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Natura
history Illustrations.

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the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924024780516

671

NATURAL HISTORY ILLUSTRATIONS.
PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF LOUIS AGASSIZ.
1849,

DEC 1 189L

THE ANATOMY
OF

ASTEANGIA DAN^.
SIX LITHOGRAPHS

FROM DRAWINGS BY

A.

SONREL.

EXPLANATION OF PLATES BY

J.

WALTER FEWKES.

CITY OF WASHINGTON: PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.
1889.

B71

NATURAL HISTOEY ILLUSTRATIONS.
PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF LOUIS AGASSIZ.
1849.

THE ANATOMY
OF

ASTEANG-IA DAN^.
SIX LITHOGRAPHS

FROM DRAWINGS BY

A.

SONREL.

EXPLANATION OF PLATES BY

J.

WALTER EEWKES.

CITY OF WASHINGTON: PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.
'

1889.

4

.

a^c)

2^

ADYERTISEMENT.
The present
publication, though the

mere fragment of a memoir many
is

years ago undertaken by the eminent naturalist, Professor Agassiz,
oflfered to biologists

at last

in its imperfect state, in the belief that even in this form,
it

and

at this late day,

will be

welcomed by many students who would be

reluct-

ant to have the fruit of worthy labor wholly lost to the world.

The scope
unusual delay in

of the brief abstract,
its

and the circumstances occasioning the

appearance, will be sufficiently explained by the following

statement received from Mr. Alexander Agassiz:

were drawn by Mr. Sonrel, under Professor Agassiz's direction, as far back as 1849. The material was collected during the first dredging trip undertaken by Professor Agassiz under the auspices of
plates of Astrangia

"The

the United States Coast Survey.

Professor A. D. Bache, then Superintendent

of the Coast Survey, invited Professor Agassiz to join the
'

United States Coast

Survey steamer Bibb,' commanded by Lieutenant Charles H. Davis, afterwards Rear Admiral, and to undertake a dredging trip in the vicinity of Nantucket. Among other material, numerous bunches of Asti'angia were Bibb.' These were kept alive at Cambridge for nearly a collected by the During that time some drawings were made towards illustrating the ye£i.r. anatomy of the genus. The completion of the memoir was delayed in the hopes
'

of adding the developmental history of the genus, but after the first year of

preparation Professor Agassiz never again had the opportunity of taking up
the subject.

The

plates therefore remained unpublished

in the

hands of the

Smithsonian Institution.
took the completion of

The last year of his life Mr. Louis F. Pourtales underthe work at the Newport Marine Laboratory, but he only

brought together the necessary materials, and left neither notes nor drawings At the request of Professor Spencer F. Baird, Secretary of the for publication.
Smithsonian, Mr.
to

Walter Fewkes has written an explanation of the plates make them available to students of marine invertebrates."
J.
S.

P.

LANGLEY,

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

Smithsonian Institution,

Washington, D. C, February,

1889.
(3)

;

PREFACE.
drawn on stone several years ago under the direction of Prof. Louis Agassiz. At the request of Mr. Alexander Agassiz explanations of the figures have been written out for the accompanying plates. In order to fit myself for a better understanding of the anatomy of Astrangia,
plates of this atlas were
live

The

animals have been used in conjunction with the plates in the preparation of
This part of the work has been done at the Newport Marine
Since the

the explanations.

Laboratory.

work came
to it in

delayed in the hope of adding
but, although I
failed to

have succeeded

hands the publication has been something on the development of Astrangia getting the ova of this coral, I have thus far
into

my

add anything to the much-needed embryology of this animal. Lest the plates should become antiquated, it has seemed best to delay no longer their publication, but to print them in the form originally prepared by Prof. Agassiz. The reader is reminded that there has been a great advance in histological methods since the figures were drawn. In that advance, however, little has been added to the knowledge of the minute anatomy of genera of Madreporaria allied
to Astrangia.
J.

WALTER FEWKES.

Museum Compaeative Zoology,
Cambridge, Mass.

INTRODUCTORY NOTICE.
The
is

sole representative of the

Madreporaria in shallow

the genus Astrangia.

One

species of Astrangia has

New England waters been found in New Eng-

and has been mentioned or described by Louis Agassiz, Leidy, Alexander Agassiz, Verrill, and others. It is referred to by Leidy as A. astrceformis, M. E. & H., by L. Agassiz, A. Agassiz, and Verrill as A. Dance. Astrangia is found along the eastern coast of the United States and occurs It occurs in the southern limits of the New England fauna, south of Cape Cod. in shallow waters of Long Island Sound, Narragansett Bay, Buzzard's Bay, and Vineyard Sound. Its northern limits are the waters adjoining the southern end of Cape Cod. The genus is often found in crevices of the rocks and on the sides of cliffs, just below low tide, from which places it ranges into shallow-water dredgings, and is apparently found in great numbers in its favorite haunts. Astrangia seems to prefer a rocky to a sandy bottom. While it is generally found in the form of incrustations on the rocks and dead shells, it sometimes rises in low, club-shaped branches. In aquaria it is hardy and easily kept alive in pure water. It devours greedily small Crustacea, fishes, fragments of beef, and other forms of meat, and is far from fastidious in its preferences. Small live animals, as fishes, are easily killed by its nematocysts, provided the prey be held in the
land,

neighborhood of the tentacles.

The specimens which
the
at

I

have studied were found on Price's Neck, a small
of colonies are easily

peninsula on the southern extremity of the island of Rhode Island, not far from

Newport Laboratory.
tide,

Clumps

broken from the rocks

where these animals live in company with a rich littoral life. expanded Astrangia is white, almost transparent, resembling an Edwardsia or small white actinia. When contracted the color shows a green or bluish tinge. The motion in contraction is less rapid than in
low

The

color of the

Edwardsia, and
traction,

is

often sluggish.

When

overfed

it

will not

respond by con-

even when touched or stroked with a foreign body.
live

The

Astrangia from

New England was
*Proc. Amer. Assoc, 1849.

first

observed by Prof. Louis

(7)

8
Agassiz,*

INTRODUCTOEY NOTICE.

who dredged
it

it

in nine fathoms

o&

Gray Head, Vineyard Sound.

Agassiz referred

to

A. Dance, M. E.
to that time.

&

H., a coral, the hard parts only of

which were known up

The polypidom
different

of A. Dance,

M.

E.

& H.,

is

held by Prof. Joseph Leidy to be

and more like the A. astrce{i)formis of the same authors. The present plates were made from the coral which Agassiz designated as A. Dance, and the specific name which he used
from that of our
species of Astrangia
is

New England

here adopted.
It is not possible to

determine from the description of A. Dance given by Milne Edwards and Haime whether our species differs from that which they
describe under that

name

or not.
is

The following
faiblement

description of A. Dance

given by Milne Edwards

:*

" Polypierites tres-courts, unis entre
striee.

eux par une expansion tres-mince
et

et

Cotes tres-larges, alternativement

petites, distinctes des la base, a fossette

grande

un peu plus fortes et plus mediocrement profonde. Col3 cycles complets
;

umelle tres-developpee, a papilles crepues
cloisons

et granulees,

quel-

quefois dans une des moities d'un systeme, ou

voit des cloisons d'un 4" cycle
faces couvertes

un peu debordantes, a bord fortement arque en haut, a
et tres-saillants,

de grains pointus
columelle.

ayant leurs dents

les

plus fortes pres de la
;

Hauteur des

polypierites, 3

ou 4 millimetres

diameter des

calicos,

4 ou 5

;

profundeur des

fossettes, 2.

" Patrie inconne."

Of A.

astrceiformis the last-mentioned author gives the following description

" Polypierites tres-rapproches et sondes entre
tret.

eux pas

les points

ou

ils

recou-

Muraille a peine costulee et seulement pres du
ils

calice.

Calicos circulaires
oti ils

quand
cycles

sont libres, subpol^'^gonaux dans les points du polypier

sont serres
3.

a fossette grande, profonde et infundibuliforme.
;

Columelle peu developpe.
tres-etroites

sou vent des cloisons d'un quatrieme cycle se moutretet dans une des

moities des systemes cloisons

peu debordantes,
;

en Naut, a bord

oblique et regulierement dente en scie

les

dents inferieurs a peine plus fortes
saillants.

que
3 ou

les autres.

Les grains des faces laterales sont tres-peu
;

Hauteur,

4 millimetres

diametre des

calicos, 4.

Habite

les cotes

des Etats-Unis."
as A. astrceformis,

Prof. Joseph Leidy regards the A. Dance, Ag., as the

same

M.

E.
"

&

H., and gives the following description
flat

:f

Polypidom encrusting

or lobed, or pedicled and lobed

;

polype
free,

cells

short, approximate, fused together at their bases, cylindrical
*Histoire Naturelle des Corallaires ou Polypes proprement
\Journ. Acad. Nat.
Sci. Phil.,' -vol. Ill,
dits.

when

sub-

Tome

II, p. 612.

second

series, 1855, pp. 7, 8.

INTKODUCTORY NOTICE.
polygonal when crowded, externally slightly costate
exserted, narrow, with their
;

9
calicos infundibular
col-

;

umlella slightly developed; partitions up to thirty-five in number, slightly

margin oblique and serrated and their sides denticulated; polypes cylindrical, projecting up to half an inch in length, translucent white, brown, red, or green; tentaculse colorless, twenty-four in number, elongated conical, with rounded
situated at the
tips, situated in

an alternating
;

circle;

mouth

oval,

summit

of a conical proboscis

coral masses

up

to

two inches in

diameter."

ANATOMY OF ASTRANGIA.

11

PLATE
Figa.

I.

EXTERNAL FORM.
1-

— Colonies showing the animal expanded and contracted.
cluster.
/3.

Life
;'.

size.
/?.

Club-shaped

Coenenchyma between two animals.

Animal expanded.

En-

crusting colony.
Fig.
2.

Fig.

3.

Fig. 4.
ess

—Similar colonies from another Club-shaped colony. —Basal calcareous Live parts wanting. Colony attached a Pecten —Colonies in which the individual animals are somewhat and the basal
cluster,
p.

deposit.

to

shell.

isolated

deposit

polygonal than in
Fig.
5.

many

specimens of ^. Dance,

a,

/?.

Two

colonies.

— Calcareous radial

deposits of the basal region of three contiguous animals.

The

septa

are of different lengths (cycles?), extending from the periphery towards the center, of interseptal mesenteries and chambers. Fig.
rings.
6.

a, b, c.

Position

8 diameters.
deposits (cycles)

—Appearance of the calcareous
— Several animals, retracted, —Several animals
drawn
a'.

when

first

secreted, arranged in concentric

3 diameters.
7. a,

Fig;

13.

Lateral buds.

3 diameters.

Fig.

8.

in different attitudes of expansion or contraction.

The

central animal

shows the

maximum amount of contraction,
lie in

the soft parts being so withdrawn that

mouth and bounding
other polypites
retained.
is still

wall of the periphery of the animal
the tentacles are
a.

approximately the same plane.

In

all the

in,

but the conical form of the columnar portion of the body

Mouth,

Peristoma, a conical region of the disk between the mouth and the ring of tentacles
g.

infolded in the animal, centrally placed and hidden under the soft parts of the columnar region,

Junction of basal and columnar region,
Fig.
a.

h.

Basal region,

i.

Columnar

region.

8 diameters.

9.

—Single animal isolated from a colony.
;S.

Mouth.
a.

Buds which

later

form new animals.

These

last structures are possibly
/S

new

ten-

tacles,

Structures which arise in a position homologous to that of a tentacle, while
it

lies

in the

position which

would naturally have

if it

were a bud destined to become a new individual.

Fig. 10.
a.

—Lateral view of a
d.

single animal with the tentacles beginning to form.

Mouth,

External peripheral wall.
closed
(a).

Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13.
a.

mouth —The same with the form of an elongated —The same with mouth —Apex of the prominence, with the mesenteric septa showing through the body walls
(a) in
slit.

oral

Mouth,

i.

Chamber of the column.
last

Fig. 14.
i.

—The same as

with reniform mouth

(a).

Fig. 15.

Body wall of a radial chamber. The extended columnar region with

half-protruded tentacles (d).

12
Fig. 16.

ANATOMY OF ASTBANGIA,

—Attitude assumed when the oral prominence and tentacles are drawn into the columnar
g.

region of the animal.
d.

Tentacles half retracted,
its

Point of division between the base of the columnar region of the
flat

animal and

basal region,

h.

Basal chamber of the

region of the body.

12 diameters.

Fig. 17.
stricted
a.

Same as Fig. midway in height.
Other

16, with the

columnar region partially retracted and the column con-

Mouth.

letters as in Fig. 16.

Fig. 18.

—Diagram showing
Fig. 5 (lettering

the relative positions of large and small tentacles and the mouth.
a, b, c)

Compare with
a.

for relation of the tentacles to the calcareous septa.

The

oblong central opening represents the mouth.

Eight large tentacles

(first

formed?),

b.

A

second

series,

c.

A

third series.

It

is

difficult

to determine

what was intended

to

be represented by the above diagram.

The same

lettering in Fig. 5

represents chambers between calcareous deposits.

As such chambers correspond

in position with that

of the tentacles,
these bodies.

it is

supposed that the peripheral ring in Fig. 18 represents the relative positions of

ANATOMY OF ASTRANGIA.
1

13

PLATE
Fig.
a.
1.

II.

EXTERNAL FORM.

—Single animal from the
a'.

oral side.
d. Tentacle,

Mouth,
2.

Peristoma or oral prominence,
to

h.

Basal region.

5 diameters.

Fig.

—The same turned
h.

one

side, so that it is

seen from the oral and lateral region.

The

tentacles are retracted.
d. Tentacle,

Retracted columnar region,

g.

Region of junction of columnar and basal

region, basal chambers.

Fig.

3.

—Animal
g.

from oral

side,

with the tentacles partially withdrawn.

Mouth

(a) assumes a

sinuous form.
d.

Tentacle,
4.

Chambers, basal region.

Fig.

—The

oral prominence,

mouth

(a),

and tentacles

(d).

The

other soft parts of the body

are not represented.
Fig.
5.

—The
is

lettering of this figure

is

not wholly evident.

There seems no doubt that the central
structures which

opening (a)
tentacles.
g.

a mouth, through which

may

be seen

unknown

may

be the tips of

Chambers of column,

h. Centrifugal

and

centripetal ends of the chambers.
(a) in different condition of con-

Figs. 6-10.

— Various forms

assumed by the mouth or oral

slit

traction of the lips

and peristoma.
protuberance, or peristome, and tentacles.

Fig. IJ.

—Side view of the oral
d, d. Tentacles.

The mouth

is

repre-

sented as open.
a.

Mouth,

Fig. 12.

—Side view of a retracted animal.

into the central region enclosed

retracted that their tips only (d,
is

The mouth and oral prominence is partially drawn by the inner wall of the columnar region. The tentacles are so d) are seen. At h the outer wall of the chambers in the basal region

indicated.

Fig. 13.

—View of the
and

base of a single animal.
h.

Mouth

(a)

showing the tentacles (d) at their
region.

very

tips.

g.

Columnar chambers,

Chambers of the peripheral

Fig. 14.

— Lateral

oral view of the oral region,

showing an oral prominence slightly pro-

truding.
d.

Tentacle.

The mouth

(a)

is

at the

apex of the peristoma,

g.

Chambers of the column show-

ing septa.
Fig. 16.
a.

—Septal and radial mesenterial
g.

divisions of the body,
h. Peripheral region.

Mouth,

Basal region, chambers,

Fig. 16.

—The

peristoma retracted and mouth open.

The

tentacles are hidden

by the

lobes of
h, as

the column, although the tips of two of these organs are seen just above the
in Fig. 15.

mouth

(a), g,

and

14
Fig. 17.
a.

ANATOMY OF ASTEANGIA.

—Inflated condition of the chambers, by which the mouth
a'.

is

hidden,

Position of mouth,

Inflated chamber,

d. Tentacle.

Alternate tentacles are foreshortened

and appear spherical or
Fig. 18.

circular.

— Animal

half contracted, seen from a latero-oral view.

The

tips of the tentacles (d)

project beyond the inner rim of the contracted column,
g.

Basal chamber,

h.

Basal mesenteries.
folds of the

Figs. 19, 20.
a.

—Oral view showing
g.

column

in contraction,

Mouth,

Basal region,

h.

Peripheral region.

Fig. 21.
a.

—Profile view of the peristoma and mouth.
a'.

Mouth,

Peristoma.

The dotted

lines

end at two intermesenteric chambers.
to

Fig. 22. Fig. 23.

Fig. 24.
indicated.
a.

— Mouth and tentacles in relative position each other. — Mouth and tentacles with inflated intermesenteric chambers. —Junction of the columnar and basal regions. Animal retracted.
g.

Tentacles (d) simply

Mouth,

Point of junction of the columnar and basal region.

Fig. 25.

— Oral view of an expanded animal, showing the relation of the bases of the tentacles to
a'.

the interseptal chambers.
a.

Mouth,

Peristoma,

d. Tentacles,

e.

Bases of tentacles and junction with chambers.

Fig. 26.

—Enlarged
a'.

view of a contracted animal with inflated peristoma.

hidden between the wall of the oral prominence and the inner rim of the column.

The tentacles are The tips of a few

of these structures (tentacles) can be seen on the left-hand side in the ring-formed fossa.
a.

Mouth,

Peristoma,

g.

Chambers,

h.

Septum.

Fig. 27.

— A mesenteric filament (f) showing through the mouth opening,
g.

d. Tentacle,

Column,

h.

Peripheral region.
a'.

Fig. 28.

—Peristoma and

tentacles,

Peristoma.

Two

of the tentacles are bent to

show

their

shape, while others appear in perspective.
Fig. 29.
a.

—Contracted animal with tentacles removed or hidden by
cluster of coral animals,

inflated walls of the chambers,

Mouth.

Fig. 30.

—A contracted
g.

showing the fusion of the chambers in two

indi-

viduals in the two lower members.
a.

All contracted.
h.

Mouth,

Columnar

region,

Peripheral chambers.

Fig. 31.
a.

—A

cluster of
d.

expanded animals.
g.

Mouth,

Tentacles,

Basal region,

h.

Coenosarc and basal fusion of two animals.

ANATOMY OF ASTKANGIA,

15

PLATE
Fig.
a.
1.

III.

EXTERNAL FORM.

—Lateral view of the upper part of an animal showing expanded
b.

tentacles.
d. Tentacles.
1.

Mouth,

Constricted region of the digestive tract,

c.

Stomach,

Junc-

tion of the tentacles

and radial chambers.
side.

Fig.
a.

2.

—Expanded animal from oral
d.

Mouth,

Tentacle

(?).

e.

Communication between the cavity of a tentacle and a radial

chamber.
Fig. Fig.
Fig.
3.

—Two

tentacles,

e.

Junction of the base of the tentacle with the body wall and chamber.
2,

4.

— Oral view, similar to that shown in Fig.

with same lettering.
Tentacles (d) drawn together about the

5.

—Lateral view of the column, upper extremity.
b. Constriction of stomach,
d. Tentacles.

mouth.
Fig.
a. 6.

—Lateral view of an animal with partially extended — Column.
b.

tentacles.

Mouth,
7.

Fig.
a.

Mouth,
8.

Oral constriction,

c.

Cavity,

g, h.

Basal region.
tentacles (d) are turned in towards the

Fig.

—Attitude assumed by animal in which the
Cavity,
g, h.

mouth

and a

constriction separates

columnar and basal regions.
(d).

Fig.

9.

— Expanded animal with contracted tentacles
c.

b. Constriction,

Basal region.
side,

Fig. 10.
a.

—Column of an expanded animal from one
d. Tentacles.

Mouth,

Fig. 11.

—Partially contracted animal
g, h.

in

which the tentacles are represented as being withdrawn

into the cylinder of the column.

f Mesenteric filament,
Fig. 12.
a.

Basal region,

i.

Chamber.
side.

—The
b.

oral

prominence (peristoma) from one
c.

Mouth,

Oral constriction,

Stomach or external

wall.

From

the letters a and
it

b I

should suppose e was used to designate the stomach.
external wall of the column.
Fig. 13.
a.

In Fig. 14, however,

may

be simply the

—Expanded animal with tentacles (d) half protruded, but with peristoma
b.

retracted.
of

Mouth,

Oral constriction,

c.

Cavity,

f Mesenteric filament,

g,

h.

Basal region

animal.
Fig. 14.
a.

—The upper part of the column of a fully expanded animal.
c.

Mouth,

Body

wall of the column,

d. Tentacle.

16

ANATOMY OF ASTKANGIA.

PLATE
Fig.
1.

ly.

INTERNAL ANATOMY.

—Section (horizontal) showing the tentacles retracted but not withdrawn from
Tentacles,
d. Septa,
e,
f.

sight.

a, b, c.

Wall separating the

bases of the tentacles,

g.

Wall

con-

necting the axial ends of the septa,

h. Ciliated passage

from stomach into the lower cavity of the

body, in which mesenteries are found.
Fig.
2.

—An extremity of a tentacle showing
Tentacle somewhat retracted.

the terminal cluster of nematocysts (a) and lateral

clusters (b).

Fig.
a.

3.

—Lateral view of a tentacle.
b.

Terminal cluster of nematocysts.
tentacles,
d. Septa.

Lateral clusters,

c.

Muscular (longitudinal)

fibres

which move the
Fig. 4.

1 (?), f.

Superficial epiblastic cells.

—An enlarged end of a tentacle showing
The
tentacle
is

the cluster of terminal nematocysts (a) and the

lateral clusters (b).

contracted

?

Fig. Fig.
in Fig. 1.

5.

6.

—A similar —A view of a

tentacle elongated.

Lettering as in Fig.

4.

section (horizontal) in

which the opening (h)

is

contracted.

Lettering as

Fig.

7.

—Distal extremity of a contracted

tentacle.

ANATOMY OF ASTRANGIA.

17

PLATE
Fig.
a. 1.

Y.

HISTOLO&Y OF THE TENTACLE.

— Distal
— The

(free)

end of a

tentacle.
b.

Terminal cluster of nematocysts.
2.

Lateral clusters.
in both terminal

Fig.

same showing the threads extended from the nematocysts
Extended threads,

and

lateral clusters.
a, b.

Terminal and lateral clusters of nematocysts.
Hypoblast.

c.

d. Superficial ciliated

layer,

e.

Fig.

3.

—Distal

cluster of nematocysts.

Fig. 4. Fig.

— A tentacle with discoidal tip.

5.

—Abnormal

tentacle.

The

tip

is

bifurcated and there are two

termimal clusters of

nematocysts.
Fig.
Fig.
6.

7.

Figs. 8, 9.

of nematocysts. —A tentacle with disk-shaped —A cluster of nematocysts from an unknown region of the body. —I am unable interpret these
cluster
to
figures.

18

ANATOMY OF ASTEANGIA.

PLATE
The following quotations from

VI.

NEMATOCYSTS.
Prof. J. Leidy, op. cit,

may

serve as an introduction to a study of

the figures here given of the nematocysts found in Astrangia.
"

He

says

The

filiferous capsules

(nematocysts) of A. astrceformis are of two principal varieties.

The

first

thread.

mm. long by .0155 mm. broad, containing a spirally-wound The second variety consists of smaller cells, those of the tentaculse measuring about .045 mm. by .0067 mm. and those of the white cords .03 mm. by .0112 mm. and they contain besides
variety consists of oval or ovoidal cells .05
. . .
;

a spirally-wound thread a style extending from one pole to about the centre of the

cells.

.

.

.

Both kinds of
inside out, as

filiferous capsules,

under certain circumstances not readily explained,

eject their con-

tained thread with an astonishing degree of rapidity, and in so doing the threads are absolutely turned

was

first

noticed by Agassiz and subsequently by Gosse, and remain attached to the

emptied

cells as

long-extended tubes.

From

the smaller cells the style
it
is

is

also

extruded and then

appears as a more expanded portion of the thread, with which
the capsule at the other.
. . .

continuous at one end and with

An
its

attentive examination of the extended thread exhibits a

more
first

complicated structure than would have been suspected, and, as remarked by Agassiz,
detected the peculiar arrangement,

who

exact character

is

exceedingly

difficult to ascertain

and requires

the utmost power of the microscope to analyze.

In the case of the larger capsules a spiral arrangeThis arrange-

ment

is

readily distinguishable, extending the entire length of the extruded thread.

ment, in some instances, appeared to

me

to

depend on minute

cilise,

which project at right angles from
.

the thread and apparently pursue a spiral course, as described by Agassiz and as represented

.

.

but in other instances

it

appeared

to

me

as if the thread during
it,

its

eversion from the capsule assumed

a spiral course within the portion preceding with non-vibrating
cilise
. . .

and that the thread externally at regular intervals

" In the case of the smaller capsules the extruded style appears as a tube
its

much

dilated
it,

beyond

original calibre, narrowed at the extremities
itself

and longer than the

cell

which contained

so that it

appears to have been folded within

From

the distal extremity of the stylous tube projects the

everted thread, which at times appeared simple but at other times appeared to possess a spiral arrange-

ment, like the coarser thread of the larger capsules.
spiral

The tube derived from
ciJise

the style also presents a

arrangement apparently dependent upon long

pursuing a spiral course, as represented in
figure 15."

figure 16, or

upon a twisting in the tube, as represented in
description, the

The above

thread-cells, or nematocysts, found in Astrangia,

most complete which we have of the structure of the different kinds of is from Dr. Leidy's well-known paper on the marine

invertebrate fauna of the coasts of

Rhode Island and New

Jersey.*

This description was published in
it

1855, before histological study had attained the development which

has in the present time.f

New

* Contributions towards a Knowledge of the Marine Invertebrate Fauna of the Coasts of Rhode Island and By Joseph Leidy, M. D. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., Vol. Ill (second series). Jersey.

f As Mosely has well said in his report on the hydroid, aloyonarian, and madreporarian corals of the Challenger expedition, "It would seem that a classification and nomenclature of the various forms of thread-cells is

much

needed, since these forms appear to be of classificatory value in the Coelenterata."

Challenger.

Zoology.
S.

voyage of H. M.

The Voyage of H. M. S. Report on certain Hydroid, Alcyonarian, and Madreporarian Corals procured during the Challenger in the years 1873-1876, p. 29, note.

ANATOMY OF ASTRANGIA.

19

HISTOLOGY OF THE NEMATOCYST.
Fig.
1.

—Stroma

from the

epiblast, with large

and small nematocysts in various conditions of

growth.

The nematocysts

of the hydrocorallinas, according to Moseley, " appear to be developed out
cells,

of the nucleus of the ectodermic

the ectodermal cell becoming

wide chamber in which the process of development takes place.
together with the
cavity around
it.

much enlarged and forming a The ovoid nucleus becomes enlarged,
cell

cell,

but not at
as

all
it

in the

same proportion, the

always appearing as a wide
it.

The nucleus
coil

enlarges has a rounded nucleolus developed at one end of
it,

The nucleolus has
fully

large granules developed within

whilst the nucleus becomes finely granular.

In the next stage one large

of the thread appears in the nucleus."

From

the similarity of the
it is

grown and

cell in

Astrangia and some of the nematocysts of the hj'drozoan hydrocorallinse

thought that a similar development occurs in Astrangia.
a.

Oval nematocyst.
2.

b.

Club-shaped nematocyst.

c, d.

Nuclei.

Fig.
a.

— Club-shaped nematocyst.
b. Style,
c.

Cell wall.
3.

Thread.

Fig.

— Oval nematocyst.
5.

Figs. 4,
Fig. 6.

—Club-shaped nematocyst.

Fig. Fig.

7.

— Inflated oval nematocyst with coiled thread. —Two nematocysts with fully and partially protruded threads.
coiled thread retracted in cell.

9.— Nematocyst with

Fig. 10. Fig. 11.

— Distal end of the thread coiled into a conical — Elongated oval nematocyst with thread coiled internally,
spiral.

a.

Cell wall.

Fig. 12.
coiled.
a.

—Nematocyst with
b. Inflated

partially extruded thread

and with the retained portion irregularly

Cell wall.

region with

"stifi" cilia,"

or "spines."

Fig. 13.
Fig. 14. Fig. 15.
"stiff cilia."

— Nematocyst with retracted thread.

Lettering as above.

—Elongated oval nematocyst. —Nematocyst with thread protruded but cut
as last figure.

off just

beyond the

inflation

which bears the

—The same Figs. 17-21. — Different
Fig. 16.
" stiff cilia " are borne.

figures of the inflation of the thread, with spiral lines

upon which the

Fig.

22.—

Fig. 23.

— Small elongated

cell

with protruded thread.
coiled
cell

Fig. 24. Fig. 25.
a.

in the —Nematocyst with thread partially — Pyriform shape assumed by a nematocyst.

and partially protruded.

Cell wall.

20
Fig.

ANATOMY OF ASTRANGIA.
26.— Nematocyst with thread
partially coiled in the
cell.

base of the thread. —Nematocyst with of a nematocyst with thread coiled within, Figs. 28-31. — Different forms of the
Fig. 27.
inflated
cell
a.

Cell wall.

b. Style,

c.

Thread.
cells,

Fig. 32.
a, a, a.

—Small club-shaped nematocysts with nucleated
Nematocysts.
d. Cell nuclei.

Fig. 33.
a.

—Large nematocyst with thread withdrawn into the
b. Style,
c.

cell,

Cell wall.

Thread.
to its full length,

Fig. 34.
a.

—Nematocyst with thread protruded
b.

Cell wall.

Basal

inflation,

c.

Thread.

Fig. 35.

—A portion of the basal

inflation of the thread of a

nematocyst highly magnified.

Fig. 36. Fig. 37. Fig. 38.

— The same more extended.

Fig. 39.
a.

—Nematocyst with thread partially protruded. —Nematocyst with thread tightly coiled in the —Nematocyst with thread half protruded.
b.

cavity.

Cell wall.

Basal

inflation,

c.

Thread.

Fig. 40.
Figs.

Fig. 61.
a.

—Nematocyst with the larger part of the thread protruded. 41-50. — forms of the nematocyst. —Nematocyst with thickened
DiflTerent

superficial layer,

Thick

layer,

c.

Coiled thread.
cell

Fig. 52.

Fig. 53.
a.

—A similar with thread protruded. —Sam.e with thread contracted into the
b. Style,
c.

No
cell.

basal inflation

shown and thread very

long,

Cell wall.

Coiled thread.

Fig. 54.

Fig. 55. Fig. 56. Fig. 57.
a.

—Nematocyst with thread partially retracted. —Nematocyst with thread protruded.
— Basal inflation with spiral row of "
stiff cilia."

— A nematocyst and portion of the
b. Inflated

inflated base of the thread of the same,

Cell.

base of the thread.
" stiff cilia
inflation.

Fig. 58.

Fig. 59. Fig. 60.

Fig. 61.
Fig. 62. Fig. 63.

" on the basal —The same with —A portion of the coiled thread. " from the of the basel of the wall of the thread —Row of " —Nematocyst with partially coiled thread in —Nematocyst with the thread protruded. —Fully developed nematocysts with the thread retracted, showing them crowded together
stiff cilia

spiral line

inflation

its

interior.

Taken from an unknown region of the body.

PI,

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672

NATURAL HISTORY ILLUSTRATIONS.
PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF LOUIS AGASSIZ AND SPENCER
F.

BAIRD.

DEC 1

1891

SIX SPECIES
OF

NORTH AMERICAN FRESH-WATER
SIX LITHOGRAPHS

FISHES.

FROM DRAWINGS BY

A.

SONREL.

EXPLANATION OF PLATES BY DAVID STARR JORDAN.

CITY OF WASHINGTON: PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.
1889.

^672

NATURAL HISTORY ILLUSTRATIONS.
PREPARED UNDER-THE DIRECTION OF LOUIS AGASSIZ AND SPENCER
1849.
F.

BAIRD.

SIX SPECIES
OF

NORTH AMERICAN FRESH-WATER
SIX LITHOGRAPHS

FISHES.

FROM DRAWINGS BY

A.

SONREL.

EXPLANATION OF PLATES BY DAVID STARR JORDAN.

CITY OF WASHINGTON: PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.
1889.

^

ADVERTISEMENT.

The

six

plates of

American fresh-water Fishes herewith presented,

like

the plates of Astrangia Dance recently issued by the Smithsonian Institution,
are published, not primarily on account of any

new knowledge which they

are

supposed to convey, but as a memorial of a project undertaken early
history of

in the

American

science,

by two

of the

most eminent naturalists

this coun-

try has ever possessed.

They

will

not be included in the series of Contributions of Knowledge,

but are intended for distribution among those Avho will prize them on account
of their historical associations.
S. P.

LANGLEY,
Secretary.

Smithsonian Institution,

Washington, D. C, March

22, 1889.

(3)

INTRODUCTORY NOTE.

The accompanying

plates of fresh-water fishes were

drawn by Mr. Sonrel

under the direction of Professor Agassiz and Professor Baird as early as 1849,

and were intended

for use in a

Monograph
naturalist

of the fresh-water Fishes of

North

America projected by the Swiss

and the young Assistant Secretary
authorship.

of the Smithsonian Institution, to be prepared under their joint

The work was never completed,
been diverted
to other
subjects.

the attention of each of the partners having

An

edition of 1,000 copies of these plates
it

was printed, and,
distribute
acter,

after the lapse of nearly forty years,

seems desirable to
historical charis

them

to the libraries.

Their interest

is

mainly of a

and the accompanying

text,

prepared by President Jordan,

limited

to a brief explanation of the figures.
G.

BEOWN GOODE.

Smithsonian Institution,
March
22, 1889.

(5)

.

NORTH AMERICAN FRESH-WATER

PISHES.

CYPRINID^. Plate

1.

NOTROPIS MEGALOPS

{Rafinesque)

HYPSOLEPIS PLARGYRUS.
The Common Shiner
Red-fin

Baird.

;

;

Roach.

(Female.)

Fig.

1.

Side view of skull.

2.
3. 4. 5.
6. 7.

View of

skull from above.

View

of skull from below.
skull from behind.
teeth.

View of

Lower pharyngeals with

Right lower pharyngeal bone.
Outline of section of body at dorsal
Scale from the lateral line.
fin.

8.
9.

Scale from above lateral line.

10. Scale

from below

lateral line.

11.

Young example.
from above.
adult.

12. Outline of adult seen
13.

Female example, nearly

The Shiner

is

one of our commonest brook
to

fishes, its

range extending from
It

Maine
is

to Dakota,

and southward
though
it

North Carolina, Georgia, and Arkansas.

of no value as food,
fishes, like

furnishes a large share of the subsistence of

predatory

the Black Bass and Perch.

NORTH AMERICAN FRESH-WATER

FISHES.

CYPRINIDiE.

Plate

2.

NOTROPIS MEGALOPS

{Rafinesque)

HYPSOLEPIS PACHYSOMUS.
The Common
Shiner.

Baird.

(Male.)

1.

Side view of skull.

2. 3.

Top view

of skull.
skull.

Lower view of
Rear view of

4.
5. 6.

skull.
fin.

Outline of section of body at dorsal
Scale from the lateral line. Scale from above the lateral line.

7.
8.
9.

Scale from below the lateral

line.

Lower pharyngeal

bones, with teeth.

10.

Right lower pharyngeal.

11. Outline of 12.

body from above,
nearly adult.

Male

fish,

.

NORTH AMERICAN FRESH-WATER

FISHES.

CYPRINID^. Plate

3.

HYBOPSIS KENTUCKIENSIS

{Bafinesque)
Baird.

GERATICHTHYS BLENNIOIDES.
The Common Horny-head
or Kiver

Chub

;

Indian Chub

;

Jerker.

Fig.

1.

Side view of skull.

2.

Top view

of skull.
skull.

8. 4. 5.
6.

Lower view of
Rear view of

skull.
fin.

Outline of section of body at dorsal
Scale from the lateral
line.

7.
8. 9.

Scale from above the lateral line.

Scale from below the lateral

line.

Young example.
body seen from above.
quite full grown.
teeth.

10. Outline of

11.
12.
13.

Male example, not

Lower pharyngeal bones and
Right lower pharyngeal.

The Horny-head
water
fishes,

or River

Chub

is

the most widely diffused of

all

our fresh-

abounding in almost

all

waters from

New York

to

Montana, and

southward

to

South Carolina and Texas.
It has

It frequents rivers

and creeks rather

small brooks.
Bass.

no economic

-N'alue,

but

is

often used as bait for the Black

10

NORTH AMERICAN FRESH-WATER

FISHES.

CYPRINIDiE.

Plate

4.

SEMOTILUS BULLARIS

{Bafinesque).

CHILONEMUS CATARRH ACTUS.
The
Fall-fish, or

Baird.

Roach.

Fig.

1. 2. 3.

Side view of skull.

Top view

of skull.
skull.

Lower view of
Rear view of

4.
5.

skull.
teeth.

Lower pharyDgeal bones and

6.
7.

Right lower pharyngeal bone.
Outline of section of body before dorsal.
Scale from the lateral line.
Scale from above the lateral line.

8. 9.

10. Scale 11.

from below the

lateral line.

Young example.
from above.
adult.

12. Outline seen

13.

Female example, nearly

The

Fall-fish frequents deep places in clear, cold streams
to the

from Quebec

southward

James River,

its

range not extending west of the Alleghanies.
It reaches

It is especially partial to the pool at the foot of a cascade.
size

a larger

than any other of the Cyprinidoe, east of the Rocky Mountains specimens
It is little

of from 16 to 18 inches long being sometimes taken.

valued as food.
salted."

Thoreau

says,

"The Chub

is

a soft fish;

it

tastes like

brown paper

NORTH AMERICAN >RESH- WATER

FISHES.

11

CYPRINID^. Plate

5.

SEMOTILUS ATROMACULATUS
CHILONEMUS CEPHALUS.
The Horned Dace,

{MitcUlT).

Baird.

or Creek Chub.

Fig.

1. 2. 3.

Side view of skull.

Top view

of skull.
skull.

Lower view of
Rear view of

4.
5. 6.

skull.
teeth.

Lower pharyngeal bones and
Right lower pharyngeal.

7. 8. 9.

Outline of section of the body.
Scale from the lateral
line. line.

Scale from above the lateral

10. Scale
11.

from below the lateral

line.

Young example.
body seen from above.
example, probably a female.

12. Outline of 13.

A partly grown
is

The Horned Dace
ing in

one of the commonest of our fresh-water

fishes,

abound-

all suitable localities

from the Housatonic River

to

Montana, and southsmall

ward

to

South Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas.
it is

It especially frequents

brooks and " spring-runs," in which streams
It reaches a length of 8 to 10 inches.

often the largest inhabitant.

12

NORTH AMERICAN FRESH-WATER

FISHES.

ESOCIDiE.

Plate

1.

LUCIUS RETICULATUS
ESOX CLATHRATUS.

{Le

Sceur).

Baird.

The Common Pickerel; Eastern

Pickerel.

Fig.

1. 2. 3. 4.
5.

View

of roof of

mouth from below, showing vomerine and palatine
line.

teeth.

Scale from the rudimentary lateral Scale from above the lateral
line.

Scale from below the lateral line.

Outline of section of body near the middle of the length.
Outline of body seen from above.

6. 7.

A young example.
found in
all lakes,

The Pickerel

is

ponds, and quiet waters east of the
It is a " solemn,
little fishes

mountains, from Maine southward to Florida and Mississippi.
stately,

and ruminant
its

fish,"

extremely voracious toward the
lily pads.
its

which

bask in
family,

company among the
excellent as food,

Like the other members of the Pike

it is

white flesh breaking up,

when

cooked, into

broad

flakes.

^CYPR.
Pl.l,

'$
*&.,

^

A .S onrel on ston e ftom nat

Tappan & Bradford's

litK

HYPSOLEPIS PLARGYRUS.

Baird

CYPR,

PI. 2.

A

Sonrel nn sTOne,

Tappan.

St.

BradTord's

lithJ"

HYPSOLEPIS PACHY50MUS Baird

CYPR.

PL 3.

^W

<5

3^

y

'>J oct'

11

L
-'"^iTWWU!*^'--"

.

A

Sonrel oTiscoixe JromTviit-

Tappaj^fr Bradford's

1

CERATICHTHYS BLENNIOIDES

Baird

,

CYPR.

PL

5.

^^i

^

—'-Siki^^-'^^n'i'

>^»

A

Soiu-el an.sc.OTLe froTOH-at' bostovL

Tap^liaa 8t BradFor^'s IkK.

CHILONEMUS CEPHALUS

Baird

Ph

•t;

#

j1

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