You are on page 1of 20

Howstuffworks "Sirius vs.

XM"



Auto Stuff Science Stuff Health Stuff Entertainment Stuff People Stuff
Computer Stuff Electronics Stuff Home Stuff Money Stuff Travel Stuff Shop for Stuff
Main > Electronics > Telecommunications


Click here to go back to the normal view!

Sirius vs. XM
by Stephanie Watson
Satellite radio is poised to make radio ads and signal loss a thing of the past. With more than 100
channels of commercial-free music, news, sports and entertainment available across the country, you
can take your favorite station with you from Los Angeles to New York and never miss a beat.

Courtesy Sirius Satellite Radio Inc. and XM Satellite Radio
Satellite radio has been around in the United States since 2001, and it's catching on with consumers.
But despite its growing popularity, there are really only two players in the market: Sirius and XM
Radio. Although XM is currently the market leader, each company's service has its own set of pros
and cons.
In this article, we'll compare Sirius and XM technologies, prices and services and find out what the
experts have to say about the future of satellite radio.
What is Satellite Radio?
Satellite radio is just what its name suggests: a radio service that uses a satellite circling Earth to
broadcast its programming. In 1992, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated a
satellite spectrum (the "S" band, 2.3 GHz) for the broadcasting of satellite-based Digital Audio Radio
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/SIRIS VS XM/Howstuffworks Sirius vs_ XM.htm (1 of 11)4/19/2007 8:31:55 AM
Search HowStuffWorks and the Web
Howstuffworks "Sirius vs. XM"
Service (DARS). It eventually granted two licenses, one to Sirius (formerly CD Radio) and one to XM
(formerly American Mobile Radio). The world's biggest satellite radio provider, WorldSpace, is
available in Europe and other countries but not in the United States.

Satellites orbit the earth. Programs are beamed to the satellites,
which transmit the signal to a special antenna on homes and
cars. Terrestrial repeaters throughout the country also receive
the signal. They help ensure that the signal is transmitted to
receivers, especially in areas with tall buildings that might block
the signal.
For about $13 a month, plus $100 or so for the equipment and a small activation fee, both Sirius and
XM listeners can receive more than 100 channels of satellite radio, including music ranging from
classical to heavy metal, plus news, sports, talk and entertainment. But there are some notable
differences between the two services.
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/SIRIS VS XM/Howstuffworks Sirius vs_ XM.htm (2 of 11)4/19/2007 8:31:55 AM
Howstuffworks "Sirius vs. XM"
What is XM?
What About MP3 Players?
If you're looking for a portable
music player, there are a ton of
options. Check out StuffGuide.
com for more info.
XM has two Boeing 702 satellites that transmit its signal to cars and
homes across the country. The satellites are called Rock (XM-2) and
Roll (XM-1) and they were launched, respectively, on March 18 and
May 8, 2001. They are now positioned over the east and west coasts
in stationary geosynchronous transfer orbits (see How Satellites
Work to learn about orbits). The satellites are powered by two solar-
paneled wings. The company's broadcast center, the origination point for all of its programming, is
based in Washington, D.C.

Photo courtesy XM Satellite Radio
XM radios contain a proprietary chipset that decodes an encrypted signal from the satellites and from
repeaters on the ground.
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/SIRIS VS XM/Howstuffworks Sirius vs_ XM.htm (3 of 11)4/19/2007 8:31:55 AM
Howstuffworks "Sirius vs. XM"

Photo courtesy XM Satellite Radio
Top to bottom: XM Commander in-car receiver, Delphi MyFi
personal receiver, Delphi XM SKYFi plug-and-play unit
The company makes four different types of receivers: home receivers (which range from $170 to
$1,000 - not pictured above), in-car receivers (which range from $100 to $170), a personal receiver
($350) and plug-and-play units that work with both home and car audio systems (which range from
$100 to $350). XM is the only company to have a personal receiver -- the XM MyFi can hold up to five
hours of content and can be carried everywhere, similar to an MP3 player.
What is Sirius?
Sirius was founded in 1990, and was the first satellite radio service
to get an FCC license in 1997. But because of technical problems
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/SIRIS VS XM/Howstuffworks Sirius vs_ XM.htm (4 of 11)4/19/2007 8:31:55 AM
Howstuffworks "Sirius vs. XM"

Photo courtesy Sirius Satellite Radio Inc.
with its satellites, its first broadcast wasn't until July 2002, nearly a
year behind XM. Since then, it has lagged behind its competitor in
subscribers.
Sirius broadcasts satellite radio from three satellites, which were
launched in 2000 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the Republic of
Kazakhstan. The satellites typically fly in geosynchronous orbit, between 15,200 and 29,280 miles
above the earth's surface.
The three solar-powered satellites follow one after the other, so when one passes out of the Northern
Hemisphere, for example, another is right behind it to provide uninterrupted transmission. Two ground
stations, one in Ecuador and another in Panama, are in constant contact with the satellites.

Photo courtesy Sirius Satellite Radio Inc.
Top to bottom: Antex SRX-3 TriplePlay multi-zone, multi-room audio
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/SIRIS VS XM/Howstuffworks Sirius vs_ XM.htm (5 of 11)4/19/2007 8:31:55 AM
Howstuffworks "Sirius vs. XM"
system, Kenwood XDC-X859 CD/MP3 receiver, Sportster Boombox
Sirius comes in three formats: car receivers that either work with your car's existing radio or replace it
(ranging from $150 to $2,300), home receivers that either work with your home stereo or in addition
to it (ranging from $250 to $2,000), and plug-and-play receivers that can go from the car to the home
and also act as standalone, portable radios (ranging from $50 to $160).
The Shock Jock Comes to Satellite
With his never ending parade of strippers, porn stars and willing female
fans, shock jock Howard Stern has often been the target of the Federal
Communications Commission (see How does the FCC police obscenity?).
In 2004, Clear Channel Communications dumped his show over alleged
indecency violations. Late that year, Stern announced that he was going to
be moving to Sirius, where he was reportedly offered a five-year, $100
million contract. Whereas traditional radio falls under the watchful eye of the
FCC, satellite radio has no such restrictions. Like HBO and other pay cable
networks, it can air virtually anything, including obscenity, giving Stern
virtually free reign in his new home. But whether lawmakers will vote to
regulate satellite radio in the future is still unknown.
How do the Technologies Stack Up?
Which is better -- Sirius or XM? They both have a similar range of music, news and entertainment
programming. Sirius has signed Howard Stern to bring his raunchy brand of entertainment on board,
plus it offers more sports than XM. But XM has the only personal listening device. XM is still the clear
market leader when it comes to subscribers, but Sirius is investing some significant cash to improve its
offerings in order to entice more listeners. This table shows how the two formats stack up.
Sirius vs. XM
Sirius XM
Satellites 3 satellites 2 satellites
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/SIRIS VS XM/Howstuffworks Sirius vs_ XM.htm (6 of 11)4/19/2007 8:31:55 AM
Howstuffworks "Sirius vs. XM"
Programming 120 channels, including:
G 65 commercial-free
music channels
G 13 news channels
G 4 entertainment
channels
G 20 local traffic and
weather channels and
The Weather Channel
G NFL football, college
football and basketball
channels
150 channels, including:
G 68 commercial-free
music channels
G 33 news, sports, talk
and entertainment
channels
G 21 traffic and weather
channels
G Major League
Baseball and NASCAR
Highlights Howard Stern show (coming
soon)
A weekly rock show with
skateboarder Tony Hawk
NBA, NHL and NFL games
Plans to add three video
channels in 2006
Listen on the Internet for free
Opie & Anthony
Shows hosted by Snoop
Dogg, Tom Petty and Quincy
Jones
FOX sports radio
24-hour NASCAR radio
(although Sirius has
announced that it will begin
broadcasting NASCAR in
2007)
Equipment Car receivers range from $99
to $2,300.
Home receivers range in
price from $99 to $2,000.
Plug-and-play receivers cost
from $50 to $160.
Car receivers range from $99
to $170.
Home receivers range from
$170 to $1,100.
Plug-and-play receivers cost
from $100 to $130.
Delphi XM MyFi (the only
personal satellite receiver
available) costs $349.99.
Price $12.95 per month
$15 ($10 online) activation fee
$12.95 per month for basic
package (premium programs
are available for an additional
fee)
$14.99 ($9.99 online)
activation fee
Availability The continental United States The continental United States
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/SIRIS VS XM/Howstuffworks Sirius vs_ XM.htm (7 of 11)4/19/2007 8:31:55 AM
Howstuffworks "Sirius vs. XM"
Subscribers 1.14 million in 2004 3.2 million in 2004
Already Installed Available installed in
Chrysler, BMW and Ford cars
Available installed in more
than 100 new cars in 2005,
including AUDI, Buick,
Cadillac, Chevrolet and GMC
models
Another big question is: Are the two systems compatible? For right now, the answer is no. Sirius can
only receive broadcasts from Sirius satellites, and XM can only receive broadcasts from XM satellites.
Several years ago, the FCC ordered both companies to develop a receiver that could receive both
services. Although the two companies say they are actively developing the technology to do so, there
is no word yet as to when it might be available to consumers.
The Future of Satellite Radio
So what does the future hold for Sirius and XM Radio? It's unclear whether one will come out the clear
winner in the satellite market, but experts say the business as a whole will boom in coming years. The
biggest growth area for satellite radio companies is with new car buyers. General Motors is currently
installing XM in 55 of its 2005 car models. The company also has deals with Honda and Hyundai.
Sirius' partners include DaimlerChrysler, Ford and BMW.
The biggest impediment to satellite radio may be the iPod and other personal music devices, which
enable consumers to download and carry around thousands of songs anywhere they go.
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/SIRIS VS XM/Howstuffworks Sirius vs_ XM.htm (8 of 11)4/19/2007 8:31:55 AM
Howstuffworks "Sirius vs. XM"

Photo courtesy Apple Computer, Inc., XM Satellite Radio
Apple iPod 30-GB MP3 Player (left) and Delphi MyFi
XM has fought back by introducing the MyFi personal satellite receiver, which can hold up to five
hours worth of music. Sirius' current portable model, the XACT Stream Jockey, doesn't fit quite so
snugly into the handheld market. While it is a portable reciever, it's simply too big to compete with
pocket-sized portables. Sirius head Mel Karmazin spoke with Apple chief executive Steve Jobs in
2005 about adding the satellite service to the iPod, but Jobs reportedly wasn't interested. Sirius isn't
giving up, though -- they should have smaller portable receiver out sometime later this year.
Will satellite radio replace your favorite FM stations? Despite its growing popularity, that's not likely,
say experts. Traditional radio still boasts more than 200 million listeners -- 50 times more than satellite
radio's current subscription base. Odds are that satellite service will complement free radio, just as
cable television now complements the broadcast networks.
For more information on Sirius, XM and related topics, check out the links on the next page.
Lots More Information
Related HowStuffWorks Articles
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/SIRIS VS XM/Howstuffworks Sirius vs_ XM.htm (9 of 11)4/19/2007 8:31:55 AM
Howstuffworks "Sirius vs. XM"
G How MP3 Players Work
G How the Radio Spectrum Works
G How Radio Works
G How Satellite Radio Works
G How Satellites Work
More Great Links
G DigitalAudioGuide: Satellite Radio Frequently Asked Questions
G Sirius Satellite Radio
G Worldspace
G XM Satellite Radio
Books
G The Radio Amateur's Satellite Handbook, by Martin R. Davidoff
G Digital Audio Broadcasting: Principles and Applications of Digital Radio, by Wolfgang Hoeg
G Satellite Technology, by Andrew F. Inglis
G From spark to satellite: A history of radio communication, by Stanley Leinwoll
Sources
G Associated Press. "Howard Stern Making Jump to Satellite Radio," MSNBC, October 6, 2004.
http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6190117
G Bilek, Mark and Glowicki, Jennifer. "Your Ride: Satellite Radio." Consumer Guide Automotive, February
14, 2005.
http://auto.consumerguide.com/Articles/index.cfm/act/featuredarticles/article/FA_Satellite_Radio.html
G SIRIUS Satellite Radio, The Crutchfield Advisor.
http://www.crutchfieldadvisor.com/ISEO-rgbtcspd/learningcenter/car/satellite_sirius.html
G Norton, Patrick. "Sirius Satellite Radio." PC Magazine, January 8, 2005.
http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,1749570,00.asp
G Phan, Monty. "Sirius CEO says he talked with Steve Jobs about iPod deal." Knight Ridder/Tribune
Business News, February 10, 2005.
G Satellite Radio: XM and Sirius, About.com
http://radio.about.com/od/satelliteradio/
G Sirius Satellite Radio
http://www.sirius.com/
G Sirius Satellite Radio vs. XFM Satellite Radio, The Tech Zone.
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/SIRIS VS XM/Howstuffworks Sirius vs_ XM.htm (10 of 11)4/19/2007 8:31:55 AM
Howstuffworks "Sirius vs. XM"
http://www.thetechzone.com/%3Fm=show%26id=179
G Stone, Brad. "Sirius Satellite: Making Waves." Newsweek, November 29, 2004.
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6539284/site/newsweek/
G Streisand, Betsy, "Radio Shock Waves." U.S. News & World Report, February 14, 2005, page 50.
G Walker, Teresa M. "Satellite Radio Growth Views Stir Concern." The America's Intelligence Wire,
February 19, 2005.
G Warren, Tamara. "Auto Industry Turns up Satellite Radio Volume," Automotive News, February 14,
2005.
G Woolley, Scott. "Freedom of Speech on Satellite," Forbes.com, October 6, 2004.
http://www.forbes.com/services/2004/10/06/cx_sw_1006stern.html
G XM Radio Corporate Information
http://www.xmradio.com/corporate_info/corporate_information_main.html



Home Store Newsletter Search Advertising Privacy Contact About Help

© 1998 - 2006 HowStuffWorks, Inc.

file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/SIRIS VS XM/Howstuffworks Sirius vs_ XM.htm (11 of 11)4/19/2007 8:31:55 AM
Howstuffworks "How Satellite Radio Works"



Auto Stuff Science Stuff Health Stuff Entertainment Stuff People Stuff
Computer Stuff Electronics Stuff Home Stuff Money Stuff Travel Stuff Shop for Stuff
Main > Electronics > Telecommunications


Click here to go back to the normal view!

How Satellite Radio Works
by Kevin Bonsor
We all have our favorite radio stations that we preset into our car radios, flipping between them as we
drive to and from work, on errands and around town. But when you travel too far away from the source
station, the signal breaks up and fades into static. Most radio signals can only travel about 30 or 40
miles from their source. On long trips that find you passing through different cities, you might have to
change radio stations every hour or so as the signals fade in and out. And it's not much fun scanning
through static trying to find something -- anything -- to listen to.
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/Satellite Radio/Howstuffworks How Satellite Radio Works.htm (1 of 9)4/19/2007 8:34:53 AM
Search HowStuffWorks and the Web
Howstuffworks "How Satellite Radio Works"

Photo courtesy XM Satellite Radio
Satellite radio broadcasters promise crystal-clear music
transmitted from thousands of miles into space.
Now, imagine a radio station that can broadcast its signal from more than 22,000 miles (35,000 km)
away and then come through on your car radio with complete clarity. You could drive from Tacoma,
Washington, to Washington, D.C., without ever having to change the radio station! Not only would you
never hear static interfering with your favorite tunes, but the music would be interrupted by few or no
commercials.
XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio have both launched such a service. Satellite radio, also
called digital radio, offers uninterrupted, near CD-quality music beamed to your radio from space.
Car manufacturers have been installing satellite radio receivers in some models for a few years now,
and several models of portable satellite radio receivers are availabel from a variety of electronics
companies. In this article, you'll learn what separates satellite radio from conventional radio and what
you need to pick up satellite radio signals.
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/Satellite Radio/Howstuffworks How Satellite Radio Works.htm (2 of 9)4/19/2007 8:34:53 AM
Howstuffworks "How Satellite Radio Works"
Related Books!
G Satellite Technology: An Introduction
G Satellite Projects Handbook
G Satellite-To-Ground Radiowave
Propagation

The Basics
Satellite radio is an idea over a decade in the making. In 1992, the U.S. Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) allocated a spectrum in the "S" band (2.3 GHz) for nationwide broadcasting of
satellite-based Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS). Only four companies applied for a license to
broadcast over that band. The FCC gave licenses to two of these companies in 1997. CD Radio (now
Sirius Satellite Radio) and American Mobile Radio (now XM Satellite Radio) paid more than $80
million each to use space in the S-band for digital satellite transmission.
At this time, there are three space-based radio broadcasters:
G Sirius Satellite Radio
G XM Satellite Radio
G WorldSpace
Satellite radio companies are comparing the significance of their service to the impact that cable TV
had on television 30 years ago. Listeners won't be able to pick up local stations using satellite radio
services, but they will have access to hundreds of stations offering a variety of music genres. Each
company has a different plan for its broadcasting system, but the systems do share similarities. Here
are the key components of the three satellite radio systems:
G Satellites
G Ground repeaters
G Radio receivers
Taking a closer look, you will see slight variances in the three satellite radio companies' systems. In
the next three sections, we will profile each of the companies offering satellite radio services.
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/Satellite Radio/Howstuffworks How Satellite Radio Works.htm (3 of 9)4/19/2007 8:34:53 AM
Howstuffworks "How Satellite Radio Works"
XM Satellite Radio
XM Radio uses two Boeing HS 702 satellites, appropriately dubbed "Rock" and "Roll," placed in
parallel geostationary orbit, one at 85 degrees west longitude and the other at 115 degrees west
longitude. Geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) is about 22,223 miles (35,764 km) above Earth, and is the
type of orbit most commonly used for communications satellites. The first XM satellite, "Rock," was
launched on March 18, 2001, with "Roll" following on May 8. XM Radio has a third HS-702 satellite on
the ground ready to be launched in case one of the two orbiting satellites fails.
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/Satellite Radio/Howstuffworks How Satellite Radio Works.htm (4 of 9)4/19/2007 8:34:53 AM
Howstuffworks "How Satellite Radio Works"

Photo courtesy XM Satellite Radio
This graphic illustrates how the XM Radio system works.
XM Radio's ground station transmits a signal to its two GEO satellites, which bounce the signals back
down to radio receivers on the ground. The radio receivers are programmed to receive and
unscramble the digital data signal, which contains up to 100 channels of digital audio. In addition to
the encoded sound, the signal contains additional information about the broadcast. The song title,
artist and genre of music are all displayed on the radio. In urban areas, where buildings can block out
the satellite signal, XM's broadcasting system is supplemented by ground transmitters.

Photo courtesy XM Satellite Radio
An XM Satellite Radio receiver
Each receiver contains a proprietary chipset. XM began delivering chipsets to its XM radio
manufacturing partners in October 2000. The chipset consists of two custom integrated circuits
designed by STMicroelectronics. XM has partnered with Pioneer, Alpine, Clarion, Delphi Delco,
Sony and Motorola to manufacture XM car radios. Each satellite radio receiver uses a small, car-
phone-sized antenna to receive the XM signal. General Motors has invested about $100 million in XM,
and Honda has also signed an agreement to use XM radios in its cars. GM began installing XM
satellite radio receivers in selected models in early 2001.
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/Satellite Radio/Howstuffworks How Satellite Radio Works.htm (5 of 9)4/19/2007 8:34:53 AM
Howstuffworks "How Satellite Radio Works"
For $12.95 per month, subscribers can receive the XM signal. For that price, listeners get up to 100
channels of music, talk and news. They also get access to XM Radio online, a streaming audio
service with over 70 channels. Many of the channels have no commercials, with none of the channels
having more than seven minutes of ads per hour. XM's content providers include USA Today, BBC,
CNN/Sports Illustrated and The Weather Channel. The service bolsters that lineup with its own music
channels.
Sirius Satellite Radio
Unlike XM, Sirius does not use GEO satellites. Instead, its three SS/L-1300 satellites form an inclined
elliptical satellite constellation. Sirius says the elliptical path of its satellite constellation ensures that
each satellite spends about 16 hours a day over the continental United States, with at least one
satellite over the country at all times. Sirius completed its three-satellite constellation on November 30,
2000. A fourth satellite will remain on the ground, ready to be launched if any of the three active
satellites encounter transmission problems.
The Sirius system is similar to that of XM. Programs are beamed to one of the three Sirius satellites,
which then transmits the signal to the ground, where your radio receiver picks up one of the channels
within the signal. Signals are also be beamed to ground repeaters for listeners in urban areas where
the satellite signal can be interrupted.
Sirius offers car radios and home entertainment systems, as well as car and home kits for portable
use. The Sirius receiver includes two parts -- the antenna module and the receiver module. The
antenna module picks up signals from the ground repeaters or the satellite, amplifies the signal and
filters out any interference. The signal is then passed on to the receiver module. Inside the receiver
module is a chipset consisting of eight chips. The chipset converts the signals from 2.3 gigahertz
(GHz) to a lower intermediate frequency. Sirius also offers an adapter that allows conventional car
radios to receive satellite signals.
WorldSpace
So far, WorldSpace has been the leader in the satellite radio industry. It put two of its three satellites,
AfriStar and AsiaStar, in geostationary orbit before either of the other two companies launched one.
AfriStar and AsiaStar were launched in October 1998 and March 2000, respectively. AmeriStar,
which will offer service to South America and parts of Mexico, has not yet been launched. Each
satellite transmits three signal beams, carrying more than 40 channels of programming, to three
overlapping coverage areas of about 5.4 million square miles (14 million square km) each. Each of the
WorldSpace satellites' three beams can deliver over 50 channels of crystal clear audio and multimedia
programming via the 1,467- to 1,492-megahertz (MHz) segment of the L-Band spectrum, which is
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/Satellite Radio/Howstuffworks How Satellite Radio Works.htm (6 of 9)4/19/2007 8:34:53 AM
Howstuffworks "How Satellite Radio Works"
allocated for digital audio broadcasting.
The United States is not currently part of WorldSpace's coverage area. The company has invested in
XM Radio and has an agreement with XM to share any technological developments. WorldSpace is
going beyond one nation and eyeing world domination of the radio market. That might be overstating
the company's intent a bit, but WorldSpace does plan to reach the corners of our world that most radio
stations cannot. There are millions of people living in WorldSpace's projected listening area who
cannot pick up a signal from a conventional radio station. WorldSpace says it has a potential audience
of about 4.6 billion listeners spanning five continents.

Photo courtesy WorldSpace
WorldSpace will be able to broadcast to the majority of the
world's population when its AmeriStar satellite is launched.
WorldSpace broadcasters uplink their signal to one of the three satellites through a centralized hub
site or an individual feeder link station located within the global uplink beam. The satellite then
transmits the signal in one, two or all three beams on each satellite. Receivers on the ground then pick
up the signal and provide CD-quality sound through a detachable antenna.

file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/Satellite Radio/Howstuffworks How Satellite Radio Works.htm (7 of 9)4/19/2007 8:34:53 AM
Howstuffworks "How Satellite Radio Works"
Photo courtesy WorldSpace
Two of the WorldSpace satellite radio receivers
WorldSpace satellite receivers are capable of receiving data at a rate of 128 kilobits per second
(Kbps). The receivers use the proprietary StarMan chipset, manufactured by STMicroelectronics, to
receive digital signals from the satellites.
For more information on satellite radio and related topics, check out the links on the next page.
Lots More Information
Related HowStuffWorks Articles
G How Satellites Work
G How Radio Works
G How the Radio Spectrum Works
G Why do all FM radio stations end in an odd number?
G Why do you hear some radio stations better at night than in the day?
G How CDs Work
G How MP3 Players Work
Related Books!
G Satellite Technology: An Introduction
G Satellite Projects Handbook
G Satellite-To-Ground Radiowave Propagation
More Great Links
G Sirius Satellite Radio
G WorldSpace
G XM Satellite Radio
G Space Systems/Loral: 1300 GEO
G Satellite Radio Frequently Asked Questions
G Radio Ink: Satellite Radio News
G CNN: Satellite radio to offer e-commerce from space - April 21, 2000
file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/Satellite Radio/Howstuffworks How Satellite Radio Works.htm (8 of 9)4/19/2007 8:34:53 AM
Howstuffworks "How Satellite Radio Works"



Home Store Newsletter Search Advertising Privacy Contact About Help

© 1998 - 2005 HowStuffWorks, Inc.

file:///F|/my books/SEMINARS/Satellite Radio/Howstuffworks How Satellite Radio Works.htm (9 of 9)4/19/2007 8:34:53 AM