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PARASHURAM.S M.Sc,B.

Ed,DCM Mob # 9738882317; 9741868700 Page 1



Experiment No: Date:
RESISTANCE PER UNIT LENGTH OF THE WIRE.
Aim: To determine the resistance per unit length of a given wire by plotting a graph of
potential difference versus current.

Apparatus: A resistance wire, a voltmeter (0-5V), a milliammeter ( 0-500mA), a 3V
battery or battery eliminator, plug key, a rheostat, a metre scale, connecting wires.

Diagram:










Principle:
According to Ohms law, the current I flowing through a conductor is directly
proportional to the potential difference V across its ends provided the temperature and the
physical conditions remain the same. That is,
I V (or) V = IR
Where, R is a constant. R is known as resistance of the conductor.
We have,



Formula:


Where, R is resistance of the wire.
m = slope of the graph of current versus potential difference
If R is the resistance of the given wire of length L then resistance per unit length =

.

Procedure:
1) The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2) The rheostat is adjusted for a particular value current I. Current I and corresponding
voltage V are noted.
3) The experiment is repeated for different values of current I and the reading are
tabulated

PARASHURAM.S M.Sc,B.Ed,DCM Mob # 9738882317; 9741868700 Page 2

4) The length L of the resistance wire is measured.
5) A graph of I versus V graph is drawn and slope m of the graph is found.
6) The reciprocal of the slope is calculated which gives the resistance R of the wire.
7) Then the resistance per unit length of the wire is calculated using the formula.

Observations:
1) Length of the resistance wire, L = .m
2) Range of milliammeter = 0 to ..mA
3) Least count of milliammeter = I = ..mA = .A
4) Range of voltmeter = 0 to V
5) Least count of voltmeter = V = .V

Tabular Column:
Trial No I in ampere V in volt
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.


Calculations:
1. Plot a graph between potential difference V and current I taking V in volt along X-
axis and I in ampere along Y-axis. The graph obtained will be a straight line as
shown in figure.
2. Find the slope of the graph.



..
3. Resistance of the given wire is
R=

.
4. Resistance per unit length of the wire is =

= .m
-1
.

Result:
1. The graph between V and I is a straight line.
2. Resistance per unit length of a given wire = m
-1
.


PARASHURAM.S M.Sc,B.Ed,DCM Mob # 9738882317; 9741868700 Page 3

Experiment No. Date:

RESISTIVITY OF THE MATERIAL OF THE WIRE.

Aim: To determine the resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence to
determine the resistivity of the material of the wire.

Apparatus: A metre bridge, a cell (or battery eliminator), a resistance wire, a resistance
box, a galvanometer, a jockey, a one way key, a screw guage, connecting wires.

Diagram:









Principle:
A metre bridge works on the principle of a balanced Wheatstones bridge. The
connections made in for a metre bridge circuit is same as that of a Wheatstones bridge.
When the galvanometer shows no deflection for a particular position D of the
jockey J on the wire, the bridge is balanced. The balancing condition is ,



Formula:
1) of the wire,


Where, S standard resistance,
l The balancing length
2) Resistivity of the material of the wire,

m
Where, R resistance of the wire.
L Length of the experimental wire.
r - Radius of the wire.

Procedure:
1. The Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.

PARASHURAM.S M.Sc,B.Ed,DCM Mob # 9738882317; 9741868700 Page 4

2. A Suitable resistance S is unplugged in the standard resistance box.
3. The circuit is checked for opposite deflections by placing the jockey at the two ends
of the wire AC alternately.
4. The jockey is moved on the wire from the end A towards C till the galvanometer
shows zero deflection.
5. The balancing length l is measured. The resistance of the wire is calculated using the
formula,

.
6. The experiment is repeated for different values of S and average Value of R is found.
7. The length L of the experimental wire is measured and the resistivity of the material
of the wire is calculated using the formula.
Observations:
1. Radius of experimental wire (given), r = m.
2. The length of the experimental wire, L = m.
Tabular Column:

Trial
No.
Resistance S in

Balancing length l in
m


Mean R in
1
2
3

Calculations:
Resistivity of the material of the wire,

m








Result: Resistivity of the material of the wire is = ..m.






PARASHURAM.S M.Sc,B.Ed,DCM Mob # 9738882317; 9741868700 Page 5

Experiment No. Date:

COMBINATION OF RESISTANCES.

Aim: To verify the laws of combination (series/ parallel) of resistances using a metre
bridge.
Apparatus: A metre bridge, a cell (or battery eliminator), a galvanometer, a resistance box,
a jockey, two resistance wires or coils of known resistances and connecting wires.
Diagram:






Principle:
A meter bridge works on the principle of balanced Wheatstones bridge. If Q is the
known resistance in the right gap and P is the unknown resistance of the given component
or wire in the left gap, then P =

where AD = lcm is the balancing length. P = R


1
or
R
2
when the wires are taken single across the left gap. P = Rp when the two wires are
taken in series across the left gap. P = RP when the two wires are taken in parallel across
the left gap.
For series connection, R
s
= R
1
+ R
2

For parallel connection,

( or) R
p
=



Formula:
1. ,


Where, S standard resistance,
l The balancing length.
2. Equivalent resistance in series, R
s
= R
1
+ R
2
.
3.

Equivalent resistance in parallel, R
p
=

.
Where, R
1
and R
2
are individual resistances.


PARASHURAM.S M.Sc,B.Ed,DCM Mob # 9738882317; 9741868700 Page 6

Procedure:
1. Mark the two resistance wires ( or coils) as R
1
and R
2
.
2. Make the connections to the metre bridge as shown in figure (a), with wire of
resistance R
1
in the left gap.
3. Unplug a suitable resistance Q in the resistance box in the right gap such that the
balance point D is somewhere in the middle of the wire AC. Measure the balance
length AD = l and calculate R
1
.
4. Repeat step 3 for different values of Q and take three sets of observations. Find the
mean value of R
1
.
5. Now connect the wire of resistance R
2
in the left gap and find its value as explained
in steps 3 and 4.
6. Connect the two wires of resistances R
1
and R
2
in series as in figure (b), in the left
gap and find the effective resistance R
s
as explained in steps 3 and 4.
7. Connect the two wires of resistances R
1
and R
2
in parallel as in figure (c) in left gap
and find the effective resistance R
p
as explained in steps 3 and 4.
8. Record the observation in the table.


Observations:
1. Resistance, R
1
=
2. Resistance, R
2
= .

Resistance in
left gap
Serial
No.
Resistance
in the right
gap Q ()
Balancing
length AD =
l (cm)
Resistance


Mean value of
resistance ()
R
1
Only
1

R
1
= .. 2

3

R
2
Only
1

R
2
= .. 2

3

R
1
and R
2
in
Series.
1

R
s
= ... 2

3

R
1
and R
2
in
Parallel.
1

R
p
= .. 2

3





PARASHURAM.S M.Sc,B.Ed,DCM Mob # 9738882317; 9741868700 Page 7

Calculation:
1. For Series connection:
Experimental value of R
s
= ..
Theoretical value of R
s
= R
1
+ R
2
= ..

2. For Parallel connection:
Experimental value of Rp =
Theoretical value of R
p
=

=.


Result:
1. Within the experimental error, experimental and theoretical values of R
s
are same.
Hence, the law of resistances in series is verified.
2. Within the experimental error, experimental and theoretical values of R
p
are same.
Hence, the law of resistances in parallel is verified.






























PARASHURAM.S M.Sc,B.Ed,DCM Mob # 9738882317; 9741868700 Page 8

Experiment No. Date:

COMPARISON OF EMF OF TWO CELLS.

Aim: To compare the emf of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
Apparatus: Potentiometer, Battery, given two cells, galvanometer, two way key, rheostat
and plug key and jockey.

Diagram:









Principle:
Let AJ
1
= l
1
be the balancing length for the cell of emf
1
. Then
1
= l
1
.
Where is the potential drop per unit length of the wire.
Let AJ
2
= l
2
be the balancing length for the cell of emf
2
. Then
2
= l
2
.


Formula:


Where,
1
is the emf of the first cell,

2
is the emf of the second cell,
l
1
is the balancing length for the first cell.
l
2
is the balancing length for the second cell.

Procedure:
1. Using the voltmeter, measure the emf of the battery, the emfs
1
and
2
of the Daniel
cell and Leclanche cell. See that >
1
and >
2
.
2. Connect the positive pole of the battery of constant emf to the zero end A of the
potentiometer wire. Connect the negative pole of the battery through one way key K,
ammeter (A) and rheostat Rh to the other end B of the potentiometer wire.
3. Connect the positive pole of Daniel cell of emf
1
and Leclanche cell of emf
2
to
zero end A of the potentiometer wire. Connect negative poles of Daniel cell and
Leclanche cell to the extreme terminals a and b respectively of the two way key.
4. Connect the common terminal c of the two way key through the galvanometer (G) to
the jockey J.

PARASHURAM.S M.Sc,B.Ed,DCM Mob # 9738882317; 9741868700 Page 9

5. Close the one way key K and adjust the rheostat to a suitable current reading in the
ammeter.
6. Insert the plug in between a and c of the two way key and slide the jockey on the
potentiometer wire to find the balance point J
1
. measure the balancing length AJ
1
=l
1

for the Daniel cell of emf
1
.
7. Insert the plug in between b and c of the two way key and slide the jockey on the
potentiometer wire to find the balance point J
2
. measure the balancing length AJ
2
=l
2

for the Leclanche cell of emf
2
.
8. Repeat the steps 5 and 6 for four different values of current reading in the ammeter.

Observations:
a. EMF of the battery = .V
b. EMF of the Daniel cell
1
= ..V
c. EMF of the Leclanche cell
2
= .V
hence

= .

Tabular Column: