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Tram
Melbourne's oldest tram heads along Glenhuntly
road
Powered yes
Self-propelled yes
Wheels 8+
Tracks 2
Trams in Vienna, one of the largest existing
networks in the world
Tram
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A tram (also known as tramcar; in North America
known as streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail
vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets
(called street running), and also sometimes on separate
rights of way. The lines or networks operated by tramcars
are called tramways. Tramways powered by electricity,
which were the most common type historically, were once
called electric street railways. Trams also include
horsecars, which were widely used in urban areas before
electrification.
Tram lines may also run between cities and/or towns (for
example, interurbans, tram-train), and/or partially grade-
separated even in the cities (light rail). Trams very
occasionally also carry freight.
Tram vehicles are usually lighter and shorter than
conventional trains and rapid transit trains. However, the
differences between these modes of public transportation
are often indistinct. Some trams (for instance tram-trains)
may also run on ordinary railway tracks, a tramway may
be upgraded to a light rail or a rapid transit line, two urban
tramways may be connected to an interurban, etc.
Most trams today use electrical power, usually fed by an
overhead pantograph; in some cases by a sliding shoe
on a third rail or trolley pole. If necessary, they may
have dual power systems - electricity in city streets, and
diesel in more rural environments. Steam, petrol
(gasoline), gas and draft animals have historically been
used as power sources. A few horse- or mule-powered
trams remain in operation, mostly for tourist or historic-
preservation purposes. Certain types of cable car are
also known as trams.
Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail",
[1]
which also includes segregated systems.
Contents
1 Etymology and terminology
2 History
2.1 Horse-drawn
2.2 Steam
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2.3 Cable-hauled
2.4 Hybrid funicular electric
2.5 Electric (trolley cars)
2.6 Gas trams
2.7 Other power sources
3 Design
3.1 Low floor
3.1.1 Ultra low floor
3.2 Articulated
3.3 Double decker
3.4 Tram-train
4 Non-commuter
4.1 Cargo trams
4.2 Hearse trams
4.3 Dog car
4.4 Contractors' mobile offices
4.5 Restaurant trams
4.6 Mobile Library Service
4.7 Nursery trams
4.8 Specialized work trams
4.9 Advertising
5 Tramway operation
6 Tram and light-rail transit systems around the world
6.1 Popularity
6.2 Largest tram systems
6.3 Asia
6.4 Europe
6.5 North America
6.6 Oceania
6.7 South America
7 Pros and cons of tram systems
7.1 Advantages
7.2 Disadvantages
8 In media
8.1 In literature
9 In popular culture
9.1 In the news
9.2 In scale modelling
10 Types
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Old tram stop
on-demand
notifier
11 Regional
12 See also
13 References
14 Further reading
15 External links
Etymology and terminology
The terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram,
[2]
referring
respectively to a type of truck used in coal mines, and the tracks on which they ran. The
word tram probably derived from Middle Flemish tram ("beam, handle of a barrow, bar,
rung"), a North Sea Germanic word of unknown origin meaning the beam or shaft of a
barrow or sledge, also the barrow itself. Tram-car is attested from 1873.
[3]
Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are
not used universally in English; North Americans prefer streetcar, trolley, or trolleycar.
The term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, and originally referred to horsecars drawn by
draft horses. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or later,
trolleys. These terms are believed to derive from the troller (possibly from the words
traveler and roller), a four-wheeled device that was dragged along dual overhead wires
by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power
from the overhead wires.
[4]
The troller design frequently fell off the wires, and was soon replaced by the more reliable
trolley pole. This newer device was fitted to the top of the car, and was spring-loaded in
order to keep a small trolley wheel or alternately, a grooved lubricated "skate" mounted at
the top of the pole, firmly in contact with the underside of the overhead wire. The terms
trolley pole and trolley wheel both derive from the troller.
[5]
Trams using trolley-pole
current collection are normally powered through a single pole, with return current earthed
through the steel wheels and rails. Modern trams often have an overhead pantograph mechanical linkage to
connect to power, abandoning the trolley pole altogether.
In North America, trams are sometimes called trolleys, even though strictly this may be incorrect, and the term
may even be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply.
Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US
(tourist trolley). Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed
segmented vehicles on rubber tires generally used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal
Studios backlot tour.
Over time, the term trolley has fallen into informal use, and may be applied loosely to a wide variety of different
vehicle types. The word has taken on a historic or picturesque connotation, and is often associated with tourist
or leisure travel. In North America, professional or formal documents generally use more precise alternative
terms, such as streetcar or light rail vehicle (LRV).
Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was later associated with the
trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead
wires. These electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are also called trackless trolleys (particularly in the
northeastern US), or sometimes simply trolleys (in the UK, as well as in Seattle and Vancouver).
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The Welsh Swansea and Mumbles
Railway ran the world's first
passenger tram service
External video
Clip from a Belfast horse tram in
1901
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=L7ILSgK4VgE) on YouTube
Steam hauled tram in Italy c 1890s
History
Horse-drawn
The very first tram was on the Swansea and Mumbles Railway in
south Wales, UK; it was horse-drawn at first, and later moved by
steam and electric power. The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by
the British Parliament in 1804, and the first passenger railway (similar
to streetcars in the US some 30 years later) started operating in
1807.
[6]
The first streetcars, also known as horsecars in North America, were
built in the United States and developed from city stagecoach lines
and omnibus lines that picked up and dropped off passengers on a
regular route without the need to be pre-hired. These trams were an
animal railway, usually using teams of horses and sometimes mules to
haul the cars, usually two as a team. Occasionally other animals were
put to use, or humans in emergencies. The first streetcar line,
developed by Irish born John Stephenson, was the New York and
Harlem Railroad's Fourth Avenue Line which ran along The Bowery
and Fourth Avenue in New York City. Service began in 1832. It was
followed in 1835 by New Orleans, Louisiana, which has the oldest
continuously operating street railway system in the world, according to
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
[7]
These early forms of public transport developed out of industrial haulage routes or from the omnibus that first
ran on public streets, using the newly invented iron or steel rail or 'tramway'. These were local versions of the
stagecoach lines and picked up and dropped off passengers on a regular route, without the need to be pre-
hired. Horsecars on tramlines were an improvement over the omnibus as the low rolling resistance of metal
wheels on iron or steel rails (usually grooved from 1852 on), allowed the animals to haul a greater load for a
given effort than the omnibus and gave a smoother ride. The horse-drawn streetcar combined the low cost,
flexibility, and safety of animal power with the efficiency, smoothness, and all-weather capability of a rail right-
of-way. The first horse-drawn street cars were used in Timisoara, Romania, in 1867.
Steam
The first mechanical trams were powered by steam. Generally, there
were two types of steam tram. The first and most common had a
small steam locomotive (called a tram engine in the UK) at the head
of a line of one or more carriages, similar to a small train. Systems
with such steam trams included Christchurch, New Zealand; Sydney,
Australia; other city systems in New South Wales; Munich, Germany
(from August 1883 on)
[8]
and the Dublin & Blessington Steam
Tramway in Ireland. Steam tramways also were used on the suburban
tramway lines around Milan; the last Gamba de Legn ("Peg-Leg")
tramway ran on the Milan-Magenta-Castano Primo route in late
1958.
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A San Francisco cable car: a cable
pulled system, still operating as of
2014
Tram engines usually had modifications to make them suitable for street running in residential areas. The wheels,
and other moving parts of the machinery, were usually enclosed for safety reasons and to make the engines
quieter. Measures were often taken to prevent the engines from emitting visible smoke or steam. Usually the
engines used coke rather than coal as fuel to avoid emitting smoke; condensers or superheating were used to
avoid emitting visible steam.
The other style of steam tram had the steam engine in the body of the tram, referred to as a tram engine or steam
dummy. The most notable system to adopt such trams was in Paris. French-designed steam trams also operated
in Rockhampton, in the Australian state of Queensland between 1909 and 1939. Stockholm, Sweden, had a
steam tram line at the island of Sdermalm between 1887 and 1901. A major drawback of this style of tram
was the limited space for the engine, so that these trams were usually underpowered.
Cable-hauled
The next motive system for trams was the cable car, which was pulled
along a fixed track by a moving steel cable. The power to move the
cable was normally provided at a "powerhouse" site a distance away
from the actual vehicle.
The first practical cable car line was tested in San Francisco, in 1873.
Part of its success is attributed to the development of an effective and
reliable cable grip mechanism, to grab and release the moving cable
without damage. The second city to operate cable trams was Dunedin
in New Zealand, from 1881 to 1957. From 1885 to 1940, the city of
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia operated one of the largest cable
systems in the world, at its peak running 592 trams on 75 kilometres
(47 mi) of track. There were also two isolated cable lines in Sydney,
New South Wales, Australia.
New York City developed at least seven cable car lines. A line in Washington DC ran to Georgetown (where
some of the underground cable vaults can still be seen today). Los Angeles also had several cable car lines,
including the Second Street Cable Railroad, which operated from 1885 to 1889, and the Temple Street Cable
Railway, which operated from 1886 to 1898. The most extensive cable system in the US was in Chicago
between 1882 and 1906.
[9]
In Dresden, Germany, in 1901 an elevated suspended cable car following the Eugen Langen one-railed
floating tram system started operating. Cable cars operated on Highgate Hill in North London and Kennington
to Brixton Hill In South London. They also worked around "Upper Douglas" in the Isle of Man (cable car 72/73
is the sole survivor of the fleet).
Cable cars suffered from high infrastructure costs, since an expensive system of cables, pulleys, stationary
engines and lengthy underground vault structures beneath the rails had to be provided. They also required
physical strength and skill to operate, and alert operators to avoid obstructions and other cable cars. The cable
had to be disconnected ("dropped") at designated locations to allow the cars to coast by inertia, for example
when crossing another cable line. The cable would then have to be "picked up" to resume progress, the whole
operation requiring precise timing to avoid damage to the cable and the grip mechanism.
Breaks and frays in the cable, which occurred frequently, required the complete cessation of services over a
cable route while the cable was repaired. Due to overall wear, the entire length of cable (typically several
kilometres) would have to be replaced on a regular schedule. After the development of reliable electrically
powered trams, the costly high-maintenance cable car systems were rapidly replaced in most locations.
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Cable tram dummy and trailer on the
St. Kilda Line in Melbourne in 1905.
Former second generation cable
tractor, used between 1978 and 2005,
assisting a tramcar on the cable
section of the Opicina Tramway in
Trieste, Italy.
Historic German electric tram
Cable cars remained especially effective in hilly cities, since their
nondriven wheels would not lose traction as they climbed or
descended a steep hill. The moving cable would physically pull the car
up the hill at a steady pace, unlike a low-powered steam or horse-
drawn car. Cable cars do have wheel brakes and track brakes, but
the cable also helps restrain the car to going downhill at a constant
speed. Performance in steep terrain partially explains the survival of
cable cars in San Francisco. However, the extensive cable car system
of Chicago operated over a large relatively flat area.
The San Francisco cable cars, though significantly reduced in number,
continue to perform a regular transportation function, in addition to
being a well-known tourist attraction. A single cable line also survives
in Wellington, New Zealand (rebuilt in 1979 as a funicular but still called the "Wellington Cable Car"). A third
system, actually two separate cable lines with a shared power station in the middle, operates from the Welsh
town of Llandudno up to the top of the Great Orme hill in North Wales, UK.
Hybrid funicular electric
The Opicina Tramway in Trieste operates a hybrid funicular electric
system. Conventional electric trams are operated in street running and
on reserved track for most of their route. However, on one steep
segment of track, they are assisted by cable tractors, which push the
trams uphill and act as brakes for the downhill run. For safety, the
cable tractors are always deployed on the downhill side of the tram
vehicle.
Electric (trolley cars)
Electric trams (known as
streetcars or trolleys in
North America) were first
experimentally installed in
Saint Petersburg, Russia,
invented and tested by Fyodor Pirotsky as early as 1880. These
trams, like virtually all others mentioned in this section, used either a
trolley pole or a pantograph, to feed power from electric wires strung
above the tram route. Nevertheless, there were early experiments
with battery-powered trams but these appear to have all been
unsuccessful. The first trams in Bendigo, Australia, in 1892, were
battery-powered but within as little as three months they were
replaced with horse-drawn trams. In New York City some minor lines also used storage batteries. Then,
comparatively recently, during the 1950s, a longer battery-operated tramway line ran from Milan to Bergamo.
The first regular electric tram service using pantographs or trolley poles, the Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway, went
into service in Lichterfelde, a suburb of Berlin, Germany, by Siemens & Halske AG, in May 1881.
[10]
The
company Siemens still exists.
Another was by John Joseph Wright, brother of the famous mining entrepreneur Whitaker Wright, in Toronto in
1883. Earlier installations proved difficult or unreliable. Siemens' line, for example, provided power through a
live rail and a return rail, like a model train, limiting the voltage that could be used, and providing electric shocks
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First type of Mdling and Hinterbrhl
tramcars, bipolar overhead line
Double-decker tram in Blackpool.
to people and animals crossing the tracks.
[11]
Siemens later designed his own method of current collection, from
an overhead wire, called the bow collector.
In 1883, Magnus Volk constructed his 2 feet (610 mm) gauge Volk's
Electric Railway along the eastern seafront at Brighton, England. This
two kilometer line, re-gauged to 2 feet 9 inches (840 mm) in 1884,
remains in service to this day, and is the oldest operating electric
tramway in the world. The first tram for permanent service with
overhead lines was the Mdling and Hinterbrhl Tram in Austria. It
began operating in October 1883, but was closed in 1932.
Multiple functioning experimental electric trams were exhibited at the
1884 World Cotton Centennial World's Fair in New Orleans,
Louisiana, but they were not deemed good enough to replace the
Lamm fireless engines that then propelled the St. Charles Avenue
Streetcar in that city.
Electric trams were first tested in service in the United States in Richmond, Virginia, in 1888, in the Richmond
Union Passenger Railway built by Frank J. Sprague, though the first commercial installation of an electric
streetcar in the United States was built in 1884 in Cleveland, Ohio and operated for a period of one year by the
East Cleveland Street Railway Company.
[12]
The first electric street tramway in Britain, the Blackpool Tramway,
was opened on 29 September 1885 using conduit collection along
Blackpool Promenade. Since the closure of the Glasgow Corporation
Tramways in 1962, this has been the only first-generation operational
tramway in the UK.
Sarajevo had the first electric trams on the continent of Europe, with a
city-wide system in 1885.
[13]
Budapest established its tramway
system in 1887, and this line has grown to be the busiest tram line in
Europe, with a tram running every 60 seconds at rush hour (however
Istanbul's line T1, with a minimum headway of two minutes, probably
carries more passengers 265,000 per day). Bucharest and
Belgrade
[14]
ran a regular service from 1894.
[15][16]
Ljubljana introduced its tram system in 1901 it closed in
1958.
[17]
In Australia there were electric systems in Sydney, Newcastle, Broken Hill, Geelong, Ballarat, Bendigo,
Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, Kalgoorlie, Laverton, Hobart and Launceston. By the 1970s, the only tramway
system remaining in Australia was the extensive Melbourne system other than a few single lines remaining
elsewhere: the Glenelg Tram, connecting Adelaide to the beachside suburb of Glenelg, and tourist trams in the
Victorian Goldfields cities of Bendigo and Ballarat. An unusual line that operated from 1889 to 1896 connected
Box Hill, then an outer suburb of Melbourne, to Doncaster, then a favoured picnic spot. In recent years the
Melbourne system, generally recognised as one of the largest in the world, has been considerably moderrnised
and expanded. The Adelaide line has also been extended to the Entertainment Centre, and there are plans to
expand further.
In 1904 trams were put into operation in Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Tramway is still in operation today and
uses double-decker trams exclusively.
Gas trams
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The only petrol-driven tram of
Stockholms Sprvgar, on line 19 in
the 1920s
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries a number of systems in various parts of the world employed trams
powered by gas, naphtha gas or coal gas in particular. Gas trams are known to have operated between
Alphington and Clifton Hill in the northern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia (18861888); in Berlin and
Dresden, Germany; in Estonia (1920s1930); between Jelenia Gra, Cieplice, and Sobieszw in Poland (from
1897); and in the UK at Lytham St Annes, Neath (18961920), and Trafford Park, Manchester (18971908).
On 29 December 1886 the Melbourne newspaper The Argus reprinted a report from the San Francisco Bulletin
that Mr Noble had demonstrated a new motor car for tramways 'with success'. The tramcar exactly similar in
size, shape, and capacity to a cable grip car had the motive power of gas with which the reservoir is to be
charged once a day at power stations by means of a rubber hose. The car also carried an electricity generator
for lighting up the tram and also for driving the engine on steep grades and effecting a start.
[18]
Comparatively little has been published about gas trams. However, research on the subject was carried out for
an article in the October 2011 edition of "The Times", the historical journal of the Australian Association of
Timetable Collectors.
[19][20]
A tram system powered by compressed gas was due to open in Malaysia in 2012,
[21]
but as of April 2014
there was no evidence of anything having happened; news about the project appears to have dried up.
Other power sources
In some places, other forms of power were used to power the tram.
Hastings and some other tramways, for example Stockholms
Sprvgar in Sweden and some lines in Karachi, used petrol trams.
Paris operated trams that were powered by compressed air using the
Mekarski system.
Galveston Island Trolley in Texas operates diesel trams due to the
city's hurricane-prone location, which would result in frequent damage
to an electrical supply system.
Although Portland, Victoria promotes its tourist tram
[22]
as being a
cable car it actually operates using a hidden diesel motor. The tram,
which runs on a circular route around the town of Portland, uses
dummies and salons formerly used on the extensive Melbourne cable tramway system and now beautifully
restored.
Design
Low floor
The latest generation of light rail vehicles is of partial or fully low-floor design, with the floor 300 to 360 mm
(11.8 to 14.2 in) above top of rail, a capability not found in older vehicles. This allows them to load passengers,
including those in wheelchairs, directly from low-rise platforms that are not much more than raised
footpaths/sidewalks. This satisfies requirements to provide access to disabled passengers without using
expensive wheelchair lifts, while at the same time making boarding faster and easier for other passengers.
Various companies have developed particular low-floor designs, varying from part-low-floor (with internal steps
between the low-floor section and the high-floor sections over the bogies), e.g. Citytram
[23]
and Siemens S70,
to 100% low-floor, where the floor passes through a corridor between the drive wheels, thus maintaining a
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Two Trams in Braunschweig,
Germany. The left one is an 1981
high-floor tram, the right one a 2007
low-floor
Entirely low-floor koda ForCity in
Prague
A type B ULF tram in Vienna
Combino Supra articulated tram in
Budapest
relatively constant (stepless)
level from end to end of the
tram.
Prior to the introduction of
the koda ForCity, this
carried the mechanical
penalty of requiring bogies
to be fixed and unable to
pivot (except for less than 5
degrees in some trams) and
thus reducing curve
negotiation. This creates
undue wear on the tracks and wheels.
Passengers appreciate the ease of boarding and alighting from low-floor trams and moving about inside 100%
low-floor trams. Passenger satisfaction with low-floor trams is high.
[24]
Low-floor trams are now running in many cities around the world, including Amsterdam, Dublin, Hiroshima,
Houston, Istanbul, Melbourne, Milan, Prague, Riga, Strasbourg, Vienna, Zagreb, Helsinki and Zrich.
Ultra low floor
The Ultra Low Floor or (ULF) tram is a type of low-floor tram
operating in Vienna, Austria and Oradea, Romania, with the lowest
floor-height of any such vehicle. In contrast to other low-floor trams,
the floor in the interior of ULF is at sidewalk height (about 18 cm or
7 inches above the road surface), which makes access to trams easy
for passengers in wheelchairs or with baby carriages. This
configuration required a new undercarriage. The axles had to be
replaced by a complicated electronic steering of the traction motors.
Auxiliary devices are installed largely under the cars roof.
Articulated
Articulated trams, invented and first used by the Boston Elevated
Railway in 191213
[25]
at a total length of about twelve meters long
(40 ft) for each pioneering example of twin-section articulated tram
car, have two or more body sections, connected by flexible joints and
a round platform at their pivoting midsection(s). Like articulated
buses, they have increased passenger capacity. In practice, these
trams can be up to 53 metres (174 ft) long
[26]
(such as in Budapest,
Hungary), while a regular tram has to be much shorter. With this type,
the articulation is normally suspended between carbody sections.
In the koda ForCity, which is the world's first 100% low floor tram with pivoting bogies, a Jacobs bogie
supports the articulation between the two or more carbody sections. An articulated tram may be low-floor
variety or high (regular) floor variety. Newer model trams may be up to 72 metres (236 ft) long and carry 510
passengers at a comfortable 4 passengers/m
2
. At crush loadings this would be even higher.
[27]
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A double deck London tram in 1910
CarGoTram run by Volkswagen in
Dresden, Germany on a section of
grassed track. It delivers parts to the
Transparent Factory.
Double decker
Double decker trams were commonplace in Great Britain and Dublin
Ireland before most tramways were torn up in the 1950s and 1960s.
Hobart, Tasmania, Australia made extensive use of double decker
trams. Arguably the most unusual double decker tram used to run
between the isolated Western Australian outback village of Laverton
and its small suburb of Gwalia.
Double decker trams still operate in Alexandria, Blackpool and Hong
Kong.
Tram-train
Tram-train operation uses vehicles such as the Flexity Link and Regio-Citadis, which are suited for use on urban
tram lines and also meet the necessary indication, power, and strength requirements for operation on main-line
railways. This allows passengers to travel from suburban areas into city-centre destinations without having to
change from a train to a tram.
It has been primarily developed in Germanic countries, in particular Germany and Switzerland. Karlsruhe is a
notable pioneer of the tram-train.
Non-commuter
Cargo trams
Since the 19th century goods have been carried on rail vehicles
through the streets, often near docks and steelworks, for example the
Weymouth Harbour Tramway in Weymouth, Dorset.
[28]
Belgian
vicinal tramway routes were used to haul agricultural proeduce, timber
and coal from Blgny colliery (http://www.trams-
trolleybus.be/Blegny_video.html) while in the USA several of the US
interurbans carried freight. In Australia, three different "Freight Cars"
operated in Melbourne between 1927 and 1977
[29]
and the city of
Kislovodsk in Russia had a freight-only tram system consisting of one
line which was used exclusively to deliver bottled Narzan mineral
water to the railway station.
[30]
Today, the German city of Dresden has a regular CarGoTram
service, run by the world's longest tram trainsets (59.4 metres
(195 ft)), carrying car parts across the city centre to its Volkswagen
factory.
[31]
In addition to Dresden, the cities of Vienna and Zrich currently use trams as mobile recycling
depots.
At the turn of the 21st century, a new interest has arisen in using urban tramway systems to transport goods. The
motivation now is to reduce air pollution, traffic congestion and damage to road surfaces in city centres.
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One recent proposal to bring cargo tramways back into wider use was the plan by City Cargo Amsterdam to
reintroduce them into the city of Amsterdam. In the spring of 2007 the city piloted this cargo tram operation,
which among its aims aimed to reduce particulate pollution in the city by 20% by halving the number of lorries
(5,000) unloading in the inner city during the permitted timeframe from 07:00 till 10:30. The pilot involved two
cargo trams, operating from a distribution centre and delivering to a "hub" where special electric trucks delivered
the trams' small containers to their final destination. The trial was successful, releasing an intended investment of
100 million in a fleet of 52 cargo trams distributing from four peripheral "cross docks" to 15 inner-city hubs by
2012. These specially built vehicles would be 30 feet (9.14 m) long with 12 axles and a payload of 30 tonnes
(33.1 short tons; 29.5 long tons). On weekdays, trams are planned to make 4 deliveries per hour between
7 a.m. and 11 a.m. and two per hour between 11 a.m. and 11 p.m. With each unloading operation taking on
average 10 minutes, this means that each site would be active for 40 minutes out of each hour during the
morning rush hour. In early 2009 the scheme was suspended owing to the financial crisis impeding fund-
raising.
[32]
Hearse trams
Specially appointed hearse trams, or funeral trolley cars, were used for funeral processions in many cities in the
late 19th and early 20th century, particularly cities with large tram systems. The earliest known example in North
America was Mexico City, which was already operating 26 funeral cars in 1886.
[33]
In the United States,
funeral cars were often given names. At the turn of the century, "almost every major city [in the U.S.] had one or
more"
[33]:93
such cars in operation.
In Milan, Italy, hearse trams were used from the 1880s (initially horse-drawn) to the 1920s. The main
cemeteries, Cimitero Monumentale and Cimitero Maggiore, included funeral tram stations. Additional funeral
stations were located at Piazza Firenze and at Porta Romana.
[34]
In the mid-1940s at least one special hearse
tram was used in Turin, Italy. It was introduced due to the wartime shortage of automotive fuel.
[35]
Newcastle, NSW, Australia also operated two hearse trams
[36]
between 1896 and 1948.
Dog car
In Melbourne a "dog car" was used between 1937 and 1955 for transporting dogs and their owners to the
Royal Melbourne Showgrounds.
[29]
Contractors' mobile offices
Two former passenger cars from the Melbourne system were converted and used as mobile offices within the
Preston Workshops between 1969 and 1974, by personnel from Commonwealth Engineering and ASEA who
were connected with the construction of Melbourne's Z Class cars.
[29]
Restaurant trams
A number of systems have introduced restaurant trams, particularly as a tourist attraction. This is specifically a
modern trend. Systems which have or have had restaurant trams include Adelaide, Australia; Bendigo, Australia;
Brussels, Belgium; Christchurch, New Zealand (currently suspended pending post earthquake infrastructure
assessment); Melbourne, Australia; Milan, Italy; Moscow, Russia; Turin, Italy; and Zurich, Switzerland.
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A Melbourne tramcar restaurant in St
Kilda
Vasileostrovsky tram depot and
Museum of electrical transport in St.
Petersburg, Russia
These type of vehicles are particularly popular in Melbourne where three of the iconic "W" class trams have
been converted to restaurant trams. All three often run in tandem and there are usually multiple meal sittings.
Bookings often close months in advance.
Bistro trams with buffets operate between Krefeld and Dsseldorf in Germany,
[37]
while Helsinki in Finland has
a pub tram. Frankfurt, Germany has a tourist circle line called "Ebbelwei-Express", in which the traditional local
drink "Apfelwein" is served.
[38]
Mobile Library Service
Munich tram No.24, delivered in 1912, was refurbished as a mobile
library in 1928. Known as "Stdtische Wanderbcherei Mnchen", it
was in public service until 1970. It was preserved and is now on
public display in a railway museum in Hannover.
[39]
Nursery trams
After World War Two, in both Warsaw and Wrocaw, Poland, so-
called trams-nurseries
[40]
were in operation, collecting children from the workplaces of their parents (often tram
employees). These mobile nursuries either carried the children around the system or delivered them to the
nursery school run by transport company.
[41]
Specialized work trams
Most systems had cars that were converted to specific uses on the system, other than simply the carriage of
passengers. As just one example, the Melbourne system used or uses the following "technical" cars : a Ballast
Motor, Ballast Trailers, a Blow Car, Breakdown Cars, Conductors and/or Drivers' Instruction Cars, a
Laboratory Testing Car, a Line Marking Car, a Pantograph Testing Car, Per Way Locomotives, Rail Grinders,
a Rail Hardner Loco., a Scrapper Car, Scrubbers, Sleeper Carriers, Track Cleaners, a Welding Car, a Wheel
Transport Car and a Workshops Locomotive.
[29]
Advertising
Many systems have passenger carrying vehicles with all-over advertising on the exterior and/or the interior.
Tramway operation
There are two main types of tramways, the classic tramway build in
the early 20th century with the tram system operating in mixed traffic
and the later type which is most often associated with the tram system
having its own right of way. Tram systems that have their own right of
way are often called light rail but this does not always hold true.
Though these two systems differ in their operation their equipment is
much the same.
Infrastructure and equipment
Tram stop
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Czech Tatra T3 14,113 units sold
worldwide make it one of the highest-
selling types of tram.
Controls
Track
Power supply
Pantographs
Ground-level power supply
Conduit current collection
Tram and light-rail transit systems around the world
Throughout the world there are many tram systems; some dating from
the late 19th or early 20th centuries. However a large number of the
old systems were closed during the mid-20th century because of such
perceived drawbacks as route inflexibility and maintenance expense.
This was especially the case in North American, British, French and
other West European cities. Some traditional tram systems did
however survive and remain operating much as when first built over a
century ago. In the past twenty years their numbers have been
augmented by modern tramway or light rail systems in cities that had
discarded this form of transport.
Popularity
Tramways with tramcars (British English) or street railways with
streetcars (American English) were common throughout the
industrialised world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries but they
had disappeared from most British, Canadian, French and US cities by the mid-20th century.
[42]
By contrast, trams in parts of continental Europe continued to be used by many cities, although there were
contractions in some countries, including the Netherlands.
[43]
Since 1980 trams have returned to favour in many places, partly because their tendency to dominate the
roadway, formerly seen as a disadvantage, is now considered to be a merit. New systems have been built in the
United States, Great Britain, Ireland, France and many other countries.
In Milan, Italy, the old "Ventotto" trams are considered by its inhabitants a "symbol" of the city.
Largest tram systems
The seven largest tram networks in the world by track length are Melbourne, Australia (250 km (160 mi)),
[44]
St. Petersburg (240 km (150 mi)), Amsterdam (213 km (132 mi)), Berlin (190 km (120 mi)), Moscow
(181 km (112 mi)), Vienna (172 km (107 mi))
[45]
and Budapest (157 km (97 mi)). The longest single tram line
in the world is the Belgian Coast Tram, which runs almost the entire length of the Belgian coast. Other large
systems include (but are not limited to) Brussels, Bucharest, Kiev, Leipzig, Milan, Prague, the Silesian
Interurbans, Toronto, Turin, Warsaw, Zagreb and Zurich.
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Two Melbourne trams passing
Flinders Street Station in Swanston
Street, 2013.
A double-decker tram in Hong Kong
The new tram in Kolkata, India
Before its decline, the BVG in Berlin operated a very large network
with 634 km (394 mi) of route. The largest tram system ever, with
857 km (533 mi), existed in Buenos Aires before the 1960s. During a
period in the 1980s, the world's largest tram system was in Leningrad,
USSR, being included in Guinness World Records.
Until the system started to be converted to trolleybus (and later bus)
in the 1930s, the first-generation London network was also one of the
world's largest, with 526 km (327 mi) of route in 1934.
[46]
While the
largest streetcar network in the world used to be located in Chicago,
with over 850 km (530 mi) of track,
[47]
all of it was converted to bus
service by the late 1950s.
The Paris Tram System accounted at its peak 1,111 km (690 mi) of tracks (in 1925), before its complete
destruction in the 1930s.
Asia
Tramway systems were well established in the Asian region at the
start of the 20th century, but started a steady decline during the mid to
late 1930s. The 1960s marked the end of its dominance in public
transportation with most major systems closed and the equipment and
rails sold for scrap; however, some extensive original lines still remain
in service in Hong Kong and Japan. In recent years there has been
renewed interest in the tram with modern systems being built in Japan,
the Philippines, and South Korea.
In India trams still operate
in Calcutta. Trams were
discontinued in Chennai in
1954 and in Mumbai in 1960.
The Northern and Central areas of the City of Colombo in Sri Lanka
had an electric Tram Car system (42" Gauge). This system
commenced operations about 1900 and was discontinued by 1960.
Other countries with discontinued tram systems include Malaysia,
Thailand Bangkok Tram (http://www.bangkoktram.com), Pakistan
and Vietnam. However, a tram system is planned for construction in
Gwadar, Pakistan where construction started in late 2011. In China the cities of Beijing, Zhuhai, Nanjing and
Shenzhen are planning tram networks for the future.
The first Japanese tram line was inaugurated in 1895 as the Kyoto Electric Railroad. The tram reached its zenith
in 1932 when 82 rail companies operated 1,479 kilometers of track in 65 cities. The tram declined in popularity
through the remaining years of the 1930s and during the 1960s many of the remaining operational tramways
were shut down and dismantled.
Europe
In many European cities much tramway infrastructure was lost in the mid-20th century, though not always on the
same scale as in other parts of the world such as North America. Most of Eastern Europe retained tramway
systems until recent years but some cities are now reconsidering their transport priorities. In contrast, some
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New Berlin MetroTrams
San Francisco PCC heritage streetcar
on Market Street
The Toronto streetcar system is the
largest in North America.
Western European cities are rehabilitating, upgrading, expanding and reconstructing their old tramway lines.
Many Western European towns and cities are also building new tramway lines.
North America
In North America, trams
are generally known as
"streetcars" (or sometimes
as "trolleys"); the term tram
is more likely to be
understood as a tourist
trolley, an aerial tramway,
or a people-mover.
In most North American cities, streetcar lines were largely torn up in
the mid-20th century for a variety of financial, technological and social
reasons, mainly as a result of the Great American Streetcar Scandal.
Exceptions included Boston, New Orleans, Newark, Philadelphia (with a much shrunken network), Pittsburgh,
San Francisco, Cleveland, and Toronto. Pittsburgh had kept most of its streetcar system serving the city and
many suburbs until severe cutbacks on 27 January 1967, making it the longest-lasting large-network US
streetcar system, though Pittsburgh's surviving streetcar lines were converted to light rail in the 1980s.
Toronto currently has the largest streetcar system in the Americas in
terms of track length and ridership, operated by the Toronto Transit
Commission. This is the only large-scale streetcar system existing in
Canada, not including the light rail systems that some Canadian cities
currently operate, or heritage streetcar lines operating only seasonally.
Toronto's system uses Canadian Light Rail Vehicles and Articulated
Light Rail Vehicles, after a history of using PCCs, Peter Witt cars,
and horse-drawn carriages. The TTC has ordered a fleet of
Bombardier's Flexity Outlook (also used in some European tram
systems) as a replacement, and is in acceptance testing as of Fall
2012.
[48]
Newer light rail lines in Toronto and Kitchener-Waterloo
will be using the Flexity Freedom.
Streetcars once existed in Edmonton and Calgary, but both Canadian cities have since converted their systems
to support light rail vehicles instead. Streetcars also once operated in cities such as Ottawa, Montreal,
Kitchener, Hamilton, Kingston, London, Windsor and Peterborough. Some of these cities have restored their
old streetcars and run them as a heritage feature for tourists, such as the Vancouver Downtown Historic
Railway.
San Francisco's Muni Metro system is the largest surviving streetcar system in the United States, and has even in
more recent years revived previously closed streetcar lines such as the F Market & Wharves heritage streetcar
line.
In a trend started in the 1980s, some American cities have brought back streetcars, examples of these being
Memphis, Portland, Tampa, Little Rock, Seattle and Dallas. Prior to 2000, most of these new-generation
streetcar systems were heritage streetcar lines, using vintage or replica-vintage vehicles, but following the 2001
opening of the Portland Streetcar system the first to use modern vehicles
[49]
most new US systems have
been designed to use modern, low-floor cars. Several additional cities are planning or proposing new streetcar
systems, and such systems are under construction in Atlanta, Cincinnati, Dallas (a second system), Kansas City,
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A heritage H-Class model
(foreground) and modern Flexity tram
(background) in Glenelg, Adelaide
Puerto Madero Tramway in Buenos
Aires
Tucson and Washington DC. Alternatively, in the late 20th century, several cities installed modern light rail
systems, in part along the same corridors as their old streetcars systems, the first of these being the San Diego
Trolley in San Diego in 1981.
Oceania
In Australia, trams are used extensively only in Melbourne, and to a
lesser extent, Adelaide, all other major cities having largely dismantled
their networks by the 1970s. Sydney reintroduced its tram in 1997 on
a modern light rail network, while Ballarat reintroduced their trams as
a heritage system. Bendigo had a heritage system for a while, which
has been upgraded to a basic public transport system through an
increase in frequency. A completely new system will open on the
Gold Coast, Queensland in 2014. As of January 2014, the Sydney
line was being expanded. There are also plans for the reintroduction
of trams in Perth and Hobart, and for another completely new system
in Canberra.
A distinctive feature of many Australian trams was the early use of a
lowered central section between bogies (wheel-sets). This was
intended to make passenger access easier, by reducing the number of steps required to reach the inside of the
vehicle. It is believed that the design first originated in Christchurch, New Zealand, in the first decade of the 20th
century. Cars with this design feature were frequently referred to as "drop-centres". Trams for Christchurch and
Wellington built in the 1920s with an enclosed section at each end and an open-sided middle section were also
known as boon cars, but did not have the drop-centre. Trams built since the 1970s have had conventional high
or low floors.
New Zealand's last public transport tramway system, that of Wellington, closed in 1966. Christchurch however
subsequently reintroduced heritage trams over a new CBD route, but the overhead wiring plus some track was
damaged by the earthquake of 2011. In November 2013 a limited circuit was reopened. Auckland has recently
introduced heritage trams into the Wynyard area, near the CBD using former Melbourne trams as no operable
former Auckland cars are believed to exist. A heritage line exists in Queen Elizabeth Park on the Kapiti Coast,
running through open countryside.
South America
Buenos Aires in Argentina had once one of the most extensive
tramway networks in the world with over 857 km (535 mi) of track,
most of it dismantled during the 1960s in favor of bus transportation.
Now slowly coming back, the 2 km Puerto Madero Tramway running
in the Puerto Madero district is spearheading the move with
extensions to Retiro station and La Boca in the planning stages.
Another line, the PreMetro line E2 system feeding the Line E of the
Buenos Aires Subway has been operating for the past few years on
the outskirts of Buenos Aires, and a unique leisure "Tren de la Costa",
an artery that stretches for 15 kilometres by the River Plate, from
Olivos to the village of Tigre has also been running in Buenos Aires.
Also in the city Mendoza, in Argentina, a new tramway system is in construction, the Metrotranva of Mendoza,
which will have a route of 12.5 km and will link five districts of the Greater Mendoza conurbation. The opening
of the system is scheduled for August 2011.
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In Medelln, Colombia, there is a tram line under construction and the opening schedule is for December
2011.
[50]
Bogota, Colombia used to have a very extensive tram system until the violent events of the Bogotazo
in 1948.
[51]
Pros and cons of tram systems
All transit services, except personal rapid transit, involve a trade-off between speed and frequency of stops.
Services that stop frequently have a lower overall speed, and are therefore less attractive for longer trips.
Metros, light rail, monorail, and bus rapid transit are all forms of rapid transit, which generally signifies high
speed and widely spaced stops. Trams are often used as a form of local transit, making frequent stops. Thus,
the most meaningful comparison of advantages and disadvantages is with other forms of local transit, primarily
the local bus.
Advantages
Vehicles run more efficiently and overall operating costs are lower.
[52]
In general, trams provide a higher capacity service than buses.
Consistent market research and experience over the last 50 years in Europe and North America shows
that car commuters are willing to transfer some trips to rail-based public transport but not to buses.
Typically light rail systems attract between 30 and 40% of their patronage from former car trips. Rapid
transit bus systems attract less than 5% of trips from cars, less than the variability of traffic.
[53]
Steel wheels on steel track create about one-seventh as much friction as rubber tyres on bitumen, thus
creating dramatically less pollution when carrying the same load.
[54]
Unlike omnibuses, but like trolleybuses, (electric) trams give off no exhaust emissions at point of use.
Since the beginning, many trams have been bidirectional (i.e. driver cabs at both ends) and most new
trams being built (particularly by the major universal manufacturers) are bidirectional. The major
advantage of a bidirectional tram over a unidirectional vehicle (tram or bus) is that stub terminals are used
rather than turning loops, allowing a major saving in rail infrastructure and sometimes-expensive real
estate. A few tram systems, particularly in North America, are still unidirectional.
Compared to motorbuses the noise of trams is generally perceived to be less disturbing. (However, the
use by some trams of solid axles with wheels fixed to them can cause slippage between wheels and tracks
when negotiating curves. This produces a characteristic squeal.)
Trams can run on renewable electricity without the need for very expensive and short life batteries.
[53]
They can use overhead wire set to be shared with trolleybuses (a three wire system).
The existence of a fixed route gives people confidence in the robustness and long-term future of the
system, allowing them to rely on it and build their lifestyles around it. A bus route could be cancelled at
any time, but a tram line is far less likely to close down.
Some trams can adapt to the number of passengers by adding more cars during rush hour (and removing
them during off-peak hours). No additional driver is then required for the trip in comparison to buses.
Multiple entrances allow trams to load faster than suburban coaches, which tend to have a single
entrance. This, combined with swifter acceleration and braking, lets trams maintain higher overall speeds
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Sign warning cyclists of
tram tracks
than buses, if congestion allows.
[55]
The trams' stops in the street are easily accessible, unlike stations of subways and commuter railways
placed underground (with several escalators, stairways etc.) or in the outskirts of the city center.
Rights-of-way for trams are narrower than for buses. This saves valuable space in cities with high
population densities and/or narrow streets.
Trams can trackshare with mainline railways, servicing smaller towns without requiring special track as in
Stadtbahn Karlsruhe and at greater speed than buses.
Passenger comfort is normally superior to buses because of controlled acceleration and braking and
curve easement. Rail transport such as used by trams provides a smoother ride than road use by buses.
Because the tracks are visible, it is easy for potential riders to know where the routes are.
Because trams run on rails, the ride is far more comfortable than that of a rubber-tyred bus. Blemishes in
the road surface are less noticeable.
Disadvantages
Tram infrastructure (such as island platforms) occupies urban space at ground-level, sometimes to the
exclusion of other users.
The capital cost is higher than for buses, even though a tramcar usually has a much longer lifetime than a
bus.
Trams can cause speed reduction for other transport modes (buses, cars) when stops in the middle of the
road do not have pedestrian refuges, as in such configurations other traffic cannot pass whilst passengers
alight or board the tram.
When operated in mixed traffic (street running), trams are more likely to be delayed by disruptions in their
lane. Buses, by contrast, can sometimes manoeuver around obstacles. Opinions differ on whether the
deference that drivers show to tramsa cultural issue that varies by countryis sufficient to counteract
this disadvantage.
Tram tracks can be hazardous for cyclists, as bikes, particularly those
with narrow tyres, may get their wheels caught in the track grooves.
[56]
It is possible to close the grooves of the tracks on critical sections by
rubber profiles that are pressed down by the wheelflanges of the
passing tram but that cannot be lowered by the weight of a cyclist. If
not well-maintained, however, these lose their effectiveness over time.
When wet, tram tracks tend to become slippery and thus dangerous for
bicycles and motorcycles, especially in traffic.
[56][57][58]
In some cases,
even cars can be affected.
[59]
Steel wheel trams are noisier than rubber-wheeled buses or
trolleybuses when cornering if there are no additional measures taken
(e.g. greasing wheel flanges, which is standard in new-built systems). In
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older trams, the wheels are fixed onto axles so they have to rotate together, but going around curves, one
wheel or the other has to slip, and that can cause loud squeals. A related improvement is rubber isolation
between the wheel disc and the rim, as used on Boston (Massachusetts, US) Green Line 3400 and 3600
series cars. These cars are much quieter than those with solid metal wheels. (This construction requires a
flexible cable to electrically connect the tyre to the wheel body.)
Trams usually have less effective suspension systems than buses, which tends to negate the ride quality
benefits of steel rails.
The opening of new tram and light rail systems has sometimes been accompanied by a marked increase in
car accidents, as a result of drivers' unfamiliarity with the physics and geometry of trams.
[60]
Though such
increases may be temporary, long-term conflicts between motorists and light rail operations can be
alleviated by segregating their respective rights-of-way and installing appropriate signage and warning
systems.
[61]
Rail transport can expose neighbouring populations to moderate levels of low-frequency noise. However,
transportation planners use noise mitigation strategies to minimize these effects.
[62]
Most of all, the
potential for decreased private motor vehicle operations along the trolley's service line because of the
service provision could result in lower ambient noise levels than without.
In the event of a breakdown or accident, or even roadworks and maintenance, a whole section of the
tram network can be blocked. Buses and trolleybuses can often get past minor blockages, although
trolleybuses are restricted by how far they can go from the wires. Conventional buses can divert around
major blockages as well, as can most modern trolleybuses that are fitted with auxiliary engines or traction
batteries. The tram blockage problem can be mitigated by providing regular crossovers so a tram can run
on the opposite line to pass a blockage, although this can be more difficult when running on road sections
shared with other road users or when both tracks happen to be blocked. On extensive networks
diversionary routes may be available depending on the location of the blockage. Breakdown related
problems can be reduced by minimising the situations where a tram would be stuck on route, as well as
making it as simple as possible for another tram to rescue a failed one.
Exclusive right of way (by law, or by physical exclusion) today can also be achieved by other modes of
transport, which may claim to have a lower cost for a new system (like ULTra personal rapid transit).
Dedicated busways with diesel or electric buses can support commuter services (such as Bus Haut
Niveau de Service in Paris, and BHNS High Level Service Bus in UK) with features (such as Solaris
Urbino 18 Hybrid MetroStyle) similar to new trams. New technologies have blurred the previously rigid
lines among traditional rail services, traditional bus services, and private cars, with new hybrid mode
systems under development. Experimental vehicles, such as China's straddle bus promise new capabilities
and flexibility not seen in traditional systems.
In media
In literature
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One of the earliest literary references to trams occurs on the second page of Henry James's novel The
Europeans:
From time to time a strange vehicle drew near to the place where they stoodsuch a vehicle as
the lady at the window, in spite of a considerable acquaintance with human inventions, had never
seen before: a huge, low, omnibus, painted in brilliant colours, and decorated apparently with
jingling bells, attached to a species of groove in the pavement, through which it was dragged, with
a great deal of rumbling, bouncing, and scratching, by a couple of remarkably small horses.
Published in 1878, the novel is set in the 1840s, though horse trams were not introduced in Boston till the
1850s. Note how the tram's efficiency surprises the European visitor; how two "remarkably small" horses
sufficed to draw the "huge" tramcar.
James also makes comical reference to the novelty and excitement of trams in Portrait of a Lady (1881):
Henrietta Stackpole was struck with the fact that ancient Rome had been paved a good deal like
New York, and even found an analogy between the deep chariot-ruts traceable in the antique
street and the overjangled iron grooves which express the intensity of American life.
[63]
A quarter of a century later, Joseph Conrad described Amsterdam's trams in chapter 14 of The Mirror of the
Sea (1906): From afar at the end of Tsar Peter Straat, issued in the frosty air the tinkle of bells of the
horse tramcars, appearing and disappearing in the opening between the buildings, like little toy
carriages harnessed with toy horses and played with by people that appeared no bigger than children.
In episode 6 (Hades) of James Joyce's Ulysses (1918), the party on the way to Paddy Dignam's funeral in a
horse-drawn carriage idly debates the merits of various tramway improvements:
- I can't make out why the corporation doesn't run a tramline from the parkgate to the quays, Mr Bloom
said. All those animals could be taken in trucks down to the boats.
- Instead of blocking up the thoroughfare, Martin Cunningham said. Quite so. They ought to.
- Yes, Mr Bloom said, and another thing I often thought is to have municipal funeral trams like they have
in Milan, you know. Run the line out to the cemetery gates and have special trams, hearse and carriage
and all. Don't you see what I mean?
O that be damned for a story, Mr Dedalus said. Pullman car and saloon diningroom.
A poor lookout for Corny [the undertaker], Mr Power added.
Why? Mr Bloom asked, turning to Mr Dedalus. Wouldn't it be more decent than galloping two
abreast?
[64]
In his fictionalised but autobiographical Memoirs of an Infantry Officer, published in 1930, Siegfried
Sassoon's narrator ruminates from his hospital bed in Denmark Hill, London, in 1917 that "Even the screech and
rumble of electric trams was a friendly sound; trams meant safety; the troops in the trenches thought about trams
with affection."
[65]
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Porcelain plate commemorating the
launch of the first trams in Moscow
and Nizhni Novgorod in 1896-99.
Decorated with a tram running on an
electric cable above, in front of a
building with onion-shaped dome, in
lithographic transfer.Designed by
Vitaly Vlasoff. Imperial Porcelain
Factory, St Petersburg, 2006.
Danzig trams figure extensively in the early stages of Gnter Grass's Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum). In the
last chapter the novel's hero Oskar Matzerath and his friend Gottfried von Vittlar steal a tram late at night from
outside Unterrath depot on the northern edge of Dsseldorf.
It is a surreal journey. Von Vittlar drives the tram through the night, south to Flingern and Haniel and then east to
the suburb of Gerresheim. Meanwhile, inside, Matzerath tries to rescue the half-blind Victor Weluhn (who had
escaped from the siege of the Polish post office in Danzig at the beginning of the book and of the war) from his
two green-hatted would-be executioners. Mazerath deposits his briefcase, which contains Sister Dorotea's
severed ring finger in a preserving jar, on the dashboard "where professional motorman put their lunchboxes".
They leave the tram at the terminus and the executioners tie Weluhn to a tree in von Vittlar's mother's garden
and prepare to machine-gun him. But Matzerath drums, Weluhn sings, and together they conjure up the Polish
cavalry, who spirit both victim and executioners away. Matzerath asks von Vittlar to take his briefcase in the
tram to the police HQ in the Frstenwall, which he does.
The latter part of this route is today served by tram route 703 terminating at Gerresheim Stadtbahn station ("by
the glassworks" as Grass notes, referring to the famous glass factory).
[66]
In his 1967 spy thriller An Expensive Place to Die, Len Deighton misidentifies the Flemish coast tram: "The red
glow of Ostend is nearer now and yellow trains rattle alongside the motor road and over the bridge by the Royal
Yacht Club
[67]
..."
[68]
In popular culture
Dziga Vertov's experimental 1929 film Man with a Movie
Camera includes shots of trams (at 10 and 42 minutes).
The Rev W. Awdry wrote about GER Class C53 called Toby
the Tram Engine, which starred his The Railway Series with
his faithful coach, Henrietta.
A Streetcar Named Desire (play)
A Streetcar Named Desire (1951 film)
Black Orpheus (1959), of which the main male character
Orfeu is a tram driver in Rio de Janeiro's tram system.
Toonerville Folks comic strip (190855) by Fontaine Fox
featuring the "Toonerville Trolley that met all the trains."
The children's TV show Mister Rogers' Neighborhood
featured a trolley.
The central plot of the film Who Framed Roger Rabbit
involves Judge Doom, the villain, dismantling the streetcars of
Los Angeles.
"The Trolley Song" in the film Meet Me in St. Louis received an Academy Award nomination.
The 1944 World Series was also known as the "Streetcar Series".
Malcolm (film), an Australian film about a tram enthusiast who uses his inventions to pull off a bank heist.
Luis Buuel filmed La Ilusin viaja en tranva
[69]
(English: Illusion Travels by Streetcar) in Mexico in
1953.
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In Akira Kurosawa's film Dodesukaden a mentally ill boy pretends to be a tram conductor.
The Stompin' Tom Connors song "To It And At It" mentions a man who "can't afford the train, he's sittin'
on a streetcar, but he's eastbound just the same." And his song "TTC Skidaddler" makes reference to a
TTC Streetcar driver. "I've been a streetcar driver now about eleven years & I know the old Toronto city
well, There's a whole lotta people who wait along the track, For the signal from my clangin trolley bell..."
The predominance of trams (trolleys) gave rise to the disparaging term trolley dodger for residents of the
borough of Brooklyn in New York City. That term, shortened to "Dodger" became the nickname for the
Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers).
Jens Lekman has a song titled "Tram No. 7 to Heaven", a reference to line 7 of the Gothenburg tram
which passes through his native borough of Kortedala.
The band Beirut has a song titled "Fountains and Tramways" on the EP Pompeii.
The Elephant Will Never Forget, an 11-minute film made in 1953 by British Transport Films to
celebrate the London tram network at the time of the last few days of its operation.
A W-class tram was used at the opening ceremony of the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne.
The Full Monty, set in Sheffield, managed to squeeze a tram passing in the background into three
scenes.
2009 Thomas Haggerty composed and produced 'Tram' generations 1, 2 and 3 for the popular group
TRAM.
A collaboration between John Ward and Elizabeth Harrod: "a great tram."
In Chrome Shelled Regios, trams are being used in the Academy City Zuelni.
Trams feature in the opening credits of the world's longest running TV soap opera Coronation Street, set
in a fictional suburb of Greater Manchester. A Blackpool tram killed one of the main characters in 1989
and the most recent faked accident involved a tram (modelled on the Manchester Metrolink) careering off
a viaduct into the set in 2009.
In the news
In the Tottenham Outrage in 1909, two armed robbers hijacked a tram and were chased by the police in
another tram.
On 7 June 1926 Catalan architect Antoni Gaud was knocked down by a Barcelona tram and
subsequently died.
In scale modelling
Model trams are popular in HO scale (1:87) and O scale (1:48 in the US and generally 1:43,5 and 1:45 in
Europe and Asia). They are typically powered and will accept plastic figures inside. Common manufacturers are
Roco and Lima, with many custom models being made as well. The German firm Hdl
[70]
and the Austrian
Halling
[71]
specialize in 1:87 scale.
[72]
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An HO model tram
A model tramway
In the US, Bachmann Industries is a mass supplier of HO trams and kits. Bowser Manufacturing has produced
white metal models for over 50 years.
[73]
There are many boutique vendors offering limited run epoxy and
wood models. At the high end are highly detailed brass models which are usually imported from Japan or Korea
and can cost in excess of $500. Many of these run on 16.5 mm (0.65 in) gauge track, which is correct for the
representation of 4 ft 8
1

2
in (1,435 mm) (standard gauge) in HO scale as in US and Japan, but incorrect in
4 mm (1:76.2) scale, as it represents 4 ft 8
1

2
in (1,435 mm). This scale/gauge hybrid is called OO scale. O
scale trams are also very popular among tram modellers because the
increased size allows for more detail and easier crafting of overhead
wiring. In the US these models are usually purchased in epoxy or
wood kits and some as brass models. The Saint Petersburg Tram
Company
[74]
produces highly detailed polyurethane non-powered O
Scale models from around the world which can easily be powered by
trucks from vendors like Q-Car.
[75]
In the US, one of the best resources for model tram enthusiasts is the
East Penn Traction Club of Philadelphia.
[76]
It is thought that the first example of a working model tramcar in the
UK built by an amateur for fun was in 1929, when Frank E. Wilson
created a replica of London County Council Tramways E class car
444 in 1:16 scale, which he demonstrated at an early Model Engineer
Exhibition. Another of his models was London E/1 1800, which was
the only tramway exhibit in the Faraday Memorial Exhibition of 1931.
Together with likeminded friends, Frank Wilson went on to found the
Tramway & Light Railway Society
[77]
in 1938, establishing tramway
modelling as a hobby.
Types
AKSM
Articulated Light Rail Vehicle
Avanto
Birney
Citadis
Citytram
Canadian Light Rail Vehicle
Combino
Crotram
Dick Kerr Type Tram
Funicular (Incline)
DL
Double-decker tram
DUEWAG
Eurotram
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Regional
Trams in Africa
Trams in Asia
Trams in Australia
Trams in Europe
Trams in New Zealand
Streetcars in North America
Trams in South America
See also
Flexity Swift
Flexity 2
Gothawagen
GTL
Horsecar

Konstal
PESA
PCC
Peter Witt streetcar
Sirio
Soviet/Latvian RVR
Soviet/Russian tramcars LM/LVS, MTV, KTM, Spektr
koda ForCity and oth.
Tatra T3
Tatra KT4
TMK 2200
Tramino
Tramway Franais Standard
TW 6000
Ultra Low Floor
US Standard Light Rail Vehicle
W class Melbourne tram
ZGT
Air brake (rail)
Armoured tram
Capabus
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References
Cater MetroTrolley
Dual-mode transit
Girder rail
General Motors streetcar conspiracy
Ground-level power supply
Haytor Granite Tramway
List of town tramway systems
List of tram builders
List of transport museums
Locomotive
Premetro
Railway electrification system
Trams and roundabouts
Streetcar suburb
Toronto PCCspecification
Tram spotter
Tram stop
Tram track gauge
Tramway track
Tramways & Urban Transit
1. ^ Collins English Dictionary
2. ^ DOST: Tram (http://www.dsl.ac.uk/getent4.php?
plen=1647&startset=69194131&query=Tram&fhit=tram&dregion=form&dtext=dost#fhit)
3. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary (http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=tram), etymonline.com.
Retrieved 4 April 2009.
4. ^ Robert C. Post: Urban Mass Transit, p.43, from Google Books.com (http://books.google.com/books?
id=lZ6Kke0MZWwC&pg=PA43&lpg=PA43&dq=troller+definition+streetcar&source=web&ots=7OWG61UJK
6&sig=_CUE5WlQogq9WjTYHQ0z8245rs0&hl=en&ei=QEWVSbjuCou40AXM1rGPCg&sa=X&oi=book_result
&resnum=10&ct=result). Retrieved 13 February 2009.
5. ^ Middleton, William D. (1967). The Time of the Trolley, p. 60. Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 0-
89024-013-2.
6. ^ The Mumbles Train from Welcome to Wales.
(http://www.welshwales.co.uk/mumbles_railway_swansea.htm), welshwales.co.uk. Retrieved 11 February
2009.
7. ^ Bellis, Mary. "History of Streetcars and Cable Cars"
(http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blstreetcars.htm). inventors.about.com. Retrieved 10 January
2007.
8. ^ Mnchner Straenbahn (http://www.tram-muenchen.de/geschichte/chronik-vor1964.html). tram-
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tram 26/32
muenchen.de.
9. ^ Borzo, Greg (2012). Chicago Cable Cars. The History Press. pp. 1521. ISBN 978-1-60949-327-1.
10. ^ "This is how some of the world's familiar..." (http://books.google.com/books?
id=wN4DAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA750&dq=Popular+Science+1930+plane+%22Popular+Mechanics%22&hl=en&ei
=fxBvTp7pAoyhtwfhqq33CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBzgU#v=onep
age&q&f=true) Popular Mechanics, May 1929, pg. 750. via Google Books.
11. ^ Wood, E. Thomas. "Nashville now and then: From here to there"
(http://www.nashvillepost.com/news/2007/4/27/nashville_now_and_then_from_here_to_there). Retrieved 7
August 2007.
12. ^ American Public Transportation Association. "Milestones in U.S. Public Transportation History"
(http://www.apta.com/research/stats/history/mileston.cfm). Retrieved 18 December 2008.
13. ^ Sarajevo through history. (http://www.sarajevo.ba/en/stream.php?kat=79) Retrieved 11 February 2009.
14. ^ City of Belgrade Important Years in City History (http://www.beograd.org.rs/cms/view.php?id=201239)
Retrieved 7 December 2010.
15. ^ Trams of Hungary (http://hampage.hu/trams/e_index.html). Retrieved 11 February 2009.
16. ^ Transport History in Bucharest (http://www.ratb.ro/index.php?page=meniu&id_rubrica_meniu=13).
Retrieved 11 February 2009.
17. ^ "Historical Highlights" (http://www.jhl.si/en/lpp/?m=51&k=1605). Ljubljanski potniki promet [Ljubljana
Passenger Transport]. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
18. ^ "WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 29, 1886." (http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article11584473). The Argus
(Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 29 December 1886. p. 5.
Retrieved 10 March 2013.
19. ^ "Australian Association of Timetable Collectors" (http://www.aattc.org.au/). Aattc.org.au. 2012-08-10.
Retrieved 2012-12-08.
20. ^ The research included consultation of copies of the "Alphington Gazette" in the State Library of Victoria and
the following websites: http://markthefitter.blogspot.com/2008_11_01_archive.html
http://www.google.com.au/search?q=%22gas+tram%22+Northcote+history&rls=com.microsoft:en-au:IE-
SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLL_en-
GB&redir_esc=&ei=R1MvTpXqGamdmQW4ofga http://www.ceti.pl/js29a/ciepl/en,ecal.html
21. ^ Malaysia: first compressed natural gas tram in the world will be ready next year
(http://www.ngvjournal.com/pt/veiculos/item/4266-malaysia-first-compressed-natural-gas-tram-in-the-world-
will-be-ready-next-year). Ngvjournal.com.
22. ^ http://www.google.com.au/search?q=Portland+Tram&rls=com.microsoft:en-au:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-
8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLL_en-GB&redir_esc=&ei=RPExTqDCHKzzmAWQuZTxCg
23. ^ Citytram (http://www.trampower.co.uk). Trampower.co.uk.
24. ^ Yarratrams Newsletter No 8.
(http://www.yarratrams.com.au/Portaldata/1/Resources/pdf_document/newsletter/Connections_8.pdf)
Retrieved 12 February 2009.
25. ^ MBTA (2010). "About the MBTA-The "El"" (http://www.mbta.com/about_the_mbta/history/?id=964).
MBTA. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
26. ^ Draemmli.info (http://www.draemmli.info/tangotram.html) (German)
27. ^ Avenio, Then new generation trams from Siemens, Transportation.siemens.com
(http://transportation.siemens.com/en/data/pdf/ts_internet/ts_tr/avenio_a19100-v520-b452-x-7600.pdf)
28. ^ Weymouth Harbour Tramway (http://www.transportdiversions.com/publicationshow.asp?pubid=3117).
Transportdiversions.com.
22/6/2014 Tram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tram 27/32
Transportdiversions.com.
29. ^
a

b

c

d
"Destination City. Electric Rolling Stock of the Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board", various
editions, Australian Electric Traction Association, Melbourne.
30. ^ Clean and efficient freight tram delivers goods Amsterdam, NL
(http://www.eukn.org/eukn/themes/Urban_Policy/Economy_knowledge_and_employment/Urban_economy/Spe
cific_sectors/Distribution/citycargo-freight-tram_1007.html), eukn.org. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
31. ^ George G. Wynne: 'CarGo Tram' Provides Freight Service on Dresden's Light Rail Tracks
(http://www.apta.com/services/intnatl/intfocus/cargo.cfm), apta.com. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
32. ^ Samenwest 5 December 2006, NOS3 television news 7 March 2007, Amsterdams Stadblad 4 June 2008
33. ^
a

b
Middleton, William D. (1967). The Time of the Trolley, pp. 9397. Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing.
ISBN 0-89024-013-2.
34. ^ Giornale della Reale societ italiana d'igiene, Seduta del 5 febbrajo 1882, Archive.org
(http://www.archive.org/stream/giornaledellare03igigoog/giornaledellare03igigoog_djvu.txt)
35. ^ (Italian) Tramditorino.it (http://www.tramditorino.it/storia.htm)
36. ^ Tram hearse used in Newcastle, New South Wales : About New South Wales
(http://about.nsw.gov.au/collections/doc/tram-hearse-used-in-newcastle-new-south-wales/). About.nsw.gov.au.
37. ^ "Weltpremiere:Speisewagen im Straenbahnnetz"
(http://www.rheinbahn.de/ueberuns/rheinbahnspezial/historie/Seiten/11_speisewagen.aspx).
38. ^ "Sightseeing in Frankfurt with the Ebbelwei-Express" (http://www.ebbelwei-express.com/html/index_e.html).
Verkehrsgesellschaft Frankfurt am Main. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
39. ^ "Strassenbahn Muenchen" (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stra%C3%9Fenbahn_M%C3%BCnchen).
de.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2012-02-11.
40. ^ "Tramwaje Warszawskie - wagon-obek" (http://tramwar.republika.pl/twzlobek.html). Tramwar.republika.pl.
Retrieved 2012-12-08.
41. ^ "Tramwaj-obek dowozi tylko maluchy do obka MPK"
(http://wroclaw.gazeta.pl/wroclaw/1,35771,12466347,Tramwaj_zlobek_dowozil_tylko_maluchy_do_zlobka_M
PK.html). Wroclaw.gazeta.pl. Retrieved 2012-12-08.
42. ^ Jeffrey Spivak: Streetcars are back from Landscape Architecture Department, UC Davis
(http://lda.ucdavis.edu/LDA191/Course%20Handouts%20&%20Readings/08-ULI_Streetcars.pdf). Retrieved 10
February 2009. ucdavis.edu
43. ^ (French) Muse des Transports Urbains Histoire. (http://www.amtuir.org/03_index_htu_gale.htm),
amtuir.org Retrieved 11 February 2009.
44. ^ "Facts & Figures" (http://www.yarratrams.com.au/about-us/who-we-are/facts-figures/). Yarra Trams.
Retrieved 4 March 2013.
45. ^ "Wien hat das fnftgrte Straenbahnnetz der Welt" [Vienna has the fifth largest tramway network in the
world]
(http://www.wienerlinien.at/wl/ep/contentView.do/contentTypeId/1001/channelId/-26075/programId/9419/page
TypeId/9081/contentId/25061). Wiener Linien website (http://www.wienerlinien.at). Wiener Linien. 2011.
Retrieved 4 March 2013. (German)
46. ^ London Passenger Transport Board: Annual Report, 1938
47. ^ Welcome to the Shore Line Interurban Historical Society | Chicago Surface Lines (http://www.shore-
line.org/CSL.html). Shore-line.org.
48. ^ National Post Staff (September 27, 2012). "Next-generation streetcars arrive in Toronto for trials"
(http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/09/27/next-generation-streetcars-arrive-in-toronto-for-trials/). National
Post. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
22/6/2014 Tram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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49. ^ Taplin, M. R. (October 2001). "Return of the (modern) streetcar: Portland leads the way"
(http://www.lrta.org/mag/articles/art0110.html). Tramways & Urban Transit (Hersham, Surrey, UK: Ian Allan
Publishing Ltd). ISSN 1460-8324 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/1460-8324). Retrieved May 3, 2014.
50. ^ "Metrotranva deal signed" (http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/single-view/view/metrotranvia-deal-
signed.html). Railway Gazette International. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
51. ^ Morrison, Allen. "The Tramways of Bogota Colombia" (http://www.tramz.com/co/bg/t/te.html). Electric
Transport in Latin America. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
52. ^ "Why are trams different from buses from Trams for Bath" (http://www.bathtram.org/tfb/tQ24.htm).
Bathtram.org. Retrieved 2012-12-08.
53. ^
a

b
Sustainable Light Rail professor Lewis Lesley. Claverton Energy Group Conference, Bath October 2008
(http://www.claverton-energy.com/sustainable-light-rail-2.html), claverton-energy.com
54. ^ Interview with The Hon. Tim Fischer on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Radio National Breakfast
program on Monday 1 August 2011 <http://www.abc.net.au/rn/breakfast/> regarding his book Trains Unlimited
<http://www.harpercollins.com.au/books/Trains-Unlimited-Tim-Fischer/?isbn=9780730497400>.
55. ^ "Streetcar and Local Bus Comparative Review from Vancouver City"
(http://vancouver.ca/engsvcs/transport/streetcar/documents/comparative_review.pdf). Vancouver.ca. Retrieved
2012-12-08.
56. ^
a

b
"Crossing tram tracks - Bicycle Network" (https://www.bv.com.au/general/bikes-and-riding/10429/).
Bv.com.au. 2004-07-14. Retrieved 2012-12-08.
57. ^ "Trams/Light Rail - Road Safety Authority Rules of the Road" (http://www.rulesoftheroad.ie/rules-for-
driving/traffic-signs-road-markings/trams-lightrail.html). Rulesoftheroad.ie. Retrieved 2012-12-08.
58. ^ File:NET-tram tracks warning.jpg
59. ^ Andrew Heasley (2004-04-29). "Slippery issue on track" (http://smh.drive.com.au/motor-news/slippery-
issue-on-track-20100824-13kvf.html). Smh.drive.com.au. Retrieved 2012-12-08.
60. ^ Charles S. McCaleb, Rails, Roads & Runways: The 20-Year Saga of Santa Clara County's Transportation
Agency, (San Jose: Santa Clara County Transportation Agency, 1994), 67. Besides recounting statistics and
anecdotes, this source also reprints a San Jose Mercury News cartoon of one such accident, in which a
bemused tow truck driver quips, "Dang! Rod Diridon was right! The trolley does reduce the number of
vehicles on the road!"
61. ^ Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 69: Light Rail Service: Pedestrian and Vehicular
Safety, Transportation Research Board TRB.org (http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2536)
62. ^ Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 23: Wheel/Rail Noise Control Manual,
Transportation Research Board, TRB.org (http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2593)
63. ^ p. 313 of Penguin edition
64. ^ pp. 945 of Penguin edition
65. ^ Part 9, p. 163 of the Faber & Faber edition
66. ^ The chapter Die letzte Straenbahn oder Anbetung eines Weckglases (The last tram or Adoration of a
Preserving Jar). See page 584 of the 1959 Bchergilde Gutenberg German edition and page 571 of the 1961
Secker & Warburg edition, translated into English by Ralph Manheim
67. ^ Ryco.be (http://www.ryco.be). Ryco.be.
68. ^ Chapter 38, p. 198 of the Companion Book Club edition
69. ^ Illusion Travels by Streetcar (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt45907/) at the Internet Movie Database
70. ^ Hdl (http://www.hoedl-linie8.de/), horlf-linir8.de
71. ^ Halling.at (http://www.halling.at/). Halling.at.
^ (German) Marktbersicht Straenbahnmodelle (http://www.strassenbahnfreunde-
22/6/2014 Tram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Further reading
72. ^ (German) Marktbersicht Straenbahnmodelle (http://www.strassenbahnfreunde-
hemer.de/strassenbahnen/marktuebersicht/), from Strassenbahnfreunden-Hemer.de
73. ^ Bowser Company History 1961 to Present (http://www.bowser-trains.com/misc/history/history.htm).
bowser-trains.com Retrieved 14 February 2009.
74. ^ Saint Petersburg Tram Company (http://www.sptc.spb.ru), sptc.spb.ru
75. ^ Q-Car (http://www.qcarcompany.com/), qcarcompany.com. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
76. ^ East Penn Traction Club (http://www.eastpenn.org/), eastpenn.org. Retrieved 14 February 2009.
77. ^ Tramway & Light Railway Society (http://www.tramwayinfo.com/tlrs), tramwayinfo.com
Accattatis, Antonio. 2007. "Linee tranviarie a Torino" (ISBN 978-88-87911-78-7). Firenze: Phasar Edizioni.
Arrivetz, Jean. 1956. "Les Tramways Franais" (No ISBN). Lyon: Editions Omni-Presse.
Bett, W. C., and J. C. Gillam. 1962. "Great British Tramway Networks (4th Edition)", ISBN 0-900433-03-5.
London: Light Railway Transport League.
Blower, James M., and Robert S. Korach. 1966. "The NOT&L Story" (CERA Bulletin 109) (No ISBN).
Chicago: Central Electric Railfans' Association.
Brimson, Samuel. 1983. "The Tramways of Australia" (ISBN 0-949825-01-8). Sydney: Dreamweaver Books.
Brinson, Carroll. 1977. "Jackson: A Special Kind of Place" (LCCN 77-081145) (No ISBN). Jackson,
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Canfield, Joseph M. 1972. "TM: The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company" (CERA Bulletin) (No
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Chandler, Allison, and Stephen D. Maguire, with Mac Sebree. 1980. "When Oklahoma Took The Trolley"
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Fletcher, Ken. 1995. "Centennial State Trolleys: The Life and Times of Colorado Streetcars" (ISBN 0-918654-
51-3). Golden (CO), US: Colorado Railroad Museum.
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Howarth, W. Des. 1971. "Tramway Systems of Southern Africa" (No ISBN). Johannesburg: published by the
author.
Janssen, William C. 1954. "The Illinois Traction System" (CERA Bulletin 98) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central
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Keenan, David. 1979. "Tramways of Sydney" (ISBN 0-909338-02-7). Sans Souci (NSW), Australia: Transit
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King, B. R., and J. H. Price. 1995. "The Tramways of Portugal (4th Edition)" (ISBN 0-948106-19-0). London:
Light Rail Transit Association.
Krambles, George. 1952. "Electric Railways of Ohio" (CERA Bulletin 96) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric
Railfans' Association.
Kramer, Frederick A., with Ed Wadhams. "Connecticut Company's Streetcars" (ISBN 0-911868-82-8).
Newton (NJ), US: Carstens.
MacCowan, Ian. 1992. "The Tramways of New South Wales" (ISBN 0-949600-25-3). Oakleigh (Victoria)
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McCarthy, Ken. 1983. "Steaming Down Argent Street: A History of the Broken Hill Steam Tramways 1902
1926" (ISBN 0-909372-13-6). Sutherland (NSW), Australia: The Sydney Tramway Museum.
Middleton, William D. 1967. The Time of the Trolley (ISBN 0-89024-013-2). Milwaukee (WI), US: Kalmbach
Publishing.
Misek, Frank J. 1956. "The Electric Railways of Iowa" (CERA Bulletin 100) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central
Electric Railfans' Association.
Misek, Frank J. (ed.). 1958. "The Electric Railways of Indiana Part I" (CERA Bulletin 101) (No ISBN).
Chicago: Central Electric Railfans' Association.
Misek, Frank J. (ed.). 1960. "The Electric Railways of Indiana Part III" (CERA Bulletin 104) (No ISBN).
Chicago: Central Electric Railfans' Association.
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Molloy, D. Scott. 1998. "All Aboard: The History Of Mass Transportation In Rhode Island" (ISBN 0-7524-
1256-6). Mount Pleasant (SC), US: Arcadia Publishing.
Morrison, Allen. 1989. "The Tramways of Brazil A 130-Year Survey" (ISBN 0-9622348-1-8) [1]
(http://www.tramz.com/br/tto/01.html). New York: Bonde Press.
Morrison, Allen. 1992. "The Tramways of Chile 18581978" (ISBN 0-9622348-2-6) [2]
(http://www.tramz.com/cl/tto/a.html). New York: Bonde Press.
Morrison, Allen. 1996. "Latin America by Streetcar: A Pictorial Survey of Urban Rail Transport South of the
U.S.A." (ISBN 0-9622348-3-4). New York: Bonde Press.
Myers, Rex. 1970. "Montana's Trolleys: Book 1, Helena" (No ISBN). Los Angeles: Interurbans.
Meyers, Stephen L.: Manhattan's lost streetcars, Arcadia, 2005. ISBN 0-7385-3884-1
Nye, David E.: Electrifying America : social meanings of a new technology, 18801940, MIT Press,
Cambridge, Massachusetts c1990. ISBN 0-262-14048-9
Olson, Russell L. 1976. "The Electric Railways of Minnesota" (No ISBN). Hopkins (MN), US: Minnesota
Transportation Museum.
Orr, Richard. 1996 O&CB: Streetcars of Omaha and Council Bluffs (ISBN 0-9653505-0-9). Omaha: published
by the author.
Pabst, Martin. 1989. "Tram & Trolley in Africa" (ISBN 3-88490-152-4). Krefeld: Rhr Verlag GMBH.
Peschkes, Robert. "World Gazetteer of Tram, Trolleybus, and Rapid Transit Systems."
Part One, Latin America (ISBN 1-898319-02-2). 1980. Exeter, UK: Quail Map Company.
Part Two, Asia+USSR / Africa / Australia (ISBN 0-948619-00-7). 1987. London: Rapid Transit Publications.
Part Three, Europe (ISBN 0-948619-01-5). 1993. London: Rapid Transit Publications.
Part Four, North America (ISBN 0-948619-06-6). 1998. London: Rapid Transit Publications.
Reifschneider, Felix E. 1947. "Toonervilles of the Empire State" (No ISBN). Orlando (Florida, US): published
by the author.
Reifschneider, Felix E. 1948. "Trolley Lines of the Empire State" (No ISBN). Orlando (Florida, US): published
by the author.
Rhr, Gustav. 1986. "Schmalspurparadies Schweiz", Band 1: Berner Oberland, Jura, Westschweiz, Genfer See,
Wallis (ISBN 3-921679-38-9). Aachen: Schweers + Wall.
Rowsome, Frank; Stephan McGuire, tech. ed. (1956). A Trolley Car Treasury: A Century of American
StreetcarsHorsecars, Cable Cars, Interurbans, and Trolleys. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Schramm, Jack E., and William H. Henning. 1978. "Detroit's Street Railways, Volume I" (CERA Bulletin 117)
(No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric Railfans' Association.
Schramm, Jack E., William H. Henning and Thomas J. Devorman. 1980. "Detroit's Street Railways, Volume II"
(CERA Bulletin 120) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric Railfans' Association.
Schramm, Jack E., William H. Henning and Andrews, Richard R. 1984. "Detroit's Street Railways, Volume III:
When Eastern Michigan Rode the Rails" (CERA Bulletin 123) (No ISBN). Chicago: Central Electric Railfans'
Association.
Schweers, Hans. 1988. "Schmalspurparadies Schweiz", Band 2: Nordostschweiz, Mittelland, Zentralschweiz,
Graubnden, Tessin (ISBN 3-921679-46-X). Aachen: Schweers + Wall.
"Smaller Electric Railways of Illinois, The" (CERA Bulletin 99) (No ISBN). 1955. Chicago: Central Electric
Railfans' Association.
Stewart, Graham. 1985. "When Trams Were Trumps in New Zealand" (OCLC 12723934
(https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/12723934)). Wellington: Grantham House Publishing.
22/6/2014 Tram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tram 32/32
External links
"Tramway" (http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Tramway) (article in the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica),
1911encyclopedia.org
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tram&oldid=613418568"
Categories: Electric public transport Tram vehicles Tram transport Light rail Sustainable transport
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Stewart, Graham. 1993 "The End of the Penny Section" (revised and enlarged edition) (ISBN 1-86934-037-X).
Wellington: Grantham House Publishing.
"Straenbahnatlas ehem. Sowjetunion / Tramway Atlas of the former USSR" (ISBN 3-926524-15-4). 1996.
Berlin: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Blickpunkt Straenbahn, in conjunction with Light Rail Transit Association,
London.
"Straenbahnatlas Rumnien" (compiled by Andreas Gnter, Sergei Tarknov and Christian Blank; ISBN 3-
926524-23-5). 2004. Berlin: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Blickpunkt Straenbahn.
Swett, Ira, with Fred Fellow. 1954. "Interurbans of Utah" (Interurbans Special 15) (No ISBN). Los Angeles:
Interurbans.
Swett, Ira. 1970. "Montana's Trolleys 2: Butte, Anaconda, BAP" (Interurbans Special 50) (No ISBN). Los
Angeles: Interurbans.
Swett, Ira. 1970. "Montana's Trolleys III: Billings, Bozeman, Great Falls, Missoula, Proposed Lines, The
Milwaukee Road (Interurbans Special 51) (No ISBN). Los Angeles: Interurbans.
"Tramway & Light Railway Atlas Germany 1996" (ISBN 0-948106-18-2). 1995. Berlin: Arbeitsgemeinschaft
Blickpunkt Straenbahn, in conjunction with Light Rail Transit Association, London.
Turner, Kevin. 1996. "The Directory of British Tramways: Every Passenger-Carrying Tramway, Past and
Present" (ISBN 1-85260-549-9). Somerset, UK: Haynes.
Waller, Michael H., and Peter Walker. 1992. "British & Irish Tramway Systems since 1945" (ISBN 0-7110-
1989-4). Shepperton (Surrey), UK: Ian Allan Ltd.