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# Saturday, June 25, 2011

CHAPTER 3
P.P.3.1

3A 1

6 i1

i1
i2

3A

2 12A
i3

12A

At node 1,
3 + i 1 + i 2 = 0 or

v1 v 2 v1 0
=3

6
2

or 4v 1 v 2 = 18

(1)

At node 2,
i 1 + i 3 + 12 = 0 or i 1 = 12 + i 3 or

v1 v 2
v 0
12 2
6
7

or 7v 1 13v 2 = 504

(2)

## Solving (1) and (2) gives

v 1 = 6 V, v 2 = 42 V
2

i1

P.P.3.2

4i x
v1

i2

i2
3

4A

v2

v3
ix
4

i3
6

At node 1,
4 + i 1 + i 2 = 0 = 4 +

v1 v 3 v1 v 2

2
3

or 5v 1 2v 2 3v 3 = 24

(1)

At node 2,
i 2 + i x 4i x = 0 = i 2 3i x = 0 where i x = [(v 2 0)/4] or
v1 v 2
v
3 2 0 which leads to 4v 1 + 5v 2 = 0
3
4

(2)

At node 3,
i 1 + i 3 + 4i x = 0 =

v 3 v1 v 3 0
v

4 2
2
6
4

or 3v 1 + 6v 2 + 4v 3 = 0

(3)

## Solving (1) to (3) gives

v 1 = 32 V, v 2 = 25.6 V, v 3 = 62.4 V

P.P.3.3

14V
+

v
+

v1
2

6V

v1

(b)

(a)

## At the supernode in Fig. (a),

14 v v v1 v1

4
3 2 6
or 42 = 7v + 8v 1

(1)

v 6 + v1 = 0

v1 = v + 6

(2)

## Solving (1) and (2),

v = 400 mV
v 1 = v + 6 = 5.6, i 1 =

v1
2.8
2
i 1 = 2.8 A

P.P.3.4
v1

v2

5i

25 V

v3

v1

v2

v3

(a)

(b)

## From Fig. (a),

v1 v 2 v 3

0
2
4
3

6v 1 + 3v 2 + 4v 3 = 0

(1)

## From Fig. (b),

v 1 + 25 + v 2 = 0

v 1 = v 2 + 25

(2)

v 2 5i + v 3 = 0

v 3 = v 2 + 2.5v 1

(3)

## Solving (1) to (3), we obtain

v 1 = 7.608 V, v 2 = 17.39 V, v 3 = 1.6305 V
P.P.3.5 We apply KVL to the two loops and obtain

45 + 2i 1 + 12( i i i 2 ) +4i 1 = 0 or
45 + 18i i 12i 2 = 0 which leads to 3i i 2i 2 = 7.5
12(i 2 i 1 ) + 9i 2 + 30 + 3i 2 = 0 or
30 + 24i 2 12i 1 = 0 which leads to 3i 1 + 6i 2 = 7.5
(2)
From (1) and (2) we get
i 1 = 2.5 A, i 2 = 0A

(1)

## P.P.3.6 For mesh 1,

16 + 6i 1 2i 2 4i 3 = 0
For mesh 2,

3i 1 i 2 2i 3 = 8

(1)

10i 2 2i 1 8i 3 10i 0 = 0 = i 1 + 5i 2 9i 3

(2)

But i 0 = i 3 ,
18i 3 4i 1 8i 2 = 0

2i 1 4i 2 + 9i 3 = 0

## From (1) to (3),

3 1 2 i1 8
1 5 9 i = 0
2

2 4 9 i 3 0

3 1 2
1 5 9
2 4 9 = 135 8 18 20 108 9 = 28
3 1 2
1 5 9
8 1 2
0 5 9
1 0 4 9 360 288 72
8 1 2
0 5 9
3
1
2 2
3
1

8
0
0
8
0

2
9
9 144 72 216
2
9

(3)

3 1 8
1 5 0
3 2 4 0 32 80 112
3 1 8
1 5 0
i1 =

2 216
112
1
72

7.714 , i 3 = 3
4A

2.571, i 2 =
28
28
28
I o = i 3 = 4 A

P.P.3.7
2
2

i3
i1
8V

i1

i3

4A
i2

3A

i2

i1

0 i2
(a)

(b)

## For the supermesh,

8 + 2i 1 2i 3 + 12i 2 4i 3 = 0 or i 1 + 6i 2 3i 3 = 4

(1)

For mesh 3,
8i 3 2i 1 4i 2 = 0 or i 1 2i 2 + 4i 3 = 0
At node 0 in Fig. (a),
i1 = 4 + i2

i1 i2 = 4

## Solving (1) to (3) yields

i 1 = 4.632 A, i 2 = 631.6 mA, i 3 = 1.4736 A

(2)

## P.P.3.8 G 11 = 1/(1) + 1/(20) + 1/(5) = 1.25, G 12 = 1/(5) = 0.2,

G 33 = 1/(4) + 1 = 1.25, G 44 = 1/(1) + 1/(4) = 1.25,
G 12 = 1/(5) = 0.2, G 13 = 1, G 14 = 0,
G 21 = 0.2, G 23 = 0 = G 26 ,
G 31 = 1, G 32 = 0, G 34 = 1/4 = 0.25,
G 41 = 0, G 42 = 0, G 43 = 0.25,
i 1 = 0, i 2 = 3+2 = 5, i 3 = 3, i 4 = 2.

Hence,
1
0
1.25 0.2
0 .2 0 .2
0
0

1
0
1.25 0.25

0.25 1.25
0
0

P.P.3.9

v1 0
v 5
2
v3 3

v4 2

R 11 = 50 + 20 + 80 = 150, R 22 = 20 + 30 + 15 = 65,
R 33 = 30 + 20 = 50, R 44 = 15 + 80 = 95,
R 55 = 20 + 60 = 80, R 12 = 40, R 13 = 0, R 14 = 80,
R 15 = 0, R 21 = 40, R 23 = 30, R 24 = 15, R 25 = 0,
R 31 = 0, R 32 = 30, R 34 = 0, R 35 = 20,
R 41 = 80, R 42 = 15, R 43 = 0, R 45 = 0,
R 51 = 0, R 52 = 0, R 53 = 20, R 54 = 0,
v 1 = 30, v 2 = 0, v 3 = 12, v 4 = 20, v 5 = 20

0
0 i1
80
150 40
30

40 65 30 15

0
0 i 2

0
0
30 50
20 i 3 = 12

0
95
0 i 4
80 15
20
0
20
0
0
80 i 5
20

P.P.3.10

## The schematic is shown below. It is saved and simulated by selecting

Analysis/Simulate. The results are shown on the viewpoints:
v 1 = 10 V, v 2 = 14.286 V, v 3 = 50 V

-10.0000

500 mA 14.2858

50.0000

50 V

P.P.3.11

## The schematic is shown below. After saving it, it is simulated by choosing

Analysis/Simulate. The results are shown on the IPROBES.
i 1 = 428.6 mA, i 2 = 2.286 A, i 3 = 2 A

-4.286E-01

2.286E+00
2.000E+00

P.P.3.12

## For the input loop,

-5 + 10 x 103 I B + V BE + V 0 = 0

(1)

## For the outer loop,

-V 0 - V CE - 500 I 0 + 12 = 0

(2)

But

V 0 = 200 I E

(3)

Also

## I C = I B = 100 I B , = /(1 + ) = 100/(101)

I C = I E

I E = I C /() = I B /()

(4)

## From (1), (3) and (4),

10,000 I B + 200(101) I R = 5 - V BE
IB =

5 0. 7
142.38A
10,000 20,000

## V 0 = 200 I E = 20,000 I B = 2.876 V

From (2),
V CE = 12 - V 0 - 500 I C = 9.124 - 500 x 100 x 142.38 x 10-6
V CE = 1.984 V {often, this is rounded to 2.0 volts}

P.P.3.13

10 k

i1
i0

iC
30 k

iB

+
+

1V

V BE

10 k

20V

iB =

1 0.7
10A, i C = i B = 0.8 mA
30k

i1 = iC + i0
Also,

(1)

10ki 0 10ki 1 + 20 = 0

i 1 = 2 mA i 0

## Equating (1) and (2),

i 0 = 600 A

2 mA i 0 = 0.8 mA + i 0
3

v 0 = 20 ki 0 = 20x10 x600x10 = 12 V

(2)