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EXPERIMENT 3: ACID AND BASE TITRATION

TITLE:
Acid and Base Titration
OBJECTIVES:
To determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution through titration
technique using hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid.
CONCEPTS:
To determine the concentrations of acid and base solution through titration with
standard solution.
To apply the correct technique in titration.
To carry out acid base titration using phenolphthalein as indicator.
INTRODUCTION:
Acid base titration involves a neutralization reaction in which an acid is react wih an
equivalent amount of base. For the neutralization of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide:
!l " #a$ %$ " #a!l
#eutralization occurs when acid and base exists in comparable stoichiometry& for
instance the amount of hydrochloric acid 'mole( is equivalent with the amount of sodium
hydroxide 'mole(. The end point of titration can be determined using indicator.
MATERIALS:
a( )** ml *.) + !l solution
b( )** ml *.) + %,$- solution
c( )* ml C solution containing #a$ 'with pipette(
d( .henolphalein solution
METHODS:
). )* ml of ! solution was put into volumetric flas/& was diluted with distilled water to
the mar/ and was mar/ troughly. The solution was transferred to a clean bea/er and
was labeled as !. Then a flas/ was rinsed with water twice.
%. The burette was clean and was rinsed with 0 +l !l solution '*.) +( twice.
Then 0* ml of !l solution '*.)+( to burette using funnel.
1. The pipette was clean and was rinsed twice using ! solution. %0 +l of ! solution in
three 2rlenmeyer flas/. % drops of phenolphthalein was added as indicator.
-. The initial volume reading was recorded to the nearest two decimal points. The !
solution was titrated with !l from burette to a colourless solution end point. The final
volume reading was recorded and was calculated the used of acid volume.
0. The titration was repeated until the different volume of acid is in the range of *.1* for
three experiments.
3. The concentration of #a$ solution 'that was in flas/( the concentrations of ! was
calculated.
4. The steps 1 to 4 was repeated by replace !l with %,$-.
RESULTS:
)( Titration #a$ with !l
HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl
Reading Tial ! Tial 2 Tial 3
5olume of !l ' initial (
m 6
**.** **.** **.**
5olume of !l ' final (
m 6
-3.0* -3.7* -0.**
5olume of !l used
' m6(
-3.0* -3.7* -0.**
T"e e#$a%i&n i':
NaOH
(a#)
+ HCl
(a#)
NaCl
(a#)
+ H
2
*
(l)
CALCULATIONS :
calculation for !l : ) mol of !l react with ) mol of #a$
!oncentration of #a$ :
TRIAL ! :
+ol !l react with #a$ :
+ole 8 +5
)***
8 '*.)('-3.0*(
)***
+ole of !l react 8 -.30 9 )*
:1
mol of !l.
+ole of #a$ present 'in 2rlenmeyer flas/(
From the equation& ) mole of !l react with ) mole of #a$&
,o& ) mole of !l 8 ) mole of #a$
,o that& mole of #a$ present 8 -.30 9 )*
:-
mol
M&lai%+ &, NaOH- .NaOH/
!
:
+olarity 8 mole of solute .
5olume of solution '6(
8 -.30 9 )*
:1
mol
*.*0* 6
8 7.1* 9 )*
:%
+
TRIAL 2 :
+ol !l react with #a$ :
+ole 8 +5
)***
8 '*.)('-3.7*(
)***
+ole of !l react 8 -.37 9 )*
:1
mol of !l.
+ole of #a$ present 'in 2rlenmeyer flas/(
From the equation& ) mole of !l react with ) mole of #a$&
,o& ) mole of !l 8 ) mole of #a$
,o that& mole of #a$ present 8 -.37 9 )*
:1
mol
M&lai%+ &, NaOH- .NaOH/
2
:
+olarity 8 mole of solute .
5olume of solution '6(
8 -.37 9 )*
:1
mol
*.*0* 6
8 7.1; 9 )*
:%
+
TRIAL 3 :
+ol !l react with #a$ :
+ole 8 +5
)***
8 '*.)('-0.**(
)***
+ole of !l react 8 -.0* 9 )*
:1
mol of !l.
+ole of #a$ present 'in 2rlenmeyer flas/(
From the equation& ) mole of !l react with ) mole of #a$&
,o& ) mole of !l 8 ) mole of #a$
,o that& mole of #a$ present 8 -.0* 9 )*
:1
mol
M&lai%+ &, NaOH- .NaOH/
2
:
+olarity 8 mole of solute .
5olume of solution '6(
8 -.0* 9 )*
:1
mol
*.*0* 6
8 7.**9 )*
:%
+
Average molarity 8 7.1* 9 )*
:%
+ " 7.1; 9 )*
:%
+ " 7.** 9 ).*
:%
+
1
8 7.%1 9 )*
:%
+
S%andad de0ia%i&n .NaOH/ 1 .NaOH/ 2 .NaOH/
a0
3 !**4
.NaOH/
a0
TRIAL ! :
,tandard deviation 8 7.1* 9 )*
:%
+ : '7.%1 9 )*
:%
+( x )**<
'7.%1 9 )*
:%
+(
1 *.43 <
TRIAL 2 :
,tandard deviation 8 7.1; 9 )*
:%
+ '7.%1 9 )*
:%
+( x )**<
'7.%1 9 )*
:%
+(
1 ).31<
TRIAL 3 :
,tandard deviation 8 7.** 9 )*
:%
+ '7.%1 9 )*
:%
+( x )**<
'7.%1 9 )*
:%
+(
1 :%.-7<
The accepted value of concentration of #a$ is 7.1* 9 )*
:%
+
because the standard deviation is the smallest value.
The concentration of #a$ solution'that was in flas/( and the concentration of ! is
calculated as:
+
)
5
)
8+
%
5
%
'+
)
( '*.*)6(8' 7.1* x )*
:%
+( '*.*0*6(
+
)
8 *.-3%+
Ti%a%i&n NaOH 5i%" H2SO6
Reading Tial ! Tial 2 Tial 3
5olume of %,$- ' initial (
m6
**.** **.** **.**
5olume of %,$- ' final ( m6 %1.4* %-.%* %1.1*
5olume of %,$- used ' m
6 (
%1.4* %-.%* %1.1*
T"e e#$a%i&n i':
2 NaOH + H
2
SO
6
Na
2
SO
6
+ 2 H
2
*
'%( calculation for
%
,$
-
: % mol of #a$ react with ) mol of
%
,$
-
!oncentration of #a$ :
TRIAL ! :
+ol !l react with #a$ :
+ole 8 +5
)***
8 '*.)('%1.4*(
)***
+ole of
%
,$
-
react 8 %.14 9 )*
:1
mol of
%
,$
-
+ole of #a$ present 'in 2rlenmeyer flas/(
From the equation& ) mole of
%
,$
-
react with % mole of #a$&
,o& ) mole of !l 8 % mole of #a$
,o that& mole of #a$ present 8 -.4- 9 )*
:1
mol
M&lai%+ &, NaOH- .NaOH/
!
:
+olarity 8 mole of solute .
5olume of solution '6(
8 -.4- 9 )*
:1
mol
*.*0* 6
8 7.-;9 )*
:%
+
TRIAL 2 :
+ol
%
,$
-
react with #a$ :
+ole 8 +5
)***
8 '*.)('%-.%*(
)***
+ole of
%
,$
-
react 8 %.-% 9 )*
:1
mol of
%
,$
-
.
+ole of #a$ present 'in 2rlenmeyer flas/(
From the equation& ) mole of
%
,$
-
react with % mole of #a$&
,o& ) mole of
%
,$
-
8 % mole of #a$
,o that& mole of #a$ present 8 -.;- 9 )*
:1
mol
M&lai%+ &, NaOH- .NaOH/
2
:
+olarity 8 mole of solute .
5olume of solution '6(
8 -.;-9 )*
:1
mol
*.*0* 6
8 7.3; 9 )*
:%
+
TRIAL 3 :
+ol !l react with #a$ :
+ole 8 +5
)***
8 '*.)('%1.1*(
)***
+ole of
%
,$
-
react 8 %.11 9 )*
:1
mol of
%
,$
-
+ole of #a$ present 'in 2rlenmeyer flas/(
From the equation& ) mole of
%
,$
-
react with % mole of #a$&
,o& ) mole of !l 8 % mole of #a$
,o that& mole of #a$ present 8 -.33 9 )*
:1
mol
M&lai%+ &, NaOH- .NaOH/
!
:
+olarity 8 mole of solute .
5olume of solution '6(
8 -.33 9 )*
:1
mol
*.*0* 6
8 7.1% 9 )*
:%
+
Average molarity 8 7.-;9 )*
:%
+ " 7.3; 9 )*
:%
+ " 7.1% 9 )*
:%
+
1
8 7.-7 x )*
:%
+
S%andad de0ia%i&n .NaOH/ 1 .NaOH/ 2 .NaOH/
a0
3 !**4
.NaOH/
a0
TRIAL ! :
,tandard deviation 8 7.-; 9 )*
:%
+ '7.-7 9 )*
:%
+( x )**<
'7.-7 9 )*
:%
+(
1 7*.))<
TRIAL 2 :
,tandard deviation 8 7.3; 9 )*
:%
+ '7.-7 9 )*
:%
+( x )**<
'7.-7 9 )*
:%
+(
1 %.**<
TRIAL 3 :
,tandard deviation 8 7.1% 9 )*
:%
+ '7.-7 9 )*
:%
+( x )**<
'7.-7 9 )*
:%
+(

1 :).47<
From the calculation of the standard deviation above&there are no accepted value for
concentration #a$ because of no smallest standard deviation which is approaching zero.
7.-;9 )*
:%
+. But the nearest value to the average value is
The concentration of #a$ solution'that was in flas/( and the concentration of ! is
calculated as:
+
)
5
)
8+
%
5
%
'+
)
( '*.*)6(8' 7.-;x )*
:%
+( '*.*0*6(
+
)
8 *.-4-+
DISCUSSION:
Ti%a%i&n 'e%$89 T"e :$e%%e 5&$ld n&;all+ :e "eld :+ a <la;8- n&% '"&5n
"ee9 T"e 8in= i' ;&'% li=el+ <a$'ed :+ $'e &, %"e 8"en&l8"%"alein indi<a%&9
To determine the concentration of a particular solute in a solution& chemists
often carry out a titration& which involves combining a sample of the solution with a reagent
solution of /nown concentration& called standard solution. A titration is a procedure in which
a solution of /nown concentration is reacted with /nown volume of a solution of un/nown
concentration in order to measure the latter=s concentration. Titrations can be conducted using
acid:base& precipitation& or oxidation reactions. $ne of the reactants is the titrate which is
added to other one& the analyte is an un/nown. An acid:base titration is a method in chemistry
that allows quantitative analysis of the concentration of an un/nown acid or base solution. >t
ma/es use of the neutralization reaction that occurs between acids and bases& and that we
/now how acids and bases will react if we /now their formula. From our experiment& we want
to determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution through titration technique using
hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. For the first experiment is the neutralization of
hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide& the equation is:
HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl
>n the titration by using !l as the acid solution and #a$ as the base solution& the
concentration of solution ! containing #a$ solution that we got is 7.1* 9 )*
:%
+. This
molarity was accepted because the standard deviation shows the value zero and also near to
the average value. The concentration of #a$ solution 'that was in flas/( and the
concentration of ! is calculated and the result is *.-3% +. For the second experiment is the
neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide& the equation of the reaction is:
2 NaOH + H
2
SO
6
Na
2
SO
6
+ 2 H
2
Besides that& in the titration by using !l as the acid solution and #a$ as the
base solution& the concentration of solution ! containing #a$ solution that we got is 7.-;x
)*
:%
+. This value is zero and near to average value. The concentration of #a$ solution
'that was in the flas/ ( and the concentration of ! using sulfuric acid we got is *.-4- +. The
concentration of solution ! containing #a$ should be the same either by using !l or

%
,$
-
as the acid solution& but in this experiment& we got the value of concentration #a$
through the experiment by using !l& *.-3% + and concentration of #a$ by using
%
,$
-
is
*.-4-+ .
To titrate an un/nown with standard solution& there must be some way to determine
when equivalence point of the titration has been reached. >n acid:base titrations& dyes as acid:
base indicators are used for this purpose. The indicator that use in this experiment is
phenolphthalein is colorless in acidic solution but is pin/ in basic solution. >f we add
phenolphthalein to an un/nown solution of acids& the solution will be colorless. ?e can then
add standard base from buret until the solution barely turns from colorless to pin/. This color
change indicates that the cid has been neutralized and drop of base that caused the solution to
become colored has no acid react with. The solution therefore becomes basic& and the dye
turns pin/. The color change signals the end point of the titration.& which usually coincides
very nearly with the equivalence point. !are must be ta/en choose indicators whose end
points correspond to the equivalence point of the titration. ,ome precaution during do this
experiment. First& each apparatus must be rinse with the solution that will fill into their
apparatus. Besides that& we must measure the volume of the solution properly especially
during ma/e dilution solution. ?e must sha/e the sha/e the solution in 2rlenmeyer flas/
during titration process. +a/e sure the solution from the burrete flow very slowly to avoid
some mista/e during ta/e the reading.
CONCLUSION:
For the conclusion& in this experiment we can determine the concentration of sodium
hydroxide solution through titration technique using hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. The
concentration of un/nown solution ! containing #a$ can be determined by using the
titration of two different acids& !l and
%
,$
-
where when the titration of #a$ with !l&
the concentration of solution ! or #a$ is *.-3% +& and the titration of #a$ with
%
,$
-
is
*.-4- +. From this experiment ?e also can apply correct technique in titration and we were
carry out acid base titration using phenolphthalein as indicator that will change the colourless
solution into pin/ color.
RE>ERENCES:
). Brown& 6emay& Bursten& +urphy ')744:%**7( !hemistry: The !entral ,cience
2leventh 2dition. @nited ,tates $f America. .earson 2ducational >nternational.
%. http:AAen.wi/ipedia.orgAwi/iAAcid:baseBtitration
UNIVERSITI PENDIDI?AN SULTAN IDRIS
>UNDAMENTAL CHEMISTR@
(T?U !*33)
EXPERIMENT 2: ACID AND BASE TITRATION
NAME: NURHASNI BINTI MAARU>
MATRIC NUMBER: D2**B!*32363
LECTURERAS NAME: PUAN >ARIDAH BINTI @USO>
SESSION: 29** PM 2 C9** PM (MONDA@)
DROUP : 2