite and the restoration of the elite


Enzo Gutierrez
! Return of the oligarchs in 1987 congressional and 1988 local elections
! The real source of power, thus, is the !clan" rather than the party

James Pretzel
! The 1992 elections show that politics in the Philippines
! It is based on cultural & ideological hegemony, obtaining the consent of the ruled through the use
of institutions, symbols, and processes that enjoy a strong degree of legitimacy among the rule

Quimpo: Contested Democracy
! Of the 3 frameworks, the elite patrimonial democracy framework appears superior because it takes
corruption, fraud, coercion and violence into account
! Still, it is a top-down, static model: everything that happens in the country$s politics because of the
elite
! All of the frameworks excluded the idea/reality of a popular opposition

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DEVELOPMENT
Global Concerns
! Peace
! Freedom
! Development
! Environment

Modernization Theory
! Model for modernity: the industrialized West
! Tradition is incompatible with modernity
! The causes of underdeveloped are in traditional societies
! Mechanisms for development can be found within national societies

World Bank Indicators
! Classifications of countries based on gross
! National income (GNI) per capita
! Developed countries
o High income, or more
! Developing countries
o Low income, $995 and less
o Lower middle income, $996-$3945
o Upper middle income, $3946-$12195








Core ! (goods <-, resources <-)
(resources ->, goods ->)





Context
! Challenge to the dominance of the modernization theory in the 1950s in the post WW 2 era
! In the 1860s and 1970s, economic growth proved no trickling down
! Attention was given production and technocracy, basic needs of people- neglected
! More attention to inequality and poverty issued is needed
! Shifts from macroeconomic growth to poverty alleviation strategies
! In the 1980s, decentralization became a global trend


Dependency theory
o outside circle are dependent on the major countries (they develop goods) why poor
countries remain poor
o not all countries can be rich because they depend on each other

Alternative Development Theory
o Criticized modernization theory as well
o Another kind of development is possible
" Geared to the satisfactions of needs
" Participative % endogenous and self reliant
" Sustainable % harmony with the environment

Distinguishing characteristics:
! Redefinition of development goals from economic growth to human development
! New focus on civil society as development agent
! Highlighted new development methodology
Participatory
Endogenous and self-reliant
Sustainable beyond getting standards and numbers

Human Development Theory
! Human development reports instead of first GDP
! About enlarging people$s choices
o These choices are infinite and may change overtime
o The objective of development is to create an enabling environment to enjoy long, healthy
lives
! Human development index Rating
o Standard of Living Very High HD, High HD, Medium HD Low hD
o Literacy rate/Level of education (we$re high in LR but low in level of educ)
o Life expectancy

Essential components of human development:
! Equity
! Sustainability
! Productivity
! Empowerment

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): we should have all the same goals and meet them all in 2050

! Indicate extreme poverty and hunger
! Combat HIV/aids, malaria and other diseases
! Reduce child mortality
! Improve maternal health
! Achieve universal primary education
! Develop a global partnership for development
! Ensure environmental sustainability
! Promote gender equality and empower women

Sustainable Development:
!Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs." % Brundtland Report
*intergenerational equity % there is something more for future generation




1987 Brundtland Report
! The environment does not exist as a sphere separate from human actions, ambitions, and needs,
and attempts to defend it in isolation from human concerns have given the word !environment" a
connotations of naivety in some political circles
! Environment is where live and development is what we all do in attempting to improve our lot
within that abode. The 2 are inseperable.

The word !development" has also been narrowed by some into a very limited focus, along the lines of
!what poor nations should do to become richer" and this again is automatically dismissed by many in the
international arena as being a concern of specialists, of those involved in questions of !development
assistance".

Definition of sustainable development:

! What is to be sustained?
! Nature (earth, biodiversity, ecosystems)
! Life Support (ecosystem services, resources, environment)
! Community (cultures, groups, places)

For how long? 25 years, !Now and In the future", Forever

What is to be developed?
! People (child survival, life expectancy, education, equity, equal opportunity)
! Economy (Wealth productive sectors, consumption)
! Society (institutions, social capital, regions, states)


ON MODERN POLI TI CAL I DELOGI ES

What is ideology?

From Greek words:
! Eidos = words
! Logos = knowledge
! Socrates, Plato, Aristotle % 1
st
idea of JUSTICE
! First used by the French: !left" and !right" seating arrangement at the French National Assembly
of 1789 (signaled the start of the French Revolution)

Drucker: the powerful political ideas of our time are almost all part of some ideology or other

Sargent: a value system or belief system accepted as fact or truth by some group. Ideology provides the
believer with a picture of the world both as it is and as it should be, and in doing so, organizes the
tremendous complexity of the world into something fairly simple and understandable. (ideal world, foundation
of beliefs)

Heilboner: systems of thought and belief by which individual and groups explain# how their social system
operates and what principles it exemplifies

Anthony Downs: a verbal image of the good society and of the chief means constructing such a society



Characteristics of Ideologies
! !isms" (socialism, capitalism etc, body of knowledge)
! Provides an explanation of society and vision of society
! Action-oriented: how to get envisioned society
! Aimed at mobilizing mass support for desired change (or status quo)

Why is ideology important?
! Ideology addresses basic human needs (e.g safety, freedom, community)
! Provides its believers with an understanding of history
! Is a !reference" point, a lens to view the world
! inspires people
!
Authoritarianism




government control Economic Scale (capitalist)




Social Scale (libertarianism)

Libertarian
! Separate the personal from the government, no government intervention (ex. Gay marriage)

Left-Liberals
! Generally embrace freedom of choice in personal matters, but support central decision-making in
economics

Right-Conservatives
! Favor freedom of choice on economic issues, but want official standards in personal matters
! Tend to support the free market, but frequently want the government to defend the community
from what they see as threats to morality or to the traditional family structure
! Interfere the social issues

Centrists
! Favor selective government intervention and emphasize what they commonly describe as !practical
solutions" to current problems
! Tend to keep an open mind on political issues
! Many centrists feel that the government serves as a check on excessive liberty

Statists (Big Government)
! want government to have a great deal of control over individuals and society
! support centralized planning and often doubt whether liberty and freedom of choice are practical
options
! at the very bottom of the cart, left-authoritarians are usually called socialists, while right-
authoritarians are generally called fascists



Authoritarian % more control by the government vs Libertarian % less control
Left Authoritarian % economic scale vs. Right Authoritarian % less on economic



Maj or I deol ogi es

Li ber al i sm, Economi c Li ber al i sm
! Classical Liberalism, Laissez Faire
! Modern Liberalism, Neo-Liberalism (privatization, de-regulation)
! State-Assisted Capitalism, the Developmental State *model of Japan and SK

Conser vati sm
! Classical Conservatism
! Modern Conservatism

Mar xi sm or Sci enti f i c Soci al i sm
! Marxism
! Marxism-Leninism
! Maoism
! Marxist Revisionism or Social Democracy
! Gramscian Marxism

Fasci sm
! Associated with authoritarian


Cl assi cal Li ber al i sm
! Adam Smith, 1723-1790
! Scottish
! Political economist, moral philosopher
! 1776: !An Inquiry into the nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations"
o comes from the Latin word !liber" for !free"
o negative Liberalism or Freedom !from" (government control)
o Government by !Consent" as central value
o Individual freedom
o Rationality and progress
o Limited government
o Economic freedom

Moder n Li ber al i sm
! Positive Liberalism or Freedom !to" (be protected by government)
! Freedom of speech or freedom from repression is not meaningful if people cannot get an education
(welfare); economic system can be unfair so government must step in
! Control financial flows

Neo- l i ber al i sm
! The private is good, the public is bad
! Revival of Laissez faire
! Rolling back of the state
! Privatization % government transfers its assets to private sectors
! Deregulation % oil companies don$t set prices, comply with world market prices
! Liberalization - open it up to competition, don$t favor philippine companies

State- assi sted capi tal i sm
East Asian miracle: the !developmental" state

Cl assi cal Conser vati sm (Bur ke)

! comes from French word !conservateur" label given to French scholars who demanded for a return
to pre-revolutionary conditions
! !reactionary", !gradualist", !moderate", !slow"conservatism- resistance to change
! Associated with the analyses:
o humans have irrational impulses and should these impulses should be controlled
o Order and stability: most important
o Change should be gradual


Moder n Conser vati sm
! revival of classical liberalism in the 1980s (e.g ideas of Milton Friedman who served as Reagan$s
economic adviser)
! !Neo-cons": Bush et al (Adam Smith + Edmund Burke)


Mar xi sm
! Karl Marx
! 1818-1883
! German Philosopher
! 1848 (with Engels): !The Communist Manifesto"
! 1867: !Das Kapital"
! Captalism$s problem: profit orientation (P = I % C)
! You can manipulate costs
! Class struggle (historical/dialectical materialism)
! Scientific Socialism % because it$ll definitely lead to socialism
! Vision of a classless society


Mar xi sm- Leni nsm
! Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
! 1870-1924
! V.I Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
! Leader of the October Revolution (1917)
! First head of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic
! 1902: !What Is to be Done"
! 1916: !Imperialism: The Highest Form of Capitalism
! Revolution in a backward economy
! The necessity of organization: the Communist party
! Dictatorship of the Proletariat




Maoi sm
! Mao Zedong
! 1930s: led the Chinese Communist Party
! based on poor peasants
! guerilla warfare: surround the city from the countryside
! came to power in 1949
! launched a cultural revolution in 1969

Soci al Democr acy
! Edward Bernstein (1850-1892)
o Developed the !revisionist" school
o German Social Democratic Party
o No to economic determinism
o Evolutionary socialism
o !welfarism"
! Antonio Gramsci (1891 to 1937)
o one of the founders of the Communist Party of Italy (pic)
o capitalism has not collapsed because of !ideological/cultural" hegemony
o advocated for !war of position" rather than !war of movement"


Fasci sm
! Latin word !fasces" meaning bundle"
! Italy 1919: benito Mussolini
! 1940s: Adolf Hitler, National socialism or Nazism (1940s)
! Totalitarianism, Nationalism, Militarism, Leadership
!

Some Theoretical Foundations

! Unitary and Federal Governments
o Horizontal or territorial expression of power in society
o Typology based on the relationship between the National/Central and the Local
governments
! Presidential or Parliamentary Government
o Options for a representative democracy
o Typology based on relationship between the executive and the legislative
o In Parliamentary: exec and legis have the same power
o In presidential: they have separate powers
! Unitary vs Federal State

Uni tar y

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DI FFERENCE:
you also grant power to government of component parts
governed by Obama; governed by Arnold S.
*Central govt cant dissolve any State

Conf eder ati on


UNI TARY GOVT
Advantages:
! more suitable for countries that are culturally homogenous (the same)
! Possibility of uniform application of laws and policies to all parts of the states
! Requires a relatively simple organization
! Less !wasteful" because there is no conflict of authority between different levels of government
Disadvantages:
! Not suitable for large or culturally heterogeneous countries
! Policy-makers and administrators are physically and emotionally distant from the locality (i.e !local
affairs are decided by the !national"
! Tends to overcrowd the national government: agenda and personnel

FEDERAL STATE
Advantages:
! Capable of uniting different units % under an overarching political authority % while giving them local
autonomy
! Suitable for large territories that are culturally heterogeneous
! Lower levels of government benefit from national assistance (i.e military and economic mobilization)
! National government can focus on national and international issues
Disadvantages:
! Duplication of services and officeholders at the regional and federal levels (i.e it is costly)
! Absence of uniform policy on issues that are common or !national" in nature (e.g marriage, child
labor, voting, agrarian reform, repro rights etc)
! Laws at local level are often difficult to change (because laws are contained in !rigid"
constitutions)


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UNI TARY NOT FEDERAL
! (Filipino Voters (Broad Powers and authority) <-> CG <->(LIMITED powers and authority) Local Govt
Units
! 17 administrative regions
! 81 provinces (81 governors)
! 120 cities
! 1,501 municipalities (1st % 6th classes, based on income and territory)
! 41,939 barangays (administrative units : develop the lives of the people in your area)
! *congressmen/women : political units (make laws)


Par l i amentar y and Pr esi denti al For ms or Systems of Gover nment

Par l i amentar y
! The executive and legislative branches are !fused"
! British model

Pr esi denti al
! The executive and legislative branches are separate
! American model - our system

Br i ti sh Par l i amentar y System
! Monarch as head of state
! Voters elect House of Commons or Parliament -> (Parliament) provides majority/support for Prime
Minister and Cabinet or Government-> (Government) directs central government agencies

Amer i can Pr esi denti al System
! Voters elect (president) and (congress)
o From president -> appoints agency heads -> (agency heads) directs federal agency heads

Fr ench Mi xed system
! Voters elect (president/ head of state) -> (President) appoints prime minister (head of government)
and cabinet -> executive agencies
! (Voters also) Elect national assembly (provides majority support for..)

I mpl i cati ons on the El ector al Pr ocess
! Presidential
(+) allows the people to vote for their chief executive directly and openly
(-) raises the stake for presidential elections
(-) tends to ignore political parties; promotes personalistic politics

! Parliamentary
(-) choice of chief executive is indirect, prone to backroom maneuvering of politicians (and
so people may feel excluded from the selection process)
(+) promotes power sharing and coalition-building (smaller parties have a stake in the
system)

I mpl i cati ons on Gover nance/Pol i ti cal Pr ocess
! Pr esi denti al System
(+) separation of powers serve as check and balance
(-) all powerful president
(-) because of the fixed term of office, political calculations get in the way of rational
planning
(-) government personnel often political appointees (rather than merit-based)

! Par l i amentar y System
(-) all-powerful parliament (or majority party)
(+) continuity of the political process
(+) government personnel more independent-minded

I mpl i cati ons on Pol i ti cal Stabi l i ty; Successi on I ssues
! Presidential System
(-) legislative branch might not be !cooperative"
(-) in case of stalemate between legislative and executive, the armed forces might step in
(-) successor might be of a different political orientation
(-) few options for ousting abusive presidents: impeachment
! Voters elect
o President of the Philippines
o Bicameral Congress: House of Representatives (214) and Senate (24)

From 1 -> (President) appoints Cabinet of heads of Departments, plus Heads of AFP and PNP ->(
Cabinet of Heads) directs national agencies for: Agriculture, Defense, Economy, Education, Energy,
Environment, Foreign Affairs, Health, Housing, Justice, Labor, Local Government, Public Safety, Science,
Transportation, Tourism

Arguments for a Parliamentary Shift (Abad article)
! Better ability to prevent gridlock and promote a cooperative relationship between the Malacanang
and congress in policy-making
! Greater capacity to ensure stability and continuity in governance and prevent military coups and
extra constitutional action by the executive
! Better capacity to ensure accountability in governance
! Greater propensity to create a political environment conducive to the growth of coherent,
disciplined, and strong political parties
o Greater ability to encourage a multi-party setting and promote a more open and plural
politics (def. plural politics: different ideas are considered valid)