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METALLURGY AND MATERIAL SCIENCE

UNIT V
Heat treatment of Alloys
Q1. Explain Effect of alloying elements on Fe-Fe3 system!
Ans:
Fig 1: Fe-Fe
3
C Phase Diagram
Figure 1 shows the equilibrium diagram for combinations of carbon in a solid solution of
iron. The diagram shows iron and carbons combined to form Fe-Fe
3
C at the .!"C end of the
diagram. The left side of the diagram is #ure iron combined with carbon$ resulting in steel allo%s.
Three significant regions can be made relati&e to the steel #ortion of the diagram. The% are
the eutectoid '$ the h%#oeutectoid A$ and the h%#ereutectoid (. The right side of the #ure iron
line is carbon in combination with &arious forms of iron called al#ha iron )ferrite*$ gamma iron
)austenite*$ and delta iron. The blac+ dots mar+ clic+able sections of the diagram.
Allotro#ic changes ta+e #lace when there is a change in cr%stal lattice structure. From
,-.,/-,00,/F the delta iron has a bod%-centered cubic lattice structure. At ,00,/F$ the lattice
changes from a bod%-centered cubic to a face-centered cubic lattice t%#e. At 11../F$ the cur&e
shows a #lateau but this does not signif% an allotro#ic change. 2t is called the Curie tem#erature$
where the metal changes its magnetic #ro#erties.
Two &er% im#ortant #hase changes ta+e #lace at ..-3"C and at 1.3" C. At ..-3"C$ the
transformation is eutectoid$ called #earlite.
gamma )austenite* --3 al#ha 4 Fe
3
C )cementite*
At 1.3" C and ,./F$ the transformation is eutectic$ called ledeburite.
5)liquid* --3 gamma )austenite* 4 Fe
3
C )cementite*
Q". Explain t#e process of Annealing!
Ans:
Annealing$ in metallurg% and materials science$ is a heat treatment wherein a material is
altered$ causing changes in its #ro#erties such as strength and hardness. 2t is a #rocess that
#roduces conditions b% heating to abo&e the recr%stalli6ation tem#erature$ maintaining a suitable
tem#erature$ and then cooling. Annealing is used to induce ductilit%$ soften material$ relie&e
internal stresses$ refine the structure b% ma+ing it homogeneous$ and im#ro&e cold wor+ing
#ro#erties.
2n the cases of co##er$ steel$ sil&er$ and brass$ this #rocess is #erformed b% substantiall%
heating the material )generall% until glowing* for a while and allowing it to cool. 7nli+e ferrous
metals8which must be cooled slowl% to anneal8co##er$ sil&er and brass can be cooled slowl%
in air or quic+l% b% quenching in water. 2n this fashion the metal is softened and #re#ared for
further wor+ such as sha#ing$ stam#ing$ or forming
There are three stages in the annealing #rocess$ with the first being the reco&er% #hase$
which results in softening of the metal through remo&al of cr%stal defects )the #rimar% t%#e of
which is the linear defect called a dislocation* and the internal stresses which the% cause.
9eco&er% #hase co&ers all annealing #henomena that occur before the a##earance of new strain-
free grains. The second #hase is re-cr%stalli6ation$ where new strain-free grains nucleate and
grow to re#lace those deformed b% internal stresses. 2f annealing is allowed to continue once re-
cr%stalli6ation has been com#leted$ grain growth will occur$ in which the microstructure starts to
coarsen and ma% cause the metal to ha&e less than satisfactor% mechanical #ro#erties
Full annealing is the #rocess b% which the distorted cold wor+ed lattice structure is changed
bac+ to one which is strain free through the a##lication of heat. This #rocess is carried out
entirel% in the solid state and is usuall% followed b% slow cooling in the furnace from the desired
tem#erature. The annealing #rocess ma% be di&ided into three stages:
9eco&er%
9ecr%stalli6ation
:rain growth
Q3. Explain t#e process of Normali$ation!
Ans:
;ormali6ation is an annealing #rocess in which a metal is cooled in air after heating in
order to relie&e stress. 2t can also be referred to as: <eating a ferrous allo% to a suitable
tem#erature abo&e the transformation tem#erature range and cooling in air to a tem#erature
substantiall% below the transformation range. This #rocess is t%#icall% confined to hardenable
steel. 2t is used to refine grains which ha&e been deformed through cold wor+$ and can im#ro&e
ductilit% and toughness of the steel. 2t in&ol&es heating the steel to =ust abo&e its u##er critical
#oint. 2t is soa+ed for a short #eriod then allowed to cool in air. >mall grains are formed which
gi&e a much harder and tougher metal with normal tensile strength and not the ma?imum
ductilit% achie&ed b% annealing. 2t eliminates columnar grains and dendritic segregation that
sometimes occurs during casting. ;ormali6ing im#ro&es machinabilit% of a com#onent and
#ro&ides dimensional stabilit% if sub=ected to further heat treatment #rocesses.
The following is the list of the reasons for normali6ing the steel :
To #roduce a harder and stronger steel than full annealing
To im#ro&e the machinabilit%
To modif% and refine the grain structure
To obtain a relati&el% good ductilit% without reducing the hardness and strength
Q%. Explain t#e process of Har&ening!
Ans:
<ardening is a metallurgical and metalwor+ing #rocess used to increase the hardness of a
metal. The hardness of a metal is directl% #ro#ortional to the unia?ial %ield stress at the location
of the im#osed strain. A harder metal will ha&e a higher resistance to #lastic deformation than a
less hard metal
The fi&e hardening #rocesses are:
The <all-Petch method is used to change the grain si6e in a material$ which can affect the
dislocation densit%. >maller grain si6e will ma+e the material harder$ but if the grains get
too small the hardness can actuall% decrease.
2n wor+ hardening )also referred to as strain or cold hardening* the material is strained
#ast its %ield #oint. The wor+ done on the material adds energ% and has the abilit% to
mo&e and generate dislocations. This #rocess usuall% ta+es #lace at a tem#erature below
the materials recr%stalli6ation tem#erature.
2n solid solution strengthening$ an allo%ing element is added to the material desired to be
strengthened$ and together the% form a @solid solutionA. Different allo%ing elements can
be used to cause either a substitutional or an interstitial solid solution.
Preci#itation hardening is a #rocess where im#ure #articles are distributed throughout the
metal. This is achie&ed b% first heating the metal abo&e its #hase transition tem#erature
and then ra#idl% cooling the metal. Particles of the second #hase become tra##ed and
form anchor #oints to im#ede the mo&ement of dislocations. Preci#itation hardening is
one of the most commonl% used techniques for the hardening of metal allo%s. 2n steels$ a
similar method is referred to as a martensitic transformation. 2n this transformation$
austenite is ra#idl% cooled off before the dissol&ed carbon atoms ha&e a chance to esca#e$
forming martensite$ a higher hardness #hase of steel.
Bartensitic transformation $ more commonl% +nown as quenching and tem#ering.
All hardening mechanisms$ e?ce#t of the martensitic transformation$ introduce dislocations or
defects in a cr%stal lattice that act as barriers to sli#.
Baterial hardening is required for man% a##lications:
Bachine cutting tools )drill bits$ ta#s$ lathe tools* need be much harder than the material
the% are o#erating on in order to be effecti&e.
Cnife blades- a high hardness blade +ee#s a shar# edge.
(earings- necessar% to ha&e a &er% hard surface that will withstand continued stresses
Q' Explain TTT &iagrams!
Ans
T )Time* T)Tem#erature* T)Transformation* diagram is a #lot of tem#erature &ersus the
logarithm of time for a steel allo% of definite com#osition. 2t is used to determine when
transformations begin and end for an isothermal )constant tem#erature* heat treatment of a
#re&iousl% austeniti6ed allo%. Dhen austenite is cooled slowl% to a tem#erature below 5CT
)5ower Critical Tem#erature*$ the structure that is formed is Pearlite. As the cooling rate
increases$ the #earlite transformation tem#erature gets lower. The microstructure of the material
is significantl% altered as the cooling rate increases. (% heating and cooling a series of sam#les$
the histor% of the austenite transformation ma% be recorded. TTT diagram indicates when a
s#ecific transformation starts and ends and it also shows what #ercentage of transformation of
austenite at a #articular tem#erature is achie&ed.
Cooling rates in the order of increasing se&erit% are achie&ed b% quenching from ele&ated
tem#eratures as follows: furnace cooling$ air cooling$ oil quenching$ liquid salts$ water
quenching$ and brine. 2f these cooling cur&es are su#erim#osed on the TTT diagram$ the end
#roduct structure and the time required to com#lete the transformation ma% be found.
2n Figure 1 the area on the left of the transformation cur&e re#resents the austenite region.
Austenite is stable at tem#eratures abo&e 5CT but unstable below 5CT. 5eft cur&e indicates the
start of a transformation and right cur&e re#resents the finish of a transformation. The area
between the two cur&es indicates the transformation of austenite to different t%#es of cr%stal
structures. )Austenite to #earlite$ austenite to martensite$ austenite to bainite transformation.*
Q( Explain Har&ening an& Tempering!
Ans:
>teels can be heat treated to high hardness and strength le&els. The reasons for doing this
are ob&ious. >tructural com#onents sub=ected to high o#erating stress need the high strength of a
hardened structure. >imilarl%$ tools such as dies$ +ni&es$ cutting de&ices$ and forming de&ices
need a hardened structure to resist wear and deformation.
As-quenched hardened steels are so brittle that e&en slight im#acts ma% cause fracture.
Tem#ering is a heat treatment that reduces the brittleness of a steel without significantl%
lowering its hardness and strength. All hardened steels must be tem#ered before use.
Euench and tem#ering #rocesses:
)1* Con&entional <eat$ Euench and Tem#er #rocess
),* Bartem#ering
)3* Austem#ering

Q) Explain ryogenic treatment of alloys!
Ans:
A cr%ogenic treatment is the #rocess of treating wor+#ieces to cr%ogenic tem#eratures
)i.e. below F1G. HC )F31. HF** to remo&e residual stresses and im#ro&e wear resistance on
steels.
The #rocess has a wide range of a##lications from industrial tooling to im#ro&ement of musical
signal transmission. >ome of the benefits of cr%ogenic treatment include longer #art life$ less
failure due to crac+ing$ im#ro&ed thermal #ro#erties$ better electrical #ro#erties including less
electrical resistance$ reduced coefficient of friction$ less cree# and wal+$ im#ro&ed flatness$ and
easier machining.
Cr%ogenic rolling
Cr%ogenic rolling$ also +nown as cr%orolling$ is one of the #otential techniques to #roduce nano-
structured bul+ materials from its bul+ counter#art at cr%ogenic tem#eratures. 2t can be defined
as rolling that is carried out at cr%ogenic tem#eratures. ;anostructured materials are #roduced
chiefl% b% se&ere #lastic deformation #rocesses. The ma=orit% of these methods require large
#lastic deformations )strains much larger than unit%*. 2n case of cr%orolling$ the deformation in
the strain hardened metals is #reser&ed as a result of the su##ression of the d%namic reco&er%.
<ence large strains can be maintained and after subsequent annealing$ ultra-fine-grained
structure can be #roduced.
Q* +#at are a&,antages an& &isa&,antages of cryorolling!
Ans:
Ad&antages
Com#arison of cr%orolling and rolling at room tem#erature:
2n Cr%orolling$ the strain hardening is retained u# to the e?tent to which rolling is carried
out. This im#lies that there will be nodislocation annihilation and d%namic reco&er%.
Dhereas in rolling at room tem#erature$ d%namic reco&er% is ine&itable and softening
ta+es #lace.
The flow stress of the material differs for the sam#le which is sub=ected to cr%orolling. A
cr%orolled sam#le has a higher flow stress com#ared to a sam#le sub=ected to rolling at
room tem#erature.
Cross sli# and climb of dislocations are effecti&el% su##ressed during cr%orolling leading
to high dislocation densit% which is not the case for room tem#erature rolling.
The corrosion resistance of the cr%orolled sam#le com#arati&el% decreases due to the
high residual stress in&ol&ed.
The number of electron scattering centres increases for the cr%orolled sam#le and hence
the electrical conducti&it% decreases significantl%.
The cr%orolled sam#le shows a high dissolution rate.
7ltra-fine-grained structures can be #roduced from cr%orolled sam#les after subsequent
annealing.
The benefits to %ou include:
5onger wearing com#onents - generall% e?tends life of tools and #arts b% ,.." or more
'?tended #roduct life$
5ess downtime on maintenance and change-o&er
2ncreased durabilit%
Decrease wear
9educe stress
9educed distortion
'nhanced #erformance
9educed heat retention
2ncreased horse#ower
Treated items will e?hibit life increase leading to dollar sa&ings
Process can be a##lied to items that are newIused or shar#I dull: remanufacturing or
reshar#ening and best of all$ shar#ening or redressing worn tools will not destro%
treatment effects
2m#ortant Euestions
1. '?#lain Annealing$ normali6ing$ <ardening$ TTT diagrams$ tem#ering with diagrams
2. Explain Cryogenic treatment of alloys