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Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones

Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
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INTRODUCTION





A smartphone is one device that can take care of all of your
handheld computing and communication needs in a single, small
package. It's not so much a distinct class of products as it is a
different set of standards for cell phones to live up to. This article
explores what makes a cell phone a smartphone, how the idea came
about and what you can do with it.

Possibly the most exciting thing about smartphone technology
is that the field is still wide open. It's an idea that probably hasn't
found its perfect real-world implementation yet. Every crop of phones
brings new designs and new interface ideas. No one developer or
manufacturer has come up with the perfect shape, size or input
method yet. The next "killer app" smartphone could look like a flip
phone, a tablet PC, a candy bar or something no one has conceived
of yet.














Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
2
WHAT'S A SMARTPHONE


Unlike many traditional cell phones, smartphones allow
individual users to install, configure and run applications of their
choosing. A smartphone offers the ability to conform the device to
your particular way of doing things. Most standard cell-phone
software offers only limited choices for re-configuration, forcing you
to adapt to the way it's set up. On a standard phone, whether or not
you like the built-in calendar application, you are stuck with it
except for a few minor tweaks. If that phone were a smartphone, you
could install any compatible calendar application you like.
Since cell phones and PDAs are the most common
handheld devices today, a smartphone is usually either a phone with
added PDA capabilities or a PDA with added phone capabilities.
Here's a list of some of the things smartphones can do:

Send and receive mobile phone calls
Personal Information Management (PIM) including notes,
calendar and to-do list
Communication with laptop or desktop computers
Data synchronization with applications like Microsoft Outlook
E-mail
Instant messaging
Applications and configurations that the user can do
him/herself
Play audio and video files in some standard formats
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
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THE SMARTPHONE CONCEPT



Symbian is a company formed in 1998 by six of the leading
cell-phone manufacturers -- Siemens, Samsung Sony Ericsson,
Nokia, Ericsson and Panasonic. They got together with the intent of
streamlining cell-phone development, believing that although cell-
phones share similarities with laptop computers, pagers and other
devices, they have some peculiarities that make their development
needs unique.

For example:
When you're making a call on a cell phone, you want to have
access to other features (like an address book and calendar) at
the same time.
Cell phones need to be "always on" like a standard landline
phone, but efficient enough to run on a battery charge for as
long as possible.
They need to be as functional as possible whether or not they
are connected to voice and data networks at a given moment.
While a computer has pretty standard input methods -- almost
all of them start with a keyboard and mouse by default -- a
phone may have a number pad, a modified keyboard, a touch
screen or some combination thereof.


Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
4
The big idea is that by all of these companies working together on
common operating systems and development tools, everyone involved
in the industry would be freed up to do what they do best. With an
OS that's not tightly tied to the specifics of an individual phone's
display size, keyboard/input type and form factor, phone makers
would be freer to come up with innovative designs and get them on
the market quickly. With open-style development practices and a
consistent set of tools, third-party software developers could crank
out applications quickly and cheaply. All of this, in theory, would
lead to:
Phones that are more user-friendly because they adhere to
consistent standards
Phones that can do more because software development is
open to any interested third parties
Phones that are more customizable
Newer shapes and styles of phones in the market faster,
serving a more diverse set of potential customers
Symbian has produced several operating systems,
though they all share similar interfaces and many of the same
protocols. Currently, these include:
Nokia 9200 Series Communicator
Series 60
UIQ
Each of these is specialized for a different market or
specific product type.



Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
5
INSIDE A SMARTPHONE

On a "complexity per cubic inch" scale, cell phones
are some of the most intricate devices people use on a daily basis.
Modern digital cell phones can process millions of calculations per
second in order to compress and decompress the voice stream. video
files in some standard formats










If you take a cell phone apart, you find that it contains just a few
individual parts:
An amazing circuit board containing the brains of the phone
An antenna
A liquid crystal display (LCD)
A keyboard (not unlike the one you find in a TV remote control)
A microphone
A speaker
A battery
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
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The circuit board is the heart of the system. Here is one
from a typical smartphone




















The front and back side of the circuit board


In the photos above, you see several computer chips.
Let's talk about what some of the individual chips do. The analog-to-
digital and digital-to-analog conversion chips translate the outgoing
audio signal from analog to digital and the incoming signal from
digital back to analog. The digital signal processor (DSP) is a highly
customized processor designed to perform signal-manipulation
calculations at high speed.
The microprocessor handles all of the housekeeping
chores for the keyboard and display; deals with command and
control signaling with the base station and also coordinates the rest
of the functions on the board.



Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
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The Micro Processor

The ROM and Flash memory chips provide storage for
the phone's operating system and customizable features, such as the
phone directory. The radio frequency (RF) and power section handles
power management and recharging, and also deals with the
hundreds of FM channels. Finally, the RF amplifiers handle signals
traveling to and from the antenna.


















The display and keypad contacts
The display has grown considerably in size as the
number of features in smartphones has increased. Most current
phones offer built-in phone directories, calculators and games. And
many of the phones incorporate some type of PDA or Web browser.
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
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SIM card Slot
Some phones store certain information, such as the SID
and MIN codes, in internal Flash memory, while others use external
cards that are similar to Smart Media cards.













The Smartphone speaker, microphone and
battery backup
Cell phones have such tiny speakers and microphones
that it is incredible how well most of them reproduce sound. As you
can see in the picture above, the speaker is about the size of a dime
and the microphone is no larger than the watch battery beside it.
Speaking of the watch battery, this is used by the cell phone's
internal clock chip.
What is amazing is that all of that functionality -- which
only 30 years ago would have filled an entire floor of an office
building -- now fits into a package that sits comfortably in the palm
of your hand!
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
9

Today's smartphones run on processors with clock
speeds around 100-200 MHz, which would be mind-numbingly slow
if they were used to run today's desktop computers. Many
smartphones use power-efficient ARM processors, which are also
found in routers, printers and other embedded devices like Smart
Watches and MP3 players. They have a certain amount of on-board
memory in the tens of megabytes, and many have slots for removable
memory formats like SD and MMC cards as well.















Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
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SMARTPHONE OPERATING SYSTEMS
SymbianOS calls itself the "global industry standard
operating system for smartphones." Two of the leading cell-phone
manufacturers, Nokia and Sony Ericsson, both use SymbianOS on
all of their smartphones. Series 60 is the most popular Symbian
platform and is used on millions of phones worldwide. As of October
2004, Symbian devices account for 63 percent of all mobile devices
sold worldwide.









The Audiovox SMT-5600 runs Windows Mobile Smartphone
There are other popular smartphone operating systems
they are, including:
Windows Mobile/WindowsCE
Phones running Windows include the Motorola Nextel i930, the
Audiovox SMT5600 and the Motorola MPX-220.
Palm OS
These include the Handspring Treo devices and the Samsung
SGH-i500.
Linux
The Motorola A760 and E680 use embedded Linux.
There are also smartphones that use proprietary, one-
off operating systems. These include the RIM Blackberry and Danger
Hiptop (Sidekick) devices.
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
11
2G CELLULAR ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES


There are three common technologies used by 2G cell-
phone networks for transmitting information:
Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)
Time division multiple access (TDMA)
Code division multiple access (CDMA)
Although these technologies sound very intimidating,
you can get a good sense of how they work just by breaking down
the title of each one.
The first word tells you what the access method is. The
second word, division, lets you know that it splits calls based on that
access method.
FDMA puts each call on a separate frequency.
TDMA assigns each call a certain portion of time on a
designated frequency.
CDMA gives a unique code to each call and spreads it over the
available frequencies.
The last part of each name is multiple access. This
simply means that more than one user can utilize each cell.





Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
12
FDMA:

FDMA separates the spectrum into distinct voice
channels by splitting it into uniform chunks of bandwidth. To better
understand FDMA, think of radio stations: Each station sends its
signal at a different frequency within the available band. FDMA is
used mainly for analog transmission. While it is certainly capable of
carrying digital information, FDMA is not considered to be an
efficient method for digital transmission.







Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
13

TDMA:
TDMA is the access method used by the Electronics
Industry Alliance and the Telecommunications Industry Association
for Interim Standard 54 (IS-54) and Interim Standard 136 (IS-136).
Using TDMA, a narrow band that is 30 kHz wide and 6.7
milliseconds long is split time-wise into three time slots.
Narrow band means "channels" in the traditional sense.
Each conversation gets the radio for one-third of the time. This is
possible because voice data that has been converted to digital
information is compressed so that it takes up significantly less
transmission space. Therefore, TDMA has three times the capacity of
an analog system using the same number of channels. TDMA
systems operate in either the 800-MHz (IS-54) or 1900-MHz (IS-136)
frequency bands.



Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
14
GSM:
TDMA is also used as the access technology for Global
System for Mobile communications (GSM). However, GSM
implements TDMA in a somewhat different and incompatible way
from IS-136. Think of GSM and IS-136 as two different operating
systems that work on the same processor, like Windows and Linux
both working on an Intel Pentium III. GSM systems use encryption to
make phone calls more secure. GSM operates in the 900-MHz and
1800-MHz bands in Europe and Asia and in the 850-MHz and 1900-
MHz (sometimes referred to as 1.9-GHz) band in the United States. It
is used in digital cellular and PCS-based systems. GSM is also the
basis for Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (IDEN), a popular
system introduced by Motorola and used by Nextel.
GSM is the international standard in Europe, Australia
and much of Asia and Africa. To connect to the specific service
providers in these different countries, GSM users simply switch
subscriber identification module (SIM) cards. SIM cards are small
removable disks that slip in and out of GSM cell phones. They store
all the connection data and identification numbers you need to
access a particular wireless service provider.
Unfortunately, the 850MHz/1900-MHz GSM phones
used in the United States are not compatible with the international
system. If you live in the United States and need to have cell-phone
access when you're overseas, you can either buy a tri-band or quad-
band GSM phone and use it both at home and when traveling or just
buy a GSM 900MHz/1800MHz cell phone for traveling. You can get
900MHz/1800MHz GSM phones from Planet Omni, an online
electronics firm based in California. They offer a wide selection of
Nokia, Motorola and Ericsson GSM phones. They don't sell
international SIM cards, however.
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
15
CDMA:
CDMA takes an entirely different approach from TDMA.
CDMA, after digitizing data, spreads it out over the entire available
bandwidth. Multiple calls are overlaid on each other on the channel,
with each assigned a unique sequence code. CDMA is a form of
spread spectrum, which simply means that data is sent in small
pieces over a number of the discrete frequencies available for use at
any time in the specified range.
All of the users transmit in the same wide-band chunk
of spectrum. Each user's signal is spread over the entire bandwidth
by a unique spreading code. At the receiver, that same unique code
is used to recover the signal. Because CDMA systems need to put an
accurate time-stamp on each piece of a signal, it references the GPS
system for this information. Between eight and 10 separate calls can
be carried in the same channel space as one analog AMPS call.
CDMA technology is the basis for Interim Standard 95 (IS-95) and
operates in both the 800-MHz and 1900-MHz frequency bands.

Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
16
3G TECHNOLOGY

3G technology is the latest in mobile communications.
3G stands for "third generation" -- this makes analog cellular
technology generation one and digital/PCS generation two. 3G
technology is intended for the true multimedia cell phone -- typically
called smartphones -- and features increased bandwidth and
transfer rates to accommodate Web-based applications and phone-
based audio and video files.
3G comprise several cellular access technologies. The
three most common ones as of 2005 are:
CDMA2000 - based on 2G Code Division Multiple Access.
WCDMA (UMTS) - Wideband Code Division Multiple Access.
TD-SCDMA - Time-division Synchronous Code-division
Multiple Access.
3G networks have potential transfer speeds of up to 3 Mbps (about
15 seconds to download a 3-minute MP3 song). For comparison, the
fastest 2G phones can achieve up to 144Kbps (about 8 minutes to
download a 3-minute song). 3G's high data rates are ideal for
downloading information from the Internet and sending and
receiving large, multimedia files. 3G phones are like mini-laptops
and can accommodate broadband applications like video
conferencing, receiving streaming video from the Web, sending and
receiving faxes and instantly downloading e-mail messages with
attachments.



Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
17
CELL PHONE RADIATIONS


Just by their basic operation, cell phones have to emit
a small amount of electromagnetic radiation. If you've read How Cell
Phones Work, then you know that cell phones emit signals via radio
waves, which are comprised of radio-frequency (RF) energy, a form of
electromagnetic radiation.
There's a lot of talk in the news these days about
whether or not cell phones emit enough radiation to cause adverse
health effects. The concern is that cell phones are often placed close
to or against the head during use, which puts the radiation in direct
contact with the tissue in the head. There's evidence supporting both
sides of the argument.


Source of Radiation:
When talking on a cell phone, a transmitter takes the
sound of your voice and encodes it onto a continuous sine wave. A
sine wave is just a type of continuously varying wave that radiates
out from the antenna and fluctuates evenly through space. Sine
waves are measured in terms of frequency, which is the number of
times a wave oscillates up and down per second. Once the encoded
sound has been placed on the sine wave, the transmitter sends the
signal to the antenna, which then sends the signal out.
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones 18

Radiation in cell phones is generated in the
transmitter and emitted through the antenna.
Cell phones have low-power transmitters in them. Most
car phones have a transmitter power of 3 watts. A handheld cell
phone operates on about 0.75 to 1 watt of power. The position of a
transmitter inside a phone varies depending on the manufacturer,
but it is usually in close proximity to the phone's antenna. The radio
waves that send the encoded signal are made up of electromagnetic
radiation propagated by the antenna. The function of an antenna in
any radio transmitter is to launch the radio waves into space; in the
case of cell phones, a receiver in the cell-phone tower picks up these
waves.
Electromagnetic radiation is made up of waves of electric
and magnetic energy moving at the speed of light, according to the
Federal Communications Commission (FCC). All electromagnetic
energy falls somewhere on the electromagnetic spectrum, which
ranges from extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation to X-rays and
gamma rays. Later, you will learn how these levels of radiation affect
biological tissue.
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones 19

Radiation Spectrum
When talking on a cell phone, most users place the phone against
the head. In this position, there is a good chance that some of the
radiation will be absorbed by human tissue. In the next section, we
will look at why some scientists believe that cell phones are harmful,
and you'll find out what effects these ubiquitous devices may have.











Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
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FEATURES OF SMARTPHONE


The core services on SymbianOS all tie in to the idea of a multi-
purpose device that can effectively multitask. A user can watch a
video clip, field a phone call and then return to the video clip after
the call, all without quitting out of each application. Or he or she can
flip through the digital calendar and to-do list applications without
interrupting the voice call. All of the data stored on the phone can be
synchronized with outside applications or manipulated by third-
party phone applications in any number of ways. Systems supported
by smartphones include:
GPRS
Bluetooth
WAP
SMS
MMS
GPRS:
SymbianOS supports the wireless GPRS (General Packet Radio
Service) data protocol. Unlike a circuit-switched voice connection,
this is a packet-switched, "always on" connection that remains active
as long as the phone is within range of the service. It allows Symbian
phones to do things like run applications remotely over a network,
interface with the Internet, participate in instant messenger
sessions, act as a wireless modem for a computer and transmit and
receive e-mails.

Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
21
Although doing all of these things is already pretty fast,
GPRS is considered a transitional technology that will only be
around until faster protocols gain wide acceptance. It's not fast
enough, for example, to play video clips live over a network. EDGE
(Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) is an up-and-coming
technology that speeds up GPRS data transmission so that it can do
things like real-time video streaming and multimedia. E-mail can
constantly and automatically stream into the phone whenever it is
connected to the Internet through GPRS.
The ability of a phone to stay connected to and active
in multiple protocols at the same time is dependent both on the type
of network and the type of phone. NOM (Network Operation Phone) 1
networks enable phones to transmit data in multiple
communications services like voice and GPRS. NOM 2 networks
allow a phone to be registered in GPRS but not actually transmit
data while making a voice call. NOM 3 networks disengage from one
service to operate in the other.
Similarly, Class A phones can make voice calls and
use GPRS data services at the same time, while Class B phones
allow only one of those protocols to be active at once. Class C phones
don't even allow the user to be signed in to both types of services at
the same time.

Bluetooth:
Bluetooth is a short-range, wireless radio service that
allows phones to wirelessly link up with each other and with other
nearby devices that support it. This includes things like printers and
scanners, input devices, computers and headsets.

Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
22

Blue tooth enabled cell phone &head set USB Bluetooth dongle
Some varieties of Bluetooth only allow communication
with one device at a time, but Symbian's version allows
simultaneous connection with multiple devices. Symbian claims
that its implementation supports any third-party device that
complies with the industry standard specification.
WAP:
We've probably seen news or advertising about cell
phones and PDAs that let you receive and send e-mail. This seems a
logical next step, but there are some questions that come up when
you think about going mobile with the Internet. Will you still be able
to surf the Web? How fast will you be able to get the information you
need? You might have heard of the Wireless Application Protocol
(WAP) and wonder how it works. WAP uses Wireless Markup
Language (WML), which includes the Handheld Device Markup
Language (HDML) developed by Phone.com. There are three main
reasons why wireless Internet needs the Wireless Application
Protocol:
Transfer speed
Size and readability
Navigation
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
23
Most cell phones and Web-enabled PDAs have data
transfer rates of 14.4 Kbps or less. Compare this to a typical 56 Kbps
modem, a cable modem or a DSL connection. Most Web pages today
are full of graphics that would take an unbearably long time to
download at 14.4 Kbps. Wireless Internet content is typically text-
based in order to solve this problem.
WAP is designed to work on any of the existing wireless
services, using standards such as:
Short Message Service (SMS)
High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (CSD)
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
Unstructured Supplementary Services Data (USSD)
Here's what happens when you access a Web site using
a WAP-enabled device:
You turn on the device and open the minibrowser.
The device sends out a radio signal, searching for service.
A connection is made with your service provider.
You select a Web site that you wish to view.
A request is sent to a gateway server using WAP.
The gateway server retrieves the information via HTTP from the
Web site.
The gateway server encodes the HTTP data as WML.
The WML-encoded data is sent to your device.
You see the wireless Internet version of the Web page you
selected
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
24
SMS: SMS stands for short message service. Simply put, it is a
method of communication that sends text between cell phones, or
from a PC or handheld to a cell phone. The "short" part refers to the
maximum size of the text messages: 160 characters (letters,
numbers or symbols in the Latin alphabet). For other alphabets,
such as Chinese, the maximum SMS size is 70 characters.
Even if you are not talking on your cell phone, your
phone is constantly sending and receiving information. It is talking
to its cell phone tower over a pathway called a control channel. The
reason for this chatter is so that the cell phone system knows which
cell your phone is in, and so that your phone can change cells as you
move around. Every so often, your phone and the tower will
exchange a packet of data that lets both of them know that
everything is OK.
Your phone also uses the control channel for call setup.
When someone tries to call you, the tower sends your phone a
message over the control channel that tells your phone to play its
ring tone. The tower also gives your phone a pair of voice channel
frequencies to use for the call.
The control channel also provides the pathway for SMS
messages. When a friend sends you an SMS message, the message
flows through the SMSC, then to the tower, and the tower sends the
message to your phone as a little packet of data on the control
channel. In the same way, when you send a message, your phone
sends it to the tower on the control channel and it goes from the
tower to the SMSC and from there to its destination.
The actual data format for the message includes things
like the length of the message, a time stamp, the destination phone
number, the format, etc.
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones 25
MMS:
Mobile Messaging is evolving beyond SMS text messaging
with the introduction of MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service).MMS
delivers a total communication experience, allowing personalized
multimedia content such as images, audio, text, video and
combinations of these. You can capture and share your experiences
when and wherever they happen with the help of MMS facility in
your’mobilephone
















DUAL BAND & DUAL MODE
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
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Multiple band: - A phone that has multiple-band capability can
switch frequencies. For example, a dual-band TDMA phone could
use TDMA services in either an 800-MHz or a 1900-MHz system. A
quad-band GSM phone could use GSM service in the 850-MHz, 900-
MHz, 1800-MHz or 1900-MHz band.
Multiple mode: - In cell phones, "mode" refers to the type of
transmission technology used. So, a phone that supported AMPS
and TDMA could switch back and forth as needed. It's important
that one of the modes is AMPS -- this gives you analog service if you
are in an area that doesn't have digital support.
Multiple band/Multiple mode: - The best of both worlds allows you
to switch between frequency bands and transmission modes as
needed.
Phones that support these options do changing bands or
modes automatically. Usually the phone will have a default option
set, such as 1900-MHz TDMA, and will try to connect at that
frequency with that technology first. If it supports dual bands, it will
switch to 800 MHz if it cannot connect at 1900 MHz. And if the
phone supports more than one mode, it will try the digital mode(s)
first, then switch to analog. You can find both dual-mode and tri-
mode phones. The term "tri-mode" can be deceptive. It may mean
that the phone supports two digital technologies, such as CDMA and
TDMA, as well as analog. In that case, it is a true tri-mode phone.
But it can also mean that it supports one digital technology in two
bands and also offers analog support. A popular version of the tri-
mode type of phone for people who do a lot of international traveling
has GSM service in the 900-MHz band for Europe and Asia and the
1900-MHz band for the United States, in addition to the analog
service.
CONCLUSION
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Recently it has been suggested that SMS messages
could be used to attack a cell phone system. The basic idea is very
simple. If a large number of SMS messages were sent by computers
to phones in a small geographical area (like a city), these messages
would overwhelm the control channels and make it impossible for
the cell phone system to set up calls.
In the coming world of technology, with the help of a cell
phone which having most modern facilities you can control the whole
world
The opportunities are endless!
















Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
Seminar Report 2005-06 Smartphones
Dept. of Telecommunication Technology M.P.T.C.Kalliassery
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REFERENCE


www.howstuffworks.com

www.gsmworld.com

www.searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com

www.nokia.com