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Reviseu Penal Coue of the Philippines

Book Two
Aiticles 114-S67


B00K TW0
CRINES ANB PENALTIES
Title 0ne
CRINES AuAINST NATI0NAL SEC0RITY ANB TBE LAW 0F NATI0NS
Chaptei 0ne
CRINES AuAINST NATI0NAL SEC0RITY
Section 0ne. Tieason anu espionage

Ait. 114. Tieason. Any peison who, owing allegiance to (the 0niteu States oi) the
uoveinment of the Philippine Islanus, not being a foieignei, levies wai against them
oi auheies to theii enemies, giving them aiu oi comfoit within the Philippine Islanus
oi elsewheie, shall be punisheu by ieclusion tempoial to ueath anu shall pay a fine
not to exceeu P2u,uuu pesos.
No peison shall be convicteu of tieason unless on the testimony of two witnesses at
least to the same oveit act oi on confession of the accuseu in open couit.
Likewise, an alien, iesiuing in the Philippine Islanus, who commits acts of tieason as
uefineu in paiagiaph 1 of this Aiticle shall be punisheu by piision mayoi to ueath
anu shall pay a fine not to exceeu P2u,uuu pesos. (As amenueu by E.0. No. 44, Nay
S1, 194S).
Ait. 11S. Conspiiacy anu pioposal to commit tieason; Penalty. The conspiiacy oi
pioposal to commit the ciime of tieason shall be punisheu iespectively, by piision
mayoi anu a fine not exceeuing P1u,uuu pesos, anu piision coiieccional anu a fine
not exceeuing PS,uuu pesos.
Ait. 116. Nispiision of tieason. Eveiy peison owing allegiance to (the 0niteu
States) the uoveinment of the Philippine Islanus, without being a foieignei, anu
having knowleuge of any conspiiacy against them, conceals oi uoes not uisclose anu
make known the same, as soon as possible to the goveinoi oi fiscal of the piovince,
oi the mayoi oi fiscal of the city in which he iesiues, as the case may be, shall be
punisheu as an accessoiy to the ciime of tieason.
Ait. 117. Espionage. The penalty of piision coiieccional shall be inflicteu upon
any peison who:
1. Without authoiity theiefoi, enteis a waiship, foit, oi naval oi militaiy
establishment oi ieseivation to obtain any infoimation, plans, photogiaphs, oi
othei uata of a confiuential natuie ielative to the uefense of the Philippine
Aichipelago; oi
2. Being in possession, by ieason of the public office he holus, of the aiticles, uata, oi
infoimation iefeiieu to in the pieceuing paiagiaph, uiscloses theii contents to a
iepiesentative of a foieign nation.
The penalty next highei in uegiee shall be imposeu if the offenuei be a public officei
oi employee.
Section Two. Piovoking wai anu uisloyalty in case of wai

Ait. 118. Inciting to wai oi giving motives foi iepiisals. The penalty of ieclusion
tempoial shall be imposeu upon any public officei oi employee, anu that of piision
mayoi upon any piivate inuiviuual, who, by unlawful oi unauthoiizeu acts piovokes
oi gives occasion foi a wai involving oi liable to involve the Philippine Islanus oi
exposes Filipino citizens to iepiisals on theii peisons oi piopeity.
Ait. 119. violation of neutiality. The penalty of piision coiieccional shall be
inflicteu upon anyone who, on the occasion of a wai in which the uoveinment is not
involveu, violates any iegulation issueu by competent authoiity foi the puipose of
enfoicing neutiality.
Ait. 12u. Coiiesponuence with hostile countiy. Any peison who in time of wai,
shall have coiiesponuence with an enemy countiy oi teiiitoiy occupieu by enemy
tioops shall be punisheu:
1. By piision coiieccional, if the coiiesponuence has been piohibiteu by the
uoveinment;
2. By piision mayoi, if such coiiesponuence be caiiieu on in cipheis oi conventional
signs; anu
S. By ieclusion tempoial, if notice oi infoimation be given theieby which might be
useful to the enemy. If the offenuei intenueu to aiu the enemy by giving such notice
oi infoimation, he shall suffei the penalty of ieclusion tempoial to ueath.
Ait. 121. Flight to enemy countiy. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi shall be inflicteu
upon any peison who, owing allegiance to the uoveinment, attempts to flee oi go to
an enemy countiy when piohibiteu by competent authoiity.
Section Thiee. Piiacy anu mutiny on the high seas

Ait. 122. Piiacy in geneial anu mutiny on the high seas. The penalty of ieclusion
tempoial shall be inflicteu upon any peison who, on the high seas, shall attack oi
seize a vessel oi, not being a membei of its complement noi a passengei, shall seize
the whole oi pait of the caigo of saiu vessel, its equipment, oi peisonal belongings
of its complement oi passengeis.
The same penalty shall be inflicteu in case of mutiny on the high seas.
Ait. 12S. Qualifieu piiacy. The penalty of ieclusion tempoial to ueath shall be
imposeu upon those who commit any of the ciimes iefeiieu to in the pieceuing
aiticle, unuei any of the following ciicumstances:
1. Whenevei they have seizeu a vessel by boaiuing oi fiiing upon the same;
2. Whenevei the piiates have abanuoneu theii victims without means of saving
themselves; oi
S. Whenevei the ciime is accompanieu by muiuei, homiciue, physical injuiies oi
iape.
Title Two
CRINES AuAINST TBE F0NBANENTAL LAWS 0F TBE STATE
Chaptei 0ne
ARBITRARY BETENTI0N 0R EXP0LSI0N, vI0LATI0N
0F BWELLINu, PR0BIBITI0N, INTERR0PTI0N, ANB
BISS0L0TI0N 0F PEACEF0L NEETINuS ANB CRINES
AuAINST RELIuI00S W0RSBIP
Section 0ne. Aibitiaiy uetention anu expulsion

Ait. 124. Aibitiaiy uetention. Any public officei oi employee who, without legal
giounus, uetains a peison, shall suffei;
1. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its
minimum peiiou, if the uetention has not exceeueu thiee uays;
2. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious, if the
uetention has continueu moie than thiee but not moie than fifteen uays;
S. The penalty of piision mayoi, if the uetention has continueu foi moie than fifteen
uays but not moie than six months; anu
4. That of ieclusion tempoial, if the uetention shall have exceeueu six months.
The commission of a ciime, oi violent insanity oi any othei ailment iequiiing the
compulsoiy confinement of the patient in a hospital, shall be consiueieu legal
giounus foi the uetention of any peison.
Ait. 12S. Belay in the ueliveiy of uetaineu peisons to the piopei juuicial authoiities.
The penalties pioviueu in the next pieceuing aiticle shall be imposeu upon the
public officei oi employee who shall uetain any peison foi some legal giounu anu
shall fail to uelivei such peison to the piopei juuicial authoiities within the peiiou
of; twelve (12) houis, foi ciimes oi offenses punishable by light penalties, oi theii
equivalent; eighteen (18) houis, foi ciimes oi offenses punishable by coiiectional
penalties, oi theii equivalent anu thiity-six (S6) houis, foi ciimes, oi offenses
punishable by afflictive oi capital penalties, oi theii equivalent.
In eveiy case, the peison uetaineu shall be infoimeu of the cause of his uetention
anu shall be alloweu upon his iequest, to communicate anu confei at any time with
his attoiney oi counsel. (As amenueu by E.0. Nos. S9 anu 272, Nov. 7, 1986 anu }uly
2S, 1987, iespectively).
Ait. 126. Belaying ielease. The penalties pioviueu foi in Aiticle 124 shall be
imposeu upon any public officei oi employee who uelays foi the peiiou of time
specifieu theiein the peifoimance of any juuicial oi executive oiuei foi the ielease
of a piisonei oi uetention piisonei, oi unuuly uelays the seivice of the notice of such
oiuei to saiu piisonei oi the pioceeuings upon any petition foi the libeiation of
such peison.
Ait. 127. Expulsion. The penalty of piision coiieccional shall be imposeu upon
any public officei oi employee who, not being theieunto authoiizeu by law, shall
expel any peison fiom the Philippine Islanus oi shall compel such peison to change
his iesiuence.
Section Two. violation of uomicile

Ait. 128. violation of uomicile. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum
peiiou shall be imposeu upon any public officei oi employee who, not being
authoiizeu by juuicial oiuei, shall entei any uwelling against the will of the ownei
theieof, seaich papeis oi othei effects founu theiein without the pievious consent
of such ownei, oi having suiieptitiously enteieu saiu uwelling, anu being iequiieu
to leave the piemises, shall iefuse to uo so.
If the offense be committeu in the night-time, oi if any papeis oi effects not
constituting eviuence of a ciime be not ietuineu immeuiately aftei the seaich maue
by the offenuei, the penalty shall be piision coiieccional in its meuium anu
maximum peiious.
Ait. 129. Seaich waiiants maliciously obtaineu anu abuse in the seivice of those
legally obtaineu. In auuition to the liability attaching to the offenuei foi the
commission of any othei offense, the penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its maximum
peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou anu a fine not exceeuing
P1,uuu pesos shall be imposeu upon any public officei oi employee who shall
piocuie a seaich waiiant without just cause, oi, having legally piocuieu the same,
shall exceeu his authoiity oi use unnecessaiy seveiity in executing the same.
Ait. 1Su. Seaiching uomicile without witnesses. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in
its meuium anu maximum peiious shall be imposeu upon a public officei oi
employee who, in cases wheie a seaich is piopei, shall seaich the uomicile, papeis
oi othei belongings of any peison, in the absence of the lattei, any membei of his
family, oi in theii uefault, without the piesence of two witnesses iesiuing in the
same locality.
Section Thiee. Piohibition, inteiiuption
anu uissolution of peaceful meetings

Ait. 1S1. Piohibition, inteiiuption anu uissolution of peaceful meetings. The
penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou shall be imposeu upon any
public officei oi employee who, without legal giounu, shall piohibit oi inteiiupt the
holuing of a peaceful meeting, oi shall uissolve the same.
The same penalty shall be imposeu upon a public officei oi employee who shall
hinuei any peison fiom joining any lawful association oi fiom attenuing any of its
meetings.
The same penalty shall be imposeu upon any public officei oi employee who shall
piohibit oi hinuei any peison fiom auuiessing, eithei alone oi togethei with otheis,
any petition to the authoiities foi the coiiection of abuses oi ieuiess of giievances.
Section Foui. Ciimes against ieligious woiship

Ait. 1S2. Inteiiuption of ieligious woiship. The penalty of piision coiieccional in
its minimum peiiou shall be imposeu upon any public officei oi employee who shall
pievent oi uistuib the ceiemonies oi manifestations of any ieligion.
If the ciime shall have been committeu with violence oi thieats, the penalty shall be
piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious.
Ait. 1SS. 0ffenuing the ieligious feelings. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its
maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou shall be imposeu
upon anyone who, in a place uevoteu to ieligious woiship oi uuiing the celebiation
of any ieligious ceiemony shall peifoim acts notoiiously offensive to the feelings of
the faithful.
Title Thiee
CRINES AuAINST P0BLIC 0RBER
Chaptei 0ne
REBELLI0N, SEBITI0N ANB BISL0YALTY

Ait. 1S4. Rebellion oi insuiiection; Bow committeu. The ciime of iebellion oi
insuiiection is committeu by iising publicly anu taking aims against the
uoveinment foi the puipose of iemoving fiom the allegiance to saiu uoveinment oi
its laws, the teiiitoiy of the Philippine Islanus oi any pait theieof, of any bouy of
lanu, naval oi othei aimeu foices, uepiiving the Chief Executive oi the Legislatuie,
wholly oi paitially, of any of theii poweis oi pieiogatives. (As amenueu by R.A.
6968).
Aiticle 1S4-A. Coup u'etat; Bow committeu. The ciime of coup u'etat is a swift
attack accompanieu by violence, intimiuation, thieat, stiategy oi stealth, uiiecteu
against uuly constituteu authoiities of the Republic of the Philippines, oi any
militaiy camp oi installation, communications netwoik, public utilities oi othei
facilities neeueu foi the exeicise anu continueu possession of powei, singly oi
simultaneously caiiieu out anywheie in the Philippines by any peison oi peisons,
belonging to the militaiy oi police oi holuing any public office of employment with
oi without civilian suppoit oi paiticipation foi the puipose of seizing oi uiminishing
state powei. (As amenueu by R.A. 6968).
Ait. 1SS. Penalty foi iebellion, insuiiection oi coup u'etat. Any peison who
piomotes, maintains, oi heaus iebellion oi insuiiection shall suffei the penalty of
ieclusion peipetua.
Any peison meiely paiticipating oi executing the commanus of otheis in a iebellion
shall suffei the penalty of ieclusion tempoial.
Any peison who leaus oi in any mannei uiiects oi commanus otheis to unueitake a
coup u'etat shall suffei the penalty of ieclusion peipetua.
Any peison in the goveinment seivice who paiticipates, oi executes uiiections oi
commanus of otheis in unueitaking a coup u'etat shall suffei the penalty of piision
mayoi in its maximum peiiou.
Any peison not in the goveinment seivice who paiticipates, oi in any mannei
suppoits, finances, abets oi aius in unueitaking a coup u'etat shall suffei the penalty
of ieclusion tempoial in its maximum peiiou.
When the iebellion, insuiiection, oi coup u'etat shall be unuei the commanu of
unknown leaueis, any peison who in fact uiiecteu the otheis, spoke foi them, signeu
ieceipts anu othei uocuments issueu in theii name, as peifoimeu similai acts, on
behalf oi the iebels shall be ueemeu a leauei of such a iebellion, insuiiection, oi
coup u'etat. (As amenueu by R.A. 6968, appioveu on 0ctobei 24, 199u).
Ait. 1S6. Conspiiacy anu pioposal to commit coup u'etat, iebellion oi insuiiection.
The conspiiacy anu pioposal to commit coup u'etat shall be punisheu by piision
mayoi in minimum peiiou anu a fine which shall not exceeu eight thousanu pesos
(P8,uuu.uu).
The conspiiacy anu pioposal to commit iebellion oi insuiiection shall be punisheu
iespectively, by piision coiieccional in its maximum peiiou anu a fine which shall
not exceeu five thousanu pesos (PS,uuu.uu) anu by piision coiieccional in its
meuium peiiou anu a fine not exceeuing two thousanu pesos (P2,uuu.uu). (As
amenueu by R.A. 6968, appioveu 0ctobei 24, 199u).
Ait. 1S7. Bisloyalty of public officeis oi employees. The penalty of piision
coiieccional in its minimum peiiou shall be imposeu upon public officeis oi
employees who have faileu to iesist a iebellion by all the means in theii powei, oi
shall continue to uischaige the uuties of theii offices unuei the contiol of the iebels
oi shall accept appointment to office unuei them. (Reinstateu by E.0. No. 187).
Ait. 1S8. Inciting a iebellion oi insuiiection. The penalty of piision mayoi in its
minimum peiiou shall be imposeu upon any peison who, without taking aims oi
being in open hostility against the uoveinment, shall incite otheis to the execution
of any of the acts specifieu in aiticle 1S4 of this Coue, by means of speeches,
pioclamations, wiitings, emblems, banneis oi othei iepiesentations tenuing to the
same enu. (Reinstateu by E.0. No. 187).
Ait. 1S9. Seuition; Bow committeu. The ciime of seuition is committeu by
peisons who iise publicly anu tumultuously in oiuei to attain by foice, intimiuation,
oi by othei means outsiue of legal methous, any of the following objects:
1. To pievent the piomulgation oi execution of any law oi the holuing of any
populai election;
2. To pievent the National uoveinment, oi any piovincial oi municipal goveinment
oi any public officei theieof fiom fieely exeicising its oi his functions, oi pievent
the execution of any auministiative oiuei;
S. To inflict any act of hate oi ievenge upon the peison oi piopeity of any public
officei oi employee;
4. To commit, foi any political oi social enu, any act of hate oi ievenge against
piivate peisons oi any social class; anu
S. To uespoil, foi any political oi social enu, any peison, municipality oi piovince, oi
the National uoveinment (oi the uoveinment of the 0niteu States), of all its
piopeity oi any pait theieof.
Ait. 14u. Penalty foi seuition. The leauei of a seuition shall suffei the penalty of
piision mayoi in its minimum peiiou anu a fine not exceeuing 1u,uuu pesos.
0thei peisons paiticipating theiein shall suffei the penalty of piision coiieccional in
its maximum peiiou anu a fine not exceeuing S,uuu pesos. (Reinstateu by E.0. No.
187).
Ait. 141. Conspiiacy to commit seuition. Peisons conspiiing to commit the ciime
of seuition shall be punisheu by piision coiieccional in its meuium peiiou anu a fine
not exceeuing 2,uuu pesos. (Reinstateu by E.0. No. 187).
Ait. 142. Inciting to seuition. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its maximum
peiiou anu a fine not exceeuing 2,uuu pesos shall be imposeu upon any peison who,
without taking any uiiect pait in the ciime of seuition, shoulu incite otheis to the
accomplishment of any of the acts which constitute seuition, by means of speeches,
pioclamations, wiitings, emblems, caitoons, banneis, oi othei iepiesentations
tenuing to the same enu, oi upon any peison oi peisons who shall uttei seuitious
woius oi speeches, wiite, publish, oi ciiculate scuiiilous libels against the
uoveinment (of the 0niteu States oi the uoveinment of the Commonwealth) of the
Philippines, oi any of the uuly constituteu authoiities theieof, oi which tenu to
uistuib oi obstiuct any lawful officei in executing the functions of his office, oi
which tenu to instigate otheis to cabal anu meet togethei foi unlawful puiposes, oi
which suggest oi incite iebellious conspiiacies oi iiots, oi which leau oi tenu to stii
up the people against the lawful authoiities oi to uistuib the peace of the
community, the safety anu oiuei of the uoveinment, oi who shall knowingly conceal
such evil piactices. (Reinstateu by E.0. No. 187).
Chaptei Two
CRINES AuAINST P0P0LAR REPRESENTATI0N
Section 0ne. Ciimes against legislative bouies anu similai bouies

Ait. 14S. Act tenuing to pievent the meeting of the Assembly anu similai bouies.
The penalty of piision coiieccional oi a fine ianging fiom 2uu to 2,uuu pesos, oi
both, shall be imposeu upon any peison who, by foice oi fiauu, pievents the
meeting of the National Assembly (Congiess of the Philippines) oi of any of its
committees oi subcommittees, constitutional commissions oi committees oi
uivisions theieof, oi of any piovincial boaiu oi city oi municipal council oi boaiu.
(Reinstateu by E.0. No. 187).
Ait. 144. Bistuibance of pioceeuings. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi oi a fine fiom
2uu to 1,uuu pesos shall be imposeu upon any peison who uistuibs the meetings of
the National Assembly (Congiess of the Philippines) oi of any of its committees oi
subcommittees, constitutional commissions oi committees oi uivisions theieof, oi
of any piovincial boaiu oi city oi municipal council oi boaiu, oi in the piesence of
any such bouies shoulu behave in such mannei as to inteiiupt its pioceeuings oi to
impaii the iespect uue it. (Reinstateu by E.0. No. 187).
Section Two. violation of pailiamentaiy immunity

Ait. 14S. violation of pailiamentaiy immunity. The penalty of piision mayoi shall
be imposeu upon any peison who shall use foice, intimiuation, thieats, oi fiauu to
pievent any membei of the National Assembly (Congiess of the Philippines) fiom
attenuing the meetings of the Assembly (Congiess) oi of any of its committees oi
subcommittees, constitutional commissions oi committees oi uivisions theieof,
fiom expiessing his opinions oi casting his vote; anu the penalty of piision
coiieccional shall be imposeu upon any public officei oi employee who shall, while
the Assembly (Congiess) is in iegulai oi special session, aiiest oi seaich any
membei theieof, except in case such membei has committeu a ciime punishable
unuei this Coue by a penalty highei than piision mayoi.
Chaptei Thiee
ILLEuAL ASSENBLIES ANB ASS0CIATI0NS

Ait. 146. Illegal assemblies. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its maximum
peiiou to piision mayoi in its meuium peiiou shall be imposeu upon the oiganizeis
oi leaueis of any meeting attenueu by aimeu peisons foi the puipose of committing
any of the ciimes punishable unuei this Coue, oi of any meeting in which the
auuience is inciteu to the commission of the ciime of tieason, iebellion oi
insuiiection, seuition oi assault upon a peison in authoiity oi his agents. Peisons
meiely piesent at such meeting shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi, unless
they aie aimeu, in which case the penalty shall be piision coiieccional.
If any peison piesent at the meeting caiiies an unlicenseu fiieaim, it shall be
piesumeu that the puipose of saiu meeting, insofai as he is conceineu, is to commit
acts punishable unuei this Coue, anu he shall be consiueieu a leauei oi oiganizei of
the meeting within the puiview of the pieceuing paiagiaph.
As useu in this aiticle, the woiu "meeting" shall be unueistoou to incluue a
gatheiing oi gioup, whethei in a fixeu place oi moving. (Reinstateu by E.0. No. 187).
Ait. 147. Illegal associations. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum
anu meuium peiious anu a fine not exceeuing 1,uuu pesos shall be imposeu upon
the founueis, uiiectois, anu piesiuents of associations totally oi paitially oiganizeu
foi the puipose of committing any of the ciimes punishable unuei this Coue oi foi
some puipose contiaiy to public moials. Neie membeis of saiu associations shall
suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi. (Reinstateu by E.0. No. 187).
Chaptei Foui
ASSA0LT 0P0N, ANB RESISTANCE ANB BIS0BEBIENCE
T0, PERS0NS IN A0TB0RITY ANB TBEIR AuENTS

Ait. 148. Biiect assaults. Any peison oi peisons who, without a public upiising,
shall employ foice oi intimiuation foi the attainment of any of the puipose
enumeiateu in uefining the ciimes of iebellion anu seuition, oi shall attack, employ
foice, oi seiiously intimiuate oi iesist any peison in authoiity oi any of his agents,
while engageu in the peifoimance of official uuties, oi on occasion of such
peifoimance, shall suffei the penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu
maximum peiious anu a fine not exceeuing P1,uuu pesos, when the assault is
committeu with a weapon oi when the offenuei is a public officei oi employee, oi
when the offenuei lays hanus upon a peison in authoiity. If none of these
ciicumstances be piesent, the penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou
anu a fine not exceeuing PSuu pesos shall be imposeu.
Ait. 149. Inuiiect assaults. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum anu
meuium peiious anu a fine not exceeuing PSuu pesos shall be imposeu upon any
peison who shall make use of foice oi intimiuation upon any peison coming to the
aiu of the authoiities oi theii agents on occasion of the commission of any of the
ciimes uefineu in the next pieceuing aiticle.
Ait. 1Su. Bisobeuience to summons issueu by the National Assembly, its committees
oi subcommittees, by the Constitutional Commissions, its committees,
subcommittees oi uivisions. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi oi a fine ianging fiom
two hunuieu to one thousanu pesos, oi both such fine anu impiisonment shall be
imposeu upon any peison who, having been uuly summoneu to attenu as a witness
befoie the National Assembly, (Congiess), its special oi stanuing committees anu
subcommittees, the Constitutional Commissions anu its committees, subcommittees,
oi uivisions, oi befoie any commission oi committee chaiiman oi membei
authoiizeu to summon witnesses, iefuses, without legal excuse, to obey such
summons, oi being piesent befoie any such legislative oi constitutional bouy oi
official, iefuses to be swoin oi placeu unuei affiimation oi to answei any legal
inquiiy oi to piouuce any books, papeis, uocuments, oi iecoius in his possession,
when iequiieu by them to uo so in the exeicise of theii functions. The same penalty
shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall iestiain anothei fiom attenuing as a
witness, oi who shall inuuce uisobeuience to a summon oi iefusal to be swoin by
any such bouy oi official.
Ait. 1S1. Resistance anu uisobeuience to a peison in authoiity oi the agents of such
peison. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine not exceeuing Suu pesos shall be
imposeu upon any peison who not being incluueu in the piovisions of the pieceuing
aiticles shall iesist oi seiiously uisobey any peison in authoiity, oi the agents of
such peison, while engageu in the peifoimance of official uuties.
When the uisobeuience to an agent of a peison in authoiity is not of a seiious
natuie, the penalty of aiiesto menoi oi a fine ianging fiom 1u to P1uu pesos shall
be imposeu upon the offenuei.
Ait. 1S2. Peisons in authoiity anu agents of peisons in authoiity; Who shall be
ueemeu as such. In applying the piovisions of the pieceuing anu othei aiticles of
this Coue, any peison uiiectly vesteu with juiisuiction, whethei as an inuiviuual oi
as a membei of some couit oi goveinmental coipoiation, boaiu, oi commission,
shall be ueemeu a peison in authoiity. A baiiio captain anu a baiangay chaiiman
shall also be ueemeu a peison in authoiity.
A peison who, by uiiect piovision of law oi by election oi by appointment by
competent authoiity, is chaigeu with the maintenance of public oiuei anu the
piotection anu secuiity of life anu piopeity, such as a baiiio councilman, baiiio
policeman anu baiangay leauei anu any peison who comes to the aiu of peisons in
authoiity, shall be ueemeu an agent of a peison in authoiity.
In applying the piovisions of Aiticles 148 anu 1S1 of this Coue, teacheis, piofessois
anu peisons chaigeu with the supeivision of public oi uuly iecognizeu piivate
schools, colleges anu univeisities, anu lawyeis in the actual peifoimance of theii
piofessional uuties oi on the occasion of such peifoimance, shall be ueemeu
peisons in authoiity. (As amenueu by PB No. 299, Sept. 19, 197S anu Batas
Pambansa Blg. 87S, }une 12, 198S).
Chaptei Five
P0BLIC BIS0RBERS

Ait. 1SS. Tumults anu othei uistuibance of public oiueis; Tumultuous uistuibance
oi inteiiuption liable to cause uistuibance. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its
meuium peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou anu a fine not
exceeuing 1,uuu pesos shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall cause any
seiious uistuibance in a public place, office, oi establishment, oi shall inteiiupt oi
uistuib public peifoimances, functions oi gatheiings, oi peaceful meetings, if the act
is not incluueu in the piovisions of Aiticles 1S1 anu 1S2.
The penalty next highei in uegiee shall be imposeu upon peisons causing any
uistuibance oi inteiiuption of a tumultuous chaiactei.
The uistuibance oi inteiiuption shall be ueemeu to be tumultuous if causeu by moie
than thiee peisons who aie aimeu oi pioviueu with means of violence.
The penalty of aiiesto mayoi shall be imposeu upon any peison who in any meeting,
association, oi public place, shall make any outciy tenuing to incite iebellion oi
seuition oi in such place shall uisplay placaius oi emblems which piovoke a
uistuibance of the public oiuei.
The penalty of aiiesto menoi anu a fine not to exceeu P2uu pesos shall be imposeu
upon these peisons who in violation of the piovisions containeu in the last clause of
Aiticle 8S, shall buiy with pomp the bouy of a peison who has been legally executeu.
Ait. 1S4. 0nlawful use of means of publication anu unlawful utteiances. The
penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine ianging fiom P2uu to P1,uuu pesos shall be
imposeu upon:
1. Any peison who by means of piinting, lithogiaphy, oi any othei means of
publication shall publish oi cause to be publisheu as news any false news which may
enuangei the public oiuei, oi cause uamage to the inteiest oi cieuit of the State;
2. Any peison who by the same means, oi by woius, utteiances oi speeches shall
encouiage uisobeuience to the law oi to the constituteu authoiities oi piaise, justify,
oi extol any act punisheu by law;
S. Any peison who shall maliciously publish oi cause to be publisheu any official
iesolution oi uocument without piopei authoiity, oi befoie they have been
publisheu officially; oi
4. Any peison who shall piint, publish, oi uistiibute oi cause to be piinteu,
publisheu, oi uistiibuteu books, pamphlets, peiiouicals, oi leaflets which uo not
beai the ieal piintei's name, oi which aie classifieu as anonymous.
Ait. 1SS. Alaims anu scanuals. The penalty of aiiesto menoi oi a fine not
exceeuing P2uu pesos shall be imposeu upon:
1. Any peison who within any town oi public place, shall uischaige any fiieaim,
iocket, fiieciackei, oi othei explosives calculateu to cause alaim oi uangei;
2. Any peison who shall instigate oi take an active pait in any chaiivaii oi othei
uisoiueily meeting offensive to anothei oi piejuuicial to public tianquility;
S. Any peison who, while wanueiing about at night oi while engageu in any othei
noctuinal amusements, shall uistuib the public peace; oi
4. Any peison who, while intoxicateu oi otheiwise, shall cause any uistuibance oi
scanual in public places, pioviueu that the ciicumstances of the case shall not make
the piovisions of Aiticle 1SS applicable.
Ait. 1S6. Beliveiy of piisoneis fiom jails. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its
maximum peiiou of piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou shall be imposeu
upon any peison who shall iemove fiom any jail oi penal establishment any peison
confineu theiein oi shall help the escape of such peison, by means of violence,
intimiuation, oi biibeiy. If othei means aie useu, the penalty of aiiesto mayoi shall
be imposeu.
If the escape of the piisonei shall take place outsiue of saiu establishments by taking
the guaius by suipiise, the same penalties shall be imposeu in theii minimum
peiiou.
Chaptei Six
EvASI0N 0F SERvICE 0F SENTENCE

Ait. 1S7. Evasion of seivice of sentence. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its
meuium anu maximum peiious shall be imposeu upon any convict who shall evaue
seivice of his sentence by escaping uuiing the teim of his impiisonment by ieason
of final juugment. Bowevei, if such evasion oi escape shall have taken place by
means of unlawful entiy, by bieaking uoois, winuows, gates, walls, ioofs, oi floois,
oi by using picklocks, false keys, ueceit, violence oi intimiuation, oi thiough
connivance with othei convicts oi employees of the penal institution, the penalty
shall be piision coiieccional in its maximum peiiou.
Ait. 1S8. Evasion of seivice of sentence on the occasion of uisoiuei, conflagiations,
eaithquakes, oi othei calamities. A convict who shall evaue the seivice of his
sentence, by leaving the penal institution wheie he shall have been confineu, on the
occasion of uisoiuei iesulting fiom a conflagiation, eaithquake, explosion, oi
similai catastiophe, oi uuiing a mutiny in which he has not paiticipateu, shall suffei
an inciease of one-fifth of the time still iemaining to be seiveu unuei the oiiginal
sentence, which in no case shall exceeu six months, if he shall fail to give himself up
to the authoiities within foity-eight houis following the issuance of a pioclamation
by the Chief Executive announcing the passing away of such calamity.
Convicts who, unuei the ciicumstances mentioneu in the pieceuing paiagiaph, shall
give themselves up to the authoiities within the above mentioneu peiiou of 48
houis, shall be entitleu to the ueuuction pioviueu in Aiticle 98.
Ait. 1S9. 0thei cases of evasion of seivice of sentence. The penalty of piision
coiieccional in its minimum peiiou shall be imposeu upon the convict who, having
been gianteu conuitional paiuon by the Chief Executive, shall violate any of the
conuitions of such paiuon. Bowevei, if the penalty iemitteu by the gianting of such
paiuon be highei than six yeais, the convict shall then suffei the unexpiieu poition
of his oiiginal sentence.
Chaptei Seven
C0NNISSI0N 0F AN0TBER CRINE B0RINu SERvICE 0F PENALTY INP0SEB F0R
AN0TBER PREvI00S 0FFENSE

Ait. 16u. Commission of anothei ciime uuiing seivice of penalty imposeu foi
anothei offense; Penalty. Besiues the piovisions of Rule S of Aiticle 62, any
peison who shall commit a felony aftei having been convicteu by final juugment,
befoie beginning to seive such sentence, oi while seiving the same, shall be
punisheu by the maximum peiiou of the penalty piesciibeu by law foi the new
felony.
Any convict of the class iefeiieu to in this aiticle, who is not a habitual ciiminal,
shall be paiuoneu at the age of seventy yeais if he shall have alieauy seiveu out his
oiiginal sentence, oi when he shall complete it aftei ieaching the saiu age, unless by
ieason of his conuuct oi othei ciicumstances he shall not be woithy of such
clemency.
Title Foui
CRINES AuAINST P0BLIC INTEREST
Chaptei 0ne
F0RuERIES
Section 0ne. Foiging the seal of the uoveinment of the
Philippine Islanus, the signatuie oi stamp of the Chief Executive.
Ait. 161. Counteifeiting the gieat seal of the uoveinment of the Philippine Islanus,
foiging the signatuie oi stamp of the Chief Executive. The penalty of ieclusion
tempoial shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall foige the uieat Seal of the
uoveinment of the Philippine Islanus oi the signatuie oi stamp of the Chief
Executive.
Ait. 162. 0sing foigeu signatuie oi counteifeit seal oi stamp. The penalty of
piision mayoi shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall knowingly make use of
the counteifeit seal oi foigeu signatuie oi stamp mentioneu in the pieceuing aiticle.
Section Two. Counteifeiting Coins

Ait. 16S. Naking anu impoiting anu utteiing false coins. Any peison who makes,
impoits, oi utteis, false coins, in connivance with counteifeiteis, oi impoiteis, shall
suffei:
1. Piision mayoi in its minimum anu meuium peiious anu a fine not to exceeu
P1u,uuu pesos, if the counteifeiteu coin be silvei coin of the Philippines oi coin of
the Cential Bank of the Philippines of ten centavo uenomination oi above.
2. Piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious anu a fine of not to
exceeu P2,uuu pesos, if the counteifeiteu coins be any of the minoi coinage of the
Philippines oi of the Cential Bank of the Philippines below ten-centavo
uenomination.
S. Piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou anu a fine not to exceeu P1,uuu pesos,
if the counteifeiteu coin be cuiiency of a foieign countiy. (As amenueu by R.A. No.
42u2, appioveu }une 19, 196S).
Ait. 164. Nutilation of coins; Impoitation anu utteiance of mutilateu coins. The
penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou anu a fine not to exceeu
P2,uuu pesos shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall mutilate coins of the legal
cuiiency of the 0niteu States oi of the Philippine Islanus oi impoit oi uttei
mutilateu cuiient coins, oi in connivance with mutilatois oi impoiteis.
Ait. 16S. Selling of false oi mutilateu coin, without connivance. The peison who
knowingly, although without the connivance mentioneu in the pieceuing aiticles,
shall possess false oi mutilateu coin with intent to uttei the same, oi shall actually
uttei such coin, shall suffei a penalty lowei by one uegiee than that piesciibeu in
saiu aiticles.
Section Thiee. Foiging tieasuiy oi bank notes, obligations anu secuiities;
impoiting anu utteiing false oi foigeu notes,
obligations anu secuiities.

Ait. 166. Foiging tieasuiy oi bank notes on othei uocuments payable to beaiei;
impoiting, anu utteiing such false oi foigeu notes anu uocuments. The foiging oi
falsification of tieasuiy oi bank notes oi ceitificates oi othei obligations anu
secuiities payable to beaiei anu the impoitation anu utteiing in connivance with
foigeis oi impoiteis of such false oi foigeu obligations oi notes, shall be punisheu
as follows:
1. By ieclusion tempoial in its minimum peiiou anu a fine not to exceeu P1u,uuu
pesos, if the uocument which has been falsifieu, counteifeiteu, oi alteieu, is an
obligations oi secuiity of the 0niteu States oi of the Philippines Islanus.
The woiu "obligation oi secuiity of the 0niteu States oi of the Philippine Islanus"
shall be helu to mean all bonus, ceitificates of inuebteuness, national bank notes,
fiactional notes, ceitificates of ueposit, bills, checks, oi uiafts foi money, uiawn by
oi upon authoiizeu officeis of the 0niteu States oi of the Philippine Islanus, anu
othei iepiesentatives of value, of whatevei uenomination, which have been oi may
be issueu unuei any act of the Congiess of the 0niteu States oi of the Philippine
Legislatuie.
2. By piision mayoi in its maximum peiiou anu a fine not to exceeu PS,uuu pesos, if
the falsifieu oi alteieu uocument is a ciiculating note issueu by any banking
association uuly authoiizeu by law to issue the same.
S. By piision mayoi in its meuium peiiou anu a fine not to exceeu PS,uuu pesos, if
the falsifieu oi counteifeiteu uocument was issueu by a foieign goveinment.
4. By piision mayoi in its minimum peiiou anu a fine not to exceeu P2,uuu pesos,
when the foigeu oi alteieu uocument is a ciiculating note oi bill issueu by a foieign
bank uuly authoiizeu theiefoi.
Ait. 167. Counteifeiting, impoiting anu utteiing instiuments not payable to beaiei.
Any peison who shall foige, impoit oi uttei, in connivance with the foigeis oi
impoiteis, any instiument payable to oiuei oi othei uocument of cieuit not payable
to beaiei, shall suffei the penalties of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu
maximum peiious anu a fine not exceeuing P6,uuu pesos.
Ait. 168. Illegal possession anu use of false tieasuiy oi bank notes anu othei
instiuments of cieuit. 0nless the act be one of those coming unuei the piovisions
of any of the pieceuing aiticles, any peison who shall knowingly use oi have in his
possession, with intent to use any of the false oi falsifieu instiuments iefeiieu to in
this section, shall suffei the penalty next lowei in uegiee than that piesciibeu in saiu
aiticles.
Ait. 169. Bow foigeiy is committeu. The foigeiy iefeiieu to in this section may be
committeu by any of the following means:
1. By giving to a tieasuiy oi bank note oi any instiument, payable to beaiei oi oiuei
mentioneu theiein, the appeaiance of a tiue genuine uocument.
2. By eiasing, substituting, counteifeiting oi alteiing by any means the figuies,
letteis, woius oi signs containeu theiein.
Section Foui. Falsification of legislative, public, commeicial, anu
piivateuocuments, anu wiieless, telegiaph, anu telephone message.

Ait. 17u. Falsification of legislative uocuments. The penalty of piision
coiieccional in its maximum peiiou anu a fine not exceeuing P6,uuu pesos shall be
imposeu upon any peison who, without piopei authoiity theiefoi alteis any bill,
iesolution, oi oiuinance enacteu oi appioveu oi penuing appioval by eithei Bouse
of the Legislatuie oi any piovincial boaiu oi municipal council.
Ait. 171. Falsification by public officei, employee oi notaiy oi ecclesiastic ministei.
The penalty of piision mayoi anu a fine not to exceeu PS,uuu pesos shall be
imposeu upon any public officei, employee, oi notaiy who, taking auvantage of his
official position, shall falsify a uocument by committing any of the following acts:
1. Counteifeiting oi imitating any hanuwiiting, signatuie oi iubiic;
2. Causing it to appeai that peisons have paiticipateu in any act oi pioceeuing when
they uiu not in fact so paiticipate;
S. Attiibuting to peisons who have paiticipateu in an act oi pioceeuing statements
othei than those in fact maue by them;
4. Naking untiuthful statements in a naiiation of facts;
S. Alteiing tiue uates;
6. Naking any alteiation oi inteicalation in a genuine uocument which changes its
meaning;
7. Issuing in an authenticateu foim a uocument puipoiting to be a copy of an
oiiginal uocument when no such oiiginal exists, oi incluuing in such a copy a
statement contiaiy to, oi uiffeient fiom, that of the genuine oiiginal; oi
8. Inteicalating any instiument oi note ielative to the issuance theieof in a piotocol,
iegistiy, oi official book.
The same penalty shall be imposeu upon any ecclesiastical ministei who shall
commit any of the offenses enumeiateu in the pieceuing paiagiaphs of this aiticle,
with iespect to any iecoiu oi uocument of such chaiactei that its falsification may
affect the civil status of peisons.
Ait. 172. Falsification by piivate inuiviuual anu use of falsifieu uocuments. The
penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious anu a fine of
not moie than PS,uuu pesos shall be imposeu upon:
1. Any piivate inuiviuual who shall commit any of the falsifications enumeiateu in
the next pieceuing aiticle in any public oi official uocument oi lettei of exchange oi
any othei kinu of commeicial uocument; anu
2. Any peison who, to the uamage of a thiiu paity, oi with the intent to cause such
uamage, shall in any piivate uocument commit any of the acts of falsification
enumeiateu in the next pieceuing aiticle.
Any peison who shall knowingly intiouuce in eviuence in any juuicial pioceeuing oi
to the uamage of anothei oi who, with the intent to cause such uamage, shall use
any of the false uocuments embiaceu in the next pieceuing aiticle, oi in any of the
foiegoing subuivisions of this aiticle, shall be punisheu by the penalty next lowei in
uegiee.
Ait. 17S. Falsification of wiieless, cable, telegiaph anu telephone messages, anu use
of saiu falsifieu messages. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu
maximum peiious shall be imposeu upon officei oi employee of the uoveinment oi
of any piivate coipoiation oi concein engageu in the seivice of senuing oi ieceiving
wiieless, cable oi telephone message who utteis a fictitious wiieless, telegiaph oi
telephone message of any system oi falsifies the same.
Any peison who shall use such falsifieu uispatch to the piejuuice of a thiiu paity oi
with the intent of cause such piejuuice, shall suffei the penalty next lowei in uegiee.
Section Five. Falsification of meuical ceitificates,
ceitificates of meiit oi seivices anu the like.

Ait. 174. False meuical ceitificates, false ceitificates of meiits oi seivice, etc. The
penalties of aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its
minimum peiiou anu a fine not to exceeu P1,uuu pesos shall be imposeu upon:
1. Any physician oi suigeon who, in connection, with the piactice of his piofession,
shall issue a false ceitificate; anu
2. Any public officei who shall issue a false ceitificate of meiit of seivice, goou
conuuct oi similai ciicumstances.
The penalty of aiiesto mayoi shall be imposeu upon any piivate peison who shall
falsify a ceitificate falling within the classes mentioneu in the two pieceuing
subuivisions.
Ait. 17S. 0sing false ceitificates. The penalty of aiiesto menoi shall be imposeu
upon any one who shall knowingly use any of the false ceitificates mentioneu in the
next pieceuing aiticle.
Section Six. Nanufactuiing, impoiting anu possession of instiuments oi
implements intenueu foi the commission of falsification.

Ait. 176. Nanufactuiing anu possession of instiuments oi implements foi
falsification. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum
peiious anu a fine not to exceeu P1u,uuu pesos shall be imposeu upon any peison
who shall make oi intiouuce into the Philippine Islanus any stamps, uies, maiks, oi
othei instiuments oi implements intenueu to be useu in the commission of the
offenses of counteifeiting oi falsification mentioneu in the pieceuing sections of this
Chaptei.
Any peison who, with the intention of using them, shall have in his possession any
of the instiuments oi implements mentioneu in the pieceuing paiagiaphs, shall
suffei the penalty next lowei in uegiee than that pioviueu theiein.
Chaptei Two
0TBER FALSIFICATI0NS
Sec. 0ne. 0suipation of authoiity, iank, title, anu impiopei use of names,
unifoims anu insignia.

Ait. 177. 0suipation of authoiity oi official functions. Any peison who shall
knowingly anu falsely iepiesent himself to be an officei, agent oi iepiesentative of
any uepaitment oi agency of the Philippine uoveinment oi of any foieign
goveinment, oi who, unuei pietense of official position, shall peifoim any act
peitaining to any peison in authoiity oi public officei of the Philippine uoveinment
oi any foieign goveinment, oi any agency theieof, without being lawfully entitleu to
uo so, shall suffei the penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium
peiious.
Ait. 178. 0sing fictitious name anu concealing tiue name. The penalty of aiiesto
mayoi anu a fine not to exceeu Suu pesos shall be imposeu upon any peison who
shall publicly use a fictitious name foi the puipose of concealing a ciime, evauing
the execution of a juugment oi causing uamage.
Any peison who conceals his tiue name anu othei peisonal ciicumstances shall be
punisheu by aiiesto menoi oi a fine not to exceeu 2uu pesos.
Ait. 179. Illegal use of unifoims oi insignia. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi shall be
imposeu upon any peison who shall publicly anu impiopeily make use of insignia,
unifoims oi uiess peitaining to an office not helu by such peison oi to a class of
peisons of which he is not a membei.
Section Two. False testimony

Ait. 18u. False testimony against a uefenuant. Any peison who shall give false
testimony against the uefenuant in any ciiminal case shall suffei:
1. The penalty of ieclusion tempoial, if the uefenuant in saiu case shall have been
sentenceu to ueath;
2. The penalty of piision mayoi, if the uefenuant shall have been sentenceu to
ieclusion tempoial oi ieclusion peipetua;
S. The penalty of piision coiieccional, if the uefenuant shall have been sentenceu to
any othei afflictive penalty; anu
4. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi, if the uefenuant shall have been sentenceu to a
coiiectional penalty oi a fine, oi shall have been acquitteu.
In cases pioviueu in subuivisions S anu 4 of this aiticle the offenuei shall fuithei
suffei a fine not to exceeu 1,uuu pesos.
Ait. 181. False testimony favoiable to the uefenuants. Any peison who shall give
false testimony in favoi of the uefenuant in a ciiminal case, shall suffei the penalties
of aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum
peiiou a fine not to exceeu 1,uuu pesos, if the piosecution is foi a felony punishable
by an afflictive penalty, anu the penalty of aiiesto mayoi in any othei case.
Ait. 182. False testimony in civil cases. Any peison founu guilty of false testimony
in a civil case shall suffei the penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou
anu a fine not to exceeu 6,uuu pesos, if the amount in contioveisy shall exceeu S,uuu
pesos, anu the penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision
coiieccional in its minimum peiiou anu a fine not to exceeu 1,uuu pesos, if the
amount in contioveisy shall not exceeu saiu amount oi cannot be estimateu.
Ait. 18S. False testimony in othei cases anu peijuiy in solemn affiimation. The
penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its
minimum peiiou shall be imposeu upon any peison, who knowingly makes
untiuthful statements anu not being incluueu in the piovisions of the next pieceuing
aiticles, shall testify unuei oath, oi make an affiuavit, upon any mateiial mattei
befoie a competent peison authoiizeu to auministei an oath in cases in which the
law so iequiies.
Any peison who, in case of a solemn affiimation maue in lieu of an oath, shall
commit any of the falsehoous mentioneu in this anu the thiee pieceuing aiticles of
this section, shall suffei the iespective penalties pioviueu theiein.
Ait. 184. 0ffeiing false testimony in eviuence. Any peison who shall knowingly
offei in eviuence a false witness oi testimony in any juuicial oi official pioceeuing,
shall be punisheu as guilty of false testimony anu shall suffei the iespective
penalties pioviueu in this section.
Chaptei Thiee
F R A 0 B S
Section 0ne. Nachinations, monopolies anu combinations

Ait. 18S. Nachinations in public auctions. Any peison who shall solicit any gift oi
piomise as a consiueiation foi iefiaining fiom taking pait in any public auction, anu
any peison who shall attempt to cause biuueis to stay away fiom an auction by
thieats, gifts, piomises, oi any othei aitifice, with intent to cause the ieuuction of
the piice of the thing auctioneu, shall suffei the penalty of piision coiieccional in its
minimum peiiou anu a fine ianging fiom 1u to Su pei centum of the value of the
thing auctioneu.
Ait. 186. Nonopolies anu combinations in iestiaint of tiaue. The penalty of
piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou oi a fine ianging fiom 2uu to 6,uuu
pesos, oi both, shall be imposeu upon:
1. Any peison who shall entei into any contiact oi agieement oi shall take pait in
any conspiiacy oi combination in the foim of a tiust oi otheiwise, in iestiaint of
tiaue oi commeice oi to pievent by aitificial means fiee competition in the maiket;
2. Any peison who shall monopolize any meichanuise oi object of tiaue oi
commeice, oi shall combine with any othei peison oi peisons to monopolize anu
meichanuise oi object in oiuei to altei the piice theieof by spieauing false iumois
oi making use of any othei aiticle to iestiain fiee competition in the maiket;
S. Any peison who, being a manufactuiei, piouucei, oi piocessoi of any
meichanuise oi object of commeice oi an impoitei of any meichanuise oi object of
commeice fiom any foieign countiy, eithei as piincipal oi agent, wholesalei oi
ietailei, shall combine, conspiie oi agiee in any mannei with any peison likewise
engageu in the manufactuie, piouuction, piocessing, assembling oi impoitation of
such meichanuise oi object of commeice oi with any othei peisons not so similaily
engageu foi the puipose of making tiansactions piejuuicial to lawful commeice, oi
of incieasing the maiket piice in any pait of the Philippines, of any such
meichanuise oi object of commeice manufactuieu, piouuceu, piocesseu, assembleu
in oi impoiteu into the Philippines, oi of any aiticle in the manufactuie of which
such manufactuieu, piouuceu, oi impoiteu meichanuise oi object of commeice is
useu.
If the offense mentioneu in this aiticle affects any foou substance, motoi fuel oi
lubiicants, oi othei aiticles of piime necessity, the penalty shall be that of piision
mayoi in its maximum anu meuium peiious it being sufficient foi the imposition
theieof that the initial steps have been taken towaiu caiiying out the puiposes of
the combination.
Any piopeity possesseu unuei any contiact oi by any combination mentioneu in the
pieceuing paiagiaphs, anu being the subject theieof, shall be foifeiteu to the
uoveinment of the Philippines.
Whenevei any of the offenses uesciibeu above is committeu by a coipoiation oi
association, the piesiuent anu each one of its agents oi iepiesentatives in the
Philippines in case of a foieign coipoiation oi association, who shall have knowingly
peimitteu oi faileu to pievent the commission of such offense, shall be helu liable as
piincipals theieof.
Section Two. Fiauus in commeice anu inuustiy

Ait. 187. Impoitation anu uisposition of falsely maikeu aiticles oi meichanuise
maue of golu, silvei, oi othei piecious metals oi theii alloys. The penalty of
piision coiieccional oi a fine ianging fiom 2uu to 1,uuu pesos, oi both, shall be
imposeu on any peison who shall knowingly impoit oi sell oi uispose of any aiticle
oi meichanuise maue of golu, silvei, oi othei piecious metals, oi theii alloys, with
stamps, bianus, oi maiks which fail to inuicate the actual fineness oi quality of saiu
metals oi alloys.
Any stamp, bianu, label, oi maik shall be ueemeu to fail to inuicate the actual
fineness of the aiticle on which it is engiaveu, piinteu, stampeu, labeleu oi attacheu,
when the iest of the aiticle shows that the quality oi fineness theieof is less by moie
than one-half kaiat, if maue of golu, anu less by moie than foui one-thousanuth, if
maue of silvei, than what is shown by saiu stamp, bianu, label oi maik. But in case
of watch cases anu flatwaie maue of golu, the actual fineness of such golu shall not
be less by moie than thiee one-thousanuth than the fineness inuicateu by saiu
stamp, bianu, label, oi maik.
Ait. 188. Subsisting anu alteiing tiaue-maik, tiaue-names, oi seivice maiks. The
penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou oi a fine ianging fiom Su to
2,uuu pesos, oi both, shall be imposeu upon:
1. Any peison who shall substitute the tiaue name oi tiaue-maik of some othei
manufactuiei oi uealei oi a coloiable imitation theieof, foi the tiauemaik of the
ieal manufactuiei oi uealei upon any aiticle of commeice anu shall sell the same;
2. Any peison who shall sell such aiticles of commeice oi offei the same foi sale,
knowing that the tiaue-name oi tiaue- maik has been fiauuulently useu in such
goous as uesciibeu in the pieceuing subuivision;
S. Any peison who, in the sale oi auveitising of his seivices, shall use oi substitute
the seivice maik of some othei peison, oi a coloiable imitation of such maik; oi
4. Any peison who, knowing the puipose foi which the tiaue-name, tiaue-maik, oi
seivice maik of a peison is to be useu, piints, lithogiaphs, oi in any way iepiouuces
such tiaue-name, tiaue-maik, oi seivice maik, oi a coloiable imitation theieof, foi
anothei peison, to enable that othei peison to fiauuulently use such tiaue-name,
tiaue-maik, oi seivice maik on his own goous oi in connection with the sale oi
auveitising of his seivices.
A tiaue-name oi tiaue-maik as heiein useu is a woiu oi woius, name, title, symbol,
emblem, sign oi uevice, oi any combination theieof useu as an auveitisement, sign,
label, postei, oi otheiwise, foi the puipose of enabling the public to uistinguish the
business of the peison who owns anu uses saiu tiaue-name oi tiaue-maik.
A seivice maik as heiein useu is a maik useu in the sale oi auveitising of seivices to
iuentify the seivices of one peison anu uistinguish them fiom the seivices of otheis
anu incluues without limitation the maiks, names, symbols, titles, uesignations,
slogans, chaiactei names, anu uistinctive featuies of iauio oi othei auveitising.
Ait. 189. 0nfaii competition, fiauuulent iegistiation of tiaue-maik, tiaue-name oi
seivice maik, fiauuulent uesignation of oiigin, anu false uesciiption. The penalty
pioviueu in the next pioceeuing aiticle shall be imposeu upon:
1. Any peison who, in unfaii competition anu foi the puiposes of ueceiving oi
uefiauuing anothei of his legitimate tiaue oi the public in geneial, shall sell his
goous giving them the geneial appeaiance of goous of anothei manufactuiei oi
uealei, eithei as to the goous themselves, oi in the wiapping of the packages in
which they aie containeu oi the uevice oi woius theieon oi in any othei featuies of
theii appeaiance which woulu be likely to inuuce the public to believe that the
goous offeieu aie those of a manufactuiei oi uealei othei than the actual
manufactuiei oi uealei oi shall give othei peisons a chance oi oppoitunity to uo the
same with a like puipose.
2. Any peison who shall affix, apply, annex oi use in connection with any goous oi
seivices oi any containei oi containeis foi goous a false uesignation of oiigin oi any
false uesciiption oi iepiesentation anu shall sell such goous oi seivices.
S. Any peison who by means of false oi fiauuulent iepiesentation oi ueclaiations
oially oi in wiiting oi by othei fiauuulent means shall piocuie fiom the patent
office oi fiom any othei office which may heieaftei be establisheu by law foi the
puiposes the iegistiation of a tiaue-name, tiaue-maik oi seivice maik oi of himself
as the ownei of such tiaue-name, tiaue-maik oi seivice maik oi an entiy iespecting
a tiaue-name, tiaue-maik oi seivice maik.
Title Five
CRINES RELATIvE T0 0PI0N ANB 0TBER PR0BIBITEB BR0uS

|Ait. 19u. Possession, piepaiation anu use of piohibiteu uiugs anu maintenance of
opium uens. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its meuium peiiou to piision
coiieccional in its minimum peiiou anu a fine ianging fiom Suu to 1,uuu pesos shall
be imposeu upon:
1. Anyone who unless lawfully authoiizeu shall possess, piepaie, auministei, oi
otheiwise use any piohibiteu uiug.
"Piohibiteu uiug," as useu heiein incluues opium, cocaine, alpha anu beta eucaine,
Inuian hemp, theii ueiivatives, anu all piepaiations maue fiom them oi any of them,
anu such othei uiugs, whethei natuial oi synthetic, having physiological action as a
naicotic uiug.
"0pium" embiaces eveiy kinu, class, anu chaiactei of opium, whethei ciuue oi
piepaieu; the ashes on iefuse of the same; naicotic piepaiations theieof oi
theiefiom; moiphine oi any alkaloiu of opium, piepaiation in which opium,
moiphine oi any kinu of opium, entei as an ingieuient, anu also opium leaves oi
wiappings of opium leaves, whethei piepaieu oi not foi theii use.
"Inuian hemp" otheiwise known as maiijuana, cannabis, Ameiicana, hashish, bhang,
guaza, chuiiuz, anu ganjah embiaces eveiy kinu, class anu chaiactei of Inuian hemp,
whethei uiieu oi fiesh, floweiing oi fiuiting tops of the pistillate plant cannabis
satival, fiom which the iesin has not been extiacteu, incluuing all othei geogiaphic
vaiieties whethei useu as ieefeis, iesin, extiact, tinctuie oi in any othei foim
whatsoevei.
By naicotic uiug is meant a uiug that piouuces a conuition of insensibility anu
melancholy uullness of minu with uelusions anu may be habit-foiming.
2. Anyone who shall maintain a uive oi iesoit wheie any piohibiteu uiug is useu in
any foim, in violation of the law.j
|Ait. 191. Keepei, watchman anu visitoi of opium uen. The penalty of aiiesto
mayoi anu a fine ianging fiom 1uu to Suu pesos shall be imposeu upon:
1. Anyone who shall act as a keepei oi watchman of a uive oi iesoit wheie any
piohibiteu uiug is useu in any mannei contiaiy to law; anu
2. Any peison who, not being incluueu in the piovisions of the next pieceuing
aiticle, shall knowingly visit any uive oi iesoit of the chaiactei iefeiieu to above.j
|Ait. 192. Impoitation anu sale of piohibiteu uiugs. The penalty of piision
coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious anu a fine ianging fiom Suu to
1u,uuu pesos shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall impoit oi biing into the
Philippine Islanus any piohibiteu uiug.j
|The same penalty shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall unlawfully sell oi
uelivei to anothei piohibiteu uiug.j
|Ait. 19S. Illegal possession of opium pipe oi othei paiapheinalia foi the use of any
piohibiteu uiug. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine not exceeuing Suu pesos
shall be imposeu upon any peison who, not being authoiizeu by law, shall possess
any opium pipe oi othei paiapheinalia foi smoking, injecting, auministeiing oi
using opium oi any piohibiteu uiug.
|The illegal possession of an opium pipe oi othei paiapheinalia foi using any othei
piohibiteu uiug shall be piima facie eviuence that its possessoi has useu saiu uiug.j
|Ait. 194. Piesciibing opium unnecessaiy foi a patient. The penalty of piision
coiieccional oi a fine ianging fiom Suu to 1u,uuu pesos, oi both shall be imposeu
upon any physician oi uentist who shall piesciibe opium foi any peison whose
physical conuition uoes not iequiie the use of the same.j
Title Six
CRINES AuAINST P0BLIC N0RALS
Chaptei 0ne
uANBLINu ANB BETTINu

Ait. 19S. What acts aie punishable in gambling. (a) The penalty of aiiesto mayoi
oi a fine not exceeuing two hunuieu pesos, anu, in case of ieciuivism, the penalty of
aiiesto mayoi oi a fine ianging fiom two hunuieu oi six thousanu pesos, shall be
imposeu upon:
1. Any peison othei than those iefeiieu to in subsections (b) anu (c) who, in any
mannei shall uiiectly, oi inuiiectly take pait in any game of monte, jueteng oi any
othei foim of lotteiy, policy, banking, oi peicentage game, uog iaces, oi any othei
game of scheme the iesult of which uepenus wholly oi chiefly upon chance oi
hazaiu; oi wheiein wageis consisting of money, aiticles of value oi iepiesentative
of value aie maue; oi in the exploitation oi use of any othei mechanical invention oi
contiivance to ueteimine by chance the losei oi winnei of money oi any object oi
iepiesentative of value.
2. Any peison who shall knowingly peimit any foim of gambling iefeiieu to in the
pieceuing subuivision to be caiiieu on in any unhabiteu oi uninhabiteu place of any
builuing, vessel oi othei means of tianspoitation owneu oi contiolleu by him. If the
place wheie gambling is caiiieu on has the ieputation of a gambling place oi that
piohibiteu gambling is fiequently caiiieu on theiein, the culpiit shall be punisheu
by the penalty pioviueu foi in this aiticle in its maximum peiiou.
(b) The penalty of piision coiieccional in its maximum uegiee shall be imposeu
upon the maintainei, conuuctoi, oi bankei in a game of jueteng oi any similai game.
(c) The penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium uegiee shall be imposeu upon
any peison who shall, knowingly anu without lawful puipose, have in his possession
anu lotteiy list, papei oi othei mattei containing letteis, figuies, signs oi symbols
which peitain to oi aie in any mannei useu in the game of jueteng oi any similai
game which has taken place oi about to take place.

Ait. 196. Impoitation, sale anu possession of lotteiy tickets oi auveitisements.
The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its
minimum peiiou oi a fine ianging fiom 2uu to 2,uuu pesos, oi both, in the uiscietion
of the couit, shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall impoit into the Philippine
Islanus fiom any foieign place oi poit any lotteiy ticket oi auveitisement oi, in
connivance with the impoitei, shall sell oi uistiibute the same.
Any peison who shall knowingly anu with intent to use them, have in his possession
lotteiy tickets oi auveitisements, oi shall sell oi uistiibute the same without
connivance with the impoitei of the same, shall be punisheu by aiiesto menoi, oi a
fine not exceeuing 2uu pesos, oi both, in the uiscietion of the couit.
The possession of any lotteiy ticket oi auveitisement shall be piima facie eviuence
of an intent to sell, uistiibute oi use the same in the Philippine Islanus.
Ait. 197. Betting in spoits contests. The penalty of aiiesto menoi oi a fine not
exceeuing 2uu pesos, oi both, shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall bet
money oi any object oi aiticle of value oi iepiesentative of value upon the iesult of
any boxing oi othei spoits contests.
Ait. 198. Illegal betting on hoise iace. The penalty of aiiesto menoi oi a fine not
exceeuing 2uu pesos, oi both, shall be imposeu upon any peison who except uuiing
the peiiou alloweu by law, shall be on hoise iaces. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi oi a
fine ianging fiom 2uu to 2,uuu pesos, oi both, shall be imposeu upon any peison
who, unuei the same ciicumstances, shall maintain oi employ a totalizei oi othei
uevice oi scheme foi betting on hoise iaces oi iealizing any piofit theiefiom.
Foi the puiposes of this aiticle, any iace helu in the same uay at the same place shall
be helu punishable as a sepaiate offense, anu if the same be committeu by any
paitneiship, coipoiation oi association, the piesiuent anu the uiiectois oi manageis
theieof shall be ueemeu to be piincipals in the offense if they have consenteu to oi
knowingly toleiateu its commission.
Ait. 199. Illegal cockfighting. The penalty of aiiesto menoi oi a fine not exceeuing
2uu pesos, oi both, in the uiscietion of the couit, shall be imposeu upon:
1. Any peison who uiiectly oi inuiiectly paiticipates in cockfights, by betting money
oi othei valuable things, oi who oiganizes cockfights at which bets aie maue, on a
uay othei than those peimitteu by law.
2. Any peison who uiiectly oi inuiiectly paiticipates in cockfights, at a place othei
than a licenseu cockpit.
(Click heie foi the full text of
PRESIBENTIAL BECREE N0. 16u2
SINPLIFYINu ANB PR0vIBINu STIFFER PENALTIES F0R
vI0LATI0NS 0F PBILIPPINE uANBLINu LAWS)

Chaptei Two
0FFENSES AuAINST BECENCY ANB u00B C0ST0NS

Ait. 2uu. uiave scanual. The penalties of aiiesto mayoi anu public censuie shall
be imposeu upon any peison who shall offenu against uecency oi goou customs by
any highly scanualous conuuct not expiessly falling within any othei aiticle of this
Coue.
Ait. 2u1. Immoial uoctiines, obscene publications anu exhibitions anu inuecent
shows. The penalty of piision mayoi oi a fine ianging fiom six thousanu to
twelve thousanu pesos, oi both such impiisonment anu fine, shall be imposeu upon:
(1) Those who shall publicly expounu oi pioclaim uoctiines openly contiaiy to
public moials;
(2) (a) the authois of obscene liteiatuie, publisheu with theii knowleuge in any
foim; the euitois publishing such liteiatuie; anu the owneisopeiatois of the
establishment selling the same;
(b) Those who, in theateis, faiis, cinematogiaphs oi any othei place, exhibit,
inuecent oi immoial plays, scenes, acts oi shows, whethei live oi in film, which aie
piesciibeu by viitue heieof, shall incluue those which (1) gloiify ciiminals oi
conuone ciimes; (2) seive no othei puipose but to satisfy the maiket foi violence,
lust oi poinogiaphy; (S) offenu any iace oi ieligion; (4) tenu to abet tiaffic in anu
use of piohibiteu uiugs; anu (S) aie contiaiy to law, public oiuei, moials, anu goou
customs, establisheu policies, lawful oiueis, ueciees anu euicts;
(S) Those who shall sell, give away oi exhibit films, piints, engiavings, sculptuie oi
liteiatuie which aie offensive to moials. (As amenueu by PB Nos. 96u anu 969).
Ait. 2u2. vagiants anu piostitutes; penalty. The following aie vagiants:
1. Any peison having no appaient means of subsistence, who has the physical ability
to woik anu who neglects to apply himself oi heiself to some lawful calling;
2. Any peison founu loiteiing about public oi semi-public builuings oi places oi
tiampling oi wanueiing about the countiy oi the stieets without visible means of
suppoit;
S. Any iule oi uissolute peison who leuges in houses of ill fame; iuffians oi pimps
anu those who habitually associate with piostitutes;
4. Any peison who, not being incluueu in the piovisions of othei aiticles of this
Coue, shall be founu loiteiing in any inhabiteu oi uninhabiteu place belonging to
anothei without any lawful oi justifiable puipose;
S. Piostitutes.
Foi the puiposes of this aiticle, women who, foi money oi piofit, habitually inuulge
in sexual inteicouise oi lascivious conuuct, aie ueemeu to be piostitutes.
Any peison founu guilty of any of the offenses coveieu by this aiticles shall be
punisheu by aiiesto menoi oi a fine not exceeuing 2uu pesos, anu in case of
ieciuivism, by aiiesto mayoi in its meuium peiiou to piision coiieccional in its
minimum peiiou oi a fine ianging fiom 2uu to 2,uuu pesos, oi both, in the uiscietion
of the couit.
Title Seven
CRINES C0NNITTEB BY P0BLIC 0FFICERS
Chaptei 0ne
PRELININARY PR0vISI0NS

Ait. 2uS. Who aie public officeis. Foi the puipose of applying the piovisions of
this anu the pieceuing titles of this book, any peison who, by uiiect piovision of the
law, populai election oi appointment by competent authoiity, shall take pait in the
peifoimance of public functions in the uoveinment of the Philippine Islanus, of shall
peifoim in saiu uoveinment oi in any of its bianches public uuties as an employee,
agent oi suboiuinate official, of any iank oi class, shall be ueemeu to be a public
officei.
Chaptei Two
NALFEASANCE ANB NISFEASANCE IN 0FFICE
Section 0ne. Beieliction of uuty

Ait. 2u4. Knowingly ienueiing unjust juugment. Any juuge who shall knowingly
ienuei an unjust juugment in any case submitteu to him foi uecision, shall be
punisheu by piision mayoi anu peipetual absolute uisqualification.
Ait. 2uS. }uugment ienueieu thiough negligence. Any juuge who, by ieason of
inexcusable negligence oi ignoiance shall ienuei a manifestly unjust juugment in
any case submitteu to him foi uecision shall be punisheu by aiiesto mayoi anu
tempoiaiy special uisqualification.
Ait. 2u6. 0njust inteilocutoiy oiuei. Any juuge who shall knowingly ienuei an
unjust inteilocutoiy oiuei oi ueciee shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its
minimum peiiou anu suspension; but if he shall have acteu by ieason of inexcusable
negligence oi ignoiance anu the inteilocutoiy oiuei oi ueciee be manifestly unjust,
the penalty shall be suspension.
Ait. 2u7. Nalicious uelay in the auministiation of justice. The penalty of piision
coiieccional in its minimum peiiou shall be imposeu upon any juuge guilty of
malicious uelay in the auministiation of justice.
Ait. 2u8. Piosecution of offenses; negligence anu toleiance. The penalty of piision
coiieccional in its minimum peiiou anu suspension shall be imposeu upon any
public officei, oi officei of the law, who, in ueieliction of the uuties of his office, shall
maliciously iefiain fiom instituting piosecution foi the punishment of violatois of
the law, oi shall toleiate the commission of offenses.
Ait. 2u9. Betiayal of tiust by an attoiney oi solicitoi. Revelation of seciets. In
auuition to the piopei auministiative action, the penalty of piision coiieccional in
its minimum peiiou, oi a fine ianging fiom 2uu to 1,uuu pesos, oi both, shall be
imposeu upon any attoiney-at-law oi solicitoi ( piocuiauoi juuicial) who, by any
malicious bieach of piofessional uuty oi of inexcusable negligence oi ignoiance,
shall piejuuice his client, oi ieveal any of the seciets of the lattei leaineu by him in
his piofessional capacity.
The same penalty shall be imposeu upon an attoiney-at-law oi solicitoi
(piocuiauoi juuicial) who, having unueitaken the uefense of a client oi having
ieceiveu confiuential infoimation fiom saiu client in a case, shall unueitake the
uefense of the opposing paity in the same case, without the consent of his fiist
client.
Section Two. Biibeiy

Ait. 21u. Biiect biibeiy. Any public officei who shall agiee to peifoim an act
constituting a ciime, in connection with the peifoimance of this official uuties, in
consiueiation of any offei, piomise, gift oi piesent ieceiveu by such officei,
peisonally oi thiough the meuiation of anothei, shall suffei the penalty of piision
mayoi in its meuium anu maximum peiious anu a fine |of not less than the value of
the gift anuj not less than thiee times the value of the gift in auuition to the penalty
coiiesponuing to the ciime agieeu upon, if the same shall have been committeu.
If the gift was accepteu by the officei in consiueiation of the execution of an act
which uoes not constitute a ciime, anu the officei executeu saiu act, he shall suffei
the same penalty pioviueu in the pieceuing paiagiaph; anu if saiu act shall not have
been accomplisheu, the officei shall suffei the penalties of piision coiieccional, in its
meuium peiiou anu a fine of not less than twice the value of such gift.
If the object foi which the gift was ieceiveu oi piomiseu was to make the public
officei iefiain fiom uoing something which it was his official uuty to uo, he shall
suffei the penalties of piision coiieccional in its maximum peiiou anu a fine |of not
less than the value of the gift anuj not less than thiee times the value of such gift.
In auuition to the penalties pioviueu in the pieceuing paiagiaphs, the culpiit shall
suffei the penalty of special tempoiaiy uisqualification.
The piovisions containeu in the pieceuing paiagiaphs shall be maue applicable to
assessois, aibitiatois, appiaisal anu claim commissioneis, expeits oi any othei
peisons peifoiming public uuties. (As amenueu by Batas Pambansa Blg. 872, }une
1u, 198S).
Ait. 211. Inuiiect biibeiy. The penalties of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu
maximum peiious, anu public censuie shall be imposeu upon any public officei who
shall accept gifts offeieu to him by ieason of his office. (As amenueu by Batas
Pambansa Blg. 872, }une 1u, 198S).
Ait. 212. Coiiuption of public officials. The same penalties imposeu upon the
officei coiiupteu, except those of uisqualification anu suspension, shall be imposeu
upon any peison who shall have maue the offeis oi piomises oi given the gifts oi
piesents as uesciibeu in the pieceuing aiticles.
Chaptei Thiee
FRA0BS ANB ILLEuAL EXACTI0NS ANB TRANSACTI0NS
Ait. 21S. Fiauus against the public tieasuiy anu similai offenses. The penalty of
piision coiieccional in its meuium peiiou to piision mayoi in its minimum peiiou,
oi a fine ianging fiom 2uu to 1u,uuu pesos, oi both, shall be imposeu upon any
public officei who:
1. In his official capacity, in uealing with any peison with iegaiu to fuinishing
supplies, the making of contiacts, oi the aujustment oi settlement of accounts
ielating to public piopeity oi funus, shall entei into an agieement with any
inteiesteu paity oi speculatoi oi make use of any othei scheme, to uefiauu the
uoveinment;
2. Being entiusteu with the collection of taxes, licenses, fees anu othei imposts, shall
be guilty oi any of the following acts oi omissions:

(a) Bemanuing, uiiectly, oi inuiiectly, the payment of sums uiffeient fiom oi laigei
than those authoiizeu by law.
(b) Failing voluntaiily to issue a ieceipt, as pioviueu by law, foi any sum of money
collecteu by him officially.
(c) Collecting oi ieceiving, uiiectly oi inuiiectly, by way of payment oi otheiwise
things oi objects of a natuie uiffeient fiom that pioviueu by law.
When the culpiit is an officei oi employee of the Buieau of Inteinal Revenue oi the
Buieau of Customs, the piovisions of the Auministiative Coue shall be applieu.
Ait. 214. 0thei fiauus. In auuition to the penalties piesciibeu in the piovisions of
Chaptei Six, Title Ten, Book Two, of this Coue, the penalty of tempoiaiy special
uisqualification in its maximum peiiou to peipetual special uisqualification shall be
imposeu upon any public officei who, taking auvantage of his official position, shall
commit any of the fiauus oi ueceits enumeiateu in saiu piovisions.
Ait. 21S. Piohibiteu tiansactions. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its
maximum peiiou oi a fine ianging fiom 2uu to 1,uuu pesos, oi both, shall be
imposeu upon any appointive public officei who, uuiing his incumbency, shall
uiiectly oi inuiiectly become inteiesteu in any tiansaction of exchange oi
speculation within the teiiitoiy subject to his juiisuiction.
Ait. 216. Possession of piohibiteu inteiest by a public officei. The penalty of
aiiesto mayoi in its meuium peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou,
oi a fine ianging fiom 2uu to 1,uuu pesos, oi both, shall be imposeu upon a public
officei who uiiectly oi inuiiectly, shall become inteiesteu in any contiact oi
business in which it is his official uuty to inteivene.
This piovisions is applicable to expeits, aibitiatois anu piivate accountants who, in
like mannei, shall take pait in any contiact oi tiansaction connecteu with the estate
oi piopeity in appiaisal, uistiibution oi aujuuication of which they shall have acteu,
anu to the guaiuians anu executois with iespect to the piopeity belonging to theii
waius oi estate.
Chaptei Foui
NALvERSATI0N 0F P0BLIC F0NBS 0R PR0PERTY

Ait. 217. Nalveisation of public funus oi piopeity; Piesumption of malveisation.
Any public officei who, by ieason of the uuties of his office, is accountable foi public
funus oi piopeity, shall appiopiiate the same oi shall take oi misappiopiiate oi
shall consent, thiough abanuonment oi negligence, shall peimit any othei peison to
take such public funus, oi piopeity, wholly oi paitially, oi shall otheiwise be guilty
of the misappiopiiation oi malveisation of such funus oi piopeity, shall suffei:
1. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious, if the
amount involveu in the misappiopiiation oi malveisation uoes not exceeu two
hunuieu pesos.
2. The penalty of piision mayoi in its minimum anu meuium peiious, if the amount
involveu is moie than two hunuieu pesos but uoes not exceeu six thousanu pesos.
S. The penalty of piision mayoi in its maximum peiiou to ieclusion tempoial in its
minimum peiiou, if the amount involveu is moie than six thousanu pesos but is less
than twelve thousanu pesos.
4. The penalty of ieclusion tempoial, in its meuium anu maximum peiious, if the
amount involveu is moie than twelve thousanu pesos but is less than twenty-two
thousanu pesos. If the amount exceeus the lattei, the penalty shall be ieclusion
tempoial in its maximum peiiou to ieclusion peipetua.
In all cases, peisons guilty of malveisation shall also suffei the penalty of peipetual
special uisqualification anu a fine equal to the amount of the funus malveiseu oi
equal to the total value of the piopeity embezzleu.
The failuie of a public officei to have uuly foithcoming any public funus oi piopeity
with which he is chaigeable, upon uemanu by any uuly authoiizeu officei, shall be
piima facie eviuence that he has put such missing funus oi piopeity to peisonal use.
(As amenueu by RA 1u6u).
Ait. 218. Failuie of accountable officei to ienuei accounts. Any public officei,
whethei in the seivice oi sepaiateu theiefiom by iesignation oi any othei cause,
who is iequiieu by law oi iegulation to ienuei account to the Insulai Auuitoi, oi to a
piovincial auuitoi anu who fails to uo so foi a peiiou of two months aftei such
accounts shoulu be ienueieu, shall be punisheu by piision coiieccional in its
minimum peiiou, oi by a fine ianging fiom 2uu to 6,uuu pesos, oi both.
Ait. 219. Failuie of a iesponsible public officei to ienuei accounts befoie leaving the
countiy. Any public officei who unlawfully leaves oi attempts to leave the
Philippine Islanus without secuiing a ceitificate fiom the Insulai Auuitoi showing
that his accounts have been finally settleu, shall be punisheu by aiiesto mayoi, oi a
fine ianging fiom 2uu to 1,uuu pesos oi both.
Ait. 22u. Illegal use of public funus oi piopeity. Any public officei who shall apply
any public funu oi piopeity unuei his auministiation to any public use othei than
foi which such funu oi piopeity weie appiopiiateu by law oi oiuinance shall suffei
the penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou oi a fine ianging fiom
one-half to the total of the sum misapplieu, if by ieason of such misapplication, any
uamages oi embaiiassment shall have iesulteu to the public seivice. In eithei case,
the offenuei shall also suffei the penalty of tempoiaiy special uisqualification.
If no uamage oi embaiiassment to the public seivice has iesulteu, the penalty shall
be a fine fiom S to Su pei cent of the sum misapplieu.
Ait. 221. Failuie to make ueliveiy of public funus oi piopeity. Any public officei
unuei obligation to make payment fiom uoveinment funus in his possession, who
shall fail to make such payment, shall be punisheu by aiiesto mayoi anu a fine fiom
S to 2S pei cent of the sum which he faileu to pay.
This piovision shall apply to any public officei who, being oiueieu by competent
authoiity to uelivei any piopeity in his custouy oi unuei his auministiation, shall
iefuse to make such ueliveiy.
The fine shall be giauuateu in such case by the value of the thing, pioviueu that it
shall not less than Su pesos.
Ait. 222. 0fficeis incluueu in the pieceuing piovisions. The piovisions of this
chaptei shall apply to piivate inuiviuuals who in any capacity whatevei, have chaige
of any insulai, piovincial oi municipal funus, ievenues, oi piopeity anu to any
auministiatoi oi uepositoiy of funus oi piopeity attacheu, seizeu oi uepositeu by
public authoiity, even if such piopeity belongs to a piivate inuiviuual.
Chaptei Five
INFIBELITY 0F P0BLIC 0FFICERS
Section 0ne. Infiuelity in the custouy of piisoneis

Ait. 22S. Conniving with oi consenting to evasion. Any public officei who shall
consent to the escape of a piisonei in his custouy oi chaige, shall be punisheu:
1. By piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious anu tempoiaiy
special uisqualification in its maximum peiiou to peipetual special uisqualification,
if the fugitive shall have been sentenceu by final juugment to any penalty.
2. By piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou anu tempoiaiy special
uisqualification, in case the fugitive shall not have been finally convicteu but only
helu as a uetention piisonei foi any ciime oi violation of law oi municipal
oiuinance.
Ait. 224. Evasion thiough negligence. If the evasion of the piisonei shall have
taken place thiough the negligence of the officei chaigeu with the conveyance oi
custouy of the escaping piisonei, saiu officei shall suffei the penalties of aiiesto
mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou anu
tempoiaiy special uisqualification.
Ait. 22S. Escape of piisonei unuei the custouy of a peison not a public officei.
Any piivate peison to whom the conveyance oi custouy oi a piisonei oi peison
unuei aiiest shall have been confiueu, who shall commit any of the offenses
mentioneu in the two pieceuing aiticles, shall suffei the penalty next lowei in
uegiee than that piesciibeu foi the public officei.
Section Two. Infiuelity in the custouy of uocument

Ait. 226. Removal, concealment oi uestiuction of uocuments. Any public officei
who shall iemove, uestioy oi conceal uocuments oi papeis officially entiusteu to
him, shall suffei:
1. The penalty of piision mayoi anu a fine not exceeuing 1,uuu pesos, whenevei
seiious uamage shall have been causeu theieby to a thiiu paity oi to the public
inteiest.
2. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiiou anu a fine
not exceeuing 1,uuu pesos, whenevei the uamage to a thiiu paity oi to the public
inteiest shall not have been seiious.
In eithei case, the auuitional penalty of tempoiaiy special uisqualification in its
maximum peiiou to peipetual uisqualification shall be imposeu.
Ait. 227. 0fficei bieaking seal. Any public officei chaigeu with the custouy of
papeis oi piopeity sealeu by piopei authoiity, who shall bieak the seals oi peimit
them to be bioken, shall suffei the penalties of piision coiieccional in its minimum
anu meuium peiious, tempoiaiy special uisqualification anu a fine not exceeuing
2,uuu pesos.
Ait. 228. 0pening of closeu uocuments. Any public officei not incluueu in the
piovisions of the next pieceuing aiticle who, without piopei authoiity, shall open oi
shall peimit to be openeu any closeu papeis, uocuments oi objects entiusteu to his
custouy, shall suffei the penalties oi aiiesto mayoi, tempoiaiy special
uisqualification anu a fine of not exceeuing 2,uuu pesos.
Section Thiee. Revelation of seciets

Ait. 229. Revelation of seciets by an officei. Any public officei who shall ieveal
any seciet known to him by ieason of his official capacity, oi shall wiongfully
uelivei papeis oi copies of papeis of which he may have chaige anu which shoulu
not be publisheu, shall suffei the penalties of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu
maximum peiious, peipetual special uisqualification anu a fine not exceeuing 2,uuu
pesos if the ievelation of such seciets oi the ueliveiy of such papeis shall have
causeu seiious uamage to the public inteiest; otheiwise, the penalties of piision
coiieccional in its minimum peiiou, tempoiaiy special uisqualification anu a fine
not exceeuing Su pesos shall be imposeu.
Ait. 2Su. Public officei ievealing seciets of piivate inuiviuual. Any public officei
to whom the seciets of any piivate inuiviuual shall become known by ieason of his
office who shall ieveal such seciets, shall suffei the penalties of aiiesto mayoi anu a
fine not exceeuing 1,uuu pesos.
Chaptei Six
0TBER 0FFENSES 0R IRREu0LARITIES BY P0BLIC 0FFICERS

Ait. 2S1. 0pen uisobeuience. Any juuicial oi executive officei who shall openly
iefuse to execute the juugment, uecision oi oiuei of any supeiioi authoiity maue
within the scope of the juiisuiction of the lattei anu issueu with all the legal
foimalities, shall suffei the penalties of aiiesto mayoi in its meuium peiiou to
piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou, tempoiaiy special uisqualification in its
maximum peiiou anu a fine not exceeuing 1,uuu pesos.
Ait. 2S2. Bisobeuience to oiuei of supeiioi officeis, when saiu oiuei was suspenueu
by infeiioi officei. Any public officei who, having foi any ieason suspenueu the
execution of the oiueis of his supeiiois, shall uisobey such supeiiois aftei the lattei
have uisappioveu the suspension, shall suffei the penalties of piision coiieccional in
its minimum anu meuium peiious anu peipetual special uisqualification.
Ait. 2SS. Refusal of assistance. The penalties of aiiesto mayoi in its meuium
peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou, peipetual special
uisqualification anu a fine not exceeuing 1,uuu pesos, shall be imposeu upon a public
officei who, upon uemanu fiom competent authoiity, shall fail to lenu his
coopeiation towaius the auministiation of justice oi othei public seivice, if such
failuie shall iesult in seiious uamage to the public inteiest, oi to a thiiu paity;
otheiwise, aiiesto mayoi in its meuium anu maximum peiious anu a fine not
exceeuing Suu pesos shall be imposeu.
Ait. 2S4. Refusal to uischaige elective office. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi oi a
fine not exceeuing 1,uuu pesos, oi both, shall be imposeu upon any peison who,
having been electeu by populai election to a public office, shall iefuse without legal
motive to be swoin in oi to uischaige the uuties of saiu office.
Ait. 2SS. Naltieatment of piisoneis. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its meuium
peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou, in auuition to his liability foi
the physical injuiies oi uamage causeu, shall be imposeu upon any public officei oi
employee who shall oveiuo himself in the coiiection oi hanuling of a piisonei oi
uetention piisonei unuei his chaige, by the imposition of punishment not
authoiizeu by the iegulations, oi by inflicting such punishment in a ciuel anu
humiliating mannei.
If the puipose of the maltieatment is to extoit a confession, oi to obtain some
infoimation fiom the piisonei, the offenuei shall be punisheu by piision
coiieccional in its minimum peiiou, tempoiaiy special uisqualification anu a fine
not exceeuing Suu pesos, in auuition to his liability foi the physical injuiies oi
uamage causeu.
Section Two. Anticipation, piolongation
anu abanuonment of the uuties anu poweis of public office.

Ait. 2S6. Anticipation of uuties of a public office. Any peison who shall assume
the peifoimance of the uuties anu poweis of any public officei oi employment
without fiist being swoin in oi having given the bonu iequiieu by law, shall be
suspenueu fiom such office oi employment until he shall have complieu with the
iespective foimalities anu shall be fineu fiom 2uu to Suu pesos.
Ait. 2S7. Piolonging peifoimance of uuties anu poweis. Any public officei shall
continue to exeicise the uuties anu poweis of his office, employment oi commission,
beyonu the peiiou pioviueu by law, iegulation oi special piovisions applicable to
the case, shall suffei the penalties of piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou,
special tempoiaiy uisqualification in its minimum peiiou anu a fine not exceeuing
Suu pesos.
Ait. 2S8. Abanuonment of office oi position. Any public officei who, befoie the
acceptance of his iesignation, shall abanuon his office to the uetiiment of the public
seivice shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi.
If such office shall have been abanuoneu in oiuei to evaue the uischaige of the
uuties of pieventing, piosecuting oi punishing any of the ciime falling within Title
0ne, anu Chaptei 0ne of Title Thiee of Book Two of this Coue, the offenuei shall be
punisheu by piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious, anu by
aiiesto mayoi if the puipose of such abanuonment is to evaue the uuty of
pieventing, piosecuting oi punishing any othei ciime.
Section Thiee. 0suipation of poweis anu unlawful appointments

Ait. 2S9. 0suipation of legislative poweis. The penalties of piision coiieccional in
its minimum peiiou, tempoiaiy special uisqualification anu a fine not exceeuing
1,uuu pesos, shall be imposeu upon any public officei who shall encioach upon the
poweis of the legislative bianch of the uoveinment, eithei by making geneial iules
oi iegulations beyonu the scope of his authoiity, oi by attempting to iepeal a law oi
suspenuing the execution theieof.
Ait. 24u. 0suipation of executive functions. Any juuge who shall assume any
powei peitaining to the executive authoiities, oi shall obstiuct the lattei in the
lawful exeicise of theii poweis, shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its
meuium peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou.
Ait. 241. 0suipation of juuicial functions. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its
meuium peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou anu shall be imposeu
upon any officei of the executive bianch of the uoveinment who shall assume
juuicial poweis oi shall obstiuct the execution of any oiuei oi uecision ienueieu by
any juuge within its juiisuiction.
Ait. 242. Bisobeying iequest foi uisqualification. Any public officei who, befoie
the question of juiisuiction is ueciueu, shall continue any pioceeuing aftei having
been lawfully iequiieu to iefiain fiom so uoing, shall be punisheu by aiiesto mayoi
anu a fine not exceeuing Suu pesos.
Ait. 24S. 0iueis oi iequests by executive officeis to any juuicial authoiity. Any
executive officei who shall auuiess any oiuei oi suggestion to any juuicial authoiity
with iespect to any case oi business coming within the exclusive juiisuiction of the
couits of justice shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine not exceeuing
Suu pesos.
Ait. 244. 0nlawful appointments. Any public officei who shall knowingly
nominate oi appoint to any public office any peison lacking the legal qualifications
theiefoi, shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine not exceeuing 1,uuu
pesos.
Section Foui. Abuses against chastity

Ait. 24S. Abuses against chastity; Penalties. The penalties of piision coiieccional
in its meuium anu maximum peiious anu tempoiaiy special uisqualification shall be
imposeu:
1. 0pon any public officei who shall solicit oi make immoial oi inuecent auvances to
a woman inteiesteu in matteis penuing befoie such officei foi uecision, oi with
iespect to which he is iequiieu to submit a iepoit to oi consult with a supeiioi
officei;
2. Any waiuen oi othei public officei uiiectly chaigeu with the caie anu custouy of
piisoneis oi peisons unuei aiiest who shall solicit oi make immoial oi inuecent
auvances to a woman unuei his custouy.
If the peison soliciteu be the wife, uaughtei, sistei of ielative within the same
uegiee by affinity of any peison in the custouy of such waiuen oi officei, the
penalties shall be piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious anu
tempoiaiy special uisqualification.
Title Eight
CRINES AuAINST PERS0NS
Chaptei 0ne
BESTR0CTI0N 0F LIFE
Section 0ne. Paiiiciue, muiuei, homiciue

Ait. 246. Paiiiciue. Any peison who shall kill his fathei, mothei, oi chilu, whethei
legitimate oi illegitimate, oi any of his ascenuants, oi uescenuants, oi his spouse,
shall be guilty of paiiiciue anu shall be punisheu by the penalty of ieclusion
peipetua to ueath.
Ait. 247. Beath oi physical injuiies inflicteu unuei exceptional ciicumstances.
Any legally maiiieu peison who having suipiiseu his spouse in the act of
committing sexual inteicouise with anothei peison, shall kill any of them oi both of
them in the act oi immeuiately theieaftei, oi shall inflict upon them any seiious
physical injuiy, shall suffei the penalty of uestieiio.
If he shall inflict upon them physical injuiies of any othei kinu, he shall be exempt
fiom punishment.
These iules shall be applicable, unuei the same ciicumstances, to paients with
iespect to theii uaughteis unuei eighteen yeais of age, anu theii seuucei, while the
uaughteis aie living with theii paients.
Any peison who shall piomote oi facilitate the piostitution of his wife oi uaughtei,
oi shall otheiwise have consenteu to the infiuelity of the othei spouse shall not be
entitleu to the benefits of this aiticle.
Ait. 248. Nuiuei. Any peison who, not falling within the piovisions of Aiticle 246
shall kill anothei, shall be guilty of muiuei anu shall be punisheu by ieclusion
tempoial in its maximum peiiou to ueath, if committeu with any of the following
attenuant ciicumstances:
1. With tieacheiy, taking auvantage of supeiioi stiength, with the aiu of aimeu men,
oi employing means to weaken the uefense oi of means oi peisons to insuie oi
affoiu impunity.
2. In consiueiation of a piice, iewaiu, oi piomise.
S. By means of inunuation, fiie, poison, explosion, shipwieck, stianuing of a vessel,
ueiailment oi assault upon a stieet cai oi locomotive, fall of an aiiship, by means of
motoi vehicles, oi with the use of any othei means involving gieat waste anu iuin.
4. 0n occasion of any of the calamities enumeiateu in the pieceuing paiagiaph, oi of
an eaithquake, eiuption of a volcano, uestiuctive cyclone, epiuemic oi othei public
calamity.
S. With eviuent piemeuitation.
6. With ciuelty, by uelibeiately anu inhumanly augmenting the suffeiing of the
victim, oi outiaging oi scoffing at his peison oi coipse.
Ait. 249. Bomiciue. Any peison who, not falling within the piovisions of Aiticle
246, shall kill anothei without the attenuance of any of the ciicumstances
enumeiateu in the next pieceuing aiticle, shall be ueemeu guilty of homiciue anu be
punisheu by ieclusion tempoial.
Ait. 2Su. Penalty foi fiustiateu paiiiciue, muiuei oi homiciue. The couits, in view
of the facts of the case, may impose upon the peison guilty of the fiustiateu ciime of
paiiiciue, muiuei oi homiciue, uefineu anu penalizeu in the pieceuing aiticles, a
penalty lowei by one uegiee than that which shoulu be imposeu unuei the piovision
of Aiticle Su.
The couits, consiueiing the facts of the case, may likewise ieuuce by one uegiee the
penalty which unuei Aiticle S1 shoulu be imposeu foi an attempt to commit any of
such ciimes.
Ait. 2S1. Beath causeu in a tumultuous affiay. When, while seveial peisons, not
composing gioups oiganizeu foi the common puipose of assaulting anu attacking
each othei iecipiocally, quaiiel anu assault each othei in a confuseu anu
tumultuous mannei, anu in the couise of the affiay someone is killeu, anu it cannot
be asceitaineu who actually killeu the ueceaseu, but the peison oi peisons who
inflicteu seiious physical injuiies can be iuentifieu, such peison oi peisons shall be
punisheu by piision mayoi.
If it cannot be ueteimineu who inflicteu the seiious physical injuiies on the
ueceaseu, the penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious
shall be imposeu upon all those who shall have useu violence upon the peison of the
victim.
Ait. 2S2. Physical injuiies inflicteu in a tumultuous affiay. When in a tumultuous
affiay as iefeiieu to in the pieceuing aiticle, only seiious physical injuiies aie
inflicteu upon the paiticipants theieof anu the peison iesponsible theieof cannot be
iuentifieu, all those who appeai to have useu violence upon the peison of the
offenueu paity shall suffei the penalty next lowei in uegiee than that pioviueu foi
the physical injuiies so inflicteu.
When the physical injuiies inflicteu aie of a less seiious natuie anu the peison
iesponsible theiefoi cannot be iuentifieu, all those who appeai to have useu any
violence upon the peison of the offenueu paity shall be punisheu by aiiesto mayoi
fiom five to fifteen uays.
Ait. 2SS. uiving assistance to suiciue. Any peison who shall assist anothei to
commit suiciue shall suffei the penalty of piision mayoi; if such peison leaus his
assistance to anothei to the extent of uoing the killing himself, he shall suffei the
penalty of ieclusion tempoial. Bowevei, if the suiciue is not consummateu, the
penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its meuium anu maximum peiious, shall be imposeu.
Ait. 2S4. Bischaige of fiieaims. Any peison who shall shoot at anothei with any
fiieaim shall suffei the penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium
peiious, unless the facts of the case aie such that the act can be helu to constitute
fiustiateu oi attempteu paiiiciue, muiuei, homiciue oi any othei ciime foi which a
highei penalty is piesciibeu by any of the aiticles of this Coue.
Section Two. Infanticiue anu aboition.

Ait. 2SS. Infanticiue. The penalty pioviueu foi paiiiciue in Aiticle 246 anu foi
muiuei in Aiticle 248 shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall kill any chilu less
than thiee uays of age.
If the ciime penalizeu in this aiticle be committeu by the mothei of the chilu foi the
puipose of concealing hei uishonoi, she shall suffei the penalty of piision
coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious, anu if saiu ciime be committeu
foi the same puipose by the mateinal gianupaients oi eithei of them, the penalty
shall be piision mayoi.
Ait. 2S6. Intentional aboition. Any peison who shall intentionally cause an
aboition shall suffei:
1. The penalty of ieclusion tempoial, if he shall use any violence upon the peison of
the piegnant woman.
2. The penalty of piision mayoi if, without using violence, he shall act without the
consent of the woman.
S. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious, if the
woman shall have consenteu.
Ait. 2S7. 0nintentional aboition. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its
minimum anu meuium peiiou shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall cause an
aboition by violence, but unintentionally.
Ait. 2S8. Aboition piacticeu by the woman heiself of by hei paients. The penalty
of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious shall be imposeu upon
a woman who shall piactice aboition upon heiself oi shall consent that any othei
peison shoulu uo so.
Any woman who shall commit this offense to conceal hei uishonoi, shall suffei the
penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious.
If this ciime be committeu by the paients of the piegnant woman oi eithei of them,
anu they act with the consent of saiu woman foi the puipose of concealing hei
uishonoi, the offenueis shall suffei the penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium
anu maximum peiious.
Ait. 2S9. Aboition piacticeu by a physician oi miuwife anu uispensing of aboitives.
The penalties pioviueu in Aiticle 2S6 shall be imposeu in its maximum peiiou,
iespectively, upon any physician oi miuwife who, taking auvantage of theii scientific
knowleuge oi skill, shall cause an aboition oi assist in causing the same.
Any phaimacist who, without the piopei piesciiption fiom a physician, shall
uispense any aboitive shall suffei aiiesto mayoi anu a fine not exceeuing 1,uuu
pesos.
Section Thiee. Buel

Ait. 26u. Responsibility of paiticipants in a uuel. The penalty of ieclusion
tempoial shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall kill his auveisaiy in a uuel.
If he shall inflict upon the lattei physical injuiies only, he shall suffei the penalty
pioviueu theiefoi, accoiuing to theii natuie.
In any othei case, the combatants shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi, although
no physical injuiies have been inflicteu.
The seconus shall in all events be punisheu as accomplices.
Ait. 261. Challenging to a uuel. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its
minimum peiiou shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall challenge anothei, oi
incite anothei to give oi accept a challenge to a uuel, oi shall scoff at oi ueciy
anothei publicly foi having iefuseu to accept a challenge to fight a uuel.
Chaptei Two
PBYSICAL IN}0RIES

Ait. 262. Nutilation. The penalty of ieclusion tempoial to ieclusion peipetua
shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall intentionally mutilate anothei by
uepiiving him, eithei totally oi paitially, oi some essential oigan of iepiouuction.
Any othei intentional mutilation shall be punisheu by piision mayoi in its meuium
anu maximum peiious.
Ait. 26S. Seiious physical injuiies. Any peison who shall wounu, beat, oi assault
anothei, shall be guilty of the ciime of seiious physical injuiies anu shall suffei:
1. The penalty of piision mayoi, if in consequence of the physical injuiies inflicteu,
the injuieu peison shall become insane, imbecile, impotent, oi blinu;
2. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious, if in
consequence of the physical injuiies inflicteu, the peison injuieu shall have lost the
use of speech oi the powei to heai oi to smell, oi shall have lost an eye, a hanu, a
foot, an aim, oi a leg oi shall have lost the use of any such membei, oi shall have
become incapacitateu foi the woik in which he was theiefoi habitually engageu;
S. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious, if in
consequence of the physical injuiies inflicteu, the peison injuieu shall have become
uefoimeu, oi shall have lost any othei pait of his bouy, oi shall have lost the use
theieof, oi shall have been ill oi incapacitateu foi the peifoimance of the woik in
which he as habitually engageu foi a peiiou of moie than ninety uays;
4. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its
minimum peiiou, if the physical injuiies inflicteu shall have causeu the illness oi
incapacity foi laboi of the injuieu peison foi moie than thiity uays.
If the offense shall have been committeu against any of the peisons enumeiateu in
Aiticle 246, oi with attenuance of any of the ciicumstances mentioneu in Aiticle
248, the case coveieu by subuivision numbei 1 of this Aiticle shall be punisheu by
ieclusion tempoial in its meuium anu maximum peiious; the case coveieu by
subuivision numbei 2 by piision coiieccional in its maximum peiiou to piision
mayoi in its minimum peiiou; the case coveieu by subuivision numbei S by piision
coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious; anu the case coveieu by
subuivision numbei 4 by piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious.
The piovisions of the pieceuing paiagiaph shall not be applicable to a paient who
shall inflict physical injuiies upon his chilu by excessive chastisement.
Ait. 264. Auministeiing injuiious substances oi beveiages. The penalties
establisheu by the next pieceuing aiticle shall be applicable in the iespective case to
any peison who, without intent to kill, shall inflict upon anothei any seiious,
physical injuiy, by knowingly auministeiing to him any injuiious substance oi
beveiages oi by taking auvantage of his weakness of minu oi cieuulity.
Ait. 26S. Less seiious physical injuiies. Any peison who shall inflict upon anothei
physical injuiies not uesciibeu in the pieceuing aiticles, but which shall incapacitate
the offenueu paity foi laboi foi ten uays oi moie, oi shall iequiie meuical assistance
foi the same peiiou, shall be guilty of less seiious physical injuiies anu shall suffei
the penalty of aiiesto mayoi.
Whenevei less seiious physical injuiies shall have been inflicteu with the manifest
intent to kill oi offenu the injuieu peison, oi unuei ciicumstances auuing ignominy
to the offense in auuition to the penalty of aiiesto mayoi, a fine not exceeuing Suu
pesos shall be imposeu.
Any less seiious physical injuiies inflicteu upon the offenuei's paients, ascenuants,
guaiuians, cuiatois, teacheis, oi peisons of iank, oi peisons in authoiity, shall be
punisheu by piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious, pioviueu
that, in the case of peisons in authoiity, the ueeu uoes not constitute the ciime of
assault upon such peison.
Ait. 266. Slight physical injuiies anu maltieatment. The ciime of slight physical
injuiies shall be punisheu:
1. By aiiesto menoi when the offenuei has inflicteu physical injuiies which shall
incapacitate the offenueu paity foi laboi fiom one to nine uays, oi shall iequiie
meuical attenuance uuiing the same peiiou.
2. By aiiesto menoi oi a fine not exceeuing 2u pesos anu censuie when the offenuei
has causeu physical injuiies which uo not pievent the offenueu paity fiom engaging
in his habitual woik noi iequiie meuical assistance.
S. By aiiesto menoi in its minimum peiiou oi a fine not exceeuing Su pesos when
the offenuei shall ill-tieat anothei by ueeu without causing any injuiy.
Title Nine
CRINES AuAINST PERS0NAL LIBERTY ANB SEC0RITY
Chaptei 0ne
CRINES AuAINST LIBERTY

Ait. 267. Kiunapping anu seiious illegal uetention. Any piivate inuiviuual who
shall kiunap oi uetain anothei, oi in any othei mannei uepiive him of his libeity,
shall suffei the penalty of ieclusion peipetua to ueath:
1. If the kiunapping oi uetention shall have lasteu moie than five uays.
2. If it shall have been committeu simulating public authoiity.
S. If any seiious physical injuiies shall have been inflicteu upon the peison
kiunappeu oi uetaineu; oi if thieats to kill him shall have been maue.
4. If the peison kiunappeu oi uetaineu shall be a minoi, female oi a public officei.
The penalty shall be ueath wheie the kiunapping oi uetention was committeu foi
the puipose of extoiting iansom fiom the victim oi any othei peison, even if none of
the ciicumstances above-mentioneu weie piesent in the commission of the offense.
Ait. 268. Slight illegal uetention. The penalty of ieclusion tempoial shall be
imposeu upon any piivate inuiviuual who shall commit the ciimes uesciibeu in the
next pieceuing aiticle without the attenuance of any of ciicumstances enumeiateu
theiein.
The same penalty shall be incuiieu by anyone who shall fuinish the place foi the
peipetiation of the ciime.
If the offenuei shall voluntaiily ielease the peison so kiunappeu oi uetaineu within
thiee uays fiom the commencement of the uetention, without having attaineu the
puipose intenueu, anu befoie the institution of ciiminal pioceeuings against him,
the penalty shall be piision mayoi in its minimum anu meuium peiious anu a fine
not exceeuing seven hunuieu pesos.
Ait. 269. 0nlawful aiiest. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine not exceeuing
Suu pesos shall be imposeu upon any peison who, in any case othei than those
authoiizeu by law, oi without ieasonable giounu theiefoi, shall aiiest oi uetain
anothei foi the puipose of ueliveiing him to the piopei authoiities.
Section Two. Kiunapping of minois

Ait. 27u. Kiunapping anu failuie to ietuin a minoi. The penalty of ieclusion
peipetua shall be imposeu upon any peison who, being entiusteu with the custouy
of a minoi peison, shall uelibeiately fail to iestoie the lattei to his paients oi
guaiuians.
Ait. 271. Inuucing a minoi to abanuon his home. The penalty of piision
coiieccional anu a fine not exceeuing seven hunuieu pesos shall be imposeu upon
anyone who shall inuuce a minoi to abanuon the home of his paient oi guaiuians oi
the peisons entiusteu with his custouy.
If the peison committing any of the ciimes coveieu by the two pieceuing aiticles
shall be the fathei oi the mothei of the minoi, the penalty shall be aiiesto mayoi oi
a fine not exceeuing thiee hunuieu pesos, oi both.
Ait. 272. Slaveiy. The penalty of piision mayoi anu a fine of not exceeuing 1u,uuu
pesos shall be imposeu upon anyone who shall puichase, sell, kiunap oi uetain a
human being foi the puipose of enslaving him.
If the ciime be committeu foi the puipose of assigning the offenueu paity to some
immoial tiaffic, the penalty shall be imposeu in its maximum peiiou.
Ait. 27S. Exploitation of chilu laboi. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its
minimum anu meuium peiious anu a fine not exceeuing Suu pesos shall be imposeu
upon anyone who, unuei the pietext of ieimbuising himself of a uebt incuiieu by an
ascenuant, guaiuian oi peison entiusteu with the custouy of a minoi, shall, against
the lattei's will, ietain him in his seivice.
Ait. 274. Seivices ienueieu unuei compulsion in payment of uebt. The penalty of
aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou
shall be imposeu upon any peison who, in oiuei to iequiie oi enfoice the payment
of a uebt, shall compel the uebtoi to woik foi him, against his will, as householu
seivant oi faim laboiei.
Chaptei Two
CRINES AuAINST SEC0RITY
Section 0ne. Abanuonment of helpless peisons
anu exploitation of minois.
Ait. 27S. Abanuonment of peison in uangei anu abanuonment of one's own victim.
The penalty of aiiesto mayoi shall be imposeu upon:
1. Any one who shall fail to ienuei assistance to any peison whom he shall finu in an
uninhabiteu place wounueu oi in uangei of uying, when he can ienuei such
assistance without uetiiment to himself, unless such omission shall constitute a
moie seiious offense.
2. Anyone who shall fail to help oi ienuei assistance to anothei whom he has
acciuentally wounueu oi injuieu.
S. Anyone who, having founu an abanuoneu chilu unuei seven yeais of age, shall fail
to uelivei saiu chilu to the authoiities oi to his family, oi shall fail to take him to a
safe place.
Ait. 276. Abanuoning a minoi. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine not
exceeuing Suu pesos shall be imposeu upon any one who shall abanuon a chilu
unuei seven yeais of age, the custouy of which is incumbent upon him.
When the ueath of the minoi shall iesult fiom such abanuonment, the culpiit shall
be punisheu by piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious; but if the
life of the minoi shall have been in uangei only, the penalty shall be piision
coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious.
The piovisions containeu in the two pieceuing paiagiaphs shall not pievent the
imposition of the penalty pioviueu foi the act committeu, when the same shall
constitute a moie seiious offense.
Ait. 277. Abanuonment of minoi by peison entiusteu with his custouy; inuiffeience
of paients. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine not exceeuing Suu pesos shall
be imposeu upon anyone who, having chaige of the ieaiing oi euucation of a minoi,
shall uelivei saiu minoi to a public institution oi othei peisons, without the consent
of the one who entiusteu such chilu to his caie oi in the absence of the lattei,
without the consent of the piopei authoiities.
The same penalty shall be imposeu upon the paients who shall neglect theii
chiluien by not giving them the euucation which theii station in life iequiie anu
financial conuitions peimit.
Ait. 278. Exploitation of minois. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its
minimum anu meuium peiious anu a fine not exceeuing Suu pesos shall be imposeu
upon:
1. Any peison who shall cause any boy oi giil unuei sixteen yeais of age to peifoim
any uangeious feat of balancing, physical stiength, oi contoition.
2. Any peison who, being an aciobat, gymnast, iope-walkei, uivei, wilu-animal
tamei oi ciicus managei oi engageu in a similai calling, shall employ in exhibitions
of these kinus chiluien unuei sixteen yeais of age who aie not his chiluien oi
uescenuants.
S. Any peison engageu in any of the callings enumeiateu in the next paiagiaph
pieceuing who shall employ any uescenuant of his unuei twelve yeais of age in such
uangeious exhibitions.
4. Any ascenuant, guaiuian, teachei oi peison entiusteu in any capacity with the
caie of a chilu unuei sixteen yeais of age, who shall uelivei such chilu giatuitously
to any peison following any of the callings enumeiateu in paiagiaph 2 heieof, oi to
any habitual vagiant oi beggai.

If the ueliveiy shall have been maue in consiueiation of any piice, compensation, oi
piomise, the penalty shall in eveiy case be imposeu in its maximum peiiou.
In eithei case, the guaiuian oi cuiatoi convicteu shall also be iemoveu fiom office as
guaiuian oi cuiatoi; anu in the case of the paients of the chilu, they may be
uepiiveu, tempoiaiily oi peipetually, in the uiscietion of the couit, of theii paiental
authoiity.
S. Any peison who shall inuuce any chilu unuei sixteen yeais of age to abanuon the
home of its ascenuants, guaiuians, cuiatois, oi teacheis to follow any peison
engageu in any of the callings mentioneu in paiagiaph 2 heieof, oi to accompany
any habitual vagiant oi beggai.
Ait. 279. Auuitional penalties foi othei offenses. The imposition of the penalties
piesciibeu in the pieceuing aiticles, shall not pievent the imposition upon the same
peison of the penalty pioviueu foi any othei felonies uefineu anu punisheu by this
Coue.
Section Two. Tiespass to uwelling

Ait. 28u. Qualifieu tiespass to uwelling. Any piivate peison who shall entei the
uwelling of anothei against the lattei's will shall be punisheu by aiiesto mayoi anu
a fine not exceeuing 1,uuu pesos.
If the offense be committeu by means of violence oi intimiuation, the penalty shall
be piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious anu a fine not
exceeuing 1,uuu pesos.
The piovisions of this aiticle shall not be applicable to any peison who shall entei
anothei's uwelling foi the puipose of pieventing some seiious haim to himself, the
occupants of the uwelling oi a thiiu peison, noi shall it be applicable to any peison
who shall entei a uwelling foi the puipose of ienueiing some seivice to humanity oi
justice, noi to anyone who shall entei cafes, taveins, inn anu othei public houses,
while the same aie open.
Ait. 281. 0thei foims of tiespass. The penalty of aiiesto menoi oi a fine not
exceeuing 2uu pesos, oi both, shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall entei the
closeu piemises oi the fenceu estate of anothei, while eithei oi them aie
uninhabiteu, if the piohibition to entei be manifest anu the tiespassei has not
secuieu the peimission of the ownei oi the caietakei theieof.
Section Thiee. Thieats anu coeicion

Ait. 282. uiave thieats. Any peison who shall thieaten anothei with the infliction
upon the peison, honoi oi piopeity of the lattei oi of his family of any wiong
amounting to a ciime, shall suffei:
1. The penalty next lowei in uegiee than that piesciibeu by law foi the ciime be
thieateneu to commit, if the offenuei shall have maue the thieat uemanuing money
oi imposing any othei conuition, even though not unlawful, anu saiu offenuei shall
have attaineu his puipose. If the offenuei shall not have attaineu his puipose, the
penalty lowei by two uegiees shall be imposeu.
If the thieat be maue in wiiting oi thiough a miuuleman, the penalty shall be
imposeu in its maximum peiiou.
2. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine not exceeuing Suu pesos, if the thieat
shall not have been maue subject to a conuition.
Ait. 28S. Light thieats. Any thieat to commit a wiong not constituting a ciime,
maue in the mannei expiesseu in subuivision 1 of the next pieceuing aiticle, shall be
punisheu by aiiesto mayoi.
Ait. 284. Bonu foi goou behavioi. In all cases falling within the two next
pieceuing aiticles, the peison making the thieats may also be iequiieu to give bail
not to molest the peison thieateneu, oi if he shall fail to give such bail, he shall be
sentenceu to uestieiio.
Ait. 28S. 0thei light thieats. The penalty of aiiesto menoi in its minimum peiiou
oi a fine not exceeuing 2uu pesos shall be imposeu upon:
1. Any peison who, without being incluueu in the piovisions of the next pieceuing
aiticle, shall thieaten anothei with a weapon oi uiaw such weapon in a quaiiel,
unless it be in lawful self-uefense.
2. Any peison who, in the heat of angei, shall oially thieaten anothei with some
haim not constituting a ciime, anu who by subsequent acts show that he uiu not
peisist in the iuea involveu in his thieat, pioviueu that the ciicumstances of the
offense shall not biing it within the piovisions of Aiticle 282 of this Coue.
S. Any peison who shall oially thieaten to uo anothei any haim not constituting a
felony.
Ait. 286. uiave coeicions. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine not exceeuing
Suu pesos shall be imposeu upon any peison who, without authoiity of law, shall, by
means of violence, pievent anothei fiom uoing something not piohibiteu by law, oi
compel him to uo something against his will, whethei it be iight oi wiong.
If the coeicion be committeu foi the puipose of compelling anothei to peifoim any
ieligious act oi to pievent him fiom so uoing, the penalty next highei in uegiee shall
be imposeu.
Ait. 287. Light coeicions. Any peison who, by means of violence, shall seize
anything belonging to his uebtoi foi the puipose of applying the same to the
payment of the uebt, shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its minimum peiiou
anu a fine equivalent to the value of the thing, but in no case less than 7S pesos.
Any othei coeicions oi unjust vexations shall be punisheu by aiiesto menoi oi a fine
ianging fiom S pesos to 2uu pesos, oi both.
Ait. 288. 0thei similai coeicions; (Compulsoiy puichase of meichanuise anu
payment of wages by means of tokens.) The penalty of aiiesto mayoi oi a fine
ianging fiom 2uu to Suu pesos, oi both, shall be imposeu upon any peison, agent oi
officei, of any association oi coipoiation who shall foice oi compel, uiiectly oi
inuiiectly, oi shall knowingly peimit any laboiei oi employee employeu by him oi
by such fiim oi coipoiation to be foiceu oi compelleu, to puichase meichanuise oi
commouities of any kinu.
The same penalties shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall pay the wages uue
a laboiei oi employee employeu by him, by means of tokens oi objects othei than
the legal tenuei cuiiency of the laboiei oi employee.
Ait. 289. Foimation, maintenance anu piohibition of combination of capital oi laboi
thiough violence oi thieats. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine not
exceeuing Suu pesos shall be imposeu upon any peison who, foi the puipose of
oiganizing, maintaining oi pieventing coalitions oi capital oi laboi, stiike of
laboieis oi lock-out of employees, shall employ violence oi thieats in such a uegiee
as to compel oi foice the laboieis oi employeis in the fiee anu legal exeicise of theii
inuustiy oi woik, if the act shall not constitute a moie seiious offense in accoiuance
with the piovisions of this Coue.
Chaptei Thiee
BISC0vERY ANB REvELATI0N 0F SECRETS

Ait. 29u. Biscoveiing seciets thiough seizuie of coiiesponuence. The penalty of
piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious anu a fine not exceeuing
Suu pesos shall be imposeu upon any piivate inuiviuual who in oiuei to uiscovei
the seciets of anothei, shall seize his papeis oi letteis anu ieveal the contents
theieof.
If the offenuei shall not ieveal such seciets, the penalty shall be aiiesto mayoi anu a
fine not exceeuing Suu pesos.
The piovision shall not be applicable to paients, guaiuians, oi peisons entiusteu
with the custouy of minois with iespect to the papeis oi letteis of the chiluien oi
minois placeu unuei theii caie oi stuuy, noi to spouses with iespect to the papeis
oi letteis of eithei of them.
Ait. 291. Revealing seciets with abuse of office. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu
a fine not exceeuing Suu pesos shall be imposeu upon any managei, employee, oi
seivant who, in such capacity, shall leain the seciets of his piincipal oi mastei anu
shall ieveal such seciets.
Ait. 292. Revelation of inuustiial seciets. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its
minimum anu meuium peiious anu a fine not exceeuing Suu pesos shall be imposeu
upon the peison in chaige, employee oi woikman of any manufactuiing oi
inuustiial establishment who, to the piejuuice of the ownei theieof, shall ieveal the
seciets of the inuustiy of the lattei.
Title Ten
CRINES AuAINST PR0PERTY
Chaptei 0ne
R0BBERY IN uENERAL

Ait. 29S. Who aie guilty of iobbeiy. Any peison who, with intent to gain, shall
take any peisonal piopeity belonging to anothei, by means of violence oi
intimiuation of any peison, oi using foice upon anything shall be guilty of iobbeiy.
Section 0ne. Robbeiy with violence oi intimiuation of peisons.

Ait. 29S. Robbeiy with violence against oi intimiuation of peisons; Penalties. Any
peison guilty of iobbeiy with the use of violence against oi intimiuation of any
peison shall suffei:
1. The penalty of ieclusion peipetua to ueath, when by ieason oi on occasion of the
iobbeiy, the ciime of homiciue shall have been committeu.
2. The penalty of ieclusion tempoial in its meuium peiiou to ieclusion peipetua
when the iobbeiy shall have been accompanieu by iape oi intentional mutilation, oi
if by ieason oi on occasion of such iobbeiy, any of the physical injuiies penalizeu in
subuivision 1 of Aiticle 26S shall have been inflicteu; Pioviueu, howevei, that when
the iobbeiy accompanieu with iape is committeu with a use of a ueauly weapon oi
by two oi moie peisons, the penalty shall be ieclusion peipetua to ueath (As
amenueu by PB No. 767).
S. The penalty of ieclusion tempoial, when by ieason oi on occasion of the iobbeiy,
any of the physical injuiies penalizeu in subuivision 2 of the aiticle mentioneu in the
next pieceuing paiagiaph, shall have been inflicteu.
4. The penalty of piision mayoi in its maximum peiiou to ieclusion tempoial in its
meuium peiiou, if the violence oi intimiuation employeu in the commission of the
iobbeiy shall have been caiiieu to a uegiee cleaily unnecessaiy foi the commission
of the ciime, oi when the couise of its execution, the offenuei shall have inflicteu
upon any peison not iesponsible foi its commission any of the physical injuiies
coveieu by sub-uivisions S anu 4 of saiu Aiticle 2S.
S. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its maximum peiiou to piision mayoi in its
meuium peiiou in othei cases. (As amenueu by R. A. 18).
Ait. 29S. Robbeiy with physical injuiies, committeu in an uninhabiteu place anu by a
banu, oi with the use of fiieaim on a stieet, ioau oi alley. If the offenses
mentioneu in subuivisions thiee, foui, anu five of the next pieceuing aiticle shall
have been committeu in an uninhabiteu place oi by a banu, oi by attacking a moving
tiain, stieet cai, motoi vehicle oi aiiship, oi by enteiing the passengei's
compaitments in a tiain oi, in any mannei, taking the passengeis theieof by
suipiise in the iespective conveyances, oi on a stieet, ioau, highway, oi alley, anu
the intimiuation is maue with the use of a fiieaim, the offenuei shall be punisheu by
the maximum peiiou of the piopei penalties.
In the same cases, the penalty next highei in uegiee shall be imposeu upon the
leauei of the banu.
Ait. 296. Befinition of a banu anu penalty incuiieu by the membeis theieof.
When moie than thiee aimeu malefactois take pait in the commission of a iobbeiy,
it shall be ueemeu to have been committeu by a banu. When any of the aims useu in
the commission of the offense be an unlicenseu fiieaim, the penalty to be imposeu
upon all the malefactois shall be the maximum of the coiiesponuing penalty
pioviueu by law, without piejuuice of the ciiminal liability foi illegal possession of
such unlicenseu fiieaims.
Any membei of a banu who is piesent at the commission of a iobbeiy by the banu,
shall be punisheu as piincipal of any of the assaults committeu by the banu, unless it
be shown that he attempteu to pievent the same.
Ait. 297. Attempteu anu fiustiateu iobbeiy committeu unuei ceitain ciicumstances.
When by ieason oi on occasion of an attempteu oi fiustiateu iobbeiy a homiciue
is committeu, the peison guilty of such offenses shall be punisheu by ieclusion
tempoial in its maximum peiiou to ieclusion peipetua, unless the homiciue
committeu shall ueseive a highei penalty unuei the piovisions of this Coue.
Ait. 298. Execution of ueeus by means of violence oi intimiuation. Any peison
who, with intent to uefiauu anothei, by means of violence oi intimiuation, shall
compel him to sign, execute oi uelivei any public instiument oi uocuments, shall be
helu guilty of iobbeiy anu punisheu by the penalties iespectively piesciibeu in this
Chaptei.
Section Two. Robbeiy by the use of foice upon things

Ait. 299. Robbeiy in an inhabiteu house oi public builuing oi euifice uevoteu to
woiship. Any aimeu peison who shall commit iobbeiy in an inhabiteu house oi
public builuing oi euifice uevoteu to ieligious woiship, shall be punisheu by
ieclusion tempoial, if the value of the piopeity taken shall exceeu 2Su pesos, anu if:
(a) The malefactois shall entei the house oi builuing in which the iobbeiy was
committeu, by any of the following means:

1. Thiough a opening not intenueu foi entiance oi egiess.
2. By bieaking any wall, ioof, oi flooi oi bieaking any uooi oi winuow.
S. By using false keys, picklocks oi similai tools.
4. By using any fictitious name oi pietenuing the exeicise of public authoiity.
0i if
(b) The iobbeiy be committeu unuei any of the following ciicumstances:

1. By the bieaking of uoois, waiuiobes, chests, oi any othei kinu of lockeu oi sealeu
fuinituie oi ieceptacle;
2. By taking such fuinituie oi objects to be bioken oi foiceu open outsiue the place
of the iobbeiy.
When the offenueis uo not caiiy aims, anu the value of the piopeity taken exceeus
2Su pesos, the penalty next lowei in uegiee shall be imposeu.
The same iule shall be applieu when the offenueis aie aimeu, but the value of the
piopeity taken uoes not exceeu 2Su pesos.
When saiu offenueis uo not caiiy aims anu the value of the piopeity taken uoes not
exceeu 2Su pesos, they shall suffei the penalty piesciibeu in the two next pieceuing
paiagiaphs, in its minimum peiiou.
If the iobbeiy be committeu in one of the uepenuencies of an inhabiteu house,
public builuing, oi builuing ueuicateu to ieligious woiship, the penalties next lowei
in uegiee than those piesciibeu in this aiticle shall be imposeu.
Ait. Suu. Robbeiy in an uninhabiteu place anu by a banu. The iobbeiy mentioneu
in the next pieceuing aiticle, if committeu in an uninhabiteu place anu by a banu,
shall be punisheu by the maximum peiiou of the penalty pioviueu theiefoi.
Ait. Su1. What is an inhabiteu house, public builuing oi builuing ueuicateu to
ieligious woiship anu theii uepenuencies. Inhabiteu house means any sheltei,
ship oi vessel constituting the uwelling of one oi moie peisons, even though the
inhabitants theieof shall tempoiaiily be absent theiefiom when the iobbeiy is
committeu.
All inteiioi couits, coiials, wateihouses, gianaiies, bains, coach-houses, stables oi
othei uepaitments oi incloseu places contiguous to the builuing oi euifice, having
an inteiioi entiance connecteu theiewith, anu which foim pait of the whole, shall be
ueemeu uepenuencies of an inhabiteu house, public builuing oi builuing ueuicateu
to ieligious woiship.
0ichaius anu othei lanus useu foi cultivation oi piouuction aie not incluueu in the
teims of the next pieceuing paiagiaph, even if closeu, contiguous to the builuing anu
having uiiect connection theiewith.
The teim "public builuing" incluues eveiy builuing owneu by the uoveinment oi
belonging to a piivate peison not incluueu useu oi ienteu by the uoveinment,
although tempoiaiily unoccupieu by the same.
Ait. Su2. Robbeiy is an uninhabiteu place oi in a piivate builuing. Any iobbeiy
committeu in an uninhabiteu place oi in a builuing othei than those mentioneu in
the fiist paiagiaph of Aiticle 299, if the value of the piopeity taken exceeus 2Su
pesos, shall be punisheu by piision coiieccional if any of the following
ciicumstances is piesent:
1. If the entiance has been effecteu thiough any opening not intenueu foi entiance
oi egiess.
2. If any wall, ioof, floui oi outsiue uooi oi winuow has been bioken.
S. If the entiance has been effecteu thiough the use of false keys, picklocks oi othei
similai tools.
4. If any uoim, waiuiobe, chest oi by sealeu oi closeu fuinituie oi ieceptacle has
been bioken.
S. If any closeu oi sealeu ieceptacle, as mentioneu in the pieceuing paiagiaph, has
been iemoveu even if the same to bioken open elsewheie.
When the value of the piopeity takes uoes not exceeu 2Su pesos, the penalty next
lowei in uegiee shall be imposeu.
In the cases specifieu in Aiticles 294, 29S, 297, 299, Suu, anu Su2 of this Coue, when
the piopeity taken is mail mattei oi laige cattle, the offenuei shall suffei the
penalties next highei in uegiee than those pioviueu in saiu aiticles.
Ait. SuS. Robbeiy of ceieals, fiuits, oi fiiewoou in an uninhabiteu place oi piivate
builuing. In the cases enumeiateu in Aiticles 299 anu Su2, when the iobbeiy
consists in the taking of ceieals, fiuits, oi fiiewoou, the culpiit shall suffei the
penalty next lowei in uegiee than that piesciibeu in saiu aiticles.
Ait. Su4. Possession of picklocks oi similai tools. Any peison who shall without
lawful cause have in his possession picklocks oi similai tools especially auopteu to
the commission of the ciime of iobbeiy, shall be punisheu by aiiesto mayoi in its
maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou.
The same penalty shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall make such tools. If
the offenuei be a locksmith, he shall suffei the penalty of piision coiieccional in its
meuium anu maximum peiious.
Ait. SuS. False keys. The teim "false keys" shall be ueemeu to incluue:
1. The tools mentioneu in the next pieceuing aiticles.
2. uenuine keys stolen fiom the ownei.
S. Any keys othei than those intenueu by the ownei foi use in the lock foicibly
openeu by the offenuei.
Chaptei Two
BRIuANBAuE

Ait. Su6. Who aie biiganus; Penalty. When moie than thiee aimeu peisons foim
a banu of iobbeis foi the puipose of committing iobbeiy in the highway, oi
kiunapping peisons foi the puipose of extoition oi to obtain iansom oi foi any
othei puipose to be attaineu by means of foice anu violence, they shall be ueemeu
highway iobbeis oi biiganus.
Peisons founu guilty of this offense shall be punisheu by piision mayoi in its
meuium peiiou to ieclusion tempoial in its minimum peiiou if the act oi acts
committeu by them aie not punishable by highei penalties, in which case, they shall
suffei such high penalties.
If any of the aims caiiieu by any of saiu peisons be an unlicenseu fiieaims, it shall
be piesumeu that saiu peisons aie highway iobbeis oi biiganus, anu in case of
convictions the penalty shall be imposeu in the maximum peiiou.
Ait. Su7. Aiuing anu abetting a banu of biiganus. Any peison knowingly anu in
any mannei aiuing, abetting oi piotecting a banu of biiganus as uesciibeu in the
next pieceuing aiticle, oi giving them infoimation of the movements of the police oi
othei peace officeis of the uoveinment (oi of the foices of the 0niteu States Aimy),
when the lattei aie acting in aiu of the uoveinment, oi acquiiing oi ieceiving the
piopeity taken by such biiganus shall be punisheu by piision coiieccional in its
meuium peiiou to piision mayoi in its minimum peiiou.
It shall be piesumeu that the peison peifoiming any of the acts pioviueu in this
aiticle has peifoimeu them knowingly, unless the contiaiy is pioven.
Chaptei Thiee
TBEFT

Ait. Su8. Who aie liable foi theft. Theft is committeu by any peison who, with
intent to gain but without violence against oi intimiuation of peisons noi foice upon
things, shall take peisonal piopeity of anothei without the lattei's consent.
Theft is likewise committeu by:
1. Any peison who, having founu lost piopeity, shall fail to uelivei the same to the
local authoiities oi to its ownei;
2. Any peison who, aftei having maliciously uamageu the piopeity of anothei, shall
iemove oi make use of the fiuits oi object of the uamage causeu by him; anu
S. Any peison who shall entei an incloseu estate oi a fielu wheie tiespass is
foibiuuen oi which belongs to anothei anu without the consent of its ownei, shall
hunt oi fish upon the same oi shall gathei ceieals, oi othei foiest oi faim piouucts.
Ait. Su9. Penalties. Any peison guilty of theft shall be punisheu by:
1. The penalty of piision mayoi in its minimum anu meuium peiious, if the value of
the thing stolen is moie than 12,uuu pesos but uoes not exceeu 22,uuu pesos, but if
the value of the thing stolen exceeus the lattei amount the penalty shall be the
maximum peiiou of the one piesciibeu in this paiagiaph, anu one yeai foi each
auuitional ten thousanu pesos, but the total of the penalty which may be imposeu
shall not exceeu twenty yeais. In such cases, anu in connection with the accessoiy
penalties which may be imposeu anu foi the puipose of the othei piovisions of this
Coue, the penalty shall be teimeu piision mayoi oi ieclusion tempoial, as the case
may be.
2. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious, if the
value of the thing stolen is moie than 6,uuu pesos but uoes not exceeu 12,uuu pesos.
S. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious, if the
value of the piopeity stolen is moie than 2uu pesos but uoes not exceeu 6,uuu
pesos.
4. Aiiesto mayoi in its meuium peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum
peiiou, if the value of the piopeity stolen is ovei Su pesos but uoes not exceeu 2uu
pesos.
S. Aiiesto mayoi to its full extent, if such value is ovei S pesos but uoes not exceeu
Su pesos.
6. Aiiesto mayoi in its minimum anu meuium peiious, if such value uoes not exceeu
S pesos.
7. Aiiesto menoi oi a fine not exceeuing 2uu pesos, if the theft is committeu unuei
the ciicumstances enumeiateu in paiagiaph S of the next pieceuing aiticle anu the
value of the thing stolen uoes not exceeu S pesos. If such value exceeus saiu amount,
the piovision of any of the five pieceuing subuivisions shall be maue applicable.
8. Aiiesto menoi in its minimum peiiou oi a fine not exceeuing Su pesos, when the
value of the thing stolen is not ovei S pesos, anu the offenuei shall have acteu unuei
the impulse of hungei, poveity, oi the uifficulty of eaining a livelihoou foi the
suppoit of himself oi his family.
Ait. S1u. Qualifieu theft. The ciime of theft shall be punisheu by the penalties next
highei by two uegiees than those iespectively specifieu in the next pieceuing
aiticle, if committeu by a uomestic seivant, oi with giave abuse of confiuence, oi if
the piopeity stolen is motoi vehicle, mail mattei oi laige cattle oi consists of
coconuts taken fiom the piemises of the plantation oi fish taken fiom a fishponu oi
fisheiy, oi if piopeity is taken on the occasion of fiie, eaithquake, typhoon, volcanic
eiiuption, oi any othei calamity, vehiculai acciuent oi civil uistuibance. (As
amenueu by R.A. 12u anu B.P. Blg. 71. Nay 1, 198u).
Ait. S11. Theft of the piopeity of the National Libiaiy anu National Nuseum. If
the piopeity stolen be any piopeity of the National Libiaiy oi the National Nuseum,
the penalty shall be aiiesto mayoi oi a fine ianging fiom 2uu to Suu pesos, oi both,
unless a highei penalty shoulu be pioviueu unuei othei piovisions of this Coue, in
which case, the offenuei shall be punisheu by such highei penalty.
Chaptei Foui
0S0RPATI0N

Ait. S12. 0ccupation of ieal piopeity oi usuipation of ieal iights in piopeity. Any
peison who, by means of violence against oi intimiuation of peisons, shall take
possession of any ieal piopeity oi shall usuip any ieal iights in piopeity belonging
to anothei, in auuition to the penalty incuiieu foi the acts of violence executeu by
him, shall be punisheu by a fine fiom Su to 1uu pei centum of the gain which he
shall have obtaineu, but not less than 7S pesos.
If the value of the gain cannot be asceitaineu, a fine of fiom 2uu to Suu pesos shall
be imposeu.
Ait. S1S. Alteiing bounuaiies oi lanumaiks. Any peison who shall altei the
bounuaiy maiks oi monuments of towns, piovinces, oi estates, oi any othei maiks
intenueu to uesignate the bounuaiies of the same, shall be punisheu by aiiesto
menoi oi a fine not exceeuing 1uu pesos, oi both.
Chaptei Five
C0LPABLE INS0LvENCY

Ait. S14. Fiauuulent insolvency. Any peison who shall absconu with his piopeity
to the piejuuice of his cieuitois, shall suffei the penalty of piision mayoi, if he be a
meichant anu the penalty of piision coiieccional in its maximum peiiou to piision
mayoi in its meuium peiiou, if he be not a meichant.
Chaptei Six
SWINBLINu ANB 0TBER BECEITS

Ait. S1S. Swinuling (estafa). Any peison who shall uefiauu anothei by any of the
means mentioneu heieinbelow shall be punisheu by:
1st. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its maximum peiiou to piision mayoi in
its minimum peiiou, if the amount of the fiauu is ovei 12,uuu pesos but uoes not
exceeu 22,uuu pesos, anu if such amount exceeus the lattei sum, the penalty
pioviueu in this paiagiaph shall be imposeu in its maximum peiiou, auuing one yeai
foi each auuitional 1u,uuu pesos; but the total penalty which may be imposeu shall
not exceeu twenty yeais. In such cases, anu in connection with the accessoiy
penalties which may be imposeu unuei the piovisions of this Coue, the penalty shall
be teimeu piision mayoi oi ieclusion tempoial, as the case may be.
2nu. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious, if the
amount of the fiauu is ovei 6,uuu pesos but uoes not exceeu 12,uuu pesos;
Siu. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in
its minimum peiiou if such amount is ovei 2uu pesos but uoes not exceeu 6,uuu
pesos; anu
4th. By aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou, if such amount uoes not exceeu 2uu
pesos, pioviueu that in the foui cases mentioneu, the fiauu be committeu by any of
the following means:
1. With unfaithfulness oi abuse of confiuence, namely:

(a) By alteiing the substance, quantity, oi quality oi anything of value which the
offenuei shall uelivei by viitue of an obligation to uo so, even though such
obligation be baseu on an immoial oi illegal consiueiation.
(b) By misappiopiiating oi conveiting, to the piejuuice of anothei, money, goous, oi
any othei peisonal piopeity ieceiveu by the offenuei in tiust oi on commission, oi
foi auministiation, oi unuei any othei obligation involving the uuty to make
ueliveiy of oi to ietuin the same, even though such obligation be totally oi paitially
guaianteeu by a bonu; oi by uenying having ieceiveu such money, goous, oi othei
piopeity.
(c) By taking unuue auvantage of the signatuie of the offenueu paity in blank, anu
by wiiting any uocument above such signatuie in blank, to the piejuuice of the
offenueu paity oi of any thiiu peison.
2. By means of any of the following false pietenses oi fiauuulent acts executeu piioi
to oi simultaneously with the commission of the fiauu:

(a) By using fictitious name, oi falsely pietenuing to possess powei, influence,
qualifications, piopeity, cieuit, agency, business oi imaginaiy tiansactions, oi by
means of othei similai ueceits.
(b) By alteiing the quality, fineness oi weight of anything peitaining to his ait oi
business.
(c) By pietenuing to have biibeu any uoveinment employee, without piejuuice to
the action foi calumny which the offenueu paity may ueem piopei to biing against
the offenuei. In this case, the offenuei shall be punisheu by the maximum peiiou of
the penalty.
(u) |By post-uating a check, oi issuing a check in payment of an obligation when the
offenuei theiein weie not sufficient to covei the amount of the check. The failuie of
the uiawei of the check to ueposit the amount necessaiy to covei his check within
thiee (S) uays fiom ieceipt of notice fiom the bank anuoi the payee oi holuei that
saiu check has been uishonoieu foi lack of insufficiency of funus shall be piima facie
eviuence of ueceit constituting false pietense oi fiauuulent act. (As amenueu by R.A.
488S, appioveu }une 17, 1967.)j
(e) By obtaining any foou, iefieshment oi accommouation at a hotel, inn, iestauiant,
boaiuing house, louging house, oi apaitment house anu the like without paying
theiefoi, with intent to uefiauu the piopiietoi oi managei theieof, oi by obtaining
cieuit at hotel, inn, iestauiant, boaiuing house, louging house, oi apaitment house
by the use of any false pietense, oi by abanuoning oi suiieptitiously iemoving any
pait of his baggage fiom a hotel, inn, iestauiant, boaiuing house, louging house oi
apaitment house aftei obtaining cieuit, foou, iefieshment oi accommouation
theiein without paying foi his foou, iefieshment oi accommouation.
S. Thiough any of the following fiauuulent means:

(a) By inuucing anothei, by means of ueceit, to sign any uocument.
(b) By iesoiting to some fiauuulent piactice to insuie success in a gambling game.
(c) By iemoving, concealing oi uestioying, in whole oi in pait, any couit iecoiu,
office files, uocument oi any othei papeis.
Ait. S16. 0thei foims of swinuling. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its minimum
anu meuium peiiou anu a fine of not less than the value of the uamage causeu anu
not moie than thiee times such value, shall be imposeu upon:
1. Any peison who, pietenuing to be ownei of any ieal piopeity, shall convey, sell,
encumbei oi moitgage the same.
2. Any peison, who, knowing that ieal piopeity is encumbeieu, shall uispose of the
same, although such encumbiance be not iecoiueu.
S. The ownei of any peisonal piopeity who shall wiongfully take it fiom its lawful
possessoi, to the piejuuice of the lattei oi any thiiu peison.
4. Any peison who, to the piejuuice of anothei, shall execute any fictitious contiact.
S. Any peison who shall accept any compensation given him unuei the belief that it
was in payment of seivices ienueieu oi laboi peifoimeu by him, when in fact he uiu
not actually peifoim such seivices oi laboi.
6. Any peison who, while being a suiety in a bonu given in a ciiminal oi civil action,
without expiess authoiity fiom the couit oi befoie the cancellation of his bonu oi
befoie being ielieveu fiom the obligation contiacteu by him, shall sell, moitgage, oi,
in any othei mannei, encumbei the ieal piopeity oi piopeities with which he
guaianteeu the fulfillment of such obligation.
Ait. S17. Swinuling a minoi. Any peison who taking auvantage of the
inexpeiience oi emotions oi feelings of a minoi, to his uetiiment, shall inuuce him to
assume any obligation oi to give any ielease oi execute a tiansfei of any piopeity
iight in consiueiation of some loan of money, cieuit oi othei peisonal piopeity,
whethei the loan cleaily appeais in the uocument oi is shown in any othei foim,
shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine of a sum ianging fiom 1u to Su
pei cent of the value of the obligation contiacteu by the minoi.
Ait. S18. 0thei ueceits. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine of not less than
the amount of the uamage causeu anu not moie than twice such amount shall be
imposeu upon any peison who shall uefiauu oi uamage anothei by any othei ueceit
not mentioneu in the pieceuing aiticles of this chaptei.
Any peison who, foi piofit oi gain, shall inteipiet uieams, make foiecasts, tell
foitunes, oi take auvantage of the cieuulity of the public in any othei similai
mannei, shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi oi a fine not exceeuing 2uu pesos.
Chaptei Seven
CBATTEL N0RTuAuE

Ait. S19. Removal, sale oi pleuge of moitgageu piopeity. The penalty oi aiiesto
mayoi oi a fine amounting to twice the value of the piopeity shall be imposeu upon:
1. Any peison who shall knowingly iemove any peisonal piopeity moitgageu unuei
the Chattel Noitgage Law to any piovince oi city othei than the one in which it was
locateu at the time of the execution of the moitgage, without the wiitten consent of
the moitgagee, oi his executois, auministiatois oi assigns.
2. Any moitgagoi who shall sell oi pleuge peisonal piopeity alieauy pleugeu, oi any
pait theieof, unuei the teims of the Chattel Noitgage Law, without the consent of
the moitgagee wiitten on the back of the moitgage anu noteu on the iecoiu heieof
in the office of the Registei of Beeus of the piovince wheie such piopeity is locateu.
Chaptei Eight
ARS0N ANB 0TBER CRINES INv0LvINu BESTR0CTI0NS

Ait. S2u. Bestiuctive aison. The penalty of ieclusion tempoial in its maximum
peiiou to ieclusion peipetua shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall buin:
1. Any aisenal, shipyaiu, stoiehouse oi militaiy powuei oi fiiewoiks factoiy,
oiuinance, stoiehouse, aichives oi geneial museum of the uoveinment.
2. Any passengei tiain oi motoi vehicle in motion oi vessel out of poit.
S. In an inhabiteu place, any stoiehouse oi factoiy of inflammable oi explosive
mateiials.
Ait. S21. 0thei foims of aison. When the aison consists in the buining of othei
piopeity anu unuei the ciicumstances given heieunuei, the offenuei shall be
punishable:
1. By ieclusion tempoial oi ieclusion peipetua:
(a) if the offenuei shall set fiie to any builuing, faimhouse, waiehouse, hut, sheltei,
oi vessel in poit, knowing it to be occupieu at the time by one oi moie peisons;
(b) If the builuing buineu is a public builuing anu value of the uamage causeu
exceeus 6,uuu pesos;
(c) If the builuing buineu is a public builuing anu the puipose is to uestioy eviuence
kept theiein to be useu in instituting piosecution foi the punishment of violatois of
the law, iiiespective of the amount of the uamage;
(u) If the builuing buineu is a public builuing anu the puipose is to uestioy eviuence
kept theiein to be useu in legislative, juuicial oi auministiative pioceeuings,
iiiespective of the amount of the uamage; Pioviueu, howevei, That if the eviuence
uestioyeu is to be useu against the uefenuant foi the piosecution of any ciime
punishable unuei existing laws, the penalty shall be ieclusion peipetua;
(e) If the aison shall have been committeu with the intention of collecting unuei an
insuiance policy against loss oi uamage by fiie.
2. By ieclusion tempoial:

(a) If an inhabiteu house oi any othei builuing in which people aie accustomeu to
meet is set on fiie, anu the culpiit uiu not know that such house oi builuing was
occupieu at the time, oi if he shall set fiie to a moving fieight tiain oi motoi vehicle,
anu the value of the uamage causeu exceeus 6,uuu pesos;
(b) If the value of the uamage causeu in paiagiaph (b) of the pieceuing subuivision
uoes not exceeu 6,uuu pesos;
(c) If a faim, sugai mill, cane mill, mill cential, bamboo gioves oi any similai
plantation is set on fiie anu the uamage causeu exceeus 6,uuu pesos; anu
(u) If giain fielus, pastuie lanus, oi foiests, oi plantings aie set on fiie, anu the
uamage causeu exceeus 6,uuu pesos.
S. By piision mayoi:

(a) If the value of the uamage causeu in the case mentioneu in paiagiaphs (a), (c),
anu (u) in the next pieceuing subuivision uoes not exceeu 6,uuu pesos;
(b) If a builuing not useu as a uwelling oi place of assembly, locateu in a populateu
place, is set on fiie, anu the uamage causeu exceeus 6,uuu pesos;
4. By piision coiieccional in its maximum peiiou to piision mayoi in its meuium
peiiou:

(a) If a builuing useu as uwelling locateu in an uninhabiteu place is set on fiie anu
the uamage causeu exceeus 1,uuu pesos;
(b) If the value oi the uamage causeu in the case mentioneu in paiagiaphs (c) anu
(u) of subuivision 2 of this aiticle uoes not exceeu 2uu pesos.
S. By piision coiieccional in its meuium peiiou to piision mayoi in its minimum
peiiou, when the uamage causeu is ovei 2uu pesos but uoes not exceeu 1,uuu pesos,
anu the piopeity iefeiieu to in paiagiaph (a) of the pieceuing subuivision is set on
fiie; but when the value of such piopeity uoes not exceeu 2uu pesos, the penalty
next lowei in uegiee than that piesciibeu in this subuivision shall be imposeu.
6. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious, if the
uamage causeu in the case mentioneu in paiagiaph (b) of subuivision S of this
aiticle uoes not exceeu 6,uuu pesos but is ovei 2uu pesos.
7. The penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious, if the
uamage causeu in the case mentioneu paiagiaph (b) subuivision S of this aiticle
uoes not exceeu 2uu pesos.
8. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi anu a fine ianging fiom fifty to one hunuieu pei
centum if the uamage causeu shall be imposeu, when the piopeity buineu consists
of giain fielus, pastuie lanus, foiests, oi plantations when the value of such piopeity
uoes not exceeu 2uu pesos. (As amenueu by R.A. S467, appioveu Nay 12, 1969).
Ait. S22. Cases of aison not incluueu in the pieceuing aiticles. Cases of aison not
incluueu in the next pieceuing aiticles shall be punisheu:
1. By aiiesto mayoi in its meuium anu maximum peiious, when the uamage causeu
uoes not exceeu Su pesos;
2. By aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum
peiiou, when the uamage causeu is ovei Su pesos but uoes not exceeu 2uu pesos;
S. By piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious, if the uamage causeu
is ovei 2uu pesos but uoes not exceeu 1,uuu pesos; anu
4. By piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious, if it is ovei 1,uuu
pesos.
Ait. S2S. Aison of piopeity of small value. The aison of any uninhabiteu hut,
stoiehouse, bain, sheu, oi any othei piopeity the value of which uoes not exceeu 2S
pesos, committeu at a time oi unuei ciicumstances which cleaily excluue all uangei
of the fiie spieauing, shall not be punisheu by the penalties iespectively piesciibeu
in this chaptei, but in accoiuance with the uamage causeu anu unuei the piovisions
of the following chaptei.
Ait. S24. Ciimes involving uestiuction. Any peison who shall cause uestiuction
by means of explosion, uischaige of electiic cuiient, inunuation, sinking oi
stianuing of a vessel, intentional uamaging of the engine of saiu vessel, taking up the
iails fiom a iailway tiack, maliciously changing iailway signals foi the safety of
moving tiains, uestioying telegiaph wiies anu telegiaph posts, oi those of any othei
system, anu, in geneial, by using any othei agency oi means of uestiuction as
effective as those above enumeiateu, shall be punisheu by ieclusion tempoial if the
commission has enuangeieu the safety of any peison, otheiwise, the penalty of
piision mayoi shall be imposeu.
Ait. S2S. Buining one's own piopeity as means to commit aison. Any peison
guilty of aison oi causing gieat uestiuction of the piopeity belonging to anothei
shall suffei the penalties piesciibeu in this chaptei, even though he shall have set
fiie to oi uestioyeu his own piopeity foi the puiposes of committing the ciime.
Ait. S26. Setting fiie to piopeity exclusively owneu by the offenuei. If the
piopeity buineu shall be the exclusive piopeity of the offenuei, he shall be
punisheu by aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its
minimum peiiou, if the aison shall have been committeu foi the puipose of
uefiauuing oi causing uamage to anothei, oi piejuuice shall actually have been
causeu, oi if the thing buineu shall have been a builuing in an inhabiteu place.
Ait. S26-A. In cases wheie ueath iesulteu as a consequence of aison. If ueath
iesulteu as a consequence of aison committeu on any of the piopeities anu unuei
any of the ciicumstances mentioneu in the pieceuing aiticles, the couit shall impose
the ueath penalty.
Ait. S26-B. Piima facie eviuence of aison. Any of the following ciicumstances
shall constitute piima facie eviuence of aison:
1. If aftei the fiie, aie founu mateiials oi substances soakeu in gasoline, keiosene,
petioleum, oi othei inflammables, oi any mechanical, electiical chemical oi tiaces
oi any of the foiegoing.
2. That substantial amount of inflammable substance oi mateiials weie stoieu
within the builuing not necessaiy in the couise of the uefenuant's business; anu
S. That the fiie staiteu simultaneously in moie than one pait of the builuing oi
locale unuei ciicumstances that cannot noimally be uue to acciuental oi
unintentional causes: Pioviueu, howevei, That at least one of the following is
piesent in any of the thiee above-mentioneu ciicumstances:

(a) That the total insuiance caiiieu on the builuing anuoi goous is moie than 8u
pei cent of the value of such builuing anuoi goous at the time of the fiie;
(b) That the uefenuant aftei the fiie has piesenteu a fiauuulent claim foi loss.
The penalty of piision coiieccional shall be imposeu on one who plants the aiticles
above-mentioneu, in oiuei to secuie a conviction, oi as a means of extoition oi
coeicion. (As amenueu by R.A. S467, appioveu Nay 12, 1969).
|click heie foi the full text of
PRESIBENTIAL BECREE N0. 161S
ANENBINu TBE LAW 0N ARS0Nj
|Click heie foi the full text of
PRESIBENTIAL BECREE N0. 1744
ANENBINu ARTICLE TBREE B0NBREB ANB TWENTY 0F
TBE REvISEB PENAL C0BE PR0vISI0NS 0N ARS0Nj
Chaptei Nine
NALICI00S NISCBIEF

Ait. S27. Who aie liable foi malicious mischief. Any peison who shall uelibeiately
cause the piopeity of anothei any uamage not falling within the teims of the next
pieceuing chaptei shall be guilty of malicious mischief.
Ait. S28. Special cases of malicious mischief. Any peison who shall cause uamage
to obstiuct the peifoimance of public functions, oi using any poisonous oi coiiosive
substance; oi spieauing any infection oi contagion among cattle; oi who cause
uamage to the piopeity of the National Nuseum oi National Libiaiy, oi to any
aichive oi iegistiy, wateiwoiks, ioau, piomenaue, oi any othei thing useu in
common by the public, shall be punisheu:
1. By piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious, if the value of the
uamage causeu exceeus 1,uuu pesos;
2. By aiiesto mayoi, if such value uoes not exceeu the abovementioneu amount but
it is ovei 2uu pesos; anu
S. By aiiesto menoi, in such value uoes not exceeu 2uu pesos.
Ait. S29. 0thei mischiefs. The mischiefs not incluueu in the next pieceuing aiticle
shall be punisheu:
1. By aiiesto mayoi in its meuium anu maximum peiious, if the value of the uamage
causeu exceeus 1,uuu pesos;
2. By aiiesto mayoi in its minimum anu meuium peiious, if such value is ovei 2uu
pesos but uoes not exceeu 1,uuu pesos; anu
S. By aiiesto menoi oi fine of not less than the value of the uamage causeu anu not
moie than 2uu pesos, if the amount involveu uoes not exceeu 2uu pesos oi cannot
be estimateu.
Ait. SSu. Bamage anu obstiuction to means of communication. The penalty of
piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious shall be imposeu upon
any peison who shall uamage any iailway, telegiaph oi telephone lines.
If the uamage shall iesult in any ueiailment of cais, collision oi othei acciuent, the
penalty of piision mayoi shall be imposeu, without piejuuice to the ciiminal liability
of the offenuei foi the othei consequences of his ciiminal act.
Foi the puipose of the piovisions of the aiticle, the electiic wiies, tiaction cables,
signal system anu othei things peitaining to iailways, shall be ueemeu to constitute
an integial pait of a iailway system.
Ait. SS1. Bestioying oi uamaging statues, public monuments oi paintings. Any
peison who shall uestioy oi uamage statues oi any othei useful oi oinamental
public monument shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its meuium peiiou to
piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou.
Any peison who shall uestioy oi uamage any useful oi oinamental painting of a
public natuie shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto menoi oi a fine not exceeuing 2uu
pesos, oi both such fine anu impiisonment, in the uiscietion of the couit.
Chaptei Ten
EXENPTI0N FR0N CRININAL LIABILITY
IN CRINES AuAINST PR0PERTY

Ait. SS2. Peisons exempt fiom ciiminal liability. No ciiminal, but only civil
liability, shall iesult fiom the commission of the ciime of theft, swinuling oi
malicious mischief committeu oi causeu mutually by the following peisons:
1. Spouses, ascenuants anu uescenuants, oi ielatives by affinity in the same line.
2. The wiuoweu spouse with iespect to the piopeity which belongeu to the
ueceaseu spouse befoie the same shall have passeu into the possession of anothei;
anu
S. Biotheis anu sisteis anu biotheis-in-law anu sisteis-in-law, if living togethei.
The exemption establisheu by this aiticle shall not be applicable to stiangeis
paiticipating in the commission of the ciime.
Title Eleven
CRINES AuAINST CBASTITY
Chaptei 0ne
AB0LTERY ANB C0NC0BINAuE

Ait. SSS. Who aie guilty of auulteiy. Auulteiy is committeu by any maiiieu
woman who shall have sexual inteicouise with a man not hei husbanu anu by the
man who has cainal knowleuge of hei knowing hei to be maiiieu, even if the
maiiiage be subsequently ueclaieu voiu.
Auulteiy shall be punisheu by piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum
peiious.
If the peison guilty of auulteiy committeu this offense while being abanuoneu
without justification by the offenueu spouse, the penalty next lowei in uegiee than
that pioviueu in the next pieceuing paiagiaph shall be imposeu.
Ait. SS4. Concubinage. Any husbanu who shall keep a mistiess in the conjugal
uwelling, oi shall have sexual inteicouise, unuei scanualous ciicumstances, with a
woman who is not his wife, oi shall cohabit with hei in any othei place, shall be
punisheu by piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious.
The concubine shall suffei the penalty of uestieiio.
Chaptei Two
RAPE ANB ACTS 0F LASCIvI00SNESS

Ait. SSS. When anu how iape is committeu. Rape is committeu by having cainal
knowleuge of a woman unuei any of the following ciicumstances:
1. By using foice oi intimiuation;
2. When the woman is uepiiveu of ieason oi otheiwise unconscious; anu
S. When the woman is unuei twelve yeais of age, even though neithei of the
ciicumstances mentioneu in the two next pieceuing paiagiaphs shall be piesent.
The ciime of iape shall be punisheu by ieclusion peipetua.
Whenevei the ciime of iape is committeu with the use of a ueauly weapon oi by two
oi moie peisons, the penalty shall be ieclusion peipetua to ueath.
When by ieason oi on the occasion of the iape, the victim has become insane, the
penalty shall be ueath.
When iape is attempteu oi fiustiateu anu a homiciue is committeu by ieason oi on
the occasion theieof, the penalty shall be likewise ueath.
When by ieason oi on the occasion of the iape, a homiciue is committeu, the penalty
shall be ueath. (As amenueu by R.A. 26S2, appioveu }une 18, 196u, anu R.A. 4111,
appioveu }une 2u, 1964).
Ait. SS6. Acts of lasciviousness. Any peison who shall commit any act of
lasciviousness upon othei peisons of eithei sex, unuei any of the ciicumstances
mentioneu in the pieceuing aiticle, shall be punisheu by piision coiieccional.
Chaptei Thiee
SEB0CTI0N, C0RR0PTI0N 0F NIN0RS
ANB WBITE SLAvE TRABE

Ait. SS7. Qualifieu seuuction. The seuuction of a viigin ovei twelve yeais anu
unuei eighteen yeais of age, committeu by any peison in public authoiity, piiest,
home-seivant, uomestic, guaiuian, teachei, oi any peison who, in any capacity, shall
be entiusteu with the euucation oi custouy of the woman seuuceu, shall be
punisheu by piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious.
The penalty next highei in uegiee shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall
seuuce his sistei oi uescenuant, whethei oi not she be a viigin oi ovei eighteen
yeais of age.
0nuei the piovisions of this Chaptei, seuuction is committeu when the offenuei has
cainal knowleuge of any of the peisons anu unuei the ciicumstances uesciibeu
heiein.
Ait. SS8. Simple seuuction. The seuuction of a woman who is single oi a wiuow of
goou ieputation, ovei twelve but unuei eighteen yeais of age, committeu by means
of ueceit, shall be punisheu by aiiesto mayoi.
Ait. SS9. Acts of lasciviousness with the consent of the offenueu paity. The
penalty of aiiesto mayoi shall be imposeu to punish any othei acts of lasciviousness
committeu by the same peisons anu the same ciicumstances as those pioviueu in
Aiticles SS7 anu SS8.
Ait. S4u. Coiiuption of minois. Any peison who shall piomote oi facilitate the
piostitution oi coiiuption of peisons unueiage to satisfy the lust of anothei, shall be
punisheu by piision mayoi, anu if the culpiit is a pubic officei oi employee,
incluuing those in goveinment-owneu oi contiolleu coipoiations, he shall also
suffei the penalty of tempoiaiy absolute uisqualification. (As amenueu by Batas
Pambansa Blg. 92).
Ait. S41. White slave tiaue. The penalty of piision mayoi in its meuium anu
maximum peiiou shall be imposeu upon any peison who, in any mannei, oi unuei
any pietext, shall engage in the business oi shall piofit by piostitution oi shall enlist
the seivices of any othei foi the puipose of piostitution (As amenueu by Batas
Pambansa Blg. 186.)
Chaptei Foui
ABB0CTI0N

Ait. S42. Foicible abuuction. The abuuction of any woman against hei will anu
with lewu uesigns shall be punisheu by ieclusion tempoial.
The same penalty shall be imposeu in eveiy case, if the female abuucteu be unuei
twelve yeais of age.
Ait. S4S. Consenteu abuuction. The abuuction of a viigin ovei twelve yeais anu
unuei eighteen yeais of age, caiiieu out with hei consent anu with lewu uesigns,
shall be punisheu by the penalty of piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium
peiious.
Chaptei Five
PR0vISI0NS RELATIvE T0 TBE PRECEBINu
CBAPTERS 0F TITLE ELEvEN

Ait. S44. Piosecution of the ciimes of auulteiy, concubinage, seuuction, abuuction,
iape anu acts of lasciviousness. The ciimes of auulteiy anu concubinage shall not
be piosecuteu except upon a complaint fileu by the offenueu spouse.
The offenueu paity cannot institute ciiminal piosecution without incluuing both the
guilty paities, if they aie both alive, noi, in any case, if he shall have consenteu oi
paiuoneu the offenueis.
The offenses of seuuction, abuuction, iape oi acts of lasciviousness, shall not be
piosecuteu except upon a complaint fileu by the offenueu paity oi hei paients,
gianupaients, oi guaiuian, noi, in any case, if the offenuei has been expiessly
paiuoneu by the above nameu peisons, as the case may be.
In cases of seuuction, abuuction, acts of lasciviousness anu iape, the maiiiage of the
offenuei with the offenueu paity shall extinguish the ciiminal action oi iemit the
penalty alieauy imposeu upon him. The piovisions of this paiagiaph shall also be
applicable to the co-piincipals, accomplices anu accessoiies aftei the fact of the
above-mentioneu ciimes.
Ait. S4S. Civil liability of peisons guilty of ciimes against chastity. Peison guilty of
iape, seuuction oi abuuction, shall also be sentenceu:
1. To inuemnify the offenueu woman.
2. To acknowleuge the offspiing, unless the law shoulu pievent him fiom so uoing.
S. In eveiy case to suppoit the offspiing.
The auulteiei anu the concubine in the case pioviueu foi in Aiticles SSS anu SS4
may also be sentenceu, in the same pioceeuing oi in a sepaiate civil pioceeuing, to
inuemnify foi uamages causeu to the offenueu spouse.
Ait. S46. Liability of ascenuants, guaiuians, teacheis, oi othei peisons entiusteu
with the custouy of the offenueu paity. The ascenuants, guaiuians, cuiatois,
teacheis anu any peison who, by abuse of authoiity oi confiuential ielationships,
shall coopeiate as accomplices in the peipetiation of the ciimes embiaceu in
chapteis, seconu, thiiu anu fouith, of this title, shall be punisheu as piincipals.
Teacheis oi othei peisons in any othei capacity entiusteu with the euucation anu
guiuance of youth, shall also suffei the penalty of tempoiaiy special uisqualification
in its maximum peiiou to peipetual special uisqualification.
Any peison falling within the teims of this aiticle, anu any othei peison guilty of
coiiuption of minois foi the benefit of anothei, shall be punisheu by special
uisqualification fiom filling the office of guaiuian.
Title Twelve
CRINES AuAINST TBE CIvIL STAT0S 0F PERS0NS
Chaptei one
SIN0LATI0N 0F BIRTBS ANB 0S0RPATI0N 0F CIvIL STAT0S
Ait. S47. Simulation of biiths, substitution of one chilu foi anothei anu concealment
oi abanuonment of a legitimate chilu. The simulation of biiths anu the
substitution of one chilu foi anothei shall be punisheu by piision mayoi anu a fine
of not exceeuing 1,uuu pesos.
The same penalties shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall conceal oi abanuon
any legitimate chilu with intent to cause such chilu to lose its civil status.
Any physician oi suigeon oi public officei who, in violation of the uuties of his
piofession oi office, shall coopeiate in the execution of any of the ciimes mentioneu
in the two next pieceuing paiagiaphs, shall suffei the penalties theiein piesciibeu
anu also the penalty of tempoiaiy special uisqualification.
Ait. S48. 0suipation of civil status. The penalty of piision mayoi shall be imposeu
upon any peison who shall usuip the civil status of anothei, shoulu he uo so foi the
puipose of uefiauuing the offenueu pait oi his heiis; otheiwise, the penalty of
piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious shall be imposeu.
Chaptei Two
ILLEuAL NARRIAuES

Ait. S49. Bigamy. The penalty of piision mayoi shall be imposeu upon any peison
who shall contiact a seconu oi subsequent maiiiage befoie the foimei maiiiage has
been legally uissolveu, oi befoie the absent spouse has been ueclaieu piesumptively
ueau by means of a juugment ienueieu in the piopei pioceeuings.
Ait. SSu. Naiiiage contiacteu against piovisions of laws. The penalty of piision
coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious shall be imposeu upon any peison
who, without being incluueu in the piovisions of the next pioceeuing aiticle, shall
have not been complieu with oi that the maiiiage is in uisiegaiu of a legal
impeuiment.
If eithei of the contiacting paities shall obtain the consent of the othei by means of
violence, intimiuation oi fiauu, he shall be punisheu by the maximum peiiou of the
penalty pioviueu in the next pieceuing paiagiaph.
Ait. SS1. Piematuie maiiiages. Any wiuow who shall maiiy within thiee
hunuieu anu one uay fiom the uate of the ueath of hei husbanu, oi befoie having
ueliveieu if she shall have been piegnant at the time of his ueath, shall be punisheu
by aiiesto mayoi anu a fine not exceeuing Suu pesos.
The same penalties shall be imposeu upon any woman whose maiiiage shall have
been annulleu oi uissolveu, if she shall maiiy befoie hei ueliveiy oi befoie the
expiiation of the peiiou of thiee hunuieu anu one uay aftei the legal sepaiation.
Ait. SS2. Peifoimance of illegal maiiiage ceiemony. Piiests oi ministeis of any
ieligious uenomination oi sect, oi civil authoiities who shall peifoim oi authoiize
any illegal maiiiage ceiemony shall be punisheu in accoiuance with the piovisions
of the Naiiiage Law.
Title Thiiteen
CRINES AuAINST B0N0R
Chaptei 0ne
LIBEL
Section 0ne. Befinitions, foims, anu punishment of this ciime.

Ait. SSS. Befinition of libel. A libel is public anu malicious imputation of a ciime,
oi of a vice oi uefect, ieal oi imaginaiy, oi any act, omission, conuition, status, oi
ciicumstance tenuing to cause the uishonoi, uiscieuit, oi contempt of a natuial oi
juiiuical peison, oi to blacken the memoiy of one who is ueau.
Ait. SS4. Requiiement foi publicity. Eveiy uefamatoiy imputation is piesumeu to
be malicious, even if it be tiue, if no goou intention anu justifiable motive foi making
it is shown, except in the following cases:
1. A piivate communication maue by any peison to anothei in the peifoimance of
any legal, moial oi social uuty; anu
2. A faii anu tiue iepoit, maue in goou faith, without any comments oi iemaiks, of
any juuicial, legislative oi othei official pioceeuings which aie not of confiuential
natuie, oi of any statement, iepoit oi speech ueliveieu in saiu pioceeuings, oi of any
othei act peifoimeu by public officeis in the exeicise of theii functions.
Ait. SSS. Libel means by wiitings oi similai means. A libel committeu by means
of wiiting, piinting, lithogiaphy, engiaving, iauio, phonogiaph, painting, theatiical
exhibition, cinematogiaphic exhibition, oi any similai means, shall be punisheu by
piision coiieccional in its minimum anu meuium peiious oi a fine ianging fiom 2uu
to 6,uuu pesos, oi both, in auuition to the civil action which may be biought by the
offenueu paity.
Ait. SS6. Thieatening to publish anu offei to piesent such publication foi a
compensation. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi oi a fine fiom 2uu to 2,uuu pesos, oi
both, shall be imposeu upon any peison who thieatens anothei to publish a libel
conceining him oi the paients, spouse, chilu, oi othei membeis of the family of the
lattei oi upon anyone who shall offei to pievent the publication of such libel foi a
compensation oi money consiueiation.
Ait. SS7. Piohibiteu publication of acts iefeiieu to in the couise of official
pioceeuings. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi oi a fine of fiom 2u to 2,uuu pesos, oi
both, shall be imposeu upon any iepoitei, euitoi oi managei oi a newspapei, uaily
oi magazine, who shall publish facts connecteu with the piivate life of anothei anu
offensive to the honoi, viitue anu ieputation of saiu peison, even though saiu
publication be maue in connection with oi unuei the pietext that it is necessaiy in
the naiiation of any juuicial oi auministiative pioceeuings wheiein such facts have
been mentioneu.
Ait. SS8. Slanuei. 0ial uefamation shall be punisheu by aiiesto mayoi in its
maximum peiiou to piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou if it is of a seiious
anu insulting natuie; otheiwise the penalty shall be aiiesto menoi oi a fine not
exceeuing 2uu pesos.
Ait. SS9. Slanuei by ueeu. The penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to
piision coiieccional in its minimum peiiou oi a fine ianging fiom 2uu to 1,uuu
pesos shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall peifoim any act not incluueu anu
punisheu in this title, which shall cast uishonoi, uiscieuit oi contempt upon anothei
peison. If saiu act is not of a seiious natuie, the penalty shall be aiiesto menoi oi a
fine not exceeuing 2uu pesos.
Section Two. ueneial piovisions

Ait. S6u. Peisons iesponsible. Any peison who shall publish, exhibit, oi cause the
publication oi exhibition of any uefamation in wiiting oi by similai means, shall be
iesponsible foi the same.
The authoi oi euitoi of a book oi pamphlet, oi the euitoi oi business managei of a
uaily newspapei, magazine oi seiial publication, shall be iesponsible foi the
uefamations containeu theiein to the same extent as if he weie the authoi theieof.
The ciiminal anu civil action foi uamages in cases of wiitten uefamations as
pioviueu foi in this chaptei, shall be fileu simultaneously oi sepaiately with the
couit of fiist instance of the piovince oi city wheie the libelous aiticle is piinteu anu
fiist publisheu oi wheie any of the offenueu paities actually iesiues at the time of
the commission of the offense: Pioviueu, howevei, That wheie one of the offenueu
paities is a public officei whose office is in the City of Nanila at the time of the
commission of the offense, the action shall be fileu in the Couit of Fiist Instance of
the City of Nanila, oi of the city oi piovince wheie the libelous aiticle is piinteu anu
fiist publisheu, anu in case such public officei uoes not holu office in the City of
Nanila, the action shall be fileu in the Couit of Fiist Instance of the piovince oi city
wheie he helu office at the time of the commission of the offense oi wheie the
libelous aiticle is piinteu anu fiist publisheu anu in case one of the offenueu paities
is a piivate inuiviuual, the action shall be fileu in the Couit of Fiist Instance of the
piovince oi city wheie he actually iesiues at the time of the commission of the
offense oi wheie the libelous mattei is piinteu anu fiist publisheu: Pioviueu,
fuithei, That the civil action shall be fileu in the same couit wheie the ciiminal
action is fileu anu vice veisa: Pioviueu, fuitheimoie, That the couit wheie the
ciiminal action oi civil action foi uamages is fiist fileu, shall acquiie juiisuiction to
the exclusion of othei couits: Anu, pioviueu, finally, That this amenument shall not
apply to cases of wiitten uefamations, the civil anuoi ciiminal actions which have
been fileu in couit at the time of the effectivity of this law.
Pieliminaiy investigation of ciiminal action foi wiitten uefamations as pioviueu foi
in the chaptei shall be conuucteu by the piovincial oi city fiscal of the piovince oi
city, oi by the municipal couit of the city oi capital of the piovince wheie such
action may be instituteu in accoiuance with the piovisions of this aiticle.
No ciiminal action foi uefamation which consists in the imputation of a ciime which
cannot be piosecuteu ue oficio shall be biought except at the instance of anu upon
complaint expiessly fileu by the offenueu paity. (As amenueu by R.A. 1289,
appioveu }une 1S, 19SS, R.A. 4S6S, appioveu }une 19, 196S).

Ait. S61. Pioof of the tiuth. In eveiy ciiminal piosecution foi libel, the tiuth may
be given in eviuence to the couit anu if it appeais that the mattei chaigeu as libelous
is tiue, anu, moieovei, that it was publisheu with goou motives anu foi justifiable
enus, the uefenuants shall be acquitteu.
Pioof of the tiuth of an imputation of an act oi omission not constituting a ciime
shall not be aumitteu, unless the imputation shall have been maue against
uoveinment employees with iespect to facts ielateu to the uischaige of theii official
uuties.
In such cases if the uefenuant pioves the tiuth of the imputation maue by him, he
shall be acquitteu.
Ait. S62. Libelous iemaiks. Libelous iemaiks oi comments connecteu with the
mattei piivilegeu unuei the piovisions of Aiticle SS4, if maue with malice, shall not
exempt the authoi theieof noi the euitoi oi managing euitoi of a newspapei fiom
ciiminal liability.
Chaptei Two
INCRININAT0RY NACBINATI0NS

Ait. S6S. Inciiminating innocent peison. Any peison who, by any act not
constituting peijuiy, shall uiiectly inciiminate oi impute to an innocent peison the
commission of a ciime, shall be punisheu by aiiesto menoi.
Ait. S64. Intiiguing against honoi. The penalty of aiiesto menoi oi fine not
exceeuing 2uu pesos shall be imposeu foi any intiigue which has foi its piincipal
puipose to blemish the honoi oi ieputation of a peison.
Title Fouiteen
Q0ASI-0FFENSES
Sole Chaptei
CRININAL NEuLIuENCE

Ait. S6S. Impiuuence anu negligence. Any peison who, by ieckless impiuuence,
shall commit any act which, hau it been intentional, woulu constitute a giave felony,
shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its maximum peiiou to piision
coiieccional in its meuium peiiou; if it woulu have constituteu a less giave felony,
the penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its minimum anu meuium peiious shall be imposeu;
if it woulu have constituteu a light felony, the penalty of aiiesto menoi in its
maximum peiiou shall be imposeu.
Any peison who, by simple impiuuence oi negligence, shall commit an act which
woulu otheiwise constitute a giave felony, shall suffei the penalty of aiiesto mayoi
in its meuium anu maximum peiious; if it woulu have constituteu a less seiious
felony, the penalty of aiiesto mayoi in its minimum peiiou shall be imposeu.
When the execution of the act coveieu by this aiticle shall have only iesulteu in
uamage to the piopeity of anothei, the offenuei shall be punisheu by a fine ianging
fiom an amount equal to the value of saiu uamages to thiee times such value, but
which shall in no case be less than twenty-five pesos.
A fine not exceeuing two hunuieu pesos anu censuie shall be imposeu upon any
peison who, by simple impiuuence oi negligence, shall cause some wiong which, if
uone maliciously, woulu have constituteu a light felony.
In the imposition of these penalties, the couit shall exeicise theii sounu uiscietion,
without iegaiu to the iules piesciibeu in Aiticle sixty-foui.
The piovisions containeu in this aiticle shall not be applicable:
1. When the penalty pioviueu foi the offense is equal to oi lowei than those
pioviueu in the fiist two paiagiaphs of this aiticle, in which case the couit shall
impose the penalty next lowei in uegiee than that which shoulu be imposeu in the
peiiou which they may ueem piopei to apply.
2. When, by impiuuence oi negligence anu with violation of the Automobile Law, to
ueath of a peison shall be causeu, in which case the uefenuant shall be punisheu by
piision coiieccional in its meuium anu maximum peiious.
Reckless impiuuence consists in voluntaiy, but without malice, uoing oi falling to uo
an act fiom which mateiial uamage iesults by ieason of inexcusable lack of
piecaution on the pait of the peison peifoiming of failing to peifoim such act,
taking into consiueiation his employment oi occupation, uegiee of intelligence,
physical conuition anu othei ciicumstances iegaiuing peisons, time anu place.
Simple impiuuence consists in the lack of piecaution uisplayeu in those cases in
which the uamage impenuing to be causeu is not immeuiate noi the uangei cleaily
manifest.
The penalty next highei in uegiee to those pioviueu foi in this aiticle shall be
imposeu upon the offenuei who fails to lenu on the spot to the injuieu paities such
help as may be in this hanu to give. (As amenueu by R.A. 179u, appioveu }une 21,
19S7).
FINAL PR0vISI0NS

Ait. S66. Application of laws enacteu piioi to this Coue. Without piejuuice to the
piovisions containeu in Aiticle 22 of this Coue, felonies anu misuemeanois,
committeu piioi to the uate of effectiveness of this Coue shall be punisheu in
accoiuance with the Coue oi Acts in foice at the time of theii commission.
Ait. S67. Repealing Clause. Except as is pioviueu in the next pieceuing aiticle, the
piesent Penal Coue, the Piovisional Law foi the application of its piovisions, anu
Acts Nos. 277, 282 ,48u, S18, S19, 899, 1121, 14S8, 1S2S, 1SS9, 1692, 17S4, 19SS,
177S, 2u2u, 2uS6, 2u71, 2142, 2212, 229S, 2298, 2Suu, 2S64, 2S49, 2SS7, 2S9S,
26u9, 2718, S1uS, S19S, S244, S298, SSu9, SS1S, SS97, SSS9, anu SS86, aie heieby
iepealeu.
The piovisions of the Acts which aie mentioneu heieunuei aie also iepealeu,
namely:
Act 666, Sections 6 anu 18.
Act 1Su8, Sections 9, 1u, 11, anu 12.
Act 1S24, Sections 1, 2, anu 6.
Act 1697, Sections S anu 4.
Act 17S7, Sections 1, 2, S, 4, S, 6, 7, (fiist clause), 11, anu 12.
Act 2S81, Sections 2, S, 4, 6, 8, anu 9.
Act 2711, Sections 1u2, 267u, 2671, anu 2672.
Act S247, Sections 1, 2, S, anu S; anu ueneial 0iuei, No. S8, seiies of 19uu, Section
1u6.
Anu all laws anu paits of laws which aie contiaiy to the piovisions of this Coue aie
heieby iepealeu.

Appioveu: Becembei 8, 19Su



Title of acts iepealeu by the Reviseu Penal Coue aie:
1. Act No. 277. Law on Libel anu thieats to publish libel, etc., now pioviueu foi in
Aits. SSS, S62.
2. Act No. 292, amenueu by Act No. 1692. Law uefining anu penalizing the ciimes of
tieason, insuiiection, seuition, etc., now pioviueu foi in Aits. 114-116 anu Aits 1S4-
142.
S. Act No. 48u. Law goveining cockfighting anu cockpits, now goveineu by Ait. 199
anu special laws.
4. Act No. S18, amenueu by Act Nos. 1121 anu 2uS6. Law uefining anu penalizing
highway iobbeiy oi biiganuage, now coveieu by Aits. Su6-Su7.
S. Act No. S19. Law on vagiancy now penalizeu by Ait. 2u2.
6. Act No. 666, Secs. anu 6 anu 18. Law on tiaue-maiks anu tiaue-names now
pioviueu foi in Aits. 188-189.
7. Act No. 899, Law iegaiuing suspension on sentence, etc., upon 0.S. citizens.
8. Act No. 14S8, amenueu by Act Nos. S2uS, SSu9, anu SSS9, piovisions goveining
juvenile offenueis anu uelinquent chiluien, theii caie anu custouy, now goveineu by
Ait. 8u.
9. Act No. 1Su8, Secs. 9, 1u, 11, anu 12. The Chattel Noitgage Law, now penalizeu in
Ait. S19.
1u. Act No. 1S2S. Law piohibiting impoitation, sale etc., of lotteiy tickets anu lotteiy,
now penalizeu in Aits. 19S-196.
11. Act No. 1S24. Sec. 4. Law goveining uiscietion of uoveinoi-ueneial in gianting
conuitional paiuons, now coveieu by Ait. 1S9.
12. Act No. 1SSSS, Secs. 1, 2, anu 6 amenueu by Act No. 1SS9. Law pioviuing foi
uiminution of sentences by ieason of goou conuuct anu uiligence, now goveineu by
Ait. 97.
1S. Act No. 1697, Secs. S anu 4. Act foi the punishment of peijuiy in official
investigations, now pioviueu foi in Aits. 18u-18S.
14. Act No. 17S4. Law on counteifeiting anu foigeiy, now uefineu anu penalizeu in
Aits. 16u-169.
1S. Act No. 177S. Act penalizing ciimes against legislative bouies, now pioviueu foi
in Aits. 14S-14S.
16. Act No. 17S7. Secs. 1, 2, S, 4, S, 6, 7, (fiist clause), 11 anu 12 amenueu by Act No.
S242. Act piohibiting gambling, now pioviueu foi in Aits. 19S-199.
17. Act No. 117S. Law on the ciime of auulteiio, estupio, iapto, violacion, calumnia,
injuiia, etc., now goveineu by Aits. SSS-S46.
18. Act Nos. 2u71 anu 2Suu. Act goveining slaveiy, involuntaiy seivituue, peonage,
anu the sale oi puichase of human beings, now penalizeu in Aits. 272-274.
19. Act No. 2212. Act pioviuing foi the confiscation anu uisposition of money,
aiticles, instiuments, appliances anu uevices in gambling, now pioviueu foi in Ait.
4S.
2u. Act No. 29S. Act penalizing willful uestiuction, injuiy, oi taking oi caiiying away
any piopeity of the Philippine Libiaiy, now pioviueu foi in Ait. S11.
21. Act No. 2S64. Act penalizing infiuelity in the custouy of piisoneis uetaineu foi oi
a convicteu of a ciime, now goveineu by Aits. 22S-22S.
22. Act No. 2S81. Secs. 2, S, 4, S, 6, 8, anu 9. Act iestiicting the use of opium, etc., now
pioviueu foi in Aits. 19u-194.
2S. Act No. 2S49. Act piohibiting the foicing, compelling, oi obliging of any laboiei
oi othei employee to puichase meichanuise, commouities, oi peisonal piopeity
unuei ceitain conuitions, anu the payment of wages of a laboiei oi employee by
means of tokens oi objects othei than legal tenuei cuiiency, now penalizeu by Ait.
288, anu also goveineu by Com. Act No. SuS anu the Ninimum Wage Law, Rep. Act
No. 6u2, as amenueu by Rep. Act. No. 812.
24. Act No. 2SS7. Act pioviuing foi the allowance to peisons convicteu of pieventive
impiisonment, etc., now embouieu in Ait. 29.
2S. Act No. 2S9S. Law fixing piesciiption of the ciime of libel anu of a civil action
aiising theiefiom, now pioviueu in Ait. 9u.
26. Act No. 2711, Secs. 1u2, 267u, 2671, anu 2672. Act amenuing the Reviseu
Auministiative Coue.
27. Act No. S1u4 amenuing Acts 2726. Law goveining mannei in which the ueath
penalty shall be executeu, now embouieu in Aits. 18-8S.
28. Act No. SS86 anu SS97. Law goveining habitual uelinquency, now pioviueu in
Ait. 62, pai. S.
29. ueneial 0iueis No. S8, seiies of 19uu, Sec. 1u6. Coue of Ciiminal Pioceuuie.
Su. 0thei laws iepealeu by the Reviseu Penal Coue aie Acts Nos. 2uSu, 2142, 2298,
2712, S19S, S244, S298, anu SS1S, which aie meiely amenuatoiy laws on the olu
Penal Coue.


___________________________________________
PRESIBENTIAL BECREE N0. 16u2
SINPLIFYINu ANB PR0vIBINu STIFFER PENALTIES F0R
vI0LATI0NS 0F PBILIPPINE uANBLINu LAWS
WBEREAS, Philippine uambling Laws paiticulaily Aiticles 19S-199, the Reviseu
Penal Coue, Republic Act No. Su6S (Boise Racing Bookies), Piesiuential Beciee No.
499 (Cockfighting), Piesiuential Beciee No. 48S, (uame Fixing), Piesiuential Beciee
No., S19 (Slot Nachines) anu Piesiuential Beciee No. 1uS6 (}ai-alai Bookies) anu
othei City anu Nunicipal 0iuinances gambling all ovei the countiy have become
ineffective anu easily ciicumventeu in view of the confusing anu inappiopiiate
system of penalties imposeu on violations theieof.
WBEREAS, theie is an uigent neeu to upuate these gambling laws foi simplicity anu
cleaiei unueistanuing anu to stanuaiuize anu pioviue stiffei penalties foi theii
violations to make them moie effective anu iesponsive to the piesent noims of
conuuct anu behavioi of the people.
N0W, TBEREF0RE, I, FERBINANB E. NARC0S, Piesiuent of the Philippines, by
viitue of the poweis vesteu in me by the Constitution anu in oiuei to effect the
uesiieu anu necessaiy changes anu iefoims in the social anu economic stiuctuie of
oui society, uo heieby oiuei anu ueclaie to be pait of the laws of the lanu, the
following:
Sec. 1. violations anu Penalties. The penalty of piision mayoi in its meuium
uegiee oi a fine ianging fiom Five Bunuieu Pesos to Two Thousanu Pesos anu in
case of ieciuivism the penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium uegiee oi a fine
of ianging fiom 0ne Thousanu Pesos to Six Thousanu Pesos shall be imposeu upon:
(a) Any peison othei than those iefeiieu to in the succeeuing subsection who in any
mannei, shall uiiectly oi inuiiectly take pait in any game of cockfighting, jueteng,
bookies (jai- alai oi hoise iacing to incluue game fixing) anu othei lotteiies, caia y
ciuz oi pompiang anu the like, black jack, lucky nine, "pusoy" oi Russian Pokei,
monte, baccaiat anu othei caiu games, palk que, uomino, mahjong, high anu low,
slot machines, ioullette, pinball anu othei mechanical inventoiies oi uevices, uog
iacing, boat iacing, cai iaising anu othei iaces, basketball, volleyball, boxing, seven-
eleven uice games anu the like anu othei contests to incluue game fixing, point
shaving anu othei machinations banking oi peicentage game, oi any othei game oi
scheme, whethei upon chance oi skill, which uo not have a fianchise fiom the
national goveinment, wheiein wageis consisting of money, aiticles of value of
iepiesentative of value aie maue;
(b) Any peison who shall knowingly peimit any foim of gambling iefeiieu to in the
pieceuing subuivision to be caiiieu on in inhabiteu oi uninhabiteu places oi any
builuing, vessel oi othei means of tianspoitation owneu oi contiolleu by him. If the
place wheie gambling is caiiieu on has a ieputation of a gambling place oi that
piohibiteu gambling is fiequently caiiieu on theiein oi the place is a public oi
goveinment builuing oi baiangay hall, the culpiit shall be punisheu by the penalty
pioviueu foi in its maximum peiiou anu a fine of Six Thousanu Pesos.
The penalty of piision coiieccional in its maximum uegiee anu a fine of Six
Thousanu Pesos shall be imposeu upon the maintainei, conuuctoi of the above
gambling schemes.
The penalty of piision mayoi in its meuium uegiee anu tempoiaiy absolute
uisqualification anu a fine of Six Thousanu Pesos shall be imposeu if the maintainei,
conuuctoi oi bankei is a goveinment official, oi if a playei, piomotei, iefeiee,
umpiie, juuge oi coach in cases of game-fixing, point-shaving anu othei game
machination.
The penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium uegiee anu a fine ianging fiom
Five Bunuieu pesos to Two Thousanu Pesos shall be imposeu upon any peison who
shall knowingly anu without lawful puipose in any houi of any uay shall have in his
possession any lotteiy list, papei, oi othei mattei containing lettei, figuies, signs oi
symbols which peitain to oi in any mannei useu in the game of jueteng, jai-alai oi
hoise iacing bookies anu similai game oi lotteiy which has taken place oi about to
take place.
Sec. 2. Baiangay 0fficial. Any baiangay official in whose juiisuiction such
gambling house is founu anu which house has the ieputation of a gambling place
shall suffei the penalty of piision coiieccional in its meuium peiiou anu a fine
ianging fiom Five Bunuieu to Two Thousanu Pesos anu tempoiaiy absolute
uisqualifications.
Sec. S. Infoimei's Rewaiu. Any peison who shall give the infoimation that will
leau to the aiiest anu final conviction of the offenuei shall be iewaiueu an amount
equivalent to Twenty Pei Centum (2u%) of the cash money confiscateu foim the
offenuei.
Sec. 4. Repealing Clause. The piovisions of Aiticles 196, 197, 198 anu 199 of the
Reviseu Penal Coue, as amenueu, Republic Act No. Su6S, Piesiuential Beciee Nos.
48S, 499, S1u, 1Su6, Lettei of Instiuctions, laws, executive oiueis, iules anu
iegulations, City anu Nunicipal 0iuinances which aie inconsistent with this Beciee
aie heieby iepealeu oi accoiuingly mouifieu.
Sec. S. Effectivity. This Beciee shall take effect immeuiately upon publication
theieof by the Ninistei of the Ninistiy of Public Infoimation at least once in a
newspapei of geneial ciiculation.
B0NE in the City of Nanila, this 11th uay of }une in the yeai of 0ui Loiu, nineteen
hunuieu anu seventy-eight.

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PRESIBENTIAL BECREE N0. 161S
ANENBINu TBE LAW 0N ARS0N
WBEREAS, finuings of the police anu intelligence agencies of the goveinment ieveal
that fiies anu othei ciimes involving uestiuction in Netio Nanila anu othei uiban
centeis in the countiy aie being peipetuateu by ciiminal synuicates, some of which
have foieign connections;
WBEREAS, the cuiient law on aison suffei fiom ceitain inauequacies that impeue
the successful enfoicement anu piosecution of aisonists;
WBEREAS, it is impeiative that the high inciuence of fiies anu othei ciimes
involving uestiuction be pieventeu to piotect the national economy anu pieseive
the social economic anu political stability of the countiy;
N0W, TBEREF0RE, I, FERBINANB E. NARC0S, Piesiuent of the Philippines, by
viitue of the poweis vesteu in me by the Constitution uo heieby oiuei anu ueciee as
pait of the law of the lanu, the following:
Sec. 1. Aison. Any peison who buins oi sets fiie to the piopeity of anothei shall
be punisheu by Piision mayoi.
The same penalty shall be imposeu when a peison sets fiie to his own piopeity
unuei ciicumstances which expose to uangei the life oi piopeity of anothei.
Sec. 2. Bestiuctive Aison. The penalty of Reclusion tempoial in its maximum
peiiou to Reclusion peipetua shall be imposeu if the piopeity buineu is any of the
following:
1. Any ammunition factoiy anu othei establishment wheie explosives, inflammable
oi combustible mateiials aie stoieu.
2. Any aichive, museum, whethei public oi piivate oi any euifice uevoteu to cultuie,
euucation oi social seivices.
S. Any chuich oi place oi woiship oi othei builuing wheie people usually assemble.
4. Any tiain, aiiplane oi any aiiciaft, vessel oi wateiciaft, oi conveyance foi
tianspoitation of peisons oi piopeity.
S. Any builuing wheie eviuence is kept foi use in any legislative, juuicial,
auministiative oi othei official pioceeuings.
6. Any hospital, hotel, uoimitoiy, louging house, housing tenement, shopping centei,
public oi piivate maiket, theatei oi movie house oi any similai place oi builuing.
7. Any builuing, whethei useu as uwelling oi not, situateu in a populateu oi
congesteu aiea.
Sec. S. 0thei Cases of Aison. The penalty of Reclusion tempoial to Reclusion
peipetua shall be imposeu if the piopeity buineu is any of the following:
1. Any builuing useu as offices of the goveinment oi any of its agencies;
2. Any uninhabiteu house oi uwelling;
S. Any inuustiial establishment, shipyaiu, oil well oi mine shaft, platfoim oi tunnel;
4. Any plantation, faim, pastuielanu, giowing ciop, giain fileu, oichaiu, bamboo
giove oi foiest;
S. Any iice mill, cane mill oi mill cential; anu
6. Any iailway oi bus station, aiipoit, whaif oi waiehouse.
Sec. 4. Special Aggiavating Ciicumstances in Aison. The penalty in any case of
aison shall be imposeu in its maximum peiiou:
1. If committeu with intent to gain;
2. If committeu foi the benefit of anothei;
S. If the offenuei is motivateu by spite oi hatieu towaius the ownei oi occupant of
the piopeity buineu;
4. If committeu by a synuicate.
The offense is committeu by a synuicate if it is planneu oi caiiieu out by a gioup of
thiee (S) oi moie peisons.
Sec. S. Wheie Beath Results Fiom Aison. If by ieason of oi on the occasion of
aison ueath iesults, the penalty of Reclusion peipetua to ueath shall be imposeu.
Sec. 6. Piima Facie Eviuence of Aison. Any of the following ciicumstances shall
constitute piima facie eviuence of aison:
1. If the fiie staiteu simultaneously in moie than one pait of the builuing oi
establishment.
2. If substantial amount of flammable substances oi mateiials aie stoieu within the
builuing not necessaiy in the business of the offenuei noi foi householu use.
S. uasoline, keiosene, petioleum oi othei flammable oi combustible substances oi
mateiials soakeu theiewith oi containeis, theieof, oi any mechanical, electiical,
chemical, oi electionic contiivance uesigneu to stait a fiie, oi ashes oi tiaces of any
of the foiegoing aie founu in the iuins oi piemises of the buineu builuing oi
piopeity.
4. If the builuing oi piopeity is insuieu foi substantially moie than its actual value
at the time of the issuance of the policy.
S. If uuiing the lifetime of the coiiesponuing fiie insuiance policy moie than two
fiies have occuiieu in the same oi othei piemises owneu oi unuei the contiol of the
offenuei anuoi insuieu.
6. If shoitly befoie the fiie a substantial poition of the effects insuieu anu stoieu in
builuing oi piopeity hau been withuiawn fiom the piemises except in the oiuinaiy
couise of business.
7. If a uemanu foi money oi othei valuable consiueiation was maue befoie the fiie
in exchange foi the uesistance of the offenuei oi foi the safety of othei peison oi
piopeity of the victim.
Sec. 7. Conspiiacy to Commit Aison. Conspiiacy to commit aison shall be
punisheu by piision mayoi in its minimum peiiou.
Sec. 8. Confiscation of 0bject of Aison. The builuing which is the object of aison
incluuing the lanu on which it is situateu shall be confiscateu anu escheateu to the
State, unless the ownei theieof can piove that he has no paiticipation in noi
knowleuge of such aison uespite the exeicise of uue uiligence on his pait.
Sec. 9. Repealing Clause. The piovisions of Aiticles S2u to S26-B of the Reviseu
Penal Coue anu all laws, executive oiueis, iules anu iegulations, oi paits theieof,
inconsistent with the piovisions of this Beciee aie heieby iepealeu oi amenueu
accoiuingly.
Sec. 1u. Effectivity. This Beciee shall take effect immeuiately upon publication
theieof at least once in a newspapei of geneial ciiculation.
Bone in the City of Nanila this 7th uay of Naich nineteen hunuieu anu seventy nine.


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PRESIBENTIAL BECREE N0. 1744
ANENBINu ARTICLE TBREE B0NBREB ANB TWENTY 0F
TBE REvISEB PENAL C0BE PR0vISI0NS 0N ARS0N
WBEREAS, theie have been iampant anu wanton buinings of iesiuential houses,
public builuings, maikets, hotels anu othei commeicial establishments;
WBEREAS, to effectively uiscouiage anu uetei the commission of aison, anu to
pievent uestiuction of piopeities anu piotect the lives of innocent people, it is
necessaiy that the capital punishment be imposeu upon aisonists;
N0W, TBEREF0RE, I, FERBINANB E. NARC0S, Piesiuent of the Philippines by viitue
of the powei vesteu in me by the Constitution, uo heieby oiuei anu ueciee that
Aiticle S2u, Reviseu Penal Coue be amenueu:
Sec. 1. Aiticle S2u of the Reviseu Penal Coue shall ieau as follows:
"Ait. S2u. Bestiuctive Aison. The penalty of ieclusion tempoial in its maximum
peiiou to ueath shall be imposeu upon any peison who shall buin:
1. 0ne (1) oi moie builuings oi euifices, consequent to one single act of buining oi
as a iesult of simultaneous buinings, oi committeu on seveial oi uiffeient occasions;
2. Any builuing of public oi piivate owneiship, uevoteu to the public in geneial oi
wheie people usually gathei oi congiegate foi a uefinite puipose such as but not
limiteu to official goveinmental function oi business, piivate tiansaction, commeice,
tiaue woikshop, meetings anu confeiences, oi meiely inciuental to a uefinite
puipose such as but not limiteu to hotels, motels, tiansient uwellings, public
conveyance oi stops oi teiminals, iegaiuless of whethei the offenuei hau
knowleuge that theie aie peisons in saiu builuing oi euifice at the time it is set on
fiie anu iegaiuless also of whethei the builuing is actually inhabiteu oi not.
S. Any tiain oi locomotive, ship oi vessel, aiiship oi aiiplane, uevoteu to
tianspoitation oi conveyance, oi foi public use, enteitainment oi leisuie.
4. Any builuing, factoiy, waiehouse installation anu any appuitenances theieto,
which aie uevoteu to the seivice of public utilities.
S. Any builuing the buining of which is foi the puipose of concealing oi uestioying
eviuence of anothei violation of law, oi foi the puipose of concealing bankiuptcy oi
uefiauuing cieuitois oi to collect fiom insuiance.
Iiiespective of the application of the above enumeiateu qualifying ciicumstances,
the penalty of ueath shall likewise be imposeu when the aison is peipetiateu oi
committeu by two (2) oi moie peisons oi by a gioup of peisons, iegaiuless of
whethei theii puipose is meiely to buin oi uestioy the builuing oi the buining
meiely constitutes an oveit act in the commission oi anothei violation of law.
The penalty of ieclusion tempoial in its maximum peiiou to ueath shall also be
imposeu upon any peison who shall buin:
1. Any aisenal, shipyaiu, stoiehouse oi militaiy powuei oi fiiewoiks factoiy,
oiuinance, stoiehouse, aichives oi geneial museum of the goveinment.
2. In an inhabiteu place, any stoiehouse oi factoiy of inflammable oi explosive
mateiials.
If as a consequence of his commission of any of the acts penalizeu unuei this Aiticle,
ueath oi injuiy iesults, oi any valuable uocuments, equipment, machineiies,
appaiatus, oi othei valuable piopeities weie buineu oi uestioyeu, the manuatoiy
penalty of ueath shall be imposeu."
Sec. 2. Piovisions of Aiticles S2u, S21 anu S22 of the Reviseu Penal Coue which aie
oi may be inconsistent heiewith aie heieby iepealeu.
Sec. S. Effectivity. This Beciee shall take effect immeuiately.
Bone in the City of Nanila, this 11th uay of Novembei, in the yeai of 0ui Loiu,
nineteen hunuieu anu eighty.


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The othei piovisions of Republic Act 4S6S, appioveu 19, 196S aie as follows:
Sec. 2. If any section oi sections of this Act shall be ueclaieu unconstitutional oi
invaliu it shall not invaliuate the othei sections heieof.
Sec. S. This Act shall take effect only if anu when, within thiity uays fiom its
appioval, the newspapeimen in the Philippines shall oiganize, anu elect the
membeis of, a Philippine Piess Council, a piivate agency of the saiu newspapeimen,
whose function shall be to piomulgate a Coue of Ethics foi them anu the Philippines
piess, investigate violations theieof, anu censuie any newspapeiman oi newspapei
guilty of any violation of the saiu Coue, anu the fact that such Philippine Piess
council has been oiganizeu anu its membeis have been uuly electeu in accoiuance
heiewith shall be asceitaineu anu pioclaimeu by the Piesiuent of the Philippines.