You are on page 1of 17

Water Science and Engineering, 2009, 2(1): 43-57

doi:10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2009.01.005
http://kkb.hhu.edu.n
e-!"i#: $se%hhu.edu.n
Reservoir water effects on earthquake performance
evaluation of Torul Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dam
Alemdar BAYRAKTAR*
1
, Murat Emre KARTAL
2
, Hasan Basri BASAGA
1
1. Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon 61!, T"r#ey
$. Department of Civil Engineering, %ong"lda# Karaelmas University, %ong"lda# 6&1, T"r#ey
Abstract: This study presents earthua!e per"#rman$e analysis #" the T#rul %#n$rete&'a$ed
R#$!"ill (%'R) *am +ith t+#&dimensi#nal dam&s#il and dam&s#il&reser,#ir "inite element m#dels-
The La.ran.ian appr#a$h +as used +ith "luid elements t# m#del imp#unded +ater- The inter"a$e
elements +ere used t# simulate the slippa.e /et+een the $#n$rete "a$e sla/ and the r#$!"ill - The
h#ri0#ntal $#mp#nent #" the 1112 Er0in$an earthua!e, +ith a pea! .r#und a$$elerati#n #" 2-313g,
+as $#nsidered in time&hist#ry analysis- The *ru$!er&4ra.er m#del +as pre"erred in n#nlinear
analysis #" the $#n$rete sla/, r#$!"ill and "#undati#n s#il- The ma5imum prin$ipal stresses and the
ma5imum displa$ements in t+# #pp#site dire$ti#ns +ere $#mpared /y the hei.ht #" the $#n$rete
sla/ a$$#rdin. t# linear time&hist#ry analysis t# re,eal the e""e$t #" reser,#ir +ater- The $han.es #"
$riti$al displa$ements and prin$ipal stresses +ith time are als# sh#+n in this paper- A$$#rdin. t#
linear and n#nlinear time&hist#ry analysis, the e""e$t #" the reser,#ir +ater #n the earthua!e
per"#rman$e #" the T#rul %'R *am +as in,esti.ated and the p#ssi/le dama.e situati#n +as

e5amined- The results sh#+ that the hydr#dynami$ pressure #" reser,#ir +ater leads t# an in$rease
in the ma5imum displa$ements and prin$ipal stresses #" the dam and redu$es the earthua!e
per"#rman$e #" the dam- Alth#u.h the linear time&hist#ry analysis dem#nstrates that the
earthua!e $auses a m#ment#us dama.e t# the $#n$rete sla/ #" the T#rul %'R *am, the n#nlinear
time&hist#ry analysis sh#+s that n# e,ident dama.e #$$urs in either reser,#ir $ase-
Key words: earth'"a#e performance eval"ation( concrete)faced roc#fill dam( dam)soil)reservoir
interaction( Dr"c#er)*rager model( interface element( +agrangian approach( nonlinear time)
history analysis
1 Introduction

*%#rresp#ndin. auth#r (e&mail6 alemdar,#t".ed".tr)


Re$ei,ed Au.- 13, 22278 a$$epted 'e/- 29, 2221
%#n$rete&"a$ed r#$!"ill (%'R) dams are !n#+n as a l#+&$#st alternati,e t# $layey
$#re r#$!"ill (%%R) dams- %layey $#re material $an /e #/tained "r#m the surr#undin.s /ut it
$ann#t /e pr#,ided in the pr#:e$t area at all times (;ddin 1111)- %'R dams ha,e /een /uilt
in se,eral parts #" the +#rld in re$ent years (Seed et al- 1173)- The p#pularity #" %'R dams
+ill pr#/a/ly in$rease in the "uture al#n. +ith +#rld+ide e5perien$e #" their l#n.&term
per"#rman$e-
The resp#nse #" the $#n$rete sla/ t# earthua!es is a /asi$ $#n$ern #" a %'R dam (Gur#s
et al- 117<8 Seed et al- 11738 Arrau et al- 11738 Bureau et al- 11738 4ris$u et al- 11738 Sherard
and %##!e 117=8 Ga0etas and *a!#ulas 11128 ;ddin and Ga0etas 11138 ;ddin 1111)- >n the
$#urse #" str#n. earthua!es, a $#n$rete sla/ may /e $rushed and is li!ely t# /e $ra$!ed- The
earthua!e&indu$ed "ailure may $ause ma:#r $ra$!s in the $#n$rete sla/ and, as a result, the
sa"ety "a$t#r #" the dam may de$rease due t# seepa.e "ailure (%##!e 1119)- The $#n$rete sla/
$#,ers the upstream "a$e #" the r#$!"ill, and i" it $ra$!s, +ater +ill penetrate the dam and may
redu$e its sta/ility (S0#sta!&%hr0an#+s!i and Massi?ra 222@)- Y##n et al- (2222) ha,e sh#+ed
that lea!a.e&indu$ed "ailure is a seri#us issue "#r $#n$rete dams- Bureau et al- (1173) ha,e
presented a study rele,ant t# the seismi$ per"#rman$e #" r#$!"ill dams and espe$ially t#
pr#/a/le "ailure m#des #" %'R dams- Se,eral resear$hers ha,e als# in,esti.ated dynami$
"ailure #" %'R dams (Han et al- 11778 K#n. and Liu 2222)-
The earthua!e /eha,i#r #" the $#n$rete sla/ #n a %'R dam m#stly pertains t# the inter"a$e
/et+een the $#n$rete and r#$!"ill- *i""erent resear$hers ha,e "#$used #n the is#lated dis$rete
:#ints "#r n#nlinear analysis (G##dman et al- 11@78 Aien!ie+i$0 et al- 11=28 Mahta/ and
G##dman 11=28 Gha/#ussi et al- 11=9)- >nter"a$e elements all#+ separate m#,ements /et+een
the s#lids and trans"er shear de"#rmati#ns a$r#ss the inter"a$es- T0amt0is and Bath (1112)
utili0ed three&dimensi#nal inter"a$e elements in n#nlinear stati$ and dynami$ "inite element
analysis #" dis$#ntinu#us systems- >n additi#n, inter"a$e elements all#+in. slidin. /et+een s#il
and rein"#r$ement a$$#rdin. t# the M#hr&%#ul#m/ stren.th $riteri#n +ere used t# e5amine the
inter"a$e /eha,i#r in rein"#r$ed em/an!ments #n s#"t .r#und (Hird and K+#! 1171)-
>n,esti.ati#n #" the e""e$ts #" hydr#dynami$ pressures #n the dynami$ resp#nse #" dams
/e.an in the 1192s (Cester.aard 11998 Aan.ar and Hae"ei 11328 Aien!ie+i$0 and Bath 11@9)-
Many resear$hers ha,e studied the dynami$ resp#nse #" dam&reser,#ir systems usin. the
Eulerian and the La.ran.ian appr#a$hes (%h#pra 11@78 'inn and Dar#.lu 11=98 Saini et al
11=78 %h#pra and %ha!ra/arti 11718 Gree,es and *uman#.lu 11718 Sin.hal 11118 %alayir et
al- 111@8 Bayra!tar et al- 111@)- Earthua!e "#r$es +ere $#nsidered deterministi$ in these
studies- The hydr#dynami$ e""e$t #" reser,#ir +ater #n dams +as m#deled +ith "luid "inite
elements in /#th appr#a$hes-
There ha,e /een "e+ studies $#n$erned +ith earthua!e per"#rman$e analysis #" $#n$rete
sla/s #n %'R dams that in$lude dam&s#il&reser,#ir intera$ti#n (Bayra!tar and Kartal 222=)-
Chen the "ri$ti#n /et+een the $#n$rete sla/ and r#$!"ill is i.n#red, the hydr#dynami$
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 <<
pressure #n $#n$rete sla/s #" %'R dams is assumed t# /e ine""i$ient and usually ne.le$ted-
This paper presents the earthua!e resp#nses and per"#rman$e e,aluati#n #" the T#rul %'R
*am in empty and "ull reser,#ir $ases- '#r this purp#se, t+#&dimensi#nal dam&s#il and dam&
s#il&reser,#ir "inite element m#dels +ere used- The inter"a$e /et+een the $#n$rete sla/ and
r#$!"ill +as m#deled usin. inter"a$e elements- These elements all#+ trans,erse shear
de"#rmati#n /et+een the r#$!"ill and $#n$rete "a$e sla/- The ABSYS pr#.ram +as used in
"inite element analysis- The La.ran.ian appr#a$h +as used t# m#del the imp#unded +ater
+ith t+#&dimensi#nal "luid "inite elements- The *ru$!er&4ra.er m#del +as used in n#nlinear
analysis #" the $#n$rete "a$e sla/, r#$!"ill and "#undati#n s#il-
2 Formulation of dam-soil-reservoir interaction with
Lagrangian approach
*am&s#il&reser,#ir intera$ti#n systems are e5plained in this paper- A "luid system
"#rmulati#n /ased #n the La.ran.ian appr#a$h is pr#,ided /y E- (1) (Cils#n and Khal,ati
11798 %alayir 111<)- A$$#rdin. t# the La.ran.ian appr#a$h, "luid is assumed t# /e linearly
elasti$, in,is$id and n#n&r#tati#nal- >t is als# $#nsidered $#mpressi/le in the study- The stress&
strain relati#nship "#r a t+#&dimensi#nal "luid $an /e +ritten as "#ll#+s6
11 D
A 22
2
2
%
* C-
* C .
1 1 1

1 1 1
] ] ]
(1)
+here * is the pressure, +hi$h is eual t# mean stress8 C
11
is the /ul! m#dulus8
D
- is the
,#lumetri$ strain #" the "luid8
A
* is the r#tati#nal stress8 C
22
is the $#nstraint parameter8 and
%
. is the an.le #" r#tati#n a/#ut the %artesian a5is z- R#tati#ns and $#nstraint parameters
are in,#l,ed in the stress&strain euati#n #" the "luid, and n#n&r#tati#nality #" the "luid is
simulated +ith the penalty meth#d (Aien!ie+i$0 and Tayl#r 11718 Bathe 111@)-
The euati#ns #" m#ti#n #" the "luid system are #/tained usin. ener.y prin$iples- The
t#tal strain ener.y #" the "luid system $an /e +ritten as
T
s " " "
1
2
E U K U (2)
+here U
"
is the n#dal displa$ement ,e$t#r and K
"
is the sti""ness matri5 #" the "luid system-
The sti""ness matri5 #" the "luid system is #/tained +ith the sum #" the sti""ness matri$es #"
the "luid elements (
e
"
K ) as "#ll#+s6
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 <3
( )
e
" "
T
e e e e
" " " "
d/

'

K K
K B C B
(9)
+here
e
"
B is the strain&displa$ement matri5 #" the "luid element8 C
"
is the elasti$ity matri5,
+hi$h $#nsists #" the dia.#nal terms in E- (1), and
e
/
is the ,#lume #" the "luid elements-
The m#ti#n #" the "luid system is !n#+n as sl#shin. +a,es +ith#ut $han.e #" ,#lume in
reser,#irs and st#ra.e tan!s- The displa$ements "#r the m#ti#n are in the ,erti$al dire$ti#n-
Sl#shin. +a,es result in an in$rease in the p#tential ener.y #" the system as "#ll#+s6
T
p s" s" s"
1
2
E U K U (<)
+here U
s"
is the n#dal ,erti$al displa$ement ,e$t#r and K
s"
is the sti""ness matri5 #" the "ree
sur"a$e #" the "luid system- The sti""ness matri$es #" the sur"a$e "luid elements (
e
s"
K ) are
#/tained as "#ll#+s6
e
s" s"
e T e
s" " s s
d 0g 1

'

K K
K h h
(3)
+here h
s
is the ,e$t#r that $#nsists #" interp#lati#n "un$ti#ns #" the "ree sur"a$e "luid elements,
"
is the mass density #" the "luid,
e
1
is the area #" the "ree sur"a$e "luid element, and g is
the a$$elerati#n due t# .ra,ity-
The !ineti$ ener.y #" the system $an /e +ritten as
T
" " "
1
2
E
& &
U M U (@)
+here
"
&
U is the n#dal ,el#$ity ,e$t#r and M
"
is the mass matri5 #" the "luid system- The
mass matri5 #" the "luid system is als# #/tained +ith the sum #" the mass matri$es #" the
"luid elements (
e
"
M ) as "#ll#+s6
e
" "
e T e
" "
d 0/

'

M M
M H H
(=)
+here H is the matri5 that $#nsists #" interp#lati#n "un$ti#ns #" the "luid element- %#m/inin.
Es- (2), (<) and (@) +ith La.ran.eEs euati#n (%l#u.h and 4en0ien 1119), the "#ll#+in.
euati#n is #/tained6
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 <@
*
" " " " "
+
&&
M U K U R (7)
+here
*
"
K is the system sti""ness matri5 that in$ludes the "ree sur"a$e sti""ness,
"
&&
U is the
n#dal a$$elerati#n ,e$t#r, and R
"
is the time&,aryin. n#dal "#r$e ,e$t#r "#r the "luid system- A
redu$ed inte.rati#n s$heme is utili0ed in the "#rmati#n #" the "luid element matri$es (Cils#n
and Khal,ati 1179)-
The euati#n #" m#ti#n #" the "luid system, E- (7), may /e +ritten as th#se #" the
stru$ture system- The $#upled euati#ns #" the "luid&stru$ture system are attained /y
determinin. the inter"a$e $#nditi#n- The displa$ement in the n#rmal dire$ti#n #" the inter"a$e
is $#ntinu#us at the system inter"a$e, sin$e "luid is assumed t# /e in,is$id- >" it is assumed that
the n#rmal $#mp#nent #" the inter"a$e displa$ement t#+ard the stru$ture (
n
U
+
) is p#siti,e,
+hile the n#rmal $#mp#nent #" the inter"a$e displa$ement t#+ard the "luid (
n
U

) is
ne.ati,e, then
n n
U U
+
(A!!as et al- 11=1)- ;sin. this $#nditi#n, the euati#n #" m#ti#n #"
the $#upled system, in$ludin. dampin. e""e$ts #" .r#und m#ti#n, is .i,en6
R KU U C U M + +
& & &
(1)
in +hi$h M is the mass matri5, C is the dampin. matri5, and K is the sti""ness matri5 #" the
"luid&stru$ture intera$ti#n system- Als#, U, U
&
,
&&
U
, and R are the ,e$t#rs #" the
displa$ement, ,el#$ity, a$$elerati#n, and e5ternal l#ad #" the $#upled system, respe$ti,ely-
3 Structural performance and damage criteria for dams
Linear time&hist#ry analysis +as used t# "#rmulate a systemati$ and rati#nal meth#d#l#.y
"#r a ualitati,e estimate #" the le,el #" dama.e- >n linear time&hist#ry analysis, de"#rmati#ns,
stresses and internal "#r$es are $al$ulated in a$$#rdan$e +ith elasti$ sti""ness $hara$teristi$s #"
,ari#us $#mp#nents- Chen a$$elerati#n time&hist#ries are used as the seismi$ input, /#th the
ma.nitudes and time&,aryin. $hara$teristi$s #" the seismi$ resp#nse are $#mputed +ith the
linear time&hist#ry analysis- A systemati$ interpretati#n and e,aluati#n #" these results in terms
#" the demand&$apa$ity rati# (2), $umulati,e inelasti$ durati#n, spatial e5tent #" #,erstressed
re.i#ns, and p#ssi/le m#des #" "ailure "#rm the /asis "#r estimate #" the pr#/a/le le,el #"
dama.e- The dama.e t# stru$tural per"#rman$e is measured /ased #n the $ra$!in. #" the
$#n$rete, the #penin. #" $#nstru$ti#n :#ints, and the yieldin. #" the rein"#r$in. steel- >" the
estimated le,el #" dama.e "alls /el#+ the a$$eptan$e $ur,e "#r a parti$ular type #" stru$ture,
the dama.e is $#nsidered l#+ and the linear time&hist#ry analysis is su""i$ient- Fther+ise, the
dama.e is $#nsidered se,ere, in +hi$h $ase a n#nlinear time&hist#ry analysis is reuired t#
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 <=
estimate dama.e m#re a$$urately (Ghanaat 2222)-
3.1 Performance criteria for linear and nonlinear analysis
The resp#nse #" the dam t# the ma5imum desi.n earthua!e +#uld /e unli!ely t#
$ause dama.e i" the demand&$apa$ity rati# is less than #r eual t# 1-28 +ith this rati#, the
resp#nse is +ithin +hat is $#nsidered the linear elasti$ ran.e #" /eha,i#r- The le,el #"
n#nlinear resp#nse #r #penin. and $ra$!in. #" :#ints is $#nsidered a$$epta/le i" the demand&
$apa$ity rati# is less than 2-2, the #,erstressed re.i#n is limited t# 13G #" the dam sur"a$e
area, and the $umulati,e inelasti$ durati#n "alls /el#+ the per"#rman$e $ur,e (Ghanaat
2222)- %umulati,e durati#n has n#t /een de"ined "#r the $#n$rete sla/ #" %'R dams up t#
n#+8 there"#re, the per"#rman$e $ur,e used "#r $#n$rete .ra,ity dams +as $#nsidered in this
study (;SA%E 2229)-
3.2 emand-capacity ratio
The demand&$apa$ity rati# "#r .ra,ity dams is de"ined as the rati# #" the $al$ulated
prin$ipal stress t# the tensile stren.th #" $#n$rete- As dis$ussed pre,i#usly, the demand&
$apa$ity rati# is limited t# 2-2, thus permittin. stresses up t# t+# times the stati$ tensile
stren.th #r at the le,el #" the dynami$ apparent tensile stren.th #" $#n$rete- Alth#u.h the
tensile stren.th #" $#n$rete is a""e$ted /y the rate #" seismi$ l#adin., it is empl#yed t#
$#mpute the demand&$apa$ity rati# a$$#rdin. t# the a$$eptan$e $riteria- Thus a $ertain le,el
#" $#nser,atism is .uaranteed in the estimati#n #" dama.e /ased #n the results #" linear
elasti$ analysis-
The $umulati,e durati#n /ey#nd a $ertain demand&$apa$ity rati# is #/tained /y
multiplyin. the num/er #" times that the stress ,alue e5$eeds that le,el /y the time&step #" the
time&hist#ry analysis- The $umulati,e durati#n in 'i.- 1 re"ers t# the t#tal durati#n #" all stress
e5$ursi#ns /ey#nd a $ertain demand&$apa$ity rati#-
Fig. 1 A$$epted per"#rman$e $ur,e "#r per"#rman$e analysis (;SA%E 2229)
! "athematical model of #orul $F% am
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 <7
Fig. 2 T#rul %'R *am (*S> 2227)
!.1 #orul am
The T#rul %'R *am is l#$ated #n
the Harsit Ri,er, appr#5imately 1<

!m
n#rth+est #" T#rul, Gumushane ('i.- 2)-
The dam $#nstru$ti#n +as $#mpleted in
222= /y the General *ire$t#rate #" State
Hydrauli$ C#r!s- The main .#al #" the
reser,#ir is p#+er .enerati#n- The
,#lume #" the dam /#dy is <-@H12
@
m
9
and the +ater area #" the reser,#ir at
the n#rmal +ater le,el is 9-@2 !m
2
- The
annual t#tal p#+er .enerati#n $apa$ity is 922-27

GC- The len.th #" the dam $rest is 922 m and
the +idth is 12 m- The ma5imum hei.ht and /ase +idth #" the dam are 1<2

m and <22

m,
respe$ti,ely- The ma5imum +ater le,el #" the reser,#ir (3
ma5
) is 19=-3 m- The thi$!ness #" the
$#n$rete sla/ is 2-9 m at the $rest le,el and 2-= m at the "#undati#n le,el- The len.ths #" /#th
the reser,#ir and "#undati#n s#il in the upstream dire$ti#n are $#nsidered three times the dam
hei.ht- The $#n$rete sla/ has hi.h seepa.e resistan$e- The t+#&dimensi#nal lar.est $r#ss
se$ti#n and the dimensi#ns #" the dam are sh#+n in 'i.- 9-
Fig. T+#&dimensi#nal lar.est $r#ss se$ti#n #" T#rul *am /#dy (*S> 2227)
!.2 "aterial properties
The T#rul *am /#dy $#nsists #" a $#n$rete "a$e sla/ and "i,e r#$!"ill 0#nes6 2A, 9A, 9B,
9%, and 9*, "r#m upstream t# d#+nstream- These r#$!"ill 0#nes are arran.ed "r#m thin .ranules
t# thi$! parti$les in the upstream&d#+nstream dire$ti#n- '#undati#n s#il is $#mp#sed #" t+#
layers6 limest#ne (/el#+) and ,#l$ani$ tu"a (upper)- The material pr#perties #" the dam and s#il
used in linear and n#nlinear analysis are sh#+n in Ta/le 1- The dynami$ Y#un.Es m#dulus ,alues
+ere used in dynami$ analysis- The n#nlinear analysis pr#$edure +as /ased #n the *ru$!er&
4ra.er m#del- This m#del, usin. the #uter $#ne appr#5imati#n #" the M#hr&%#ul#m/ la+
(ABSYS 2227), is suita/le "#r .ranular ("ri$ti#nal) material su$h as s#ils, r#$!s, and
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 <1
$#n$rete- The $#hesi#n and the an.le #" internal "ri$ti#n #" the s#lid materials are assumed
t# /e 1-223 M4a and <3, respe$ti,ely- The $#n$rete sla/ has a tensile stren.th #" 1-@ M4a
and $#mpressi#n stren.th #" 22 M4a- The /ul! m#dulus and density #" the reser,#ir +ater
are 2-2= M4a and 1 222 !.Im
9
, respe$ti,ely-
Ta!le 1 Material pr#perties #" T#rul %'R *am (*S> 2227)
Material Ma5imum parti$le
si0e (mm)
*ynami$ material pr#perty
Y#un.Es m#dulus
(G4a)
4#iss#nEs rati# *ensity !.I
m
9

%#n$rete "a$e sla/ 9<-22 2-17 2 913


-
3
2A (si"ted r#$! #r
allu,ium)
132 1<-22 2-2@ 2 123-2
9A (sele$ted r#$!) 922 19-32 2-2@ 2 73<-2
9B (uarry r#$!) @22 12-32 2-2@ 2 799-7
9% (uarry r#$!) 722 11-32 2-2@ 2 729-9
9* (sele$ted r#$!) 1 222 12-22 2-2@ 2 =32-9
S#il (,#l$ani$ tu"a) 7-<2 2-<2
S#il (limest#ne) 11-33 2-<2
!.3 Finite element model
The t+#&dimensi#nal dam&s#il&reser,#ir "inite element m#del used in analysis is sh#+n
in 'i.- <- >n this m#del, the dam /#dy and "#undati#n s#il ha,e 312 and @3@ s#lid "inite
elements, respe$ti,ely, imp#unded +ater has <13 "luid "inite elements, and 1@ inter"a$e
elements are de"ined /et+een the $#n$rete sla/ and r#$!"ill- The s#lid elements used in the
analysis ha,e "#ur n#des and 2H2 inte.rati#n p#ints8 the "luid elements ha,e "#ur n#des and
1H1 inte.rati#n p#int- Element matri$es +ere $#mputed usin. the Gauss numeri$al inte.rati#n
te$hniue (Cils#n and Khal,ati 1179)- A dampin. rati# #" 3G +as assumed in "inite element
analysis a$$#rdin. t# Raylei.h dampin.- The "#undati#n s#il +as assumed t# /e massless in
time&hist#ry analysis- The $#uplin. len.th +as set as 1 mm at the reser,#ir&dam and reser,#ir&
s#il inter"a$e and 32 num/ers #" $#uplin.s +ere de"ined in the dam&reser,#ir&s#il m#del- The
main #/:e$ti,e #" the $#uplin. pr#$ess is t# maintain eual displa$ement /et+een the #pp#site
n#des in the n#rmal dire$ti#n t# the inter"a$e- The $#uplin. p#int in the sur"a$e n#rmal
dire$ti#n is als# sh#+n in the $ir$le in 'i.- <-
ABSYS +as $h#sen "#r linear and materially n#nlinear "inite element analysis in this
study- B#th s#lid and $#ntained "luid, as +ell as inter"a$e elements, +ere in$luded in this
"inite element pr#.ram pa$!a.e- 4lane<2 s#lid "inite elements de"ined in ABSYS +ere used
"#r the $#n$rete sla/, r#$!"ill and "#undati#n s#il- 'luid=1 "luid "inite elements #/tained /y
m#di"i$ati#n #" the t+#&dimensi#nal stru$tural s#lid element (4lane<2) +ere used t# m#del
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 32
reser,#ir +ater- Fne #" the m#st imp#rtant steps in m#delin. "luid elements in ABSYS +as
sele$tin. a $##rdinate system in +hi$h the ,erti$al $##rdinates #" the "luid elements +ere
ne.ati,e- >n additi#n, re$tan.ular "luid elements +ere $#nstru$ted as mu$h as p#ssi/le in
#rder t# #/tain uali"ied results- 'luid&stru$ture intera$ti#n $an /e m#deled usin. truss
elements /et+een the "luid and s#lid elements #r the penalty meth#d- Cith ABSYS, the
per"#rman$e #" this intera$ti#n +as m#deled +ith the penalty meth#d and als# $#upled in
the sur"a$e n#rmal dire$ti#n-
Fig. " T+#&dimensi#nal "inite element m#del in$ludin. imp#unded +ater #" T#rul *am
>n the a/#,e analysis, the hei.ht and len.th #" the "#undati#n s#il in the d#+nstream
dire$ti#n are ta!en int# a$$#unt as mu$h as the dam hei.ht t# su""i$iently $#nsider s#il e""e$ts
#n dam resp#nse-
!.! Interface element &etween concrete face sla& and roc'fill
The earthua!e resp#nse #" the $#n$rete "a$e sla/ is m#stly dependent #n its inter"a$e
+ith the r#$!"ill- This inter"a$e $an /e m#deled as either +elded $#nta$t #r "ri$ti#n $#nta$t
('i.- 3)- >n "a$t, the $#n$rete sla/ d#es n#t ha,e dire$t $#nta$t +ith the r#$!"ill- A$$#rdin.ly,
the use #" the inter"a$e element in "inite element analysis $an pr#$ure m#re realisti$ results-
This element type all#+s $#n$rete sla/s t# slide #,er the r#$!"ill "a$e (ABSYS 2227)- >n this
study, the trans,erse shear sti""ness #" the inter"a$e material +as $#nsidered t# /e 1-7 M4aIm-
A"ter the $#nstru$ti#n #" the r#$!"ill, sh#t$rete $#,ers the upstream "a$e #" the dam-
*urin. the $#llapse and settlement pr#$ess, sh#t$rete $#,er is de"#rmed and ruptured- Then
the sur"a$e is sm##thed and the $#n$rete sla/ is $#,ered #n this sur"a$e, /ut /e$ause #" the
dama.e, the sh#t$rete l#ses its initial stren.th- Dari#us studies ha,e /een $#ndu$ted #" r#$!&
r#$! and r#$!&sh#t$rete inter"a$e sti""ness and :#ints (Can. et al- 22298 Bae et al- 222<)-
>nter"a$e shear sti""ness in these studies +as determined "#r r#$!&r#$! and inta$t sh#t$rete&
r#$! inter"a$es- H#+e,er, these studies d# n#t realisti$ally re"le$t the related inter"a$e8
relati,ely l#+ inter"a$e shear sti""ness +as assumed "#r $#n$rete&r#$!"ill inter"a$es in this
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 31
study-
Fig. # S$hemati$ dia.ram "#r +elded $#nta$t and "ri$ti#n $#nta$t
( )arth*ua'e response of #orul $F% am
The resp#nse #" the T#rul *am t# the h#ri0#ntal $#mp#nent #" the 1112 Er0in$an
earthua!e +as e,aluated- The durati#n #" the a$$elerati#n re$#rd #" the earthua!e is 21-91 s
('i.- @) and it is a,aila/le at the *EE4 5trong 6otion Database (4EER 2227)- The ma5imum
,alue #" the earthua!e a$$elerati#n (a
p
) +as 2-313g- The time inter,al #" the a$$elerati#n
re$#rd is 2-223 s-
Fig. $ A$$elerati#n re$#rd "#r 1112 Er0in$an earthua!e (4EER 2227)
The ma5imum displa$ements in the t+# #pp#site dire$ti#ns #" the $#n$rete sla/ +ere
$#mpared /y dam hei.ht "#r dam&s#il and dam&s#il&reser,#ir systems- >n additi#n, ma5imum
tensile and $#mpressi#n prin$ipal stresses +ere determined "#r ea$h system /y dam hei.ht-
The $han.es #" the $riti$al h#ri0#ntal displa$ement and prin$ipal stresses +ith time +ere als#
determined t# in,esti.ate hydr#dynami$ e""e$ts #" the reser,#ir +ater #n the earthua!e
resp#nse #" the dam-
(.1 isplacement
The ma5imum h#ri0#ntal displa$ements (U
7ma5
) in the t+# #pp#site dire$ti#ns #" the
$#n$rete sla/ +ere determined a$$#rdin. t# linear time&hist#ry analysis- Empty and "ull
reser,#ir $ases +ere ta!en int# $#nsiderati#n- The #/tained displa$ements are sh#+n al#n. the
hei.ht (3) #" the $#n$rete sla/ in 'i.- =- >t is $learly seen that the reser,#ir +ater leads t# the
in$rease #" displa$ement /y the dam hei.ht and displa$ement rea$hes its ma5imum ,alue at
the $rest p#int #" ea$h system-
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 32
Fig. % Ma5imum h#ri0#ntal displa$ement #" $#n$rete "a$e sla/ "#r t+# di""erent systems
The time&hist#ries #" the ma5imum h#ri0#ntal displa$ements #" the $#n$rete sla/ at the
$rest le,el attained "r#m linear analysis are sh#+n in 'i.- 7- A$$#rdin. t# 'i.- 7, reser,#ir
+ater $learly in$reases the displa$ement durin. earthua!es- The de"le$ti#ns #" the dam,
+here the ma5imum displa$ements in the t+# #pp#site dire$ti#ns #$$ur, are sh#+n in 'i.- 1-

Fig. & Time&hist#ries #" ma5imum h#ri0#ntal displa$ement "#r linear analysis
Fig. ' *e"le$ti#n #" the dam
(.2 Stress
The ma5imum prin$ipal tensile stress (8
Tma5
) and the ma5imum prin$ipal $#mpressi#n
stress (8
4ma5
) #" the $#n$rete sla/ are sh#+n /y dam hei.ht in 'i.- 12 "#r the empty and "ull
reser,#ir $ases, respe$ti,ely- A$$#rdin. t# 'i.- 12, the prin$ipal tensile and $#mpressi#n
stresses are in$reased /y reser,#ir +ater e""e$ts-
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 39
Fig. 1( Ma5imum prin$ipal stress #n $#n$rete "a$e sla/ "#r di""erent systems
The time&hist#ries #" ma5imum prin$ipal $#mpressi#n and tensile stresses #/tained "r#m
linear analysis "#r /#th the empty and "ull reser,#ir $ases are als# sh#+n- The e""e$t #"
reser,#ir +ater #n the prin$ipal stresses is $learly distin.uished in 'i.- 11- The ma5imum
prin$ipal $#mpressi#n and tensile stresses are in$reased /y hydr#dynami$ pressure "#r the
durati#n #" the earthua!e-
Fig. 11 Time&hist#ries #" ma5imum prin$ipal stress #n $#n$rete "a$e sla/
+ Performance analysis of #orul $F% am
The per"#rman$e analysis #" the T#rul %'R *am +as e,aluated in re.ards t# h#ri0#ntal
$#mp#nents #" the 1112 Er0in$an earthua!e- The earthua!e per"#rman$e analysis +as
$arried #ut "#r the empty and "ull reser,#ir $ases t# re,eal the hydr#dynami$ e""e$t #"
reser,#ir +ater- 'irst, linear time&hist#ry analysis +as per"#rmed t# assess +hether the dama.e
t# the $#n$rete "a$e sla/ +as a$$epta/le #r n#t, $#nsiderin. the demand&$apa$ity rati# inter,al
"r#m 1-2 t# 2-2-
The demand&$apa$ity rati# "#r ea$h system +as $#nsidered in #rder t# e,aluate the
ma5imum prin$ipal tensile stresses #n the $#n$rete sla/- The ma5imum prin$ipal tensile
stresses e5$eeded the tensile stren.th #" the $#n$rete se,eral times in the empty reser,#ir $ase,
as seen in 'i.- 12(a)- H#+e,er, i" hydr#dynami$ pressure +as in$luded in "inite element
analysis, the e5$ursi#ns #" the prin$ipal stresses +ere m#re than th#se in the empty reser,#ir
$ase "#r the sele$ted demand&$apa$ity rati# inter,al ('i.- 12(/))-
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 3<
Fig. 12 Ma5imum prin$ipal tensile stress $y$les "#r linear analysis #" di""erent systems
The per"#rman$e $ur,e is dra+n t# e,aluate +hether the linear analysis is su""i$ient #r
n#t- This is reuired t# determine the p#tential dama.e le,el #" ea$h system- A$$#rdin. t#
linear analysis, the $umulati,e durati#n is $#mpletely #,er the a$$epta/le le,el "#r /#th the
empty reser,#ir $ase and the "ull reser,#ir $ase- Alth#u.h the $umulati,e durati#ns de$rease as
the demand&$apa$ity rati# in$reases ('i.- 19), they are still hi.her than the a$$epta/le le,el
line- The per"#rman$e $ur,es sh#+n in 'i.- 19 indi$ate that the intense "#r$e #n the $#n$rete
$auses it t# $ra$! at sele$ted demand&$apa$ity rati# inter,al- A$$#rdin. t# the per"#rman$e
estimati#n #" the dam, dama.e appears t# /e ine,ita/le- As seen in 'i.- 19, the hydr#dynami$
pressure #" the reser,#ir +ater si.ni"i$antly redu$es the earthua!e per"#rman$e #" the dam-
Fig. 1
Earthua!e per"#rman$e e,aluati#n #" T#rul %'R *am
Materially n#nlinear analysis is ne$essary "#r e,aluati#n #" the earthua!e per"#rman$e
#" the dam- A$$#rdin. t# n#nlinear analysis, the ma5imum prin$ipal tensile stresses are small
in ea$h $ase, as seen in 'i.- 1<- The n#nlinear analysis results re,eal n# $ra$!in. in the
$#n$rete sla/, and there"#re n# dama.e +ill #$$ur t# the $#n$rete-
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 33
Fig. 1" Ma5imum prin$ipal tensile stress $y$les "#r n#nlinear analysis #" di""erent systems
, $onclusions
There ha,e /een "e+ studies #" earthua!e per"#rman$e #" the $#n$rete sla/ #" a %'R
dam that in,#l,e "ri$ti#n $#nta$t /et+een the $#n$rete sla/ and r#$!"ill in a dam&s#il&reser,#ir
intera$ti,e system su/:e$ted t# str#n. .r#und m#ti#n- This paper presents earthua!e
per"#rman$e analysis #" the T#rul %'R *am in empty and "ull reser,#ir $ases- The earthua!e
per"#rman$e #" the $#n$rete is e,aluated +ith $#nsiderati#n #" inter"a$e elements /et+een the
$#n$rete sla/ and r#$!"ill t# #/tain numeri$al results m#re realisti$ally- The La.ran.ian
appr#a$h +as used t# e5amine the e""e$t #" reser,#ir +ater in the "inite element analysis-
The earthua!e resp#nse #" the dam is $learly a""e$ted /y the hydr#dynami$ pressure #"
reser,#ir +ater- Hydr#dynami$ pressure in$reases the ma5imum displa$ements in t+#
#pp#site dire$ti#ns as +ell as the ma5imum prin$ipal stresses durin. an earthua!e-
A$$#rdin. t# linear time&hist#ry analysis #" the dam, the earthua!e $aused m#ment#us
dama.e t# the $#n$rete sla/- Hydr#dynami$ pressure played an imp#rtant r#le in redu$in. the
earthua!e per"#rman$e #" the dam- There"#re, materially n#nlinear time&hist#ry analysis +as
per"#rmed, and the result sh#+ed that n# dama.e #$$urred in either reser,#ir $ase-
S#me su..esti#ns are as "#ll#+s6
(1) A m#re realisti$ earthua!e resp#nse and per"#rman$e assessment #" %'R dams $an
/e $arried #ut usin. inter"a$e elements $apa/le #" a$$#untin. "#r the trans,erse shear
de"#rmati#n-
(2)

The hydr#dynami$ pressure #" reser,#ir +ater sh#uld /e ta!en int# a$$#unt in
earthua!e per"#rman$e analysis #" m#dern %'R dams-
(9)

B#nlinear earthua!e analysis sh#uld /e per"#rmed t# e,aluate earthua!e
per"#rman$e #" %'R dams- The results +ill /e m#re relia/le-
-c'nowledgements
The auth#rs +#uld li!e t# e5press their heart"elt than!s t# Yasemin Bayram, +h# +#r!s
at the General *ire$t#rate #" State Hydrauli$ C#r!s, "#r her $#ntri/uti#ns t# this study-
%eferences
A!!as, B-, A!ay, H- ;-, and Yilma0, %- 11=1- Appli$a/ility #" .eneral&purp#se "inite element pr#.rams in
s#lid&"luid intera$ti#n pr#/lems- Comp"ters 9 5tr"ct"res, 12(3), ==9&=79- Jd#i612-121@I22<3&
=1<1(=1)122<1&3K
ABSYS- 2227- 5.anson 1nalysis 5ystem, 1:5;5 4elease 11. Doc"mentation for 1:5;5, User<s 6an"al-
H#ust#n6 S+ans#n Analysis Systems >n$-
Arrau, L-, >/arra, >-, and B#.uera, G- 1173- 4er"#rman$e #" %#.#ti dam under seismi$ l#adin.- Concrete 2ace
4oc#fill Dams= Design, Constr"ction, and *erformance, 1&1<- Be+ Y#r!6 AS%E-
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 3@
Bae, G- L-, %han., S- H-, Lee, S- C-, and 4ar!, H- G- 222<- E,aluati#n #" inter"a$ial pr#perties /et+een r#$!
mass and sh#t$rete- >nternational ?o"rnal of 4oc# 6echanics and 6ining 5ciences, <1(9), 12@&112- Jd#i6
12-121@I:-i:rmms-222<-29-22=K
Bathe, K- L- 111@- 2inite Element *roced"res in Engineering 1nalysis- En.le+##d %li""s6 4renti$e&Hall-
Bayra!tar, A-, *uman#.lu, A- A-, and %alayir, Y- 111@- Asyn$hr#n#us dynami$ analysis #" dam&reser,#ir&
"#undati#n systems /y the La.ran.ian appr#a$h- Comp"ters 9 5tr"ct"res, 37(3), 123&193- Jd#i612-121@I
22<3&=1<1(13)22211&5K
Bayra!tar, A-, and Kartal, M- E- 222=- The e""e$t #" r#$!"ill $hara$teristi$s #n earthua!e per"#rman$e #"
$#n$rete sla/ #n %'R dams- >nternational 5ymposi"m on 1dvances in Earth'"a#e 9 5tr"ct"ral
Engineering, 122&199- >sparta&Antalya6 SMleyman *emirel ;ni,ersity-
Bureau, G-, D#lpe, R- L-, R#th, C- H-, and ;da!a, T- 1173- Seismi$ analysis #" $#n$rete "a$e r#$!"ill dams-
Concrete 2ace 4oc#fill Dams= Design, Constr"ction and *erformance, <=1&327- Be+ Y#r!6 AS%E-
%alayir, Y- 111<- Dynamic 1nalysis of Concrete @ravity Dams Using the E"lerian and the +agrangian
1pproaches- 4h- *- *issertati#n- Tra/0#n6 Karadeni0 Te$hni$al ;ni,ersity- (in Tur!ish)
%alayir, Y-, *uman#.lu, A- A-, and Bayra!tar, A- 111@- Earthua!e analysis #" .ra,ity dam&reser,#ir systems
usin. the Eulerian and La.ran.ian appr#a$hes- Comp"ters 9 5tr"ct"res, 31(3), 7==&712- Jd#i612-121@I
22<3&=1<1(13)22921&@K
%h#pra, A- K- 11@7- Earthua!e /eha,i#r #" reser,#ir&dam systems- ?o"rnal of Engineering 6echanics
Division, 1<(EM@), 1<=3&1322-
%h#pra, A- K-, and %ha!ra/arti, 4- 1171- Earthua!e analysis #" $#n$rete .ra,ity dams in$ludin. dam&+ater&
"#undati#n r#$! intera$ti#n- Earth'"a#e Engineering 9 5tr"ct"ral Dynamics, 1(<), 9@9&979- Jd#i6
12-1222Iee-<212212<2@K
%l#u.h, R- C-, and 4en0ien, L- 1119- Dynamics of str"ct"res (2nd editi#n)- Be+ Y#r!6 M$Gra+&Hill-
%##!e, L- B- 1119- R#$!"ill and r#$!"ill dams- *roceedings of >nternational 5ymposi"m on 3igh Earth)
4oc#fill Dams, 12<. Bei:in.6 %hinese S#$iety "#r Hydr#&Ele$tri$ En.ineerin. (%SHEE)-
'inn, C- *- L-, and Dar#.lu, E- 11=9- *ynami$s #" .ra,ity dam&reser,#ir systems- Comp"ters 9 5tr"ct"res,
9(<), 119&12<- J d#i612-121@I22<3&=1<1(=9)122@@&=K
Ga0etas, G-, and *a!#ulas, 4- 1112- Seismi$ analysis and desi.n #" r#$!"ill dams6 State&#"&the&art- 5oil
Dynamics and Earth'"a#e Engineering, 11(1), 2=&@1- Jd#i612-121@I22@=&=2@1(12)1222<&7K
General *ire$t#rate #" State Hydrauli$ C#r!s (*S>)- 2227- Dams. Tra/0#n6 The 22- Re.i#nal *ire$t#rate,
*S>- http6II+++-dsi-.#,-trIen.lishI JRetrie,ed Mar$h 12, 2221K-
Gha/#ussi, L-, Cils#n, E- L-, and >sen/er., L- 11=9- 'inite element "#r r#$! :#ints and inter"a$es- ?o"rnal of the
5oil 6echanics and 2o"ndations Division, 11(12), 7<1&7@2-
Ghanaat, Y- 2222- Seismi$ per"#rman$e and dama.e $riteria "#r $#n$rete dams- *roceedings of the Ard U5)
?apan Bor#shop on 1dvanced 4esearch on Earth'"a#e Engineering for Dams- San *ie.#6 ;nited States
S#$iety "#r *ams-
G##dman, R- E-, Tayl#r, R- L-, and Bre!!e, T- L- 11@7- A m#del "#r the me$hani$s #" :#inted r#$!- ?o"rnal of
the 5oil 6echanics and 2o"ndations Division, 1<(9), @9=&@@2-
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 3=
Gree,es, E- L-, and *uman#.lu, A- A- 1171- The >mplementation of an Efficient Comp"ter 1nalysis for 2l"id=
5tr"ct"re >nteraction Using the E"lerian 1pproach Bithin 51*)>/- Brist#l6 ;ni,ersity #" Brist#l-
Gur#s, '- B-, Thiers, G- R-, Cathen, T- R-, and Bu$!les, %- E- 117<- Seismi$ desi.n #" $#n$rete&"a$ed r#$!"ill
dams- *roceedings of the !th Borld Conference on Earth'"a#e Engineering, 9, 91=&929- En.le+##d
%li""s6 4renti$e&Hall-
Han, G-, K#n., N-, and Liu, L- 1177- *ynami$ e5periments and numeri$al simulati#ns #" m#del $#n$rete&"a$e
r#$!"ill dams- *roceedings of the Cth Borld Conference on Earth'"a#e Engineering, @, 991&99@- T#!y#6
C%EE Fr.ani0ati#n %#mmitee-
Hird, %- %-, and K+#!, %- M- 1171- 'inite element studies #" inter"a$e /eha,i#r in rein"#r$ed em/an!ments
#n s#"t .r#und- Comp"ters and @eotechnics, 7(2), 111&191- J d#i612-121@I22@@&932N(71)122@2&7K
K#n., N-, and Liu, L- 2222- *ynami$ "ailure numeri$ simulati#ns #" m#del $#n$rete&"a$ed r#$!&"ill dam- 5oil
Dynamics and Earth'"a#e Engineering, 22(1&12), 1191&119<- Jd#i612-121@IS22@=&=2@1(22)22191&2K
Mahta/, M- A-, and G##dman, R- E- 11=2- Three&dimensi#nal "inite element analysis #" :#inted r#$! sl#pes-
*roceedings of the $nd Congress of the >nternational 5ociety for 4oc# 6echanics, 9, 939&9@2- Bel.rade6
>nternati#nal S#$iety "#r R#$! Me$hani$s-
4a$i"i$ Earthua!e En.ineerin. Resear$h %entre (4EER)- 2227- *EE4 5trong 6otion Database- %ali"#rnia6
4EER- http6IIpeer-/er!eley-eduIsm$atI JRetrie,ed Mar$h 12, 2221K-
4ris$u, R-, 4#p#,i$i, A-, Stematiu, *-, and Stere, %- 1173- Earth'"a#e Engineering for +arge Dams (2nd
editi#n)- Be+ Y#r!6 Editura A$ademiei, L#hn Ciley O S#ns-
Saini, S- S-, Bettess, 4-, and Aien!ie+i$0, F- %- 11=7- %#upled hydr#dynami$ resp#nse #" $#n$rete .ra,ity
dams usin. "inite and in"inite elements- Earth'"a#e Engineering 9 5tr"ct"ral Dynamics, @(<), 9@9&9=<-
Jd#i612-121@I21<7&12@2(72)12<23&7K
Seed, H- B-, Seed, R- B-, Lai, S- S-, and Khamenehp#ur, B- 1173- Seismi$ desi.n #" $#n$rete "a$ed r#$!"ill
dams- *roceedings of the 5ymposi"m on Concrete 2ace 4oc#fill Dams= Design, Constr"ction and
*erformance, <31&<=7- Be+ Y#r!6 AS%E-
Sherard, L- L-, and %##!e, L- B- 117=- %#n$rete&"a$e r#$!"ill dam6 >- Assessment- ?o"rnal of @eotechnical
Engineering, 119(12), 121@&1192-
Sin.hal, A- %- 1111- %#mparis#n #" $#mputer $#des "#r seismi$ analysis #" dams- Comp"ters 9 5tr"ct"res,
97(1), 12=&112- Jd#i612-121@I22<3&=1<1(11)12127&1K
S0#sta!&%hr0an#+s!i, A-, and Massi?ra, M- 222@- Relati#n /et+een m#nit#rin. and desi.n aspe$ts #" lar.e
earth dams- Ard >1@ 5ymposi"m on @eodesy for @eotechnical and 5tr"ct"ral Engineering and 1$th 2>@
5ymposi"m on Deformation 6eas"rements, 1&12- Baden-
T0amt0is, A- *-, and Bath, B- 1112- Appli$ati#n #" a three&dimensi#nal inter"a$e element t# n#nlinear stati$
and dynami$ "inite element analysis #" dis$#ntinu#us systems- Engineering 5ystems Design and
1nalysis Conference, 1, 211&222- ASME-
;ddin, B-, and Ga0etas, G- 1113- *ynami$ resp#nse #" $#n$rete&"a$e r#$!"ill dams t# str#n. seismi$
e5$itati#n- ?o"rnal of @eotechnical Engineering, 121(2), 173&11=-
;ddin, B- 1111- A dynami$ analysis pr#$edure "#r $#n$rete&"a$ed r#$!"ill dams su/:e$ted t# str#n. seismi$
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 37
e5$itati#n- Comp"ters 9 5tr"ct"res, =2(1&9), <21&<21- J d#i612-121@IS22<3&=1<1(11)22211&3K
;S Army %#rps #" En.ineers (;SA%E)- 2229- Time 3istory Dynamic 1nalysis of Concrete 3ydra"lic
5tr"ct"res= Engineering and Design, Engineer 6an"al, E6, 111)$)6D1- Cashin.t#n, *- %-6 ;SA%E-
http6II1<2-11<-=@-121Ipu/li$ati#nsIen.&manualsI JRetrie,ed Mar$h 12, 2221K-
Can., L- G-, >$hi!a+a, Y-, and Leun., %- '- 2229- A $#nstituti,e m#del "#r r#$! inter"a$es and :#ints-
>nternational ?o"rnal of 4oc# 6echanics and 6ining 5ciences, <2(1), <1&39- Jd#i612-121@IS19@3
&1@21(22)22119&2K
Cester.aard, H- M- 1199- Cater pressures #n dams durin. earthua!es- Transactions, 17, <17&<99-
Cils#n, E- L-, and Khal,ati, M- 1179- 'inite elements "#r the dynami$ analysis #" "luid&s#lid systems-
>nternational ?o"rnal for :"merical 6ethods in Engineering, 11(11), 1@3=&1@@7- Jd#i612-1222I
nme-1@22111123K
Y##n, Y- S-, C#n, L- 4-, C##, S- K-, and S#n., Y- %- 2222- Enhan$ed dura/ility per"#rman$e #" "ly ash $#n$rete
"#r $#n$rete&"a$ed r#$!"ill dam appli$ati#n- Cement and Concrete 4esearch, 92(1), 29&92- Jd#i612-121@I
S2227&77<@(21)22@29&7K
Aan.ar, %- B-, and Hae"eli, R- L- 1132- Ele$tri$ anal#. indi$ates e""e$ts #" h#ri0#ntal earthua!e sh#$! #n
dams- Civil Engineering, 22(<), 3<&33-
Aien!ie+i$0, F- %-, and Bath, B- 11@9- Earthua!e hydr#dynami$ pressures #n ar$h dams6 An ele$tri$
anal#.ue s#luti#n- *roceedings of >nstit"tion of Civil Engineering, 23(2), 1@3&1=@- Jd#i612-1@72
Iii$ep-11@9-12@@9K
Aien!ie+i$0, F- %-, Best, B-, *ulla.e, %-, and Sta.., K- G- 11=2- Analysis #" n#nlinear pr#/lems in r#$!
me$hani$s +ith parti$ular re"eren$e t# :#inted r#$! systems- *roceedings of $nd Congress >nternational
5ociety for 4oc# 6echanics, 7&1<- Bel.rade-
Aien!ie+i$0, F- %-, and Tayl#r, R- L- 1171- The 2inite Element 6ethod= Easic 2orm"lation and +inear
*roblems. Be+ Y#r!6 M$ Gra+&Hill-
&#e!d"' (&)*&+,&* et "#. Water Science and Engineering, -"'. 2009, .o#. 2, /o. 1, 43-57 31