You are on page 1of 6

RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc.

All Rights Reserved


High School Physics - Core Concept Master Cheat Sheet

O1: Basic Skills in Physics
Physics: Study of the physical world. Science of energy
Metric System: System of measurement based on
multiples of 10.
SI System: Systeme International dUnites (International
system of units).
Uncertainty: The last digit in a measurement is
uncertaineach person may see it slightly differently when
reading the measurement.
Significant Figures: Digits that were actually measured
and have physical significance. (Also called significant
digits)

The metric system uses prefixes to indicate multiples of 10

Metric Prefixes commonly used in physics
Prefix Symbol Multiple
Kilo k 1000
Deci d 0.1
Centi c 0.01
Milli m 0.001
Micro 0.000001
Nano n 0.000000001
The base unit is when theres no prefix.

To determine the equivalent in base units:
1. Use prefix to determine multiple
2. Multiply number by the multiple
3. Write the result with the base unit
Examples:
1.25 mL milli means 0.001 0.00125 L
87.5 kg kilo means 1000 87500 g

02: A Mathematical Toolkit

If a # is to a
variable,
then the # to
solve for the
variable
Example
Added Subtract 5 = x + 2
-2 -2
5-2 = x
Subtracted Add 3 = x 6
+6 +6
3-6 = x
Multiplied Divide 2 = 4x
1. 4
2/4 = x
Divided Multiply 2 6 = x 2
2
2 6 = x

On Your Calculator:
Always use the key to designate a number is on the
bottom of an expression.
Always use the EE (or EXP) key to enter scientific notation.
Always use parenthesis around addition or subtraction
when combining it with other operations
To make something negative (when taking the number to a
power), keep the negative outside of the parenthesis.

Important Formulas:
hypotenuse
opposite
sin =

adjacent
opposite
tan =

hypotenuse
adjacent
cos =

2a
4ac b b
x
2

=

03: Solving Physics Problems
General Problem Solving Strategy:
Step 1: Identify whats being given
Step 2: Clarify whats being asked.
If necessary, rephrase the question
Step 3: Select a strategy
Trial & error, search, deductive reasoning,
knowledge-based, working backwards
Step 4: Solve using the strategy
Step 5: Review the answer

Use the KUDOS method for solving word problems.

K = Known
U = Unknown
D = Definition
O = Output
S = Substantiation

Multiple-choice tips:
Scan all the choices
Avoid word confusion
Beware of absolutes
Essay tips:
Understand the question
Answer the whole question and only the question
Watch your time
Free-Response tips:
Show partial work
Dont forget units
Dont be fooled by blank space

04: Motion in One Dimension
Vector: A quantity that represents magnitude (size) and
direction. It is usually represented with an arrow to indicate
the appropriate direction. They may or may not be drawn to
scale.
Scalar: A quantity that can be completely described its
magnitude, or size. It has no direction associated with its
size.
Velocity: Speed of an object which includes its direction of
motion. Velocity is a vector quantity.
Acceleration: Rate at which an objects velocity changes
with time; this change may in speed, direction, or both.

v=d/t
a = v/t=(v
f
-v
i
)/t
d=v
i
t+at
2
/2
v
f
2
=v
i
2
+2ad
acceleration due to gravity = -9.8 m/s
2


For sign conventions, assign a direction as positive, keep
this convention throughout the problem, any quantities in
the opposite direction must be negative.
Often, up and right are positive, while down and left are
negative.

The motion of an object moving with a constant acceleration is
pictured below. The distance moved in each unit of time
increases. In fact, it is proportional to the square of the time.

An object moving with a constant velocity would cover
equal amounts of distance in equal time intervals.
An object moving with a constant acceleration would cover
varying amounts of distance in equal time intervals.

RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
05: Vectors and Motion in Two Dimensions
Resultant: the result of adding two or more vectors;
vector sum.
Vector Component: the parts into which a vector can be
separated and that act in different directions from the
vector.
Vector Addition: The process of combining vectors; added
tip to tail.







v=d/t
a = v/t=(v
f
-v
i
)/t
d=v
i
t+at
2
/2
v
f
2
=v
i
2
+2ad
Pythagorean Theorem: c
2
=a
2
+b
2

Sin = opp/hyp
Cos = adj/hyp
Tan = opp/adj
acceleration due to gravity = -9.8 m/s
2

Important formula note: All of these formulas could
apply to any direction. Common subscripts are shown that
indicate the direction of a particular quantity
v or y = vertical direction
h or x = horizontal direction

Projectiles move with a constant acceleration due to
gravity only in the vertical direction.
Projectiles move with a constant velocity only in the
horizontal direction.
06: Forces and the Laws of Motion
Static Equilibrium: A motionless state where all the
forces acting on an object yield a net force of zero.
Dynamic Equilibrium: A condition of constant
motion/zero acceleration where all the forces acting on an
object yield a net force of zero.
Friction Force: A force that acts to resist motion of
objects that are in contact.
Normal Force: Support force that acts perpendicular to a
surface. If the surface is horizontal, this force balances the
weight of the object.
Force: A vector quantity that tends to accelerate an object;
a push or a pull.
Net Force, F
net
: : A combination of all the forces that act
on an object
F
net
=ma
=F
f
/F
N

F
net
=F = the sum of all forces

Newtons 1
st
law: An object at rest wants to stay at rest,
an object in motion tends to stay in motion; inertia.
Newtons 2
nd
law: F
net
=ma.
Newtons 3
rd
law: For every force that is an equal and
opposite force; action and reaction.




07: Work and Energy
Work: Product of force on an object and the distance
through which the object is moved.
Power: Work done per unit of time.
Energy: The ability to do work.
Base level: An arbitrary reference point from which
distances are measured.
Kinetic Energy: The energy an object has due to its motion.
Gravitational Potential Energy: The energy an object has
due to its position above some base level.
Work Energy Theorem: The work done is equal to the
change in energy.
Conservation of Energy: energy is not created or
destroyed, just transformed from one type to another.

W= F d = mad
W = F d cos
P = W/t
a = v/t
cos = adjacent / hypotenuse
KE = mv
2

PE = mgh

Work is done only when a force acts in the direction of
motion of an object
If the force is perpendicular to the direction of motion, then
no work is done.
Power is the ratio of work done per time
Energy may appear in different forms, but it is always
conserved.
The total amount of energy before and after some
interaction is constant.
Work and energy are interchangeable.


08: Momentum and Collisions
Momentum: A vector quantity that is the product of mass
and velocity of an item. It may be considered as inertia in
motion.
Impulse: A change in momentum. The product of force
and the time through which the force acts.
Conservation of Momentum: The momentum of a system
will remain constant. Momentum isnt created or destroyed
unless an outside force is acting on the system.
Elastic Collision: A collision where there is no kinetic lost,
momentum is still conserved, the object have no
deformation.
Inelastic Collision: A collision where kinetic energy is lost
due to heat, deformation, or other methods. However,
momentum is still conserved for the system.
P=mv
Ft=mv
J=Ft

Explosion: one object breaking into more objects.
0=mv+mv+
Hit and stick: one object striking and joining to the other.
m
1
v
1
+m
2
v
2
=(m
1
+m
2
)v
3

Hit and rebound: one object striking and bouncing off of
the other. m
1
v
1
+m
2
v
2
=m
1
v
3
+m
2
v
4

Note how momentum is conserved. In the X direction, the
moments add up to the original momentum before the
collision. In the Y direction, the moments cancel out since
there was no momentum in that direction initially.
A
B
A
B
m






F

F
N

F
W
An inclined
plane showing
all the forces
acting on the
object:
F
f

Vertical
component

Velocity of a projectile

Horizontal component

Ball A strikes
motionless ball B.
After the collision
they move off as
shown.
RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
09: The Law of Gravity and Circular Motion
Centripetal Force: a center seeking force for an object
moving in a circular path.
Centrifugal Force: An apparent, but nonexistent, outward
pointing force for an object moving in a circular path. A
rotating object may seem to be pushed outward, but
actually must be pulled inward in order to maintain any
circular path.
Inverse Square Law: A relationship relating the strength
of an effect to the inverse square of the distance away from
the source.
Gravitational Field: The map of influence that a massive
body extends into space around itself.
Linear Speed: Straight path distance moved per unit of
time, also referred to as tangential speed.
Rotational Speed: Number of rotations or revolutions per
unit of time, often measured in rpm, revolutions per
minute.
Universal Gravitational Constant: A proportionality
constant that relates the strength of gravitational attraction
in Newtons law of universal gravitation.

F
g
=Gm
1
m
2
/d
2

G=6.67x10
-11
Nm
2
/kg
2

a
c
=v
2
/r
F
c
=mv
2
/r

Weightlessness: Astronauts floating in space may
appear to be weightless. However, the pull from gravity
definitely still acts on them. If it didnt, their inertia would
carry them off in a straight line never to return to the
earth. Instead, the pull from gravity acts as a centripetal
force to maintain their orbit about the earth.

10: Rotational Equilibrium
Torque: The rotational quantity that causes rotation; the
product of force times lever arm.
Lever Arm: The distance from the axis of rotation to the
location where the force is applied.
Moment of Inertia: The rotational equivalent of linear
inertia; a measure of the ease of rotating some object.
Angular Momentum: The rotational equivalent of linear
momentum that describes the tendency of an object to
continue rotating.
Rotational Equilibrium: The situation when the net
torque on an object equals zero.
Radian: A unit of rotational displacement; one revolution
equals 2 radians.

I=mr
2

L=I
=F l

Linear motion formula

Rotational motion
formula













= angular displacement
=angular speed
=angular acceleration
=torque
I=rotational inertia
Draw a diagram if needed. Identify all given information.
Be sure to make diagrams or calculations with direction in
mind. Draw all forces and components.
11: Solids and Fluid Dynamics
Solids: Matte with definite shape and volume
Fluids: Matter with indefinite shape and definite volume
Thermal expansion: Volume of matter increase with
temperature
Stress: Force causing deformation
Strain: Degree of deformation
Buoyancy: The force caused by pressure variation with
depth to lift immersed objects
Surface tension: The force to attract surfaced molecular to
make the surface area of fluid as small as possible
Capillary action: The phenomena of fluids automatically
raising in open-ended tubes
Viscosity: The inter-friction mechanism in fluid to dissipate
energy
Laminar flow: Every particle passing a particular point
moves exactly along the smooth path followed by particles
passing that point early
Turbulent flow: The irregular flow when the velocity of the
flow is high
Thermal expansion: ( ) ( )
0 0
T T L L =
Pressure variation with depth: gh P =
Buoyancy (Archimedes principle): gV B =
Bernoullis equation (along any streamline):
const
2
1
2
= + + gh v P
Stress
area Loaded
force Applied
=

12: Temperature and Heat
Kelvin: The Kelvin scale measures absolute temperature. At
0 Kelvin, particles in an object are still. Other temperature
scales related to the Kelvin scale.
Celsius: A temperature increase of 1C is equal to an increase
in temperature of 1K. However, 0C 0K. The Celsius scale
is based on the boiling and freezing points of water. Thus,
water freezes at 0C and boils at 100C


Fahrenheit: The Fahrenheit scale is set such that water
freezes at 0F and boils at 212F.



For changes in temperature:
T C m Q
p heat
= m = mass; T = T
2
T
1
For increases in temperature that cross several phases simply
sum the Q
fus
, Q
vap
, and Q
heat
as needed.
For changes in state: Temperature doesnt change as the
added energy is used to break intermolecular forces.
Melting:
fus fus
L m Q = Q
fus
= heat of fusion
Boiling:
vap vap
L m Q = Q
vap
= heat of vaporization
Heat, Work, and Internal Energy: The internal energy U of
a system is defined as the sum of the heat energy Q in the
system and the work W done on or by the system.



Calorimetry: Calorimetry is used to measure the heat given
off from or taken up by a reaction. Calorimetry assumes that
heat released by the system to the surroundings is used to
heat or cool the surroundings.

gs surroundin system
Q Q =
t
d
v =
t
v
a =
/2 at t v d
2
i
+ =
2ad v v
2
i
2
f
+ =
t

=
t

=
/2 t t
2
i
+ =
2
2
i
2
f
+ =
K C = + 273

32
5
9
+ = C F

W Q U + =
RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
13: Thermodynamics
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Objects in thermal
equilibrium are at the same temperature. Objects in
contact will eventually come to thermal equilibrium.
1
st
Law of Thermodynamics (Law of Conservation of
Energy): Energy cannot be created nor destroyed in a
chemical or physical process.
W Q U + =
U = internal energy (in J)
Q = heat (in J);
W = work done on (W>0) or by (W<0) the system
Entropy (S): Disorder or random-ness

Has less entropy Has more entropy
Solid Liquid
Liquid Gas
Solute Crystals in Solvent Dissolved Solution
Simple molecules Large, complex molecules
Less molecules More molecules

2
nd
Law of Thermodynamics: The total entropy of the
universe can never decrease.
0
total
S

Note that the entropy of the system may decrease so long as
the entropy of the surroundings increases by an equal or
greater amount.
0 +
gs surroundin system
S S

Living things utilize this concept by couplings the building of
organized molecules such as DNA to the release energy as
heat and an increase in the total entropy of the surroundings.

14: Vibrations and Waves
Wave motion: The process in which the disturbance in a
point in the medium is transmitted to other parts of the
medium without the bodily movement of the particles.
Longitudional Waves: The particles in the medium move
parallel to the direction of the wave. Eg. Sound waves
Transverse waves: In a transverse wave the particles in
the medium move perpendicular to the direction of the
wave. Eg. Light waves, waves on strings.
Time period (T): The time taken by a body to complete
one vibration.
Frequency: Frequency is the number of oscillations
completed in a unit time
Amplitude (r): The maximum displacement of the body in
vibration.
Mechanical waves: A mechanical wave is just a
disturbance that propagates through a medium
Electromagnetic wave: An electromagnetic wave is
simply light of a visible or invisible wavelength. Oscillating
intertwined electric and magnetic fields comprise light.
Light can travel without medium.
Crest: The maximum displacement position in a wave is
called a crest.
Trough: The minimum displacement position in a wave is
called a trough

Period of a swinging pendulum: T = 2(l/g)
Period of a mass on a spring: T = 2(M/K)
Wave speed equation: v=f
f = 1/T

Reflection of a wave at a boundary: When a wave is
progressing towards an open end or from a medium of
greater to lesser density it reflects back with the same
direction of displacement. When a wave is progressing
towards a fixed end it gets inverted.
15: Sound
Sound: A form of energy .When Matter vibrates very
quickly it transports energy in the form of waves. It
stimulates our sense of hearing. Sound waves are pressure
waves (energy per unit area). Sound cannot travel through
vacuum. A wave is a carrier of sound energy.
Beats: The periodic and repeating fluctuations heard in the
intensity of a sound. Two sound waves of nearly same
frequencies interfere with one another to produce beats
Pitch: The highest or lowest sound an object makes.
Audible sounds: The audio spectrum extends from
approximately 20Hz to 20,000 Hz. These sounds can be
heard by human ear
Below 20 Hz Infrasonics
Above 20KHz Ultrasonics
Doppler Effect: The apparent change in the frequency of
sound due to relative motion between the sound source and
observer is called Doppler Effect.
Intensity: The loudness sound is directly proportional to
the square of the amplitude or intensity (I). It is convenient
to use a logarithmic scale to determine the intensity level
= 10 log (I/I
0
)
Reference intensity or threshold of hearing , I
0
= 1.00
x 10
-12
W/ m
2
; = 0 dB
Stationary or Standing waves are formed due to
superposition of two identical waves moving in opposite
directions.

There is no net flow of energy in the medium.
Node: The points of no displacement when standing waves
are formed.
Antinodes: The points along the medium which vibrate
back and forth with maximum displacement.
Echo: The sound obtained by reflection at a wall, cliff or a
mountain is called an echo.
16: Interference,Diffraction and Polarization
Electromagnetic Spectrum: A diagram that illustrates all
the varieties of electromagnetic waves based on their
relative frequency/wavelengths. Our eyes observe only a
small amount of this spectrum.
Principle of Superposition: When two or more waves
occupy the same region of space simultaneously, the
resulting wave disturbance is the sum of separate waves.
Constructive Interference: Two or more waves
superimposing to create a resulting wave that has larger
amplitude.
Destructive Interference: Two or more waves
superimposing to create a resulting wave that has smaller
amplitude.
Diffraction: The bending of waves around corners or small
openings.
Youngs Double Slit Experiment: Experiment that
measured the wavelength of light by interference from two
small slits
Polarization: Light where the electric field fluctuates in only
one direction.
3x10
8
m/s speed of light in a vacuum
sin=m/d bright fringe formula
sin=(m+1/2) /d dark fringe formula
sin=m/d diffraction grating formula
S=S
o
cos
2
Malus law

Unpolarized
light
Unpolarized
light
Polarizing
filter
Polarizing
filter
Polarized
light
Polarized
light

Here a
polarizing filter
changes
random
unpolarized
light into a
wave that
vibrates in only
one direction.
RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
17: Reflection, Refraction and Lenses
Law of Reflection: The angle of incidence equals the
angle of reflection.
Virtual Image: An image that cannot be projected onto a
screen. The rays of light dont actually converge there;
they just seem to originate from that location.
Real Image: An image where the rays of light actually
meet at a location. It can be projected onto a screen.
Refraction: The bending of light due to its change in
velocity in various media.
Index of Refraction: The ratio between the speed of light
in a vacuum and a particular medium.
Total Internal Reflection: The complete reflection of
light when it strikes the boundary between two media at
greater than a critical angle.

1/f=1/d
o
+1/d
i

m=h
i
/h
o
=-d
i
/d
o

n=c/v
n
1
sin
1
=n
2
sin
2














18: Electric Forces and Fields
Charge: A fundamental intrinsic property of matter that
gives rise to the attractions and repulsions between
electrons and protons.
Charging by Contact: The transfer of electric charge from
one object to another by simple contact or conduction.
Charging by Induction: Redistribution or charging or an
object by bringing a charged item in close proximity to, but
not touching, an uncharged object.
Coulombs Law: Mathematical relationship between
electric force, charge, and distance. The electric force
varies directly with the product of the charges, and
inversely to the square of the distance between the
charges.
Polarized: Separation or alignment of the charges in a
neutral body so that like charges are grouped together,
resulting in a positive and a negative region.
Electric Field: A force field that fills the space near any
charge.
Electric Potential: The ratio of electric potential energy to
electric charge at a particular spot in an electric field. It is
often referred to as voltage since it is measured in volts.
Equipotential Line: A line where all points have an equal
electric potential, or voltage.

F
E
=kq
1
q
2
/r
2

k=9x10
9
Nm
2
/C
2

k=1/4 o o =8.85x10
-12
C
2
/Nm
2

1 Coulomb = 6.25x10
18
electrons
E=F/q
V=PE/q
V=kq/r

Diagram shows the electric field
surrounding an area of negative
charge. The E field lines always point in the direction that a
small positive test charge would move in the field.
19: Conductors, Capacitors and Dielectrics
Conductor: Material where electrons are loosely bound and
are able to flow throughout due to the free electrons.
Insulator: Materials where electrons are bound and dont
flow easily.
Semiconductor: Materials in between insulator and
conductor.
Superconductor: A material where electrons flow without
any resistance. Generally, superconductivity only occurs at
very low temperatures.
Resistor: A device used to control or regular the amount of
electric charge flowing.
Resistivity: An intrinsic property of a material that partially
determines the resistance of a wire.
Capacitor: A device used to store or accumulate electric
energy. This is done by oppositely charging two nearby
conductive surfaces that are not in contact with each other.
Dielectric: an insulating material is inserted between the
plates of a capacitor.
Dielectric Constant: the factor that describes the
additional capacitance gained by adding a dielectric material
between the plates of a capacitor.
R= L/A
q=CV
C= k o A/d
o =8.85x10
-12
C
2
/Nm
2

Uc=qV/2=CV
2
/2
V=PE/q

Factors that determine the resistance of a wire:
Resistivity of wire material
Length of wire
Cross sectional area of wire
Temperature of wire
20: Circuits
Series Circuit: A circuit where the components form one
continuous loop. The current is constant throughout.
Parallel Circuit: A circuit where each component is
connects to form its own separate independent branch. The
voltage is constant throughout.
Internal Resistance: Resistance from the processes inside
a voltage source; resistance due to the battery itself.
Kirchhoffs Laws: Two laws, the junction and loop rule,
that help describe circuits with multiple loops or voltage
sources.
Junction Rule: A restatement of conservation of charge;
the current going into a junction must equal the current
going out of the junction.
Loop Rule: A restatement of conservation of energy; the
sum of all voltages in the elements of a loop is zero.

V=IR Ohms law
P=IV=I
2
R
R
S
=R
1
+R
2
+R
3
+
R
P
=1/R
1
+1/R
2
+1/R
3
+

glass
air
glass glass
air
normal normal
angle of
incidence
angle of
incidence
Refracted
beam
Refracted
beam
angle of
refraction
angle of
refraction
unrefracted
beam
Note how the
beam bends to
the normal
when entering
the more dense
glass medium.
Then it bends
away from the
normal when re
entering air.


-

In this series
circuit the
current flow
would be
equal
throughout.
2
batteries
switch
Light
bulb
resistor


In this parallel
circuit the
voltage to each
resistor would
be equal.
2
batteries

RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
21: Magnetic Fields
Magnetic Domains: Microscopic areas of atoms where the
magnetic fields are aligned.
Ferromagnetic: A naturally magnetic class of materials
where the magnetic domains are ordered and do not cancel
out.
Magnetic Field Lines: Lines showing the shape and
extent of a magnetic field around a permanent magnet or a
moving charged object.
Mass Spectrometer: A device that magnetically
separates charged ions according to their mass. A
magnetic field is used to accomplish this separation.

F
B
=BIL sin
F
B
=qvBsin
B = o i / 2 r

o
=4 x10
-7
Tm/A

Right Hand Rule, RHR
1. The fingers extend or curl in the direction of the magnetic
field.
2. The outstretched thumb points in the direction of
conventional current, or the direction of a positively charged
moving particle.
3. A line perpendicular to the palm indicates the direction of
the magnetic force.


22: Electromagnetism
Electromotive Force, EMF: A voltage that gives rise to a
current flow. This voltage can be induced or created by a
changing magnetic field.
Induced current: The flow of charge in a conductor due
to the changing magnetic flux near that conductor.
Lenzs Law: The induced emf always gives rise to a
current whose magnetic flux opposed the original change in
magnetic flux. Thus, the induced current tries to maintain
the level of magnetic flux.
Generator: A machine that produces electricity by a
rotating coil of wire immersed in a stationary magnetic
field. This rotating motion could be obtained from a variety
of sources.


B
=BAcos
A
circle
=r
2

=-N/t
=BLv

Here the conducting loop begins to pass into the magnetic
field that goes into the page. An induced emf, and current
are created. The current flows so that the newly created B
field opposes the change in the original B field. While totally
immersed, no current would flow since there would be no
change in the B field flux.
23: Atomic Physics
Bohrs atom model - Proposed by Neil Bohr in 1913

First postulate: An atom consists of a positively charged
nucleus at the centre. The electrons move round the nucleus
in certain stationary orbits of definite radii and not all
possible radii.
Second postulate: The radius of the orbit is such that the
angular momentum of the electron is an integral multiple of
h/2p
Third postulate: Electron may jump from one orbit to the
other, in which case the difference in energy between the
two states of motion is radiated in the form of a light
quantum.
Atomic Spectra Solids, liquids and diffused gases emit
light when heated. This light produces ordered arrangement
of lines or bands or continuous patch of light.


Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle
If position is identified the momentum cannot be measured
If momentum is measured the position is lost.
x X p h / 4
24: Nuclear Physics
Radioactivity: Emission of radiation as a consequence of a
nuclear reaction, or directly from the breakdown of an
unstable nucleus.
Half Life: The time required for half of the nuclei in a
sample of a specific isotope to undergo radioactive decay.
Alpha Particle: A positively charged helium nucleus
(consisting of two protons and two neutrons).
Beta Particle: An energetic electron produced as the result
of a nuclear reaction or nuclear decay.
Gamma Particle/Ray: Very high frequency
electromagnetic radiation emitted as a consequence of
radioactivity.
Fission: The process whereby one item splits to become
two.
Binding Energy: The energy needed to separate the
constituent parts of an atom or nucleus
Mass Defect: The difference between the mass of an atom
and the sum of the masses of its individual components.
Half Life: The amount of time needed for half of the original
nuclei to decay away into another element.
Calculating Binding Energy:
1. Determine the masses of each of the particles
individually.
2. Determine the mass of a whole nucleus.
3. The difference between the two provides m.
4. Use m in the equation E=mc
2
to calculate E.

Nuclear power plants have provided energy for half a
century.
Atomic bombs are based on fission and among the most
destructive weapons ever created.
Medical applications of radioactivity are commonplace in
our society, and are seen in cancer therapy, tracers,
tomography (PET scans), NMRs and MRIs.

X X X


X X X


X X X


X X X X X

X X X




X X

X X X X X

. . .

. . .