IMBONG vs.

JAIME FERRER, as Chairman of the Comelec,
[G.R. No. L!"#!". $e%tem&er '', '()*.+
IN ,-E MA,,ER OF A .E,I,ION FOR /ECLARA,OR0 J1/GMEN, REGAR/ING ,-E 2ALI/I,0 OF R.A. No.
3'!", O,-ER4I$E 5NO4N A$ ,-E CON$,I,1,IONAL CON2EN,ION AC, OF '()*. RA1L M. GON6ALE$,
%etitioner, vs. COMELEC, res%on7ent.
[G.R. No. L!"##! $e%tem&er '', '()*+
'. CON$,I,1,IONAL LA48 CON$,I,1,IONAL CON2EN,ION8 RA. 3'!", CON$,I,1,IONAL. 9 ,he
constit:tionalit; of the enactment of R.A. 3'!" &; Con<ress m:st &e :%hel7 for the follo=in< reasons> '? Con<ress,
actin< as Constit:ent Assem&l; %:rs:ant to Article @2 of the Constit:tion, has a:thorit; to %ro%ose constit:tional
amen7ments or call a convention for the %:r%ose &; !A# votes of each ho:se in Boint session assem&le7 &:t votin<
se%aratel;8 "? $:ch <rant incl:7es all other %o=ers essential to the effective eCercise of the %rinci%al %o=er &;
necessar; im%lication8 !? Im%lementin< 7etails are =ithin the a:thorit; of Con<ress not onl; as a Constit:ent Assem&l;
&:t also in the eCercise of its com%rehensive le<islative %o=er so lon< as it 7oes not contravene an; %rovision of the
Constit:tion8 an7 #? Con<ress as a le<islative &o7; ma; th:s enact necessar; im%lementin< le<islation to fill in the
<a%s =hich Con<ress as a Constit:ent Assem&l; omitte7.
". I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 A..OR,IONMEN, OF /ELEGA,E$. 9 1nliDe in the a%%ortionment of re%resentative 7istricts,
the Constit:tion 7oes not eC%ressl; or im%lie7l; reE:ire s:ch a%%ortionment of 7ele<ates to the convention on the
&asis of %o%:lation in each con<ressional 7istrict. Con<ress, sittin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l;, ma; constit:tionall;
allocate one 7ele<ate for each con<ressional 7istrict or for each %rovince, for reasons of econom; an7 to avoi7 havin<
an :n=iel7; convention. If the framers of the %resent Constit:tion =ante7 the a%%ortionment of 7ele<ates to &e &ase7
on the n:m&er of inha&itants in each re%resentative 7istrict, the; =o:l7 have 7one so in so man; =or7s as the; 7i7 in
relation to the a%%ortionment of the re%resentative 7istricts. ,he a%%ortionment %rovi7e7 for in $ec. " of R.A. No. 3'!"
cannot %ossi&l; conflict =ith its o=n intent eC%resse7 therein8 for it merel; o&e;e7 an7 im%lemente7 the intent of
Con<ress actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l; eC%resse7 in $ec. ' of Res. No. #, =hich %rovi7es that the !"* 7ele<ates
sho:l7 &e a%%ortione7 amon< the eCistin< re%resentative 7istricts accor7in< to the n:m&er of their res%ective
inha&itants, &:t fiCin< a minim:m of at least t=o 7ele<ates for a re%resentative 7istrict.
!. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 AB$OL1,E .RO.OR,IONAL RE.RE$EN,A,ION NO, REF1IRE/. 9 ,hat the lone an7
small con<ressional 7istrict of Batanes, ma; &e overre%resente7, &eca:se it is allotte7 t=o 7ele<ates &; R.A. 3'!"
7es%ite the fact that it has a %o%:lation ver; m:ch less than several other con<ressional 7istricts, each of =hich is also
allotte7 onl; t=o 7ele<ates, an7 therefore :n7erre%resente7 visavis Batanes alone, 7oes not vitiate the
a%%ortionment as not affectin< %ro%ortional re%resentation. A&sol:te %ro%ortional a%%ortionment is not reE:ire7 an7 is
not %ossi&le =hen &ase7 on the n:m&er of inha&itants, for the %o%:lation cens:s cannot &e acc:rate nor com%lete,
7e%en7ent as it is on the 7ili<ence of the cens:s taDers a<<ravate7 &; the constant movement of %o%:lation, as =ell
as 7ail; 7eath an7 &irth. It is eno:<h that the &asis em%lo;e7 is reasona&le an7 the res:ltin< a%%ortionment is
s:&stantiall; %ro%ortional.
#. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 NO, 1NREA$ONABLE. 9 4hile there ma; &e other form:las for a reasona&le
a%%ortionment, consi7erin< the evi7ence s:&mitte7 to Con<ress &; the B:rea: of Cens:s an7 $tatistics, 4e are not
%re%are7 to r:le that the com%:tation form:la a7o%te7 &; Con<ress for %ro%ortional re%resentation as 7irecte7 in Res.
No. # is :nreasona&le an7 that the a%%ortionment %rovi7e7 in R.A. 3'!" 7oes not constit:te a s:&stantiall;
%ro%ortional re%resentation.
G. I/.8 A..OR,IONMEN, OF CONGRE$$IONAL /I$,RIC,$8 AB$OL1,E RE.RE$EN,A,ION CANNO, BE
EFFEC,E/, $EC,ION G AR,ICLE 2I, CON$,I,1,ION. 9 ,he im%ossi&ilit; of a&sol:te %ro%ortional re%resentation is
reco<niHe7 &; the Constit:tion itself =hen it 7irects that the a%%ortionment of con<ressional 7istricts amon< the vario:s
%rovinces shall &e Ias nearl; as ma; &e accor7in< to their res%ective inha&itants, &:t each %rovince shall have at least
one mem&er.I ,he em%lo;ment of the %hrase Ias nearl; as ma; &e accor7in< to their res%ective inha&itantsI
em%hasiHes the fact that the h:man min7 can onl; a%%roCimate a reasona&le a%%ortionment &:t cannot affect an
a&sol:tel; %ro%ortional re%resentation =ith mathematical %recision or eCactit:7e.
3. I/.8 .1BLIC OFFICE8 NO IN-EREN, RIG-, ,O .1BLIC OFFICE. 9 ,hat a citiHen 7oes not have an;
inherent nor nat:ral ri<ht to a %:&lic office, is aCiomatic :n7er o:r Constit:tional s;stem. ,he $tate, thro:<h its
Constit:tion or le<islative &o7;, can create an office an7 7efine the E:alifications an7 7isE:alifications therefor as =ell
as im%ose inhi&itions on a %:&lic officer. ConseE:entl;, onl; those =ith E:alifications an7 =ho 7o not fall :n7er an;
constit:tional or stat:tor; inhi&ition can &e vali7l; electe7 or a%%ointe7 to a %:&lic office.
). I/.8 CONCON8 /I$F1ALIFICA,ION OF ELEC,E/ /ELEGA,E$ FROM .1BLIC OFFICE8 $EC,ION G. 9
$ection G of R.A. 3'!" 7isE:alifies an; electe7 7ele<ate from r:nnin< Ifor an; %:&lic office in an; electionI or from
ass:min< Ian; a%%ointive office or %osition in an; &ranch of the <overnment :ntil after the final a7Bo:rnment of the
Constit:tional Convention.I ,he o&vio:s reason for the E:estione7 inhi&ition is to imm:niHe the 7ele<ates from the
%ervertin< infl:ence of selfinterest, %art; interest or veste7 interest an7 to ins:re that he 7e7icates all his time to
%erformin< solel;, in the interest of the nation, his hi<h an7 =ell ni<h sacre7 f:nction of form:latin< the s:%reme la= of
the lan7, =hich ma; en7:re for <enerations an7 =hich cannot easil; &e chan<e7 liDe an or7inar; stat:te.
J. I/.8 I/.8 $EC,ION G of RA. 3'!"8 REA$ON. 9 4ith the 7isE:alification em&o7ie7 in $ection G, the 7ele<ate
=ill not :tiliHe his %osition as a &ar<ainin< levera<e for concessions in the form of an elective or a%%ointive office as
lon< as the convention has not finall; a7Bo:rne7. ,he a%%ointin< a:thorit; ma;, &; his a%%ointin< %o=er, entice votes
for his o=n %ro%osals. Not love of self, &:t love of co:ntr; m:st al=a;s motivate his act:ations as 7ele<ate, other=ise
the several %rovisions of the ne= Constit:tion ma; onl; satisf; in7ivi7:al or s%ecial interests s:&versive of the =elfare
of the <eneral citiHenr;.
(. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 CON$,I,1,IONAL. 9 ,h:s, the challen<e7 7isE:alification %rescri&e7 in $ection G of R.A. 3'!"
is a vali7 limitation on the ri<ht to %:&lic office %:rs:ant to state %olice %o=er as it is reasona&le an7 not ar&itrar;.
'*. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 /I$CRIMINA,ION AGAIN$, /ELEGA,E$8 CON$,I,1,IONAL. 9 ,he 7iscrimination :n7er
$ec. G a<ainst 7ele<ates is constit:tional since it is &ase7 :%on s:&stantial 7istinction =hich maDes for real
7ifferences. ,he f:nction of 7ele<ate is more farreachin< an7 its effects more en7:rin< than that of an; or7inar;
le<islator or an; other %:&lic officer. A 7ele<ate sha%es the f:n7amental la= of the lan7 =hich 7elineates the essential
nat:re of the <overnment, its &asic or<aniHation an7 %o=ers, 7efines the li&erties of the %eo%le, an7 controls all other
la=s. 1nliDe or7inar; stat:tes, constit:tional amen7ments cannot &e chan<e7 in one or t=o ;ears. No other %:&lic
officer %ossesses s:ch a %o=er, not even the mem&ers of Con<ress :nless the; themselves %ro%ose constit:tional
amen7ments =hen actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l; %:rs:ant to Art. @2 of the Constit:tion. ,he classification,
therefore, is neither =himsical nor re%:<nant to the sense of B:stice of the comm:nit;.
''. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 GERMANE ,O .1R.O$E$ OF ,-E LA4. 9 ,he inhi&ition :n7er $ection G of R.A. 3'!" is
relevant t the o&Bect of the la=, =hich is to ins:re that the %ro%ose7 amen7ments are meanin<f:l to the masses of o:r
%eo%le an7 not 7esi<ne7 for the enhancement of selfishness, <ree7, corr:%tion, or inB:stice.
'". I/.8 G1ARAN,EE OF /1E .ROCE$$ AN/ O,-ER RIG-,$ NO, AB$OL1,E. 9 ,his Co:rt r:le7 last ;ear
that the <:arantees of 7:e %rocess, eE:al %rotection of the la=s, %eacef:l assem&l;, free eC%ression, an7 the ri<ht of
association are neither a&sol:te nor illimita&le ri<hts8 the; are al=a;s s:&Bect to the %ervasive an7 7ominant %olice
%o=er of the $tate an7 ma; &e la=f:ll; a&ri7<e7 to serve a%%ro%riate an7 im%ortant %:&lic interest.
'!. I/.8 CON$,I,1,IONAL CON2EN,ION8 $EC,ION G, .ARAGRA.- I R.A.. 3'!"8 BAN AGAIN$, .OLI,ICAL
.AR,IE$. 9 ,he &an a<ainst all %olitical %arties or or<aniHe7 <ro:%s of =hatever nat:re containe7 in %ar. ' of $ec.
JKa?, is confine7 to %art; or or<aniHation s:%%ort or assistance, =hether material, moral, or emotional or other=ise.
'#. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 AC,$ .ERMI,,E/. 9 ,he ver; $ec. JKa? in its %rovisos %ermits the can7i7ate to :tiliHe in his
cam%ai<n the hel% of the mem&ers of his famil; =ithin the fo:rth civil 7e<ree of consan<:init; or affinit;, an7 a
cam%ai<n staff com%ose7 of not more than one for ever; ten %recincts in his 7istrict. It allo=s the f:ll eCercise of his
free7om of eC%ression an7 his ri<ht to %eacef:l assem&l;, &eca:se he cannot &e 7enie7 an; %ermit to hol7 a %:&lic
meetin< on the %reteCt that the %rovision of sai7 section ma; or =ill &e violate7. ,he ri<ht of a mem&er of an; %olitical
%art; or association to s:%%ort him or o%%ose his o%%onent is %reserve7 as lon< as s:ch mem&er acts in7ivi7:all;. ,he
ver; %art; or or<aniHation to =hich he ma; &elon< or =hich ma; &e in s;m%ath; =ith his ca:se or %ro<ram or reforms,
is <:arantee7 the ri<ht to 7isseminate information a&o:t, or to aro:se %:&lic interest in, or to a7vocate for constit:tional
reforms, %ro<rams, %olicies or constit:tional %ro%osals for amen7ments.
'G. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 .AR,I$AN AC,I2I,0, CON$,I,1,IONAL. 9 Even if %artisan activit; consists of Ka? formin<
or<aniHations, associations, cl:&s, committees or other <ro:%s of %ersons for the %:r%ose of solicitin< votes an7Aor
:n7ertaDin< an; cam%ai<n or %ro%a<an7a for or a<ainst a %art; or can7i7ate8 K&? hol7in< %olitical conventions,
ca:c:ses, conferences, meetin<s, rallies, %ara7es or other similar assem&lies for the %:r%ose of solicitin< votes an7Aor
:n7ertaDin< an; cam%ai<n for %ro%a<an7a. for or a<ainst an; can7i7ate or %art;8 an7 Kc? <ivin<, solicitin< or receivin<
contri&:tions for election cam%ai<n either 7irectl; or in7irectl;, K$ec. G*B, %ars. Ka?, K&?, an7 Kc?, R.A. #JJ*?, the
a&ri7<ment =as still affirme7 as constit:tional &; siC mem&ers of this Co:rt, =hich co:l7 not Ii<nore . . . the le<islative
7eclaration that its enactment =as in res%onse to a serio:s s:&stantive evil affectin< the electoral %rocess, not merel;
in 7an<er of ha%%enin<, &:t act:all; in eCistence, an7 liDel; to contin:e :nless c:r&e7 or reme7ie7. ,o assert
other=ise =o:l7 &e to close oneLs e;es to the realit; of the sit:ation.I
'3. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 .1R.O$E. 9 ,he %rimar; %:r%ose of the %rohi&ition in %ar. ' of $ec. JKa? of R.A. 3'!" then
is to avert the clear an7 %resent 7an<er of another s:&stantive evil, the 7enial of the eE:al %rotection of the la=s. ,he
can7i7ates m:st 7e%en7 on their in7ivi7:al merits an7 not on the s:%%ort of %olitical %arties or or<aniHations. ,his
%osition is f:rther stren<thene7 &; the %rinci%le that the <:arantee of social B:stice :n7er $ec. 2, Art. II of the
Constit:tion, incl:7es the <:arantee of eE:al o%%ort:nit;, eE:alit; of %olitical ri<hts, an7 eE:alit; &efore the la=
en:nciate7 &; Mr. J:stice ,:aHon in the case G:i7o vs. R:ral .ro<ress A7ministration KJ# .hil. J#), JG"?.
'). I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 2ALI/ LIMI,A,ION ON FREE/OM OF A$$OCIA,ION AN/ E@.RE$$ION. 9 4hile it ma;
&e tr:e that a %art;Ls s:%%ort of a can7i7ate is not =ron< %er se, it is eE:all; tr:e that Con<ress in the eCercise of its
&roa7 la=maDin< a:thorit; can 7eclare certain acts as mala %rohi&ita =hen B:stifie7 &; the eCi<encies of the times.
One s:ch act is the %art; or or<aniHation s:%%ort %roscri&e7 in $ec. JKa?, =hich &an is a vali7 limitation on the free7om
of association as =ell as free eC%ression for the reasons aforestate7.
'J. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 EF1AL .RO,EC,ION OF ,-E LA4 NO, $1B2ER,E/ IN IN$,AN, CA$E. 9 ,he eE:al
%rotection of the la=s is not :n7:l; s:&verte7 in %ar. ' of $ec. JKa? &eca:se it 7oes not create an; hostile
7iscrimination a<ainst an; %art; or <ro:% nor 7oes it confer :n7:e favor or %rivile<e on an in7ivi7:al. ,he
7iscrimination a%%lies to all or<aniHations, =hether %olitical %arties or social, civic, reli<io:s or %rofessional
associations. ,he &an is <ermane to the o&Bectives of the la=, =hich are to avert the 7e&asement of the electoral
%rocess an7 to attain real eE:alit; of chances amon< in7ivi7:al can7i7ates an7 there&; maDe real the <:arantee of
eE:al %rotection of the la=s.
'(. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 BAN AGAIN$, .OLI,ICAL .AR,IE$, E@.LAINE/. 9 .olitical %arties an7 the other or<aniHe7
<ro:%s have &:iltin a7vanta<es &eca:se of their machiner; an7 other facilities, =hich, the in7ivi7:al can7i7ate =ho is
=itho:t an; or<aniHation s:%%ort 7oes not have. ,he &an on %olitical %arties is <ermane to the o&Bectives of the la= of
avertin< the 7e&asement of the electoral %rocess for it ass:res the can7i7ates eE:al %rotection of the la=s &;
accor7in< them eE:alit; of chances. 1n7er this %rovision, the %oor can7i7ate has an even chance as a<ainst the rich
can7i7ate.
"*. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 BAN AGAIN$, CI2IC A$$OCIA,ION$, E@.LAINE/. 9 It is no ar<:ment that the civic an7
reli<io:s or<aniHation machiner; is not as effective as that of %olitical %arties, for it still has that m:ch &:iltin
a7vanta<e as a<ainst the in7ivi7:al can7i7ate =itho:t similar s:%%ort. F:rthermore, these civic, reli<io:s an7
%rofessional or<aniHations ma; &an7 to<ether to s:%%ort a can7i7ate =ho a7vocates reforms =hich the; &elieve are
im%erative. ,he civic associations other than %olitical %arties cannot =ith reason insist that the; sho:l7 &e eCem%te7
from the &an8 &eca:se then &; s:ch eCem%tion the; =o:l7 &e free to :tiliHe the facilities of the cam%ai<n machiner;Ls
=hich the; are 7en;in< to the %olitical %arties. 4henever an or<aniHation en<a<es in a %olitical activit;, as in this
cam%ai<n for election of 7ele<ates to the Constit:tional Convention, to that eCtent it %artaDes of the nat:re of a %olitical
or<aniHation.
"'. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 FREE/OM OF $.EEC- AN/ A$$EMBL0 NO, ,RAN$GRE$$E/ IN IN$,AN, CA$E. 9 ,he
free7om of association also im%lies the li&ert; not to associate or Boin =ith others nor Boin an; eCistin< or<aniHation. A
%erson ma; r:n in7e%en7entl; on his o=n merits =itho:t nee7 of caterin< to a %olitical %art; or an; other association
for s:%%ort. An7 he, as m:ch as the can7i7ate =hose can7i7ac; 7oes not evoDe s;m%ath; from an; %olitical %art; or
or<aniHe7 <ro:%, m:st &e affor7e7 eE:al chances.
,hese t=o se%arate &:t relate7 %etitions for 7eclarator; relief =ere file7 %:rs:ant to $ec. '( of R.A. No. 3'!" &;
%etitioners Man:el B. Im&on< an7 Ra:l M. GonHales, &oth mem&ers of the Bar, taC%a;ers an7 intereste7 in r:nnin< as
can7i7ates for 7ele<ates to the Constit:tional Convention. Both im%:<n the constit:tionalit; of R.A. No. 3'!", claimin<
7:rin< the oral ar<:ment that it %reB:7ices their ri<hts as s:ch can7i7ates. After the $olicitor General ha7 file7 ans=ers
in &ehalf the res%on7ents, hearin<s =ere hel7 at =hich the %etitioners an7 the amici c:riae, namel; $enator LorenHo
,aMa7a, $enator Art:ro ,olentino, $enator Jovito $alon<a, an7 $enator Emman:el .elaeH ar<:e7 orall;.
FAC,$> In '(3), Con<ress, actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l; %:rs:ant to Art. @2 of the Constit:tion %asse7
Resol:tion No. " =hich amon< others calle7 for a Constit:tional Convention to %ro%ose constit:tional amen7ments to
&e com%ose7 of t=o 7ele<ates from each re%resentative 7istrict =ho shall have the same E:alifications as those of
Con<ressmen, to &e electe7 in accor7ance =ith the Revise7 Election Co7e.
After the a7o%tion of sai7 Res. No. " in '(3) &:t &efore the elections of that ;ear, Con<ress, actin< as a le<islative
&o7;, enacte7 an RA im%lementin< the aforesai7 Resol:tion No. " an7 %racticall; restatin< in toto the %rovisions of
sai7 Resol:tion No. ".
On J:ne '), '(3(, Con<ress, also actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l;, %asse7 Resol:tion No. # amen7in< the aforesai7
Resol:tion No. " of March '3, '(3) &; %rovi7in< that the convention Ishall &e com%ose7 of !"* 7ele<ates a%%ortione7
amon< the eCistin< re%resentative 7istricts accor7in< to the n:m&er of their res%ective inha&itants> .rovi7e7, that a
re%resentative 7istrict shall &e entitle7 to at least t=o 7ele<ates, =ho shall have the same E:alifications as those
reE:ire7 of mem&ers of the -o:se of Re%resentatives, I Ian7 that an; other 7etails relatin< to the s%ecific
a%%ortionment of 7ele<ates, election of 7ele<ates to, an7 the hol7in< of, the Constit:tional Convention shall &e
em&o7ie7 in an im%lementin< le<islation> .rovi7e7, that it shall not &e inconsistent =ith the %rovisions of this
Resol:tion. I "
On A:<:st "#, '()*, Con<ress, actin< as a le<islative &o7;, enacte7 Re%:&lic Act No. 3'!", im%lementin<
Resol:tions Nos. " an7 #, an7 eC%ressl; re%ealin< R.A. No. #('#.
.etitioner Ra:l M. GonHales assails the vali7it; of the entire la= as =ell as the %artic:lar %rovisions em&o7ie7 in
$ections ", #, G, an7 %ar. ' of JKa?. .etitioner Man:el B. Im&on< im%:<ns the constit:tionalit; of onl; %ar. ' of $ec. J
Ka? of sai7 R.A. No. 3'!" %racticall; on the same <ro:n7s a7vance7 &; %etitioner GonHales.
[G.R. No. L!"#!". $e%tem&er '', '()*.+
MAN1EL B. IMBONG, %etitioner, vs. JAIME FERRER, as Chairman of the Comelec, LINO M. .A,AJO an7 CE$AR
MIRAFLOR, as mem&ers thereof, res%on7ents.
[G.R. No. L!"##! $e%tem&er '', '()*+
IN ,-E MA,,ER OF A .E,I,ION FOR /ECLARA,OR0 J1/GMEN, REGAR/ING ,-E 2ALI/I,0 OF R.A. No.
3'!", O,-ER4I$E 5NO4N A$ ,-E CON$,I,1,IONAL CON2EN,ION AC, OF '()*. RA1L M. GON6ALE$,
%etitioner, vs. COMELEC, res%on7ent.
$0LLAB1$
'. CON$,I,1,IONAL LA48 CON$,I,1,IONAL CON2EN,ION8 RA. 3'!", CON$,I,1,IONAL. 9 ,he
constit:tionalit; of the enactment of R.A. 3'!" &; Con<ress m:st &e :%hel7 for the follo=in< reasons> '? Con<ress,
actin< as Constit:ent Assem&l; %:rs:ant to Article @2 of the Constit:tion, has a:thorit; to %ro%ose constit:tional
amen7ments or call a convention for the %:r%ose &; !A# votes of each ho:se in Boint session assem&le7 &:t votin<
se%aratel;8 "? $:ch <rant incl:7es all other %o=ers essential to the effective eCercise of the %rinci%al %o=er &;
necessar; im%lication8 !? Im%lementin< 7etails are =ithin the a:thorit; of Con<ress not onl; as a Constit:ent Assem&l;
&:t also in the eCercise of its com%rehensive le<islative %o=er so lon< as it 7oes not contravene an; %rovision of the
Constit:tion8 an7 #? Con<ress as a le<islative &o7; ma; th:s enact necessar; im%lementin< le<islation to fill in the
<a%s =hich Con<ress as a Constit:ent Assem&l; omitte7.
". I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 A..OR,IONMEN, OF /ELEGA,E$. 9 1nliDe in the a%%ortionment of re%resentative 7istricts,
the Constit:tion 7oes not eC%ressl; or im%lie7l; reE:ire s:ch a%%ortionment of 7ele<ates to the convention on the
&asis of %o%:lation in each con<ressional 7istrict. Con<ress, sittin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l;, ma; constit:tionall;
allocate one 7ele<ate for each con<ressional 7istrict or for each %rovince, for reasons of econom; an7 to avoi7 havin<
an :n=iel7; convention. If the framers of the %resent Constit:tion =ante7 the a%%ortionment of 7ele<ates to &e &ase7
on the n:m&er of inha&itants in each re%resentative 7istrict, the; =o:l7 have 7one so in so man; =or7s as the; 7i7 in
relation to the a%%ortionment of the re%resentative 7istricts. ,he a%%ortionment %rovi7e7 for in $ec. " of R.A. No. 3'!"
cannot %ossi&l; conflict =ith its o=n intent eC%resse7 therein8 for it merel; o&e;e7 an7 im%lemente7 the intent of
Con<ress actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l; eC%resse7 in $ec. ' of Res. No. #, =hich %rovi7es that the !"* 7ele<ates
sho:l7 &e a%%ortione7 amon< the eCistin< re%resentative 7istricts accor7in< to the n:m&er of their res%ective
inha&itants, &:t fiCin< a minim:m of at least t=o 7ele<ates for a re%resentative 7istrict.
!. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 AB$OL1,E .RO.OR,IONAL RE.RE$EN,A,ION NO, REF1IRE/. 9 ,hat the lone an7
small con<ressional 7istrict of Batanes, ma; &e overre%resente7, &eca:se it is allotte7 t=o 7ele<ates &; R.A. 3'!"
7es%ite the fact that it has a %o%:lation ver; m:ch less than several other con<ressional 7istricts, each of =hich is also
allotte7 onl; t=o 7ele<ates, an7 therefore :n7erre%resente7 visavis Batanes alone, 7oes not vitiate the
a%%ortionment as not affectin< %ro%ortional re%resentation. A&sol:te %ro%ortional a%%ortionment is not reE:ire7 an7 is
not %ossi&le =hen &ase7 on the n:m&er of inha&itants, for the %o%:lation cens:s cannot &e acc:rate nor com%lete,
7e%en7ent as it is on the 7ili<ence of the cens:s taDers a<<ravate7 &; the constant movement of %o%:lation, as =ell
as 7ail; 7eath an7 &irth. It is eno:<h that the &asis em%lo;e7 is reasona&le an7 the res:ltin< a%%ortionment is
s:&stantiall; %ro%ortional.
#. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 NO, 1NREA$ONABLE. 9 4hile there ma; &e other form:las for a reasona&le
a%%ortionment, consi7erin< the evi7ence s:&mitte7 to Con<ress &; the B:rea: of Cens:s an7 $tatistics, 4e are not
%re%are7 to r:le that the com%:tation form:la a7o%te7 &; Con<ress for %ro%ortional re%resentation as 7irecte7 in Res.
No. # is :nreasona&le an7 that the a%%ortionment %rovi7e7 in R.A. 3'!" 7oes not constit:te a s:&stantiall;
%ro%ortional re%resentation.
G. I/.8 A..OR,IONMEN, OF CONGRE$$IONAL /I$,RIC,$8 AB$OL1,E RE.RE$EN,A,ION CANNO, BE
EFFEC,E/, $EC,ION G AR,ICLE 2I, CON$,I,1,ION. 9 ,he im%ossi&ilit; of a&sol:te %ro%ortional re%resentation is
reco<niHe7 &; the Constit:tion itself =hen it 7irects that the a%%ortionment of con<ressional 7istricts amon< the vario:s
%rovinces shall &e Ias nearl; as ma; &e accor7in< to their res%ective inha&itants, &:t each %rovince shall have at least
one mem&er.I ,he em%lo;ment of the %hrase Ias nearl; as ma; &e accor7in< to their res%ective inha&itantsI
em%hasiHes the fact that the h:man min7 can onl; a%%roCimate a reasona&le a%%ortionment &:t cannot affect an
a&sol:tel; %ro%ortional re%resentation =ith mathematical %recision or eCactit:7e.
3. I/.8 .1BLIC OFFICE8 NO IN-EREN, RIG-, ,O .1BLIC OFFICE. 9 ,hat a citiHen 7oes not have an;
inherent nor nat:ral ri<ht to a %:&lic office, is aCiomatic :n7er o:r Constit:tional s;stem. ,he $tate, thro:<h its
Constit:tion or le<islative &o7;, can create an office an7 7efine the E:alifications an7 7isE:alifications therefor as =ell
as im%ose inhi&itions on a %:&lic officer. ConseE:entl;, onl; those =ith E:alifications an7 =ho 7o not fall :n7er an;
constit:tional or stat:tor; inhi&ition can &e vali7l; electe7 or a%%ointe7 to a %:&lic office.
). I/.8 CONCON8 /I$F1ALIFICA,ION OF ELEC,E/ /ELEGA,E$ FROM .1BLIC OFFICE8 $EC,ION G. 9
$ection G of R.A. 3'!" 7isE:alifies an; electe7 7ele<ate from r:nnin< Ifor an; %:&lic office in an; electionI or from
ass:min< Ian; a%%ointive office or %osition in an; &ranch of the <overnment :ntil after the final a7Bo:rnment of the
Constit:tional Convention.I ,he o&vio:s reason for the E:estione7 inhi&ition is to imm:niHe the 7ele<ates from the
%ervertin< infl:ence of selfinterest, %art; interest or veste7 interest an7 to ins:re that he 7e7icates all his time to
%erformin< solel;, in the interest of the nation, his hi<h an7 =ell ni<h sacre7 f:nction of form:latin< the s:%reme la= of
the lan7, =hich ma; en7:re for <enerations an7 =hich cannot easil; &e chan<e7 liDe an or7inar; stat:te.
J. I/.8 I/.8 $EC,ION G of RA. 3'!"8 REA$ON. 9 4ith the 7isE:alification em&o7ie7 in $ection G, the 7ele<ate
=ill not :tiliHe his %osition as a &ar<ainin< levera<e for concessions in the form of an elective or a%%ointive office as
lon< as the convention has not finall; a7Bo:rne7. ,he a%%ointin< a:thorit; ma;, &; his a%%ointin< %o=er, entice votes
for his o=n %ro%osals. Not love of self, &:t love of co:ntr; m:st al=a;s motivate his act:ations as 7ele<ate, other=ise
the several %rovisions of the ne= Constit:tion ma; onl; satisf; in7ivi7:al or s%ecial interests s:&versive of the =elfare
of the <eneral citiHenr;.
(. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 CON$,I,1,IONAL. 9 ,h:s, the challen<e7 7isE:alification %rescri&e7 in $ection G of R.A. 3'!"
is a vali7 limitation on the ri<ht to %:&lic office %:rs:ant to state %olice %o=er as it is reasona&le an7 not ar&itrar;.
'*. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 /I$CRIMINA,ION AGAIN$, /ELEGA,E$8 CON$,I,1,IONAL. 9 ,he 7iscrimination :n7er
$ec. G a<ainst 7ele<ates is constit:tional since it is &ase7 :%on s:&stantial 7istinction =hich maDes for real
7ifferences. ,he f:nction of 7ele<ate is more farreachin< an7 its effects more en7:rin< than that of an; or7inar;
le<islator or an; other %:&lic officer. A 7ele<ate sha%es the f:n7amental la= of the lan7 =hich 7elineates the essential
nat:re of the <overnment, its &asic or<aniHation an7 %o=ers, 7efines the li&erties of the %eo%le, an7 controls all other
la=s. 1nliDe or7inar; stat:tes, constit:tional amen7ments cannot &e chan<e7 in one or t=o ;ears. No other %:&lic
officer %ossesses s:ch a %o=er, not even the mem&ers of Con<ress :nless the; themselves %ro%ose constit:tional
amen7ments =hen actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l; %:rs:ant to Art. @2 of the Constit:tion. ,he classification,
therefore, is neither =himsical nor re%:<nant to the sense of B:stice of the comm:nit;.
''. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 GERMANE ,O .1R.O$E$ OF ,-E LA4. 9 ,he inhi&ition :n7er $ection G of R.A. 3'!" is
relevant t the o&Bect of the la=, =hich is to ins:re that the %ro%ose7 amen7ments are meanin<f:l to the masses of o:r
%eo%le an7 not 7esi<ne7 for the enhancement of selfishness, <ree7, corr:%tion, or inB:stice.
'". I/.8 G1ARAN,EE OF /1E .ROCE$$ AN/ O,-ER RIG-,$ NO, AB$OL1,E. 9 ,his Co:rt r:le7 last ;ear
that the <:arantees of 7:e %rocess, eE:al %rotection of the la=s, %eacef:l assem&l;, free eC%ression, an7 the ri<ht of
association are neither a&sol:te nor illimita&le ri<hts8 the; are al=a;s s:&Bect to the %ervasive an7 7ominant %olice
%o=er of the $tate an7 ma; &e la=f:ll; a&ri7<e7 to serve a%%ro%riate an7 im%ortant %:&lic interest.
'!. I/.8 CON$,I,1,IONAL CON2EN,ION8 $EC,ION G, .ARAGRA.- I R.A.. 3'!"8 BAN AGAIN$, .OLI,ICAL
.AR,IE$. 9 ,he &an a<ainst all %olitical %arties or or<aniHe7 <ro:%s of =hatever nat:re containe7 in %ar. ' of $ec.
JKa?, is confine7 to %art; or or<aniHation s:%%ort or assistance, =hether material, moral, or emotional or other=ise.
'#. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 AC,$ .ERMI,,E/. 9 ,he ver; $ec. JKa? in its %rovisos %ermits the can7i7ate to :tiliHe in his
cam%ai<n the hel% of the mem&ers of his famil; =ithin the fo:rth civil 7e<ree of consan<:init; or affinit;, an7 a
cam%ai<n staff com%ose7 of not more than one for ever; ten %recincts in his 7istrict. It allo=s the f:ll eCercise of his
free7om of eC%ression an7 his ri<ht to %eacef:l assem&l;, &eca:se he cannot &e 7enie7 an; %ermit to hol7 a %:&lic
meetin< on the %reteCt that the %rovision of sai7 section ma; or =ill &e violate7. ,he ri<ht of a mem&er of an; %olitical
%art; or association to s:%%ort him or o%%ose his o%%onent is %reserve7 as lon< as s:ch mem&er acts in7ivi7:all;. ,he
ver; %art; or or<aniHation to =hich he ma; &elon< or =hich ma; &e in s;m%ath; =ith his ca:se or %ro<ram or reforms,
is <:arantee7 the ri<ht to 7isseminate information a&o:t, or to aro:se %:&lic interest in, or to a7vocate for constit:tional
reforms, %ro<rams, %olicies or constit:tional %ro%osals for amen7ments.
'G. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 .AR,I$AN AC,I2I,0, CON$,I,1,IONAL. 9 Even if %artisan activit; consists of Ka? formin<
or<aniHations, associations, cl:&s, committees or other <ro:%s of %ersons for the %:r%ose of solicitin< votes an7Aor
:n7ertaDin< an; cam%ai<n or %ro%a<an7a for or a<ainst a %art; or can7i7ate8 K&? hol7in< %olitical conventions,
ca:c:ses, conferences, meetin<s, rallies, %ara7es or other similar assem&lies for the %:r%ose of solicitin< votes an7Aor
:n7ertaDin< an; cam%ai<n for %ro%a<an7a. for or a<ainst an; can7i7ate or %art;8 an7 Kc? <ivin<, solicitin< or receivin<
contri&:tions for election cam%ai<n either 7irectl; or in7irectl;, K$ec. G*B, %ars. Ka?, K&?, an7 Kc?, R.A. #JJ*?, the
a&ri7<ment =as still affirme7 as constit:tional &; siC mem&ers of this Co:rt, =hich co:l7 not Ii<nore . . . the le<islative
7eclaration that its enactment =as in res%onse to a serio:s s:&stantive evil affectin< the electoral %rocess, not merel;
in 7an<er of ha%%enin<, &:t act:all; in eCistence, an7 liDel; to contin:e :nless c:r&e7 or reme7ie7. ,o assert
other=ise =o:l7 &e to close oneLs e;es to the realit; of the sit:ation.I
'3. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 .1R.O$E. 9 ,he %rimar; %:r%ose of the %rohi&ition in %ar. ' of $ec. JKa? of R.A. 3'!" then
is to avert the clear an7 %resent 7an<er of another s:&stantive evil, the 7enial of the eE:al %rotection of the la=s. ,he
can7i7ates m:st 7e%en7 on their in7ivi7:al merits an7 not on the s:%%ort of %olitical %arties or or<aniHations. ,his
%osition is f:rther stren<thene7 &; the %rinci%le that the <:arantee of social B:stice :n7er $ec. 2, Art. II of the
Constit:tion, incl:7es the <:arantee of eE:al o%%ort:nit;, eE:alit; of %olitical ri<hts, an7 eE:alit; &efore the la=
en:nciate7 &; Mr. J:stice ,:aHon in the case G:i7o vs. R:ral .ro<ress A7ministration KJ# .hil. J#), JG"?.
'). I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 2ALI/ LIMI,A,ION ON FREE/OM OF A$$OCIA,ION AN/ E@.RE$$ION. 9 4hile it ma;
&e tr:e that a %art;Ls s:%%ort of a can7i7ate is not =ron< %er se, it is eE:all; tr:e that Con<ress in the eCercise of its
&roa7 la=maDin< a:thorit; can 7eclare certain acts as mala %rohi&ita =hen B:stifie7 &; the eCi<encies of the times.
One s:ch act is the %art; or or<aniHation s:%%ort %roscri&e7 in $ec. JKa?, =hich &an is a vali7 limitation on the free7om
of association as =ell as free eC%ression for the reasons aforestate7.
'J. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 EF1AL .RO,EC,ION OF ,-E LA4 NO, $1B2ER,E/ IN IN$,AN, CA$E. 9 ,he eE:al
%rotection of the la=s is not :n7:l; s:&verte7 in %ar. ' of $ec. JKa? &eca:se it 7oes not create an; hostile
7iscrimination a<ainst an; %art; or <ro:% nor 7oes it confer :n7:e favor or %rivile<e on an in7ivi7:al. ,he
7iscrimination a%%lies to all or<aniHations, =hether %olitical %arties or social, civic, reli<io:s or %rofessional
associations. ,he &an is <ermane to the o&Bectives of the la=, =hich are to avert the 7e&asement of the electoral
%rocess an7 to attain real eE:alit; of chances amon< in7ivi7:al can7i7ates an7 there&; maDe real the <:arantee of
eE:al %rotection of the la=s.
'(. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 BAN AGAIN$, .OLI,ICAL .AR,IE$, E@.LAINE/. 9 .olitical %arties an7 the other or<aniHe7
<ro:%s have &:iltin a7vanta<es &eca:se of their machiner; an7 other facilities, =hich, the in7ivi7:al can7i7ate =ho is
=itho:t an; or<aniHation s:%%ort 7oes not have. ,he &an on %olitical %arties is <ermane to the o&Bectives of the la= of
avertin< the 7e&asement of the electoral %rocess for it ass:res the can7i7ates eE:al %rotection of the la=s &;
accor7in< them eE:alit; of chances. 1n7er this %rovision, the %oor can7i7ate has an even chance as a<ainst the rich
can7i7ate.
"*. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 BAN AGAIN$, CI2IC A$$OCIA,ION$, E@.LAINE/. 9 It is no ar<:ment that the civic an7
reli<io:s or<aniHation machiner; is not as effective as that of %olitical %arties, for it still has that m:ch &:iltin
a7vanta<e as a<ainst the in7ivi7:al can7i7ate =itho:t similar s:%%ort. F:rthermore, these civic, reli<io:s an7
%rofessional or<aniHations ma; &an7 to<ether to s:%%ort a can7i7ate =ho a7vocates reforms =hich the; &elieve are
im%erative. ,he civic associations other than %olitical %arties cannot =ith reason insist that the; sho:l7 &e eCem%te7
from the &an8 &eca:se then &; s:ch eCem%tion the; =o:l7 &e free to :tiliHe the facilities of the cam%ai<n machiner;Ls
=hich the; are 7en;in< to the %olitical %arties. 4henever an or<aniHation en<a<es in a %olitical activit;, as in this
cam%ai<n for election of 7ele<ates to the Constit:tional Convention, to that eCtent it %artaDes of the nat:re of a %olitical
or<aniHation.
"'. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 FREE/OM OF $.EEC- AN/ A$$EMBL0 NO, ,RAN$GRE$$E/ IN IN$,AN, CA$E. 9 ,he
free7om of association also im%lies the li&ert; not to associate or Boin =ith others nor Boin an; eCistin< or<aniHation. A
%erson ma; r:n in7e%en7entl; on his o=n merits =itho:t nee7 of caterin< to a %olitical %art; or an; other association
for s:%%ort. An7 he, as m:ch as the can7i7ate =hose can7i7ac; 7oes not evoDe s;m%ath; from an; %olitical %art; or
or<aniHe7 <ro:%, m:st &e affor7e7 eE:al chances.
FERNAN/O, J., conc:rrin< an7 7issentin<>
'. CON$,I,1,IONAL LA48 CON$,I,1,IONAL CON2EN,ION8 CAN/I/A,E$ FOR /ELEGA,E$ ,-ERE,O8
F1ALIFICA,ION$8 BAN ON .OLI,ICAL AN/ O,-ER ORGANI6A,ION$8 2IOLA,ION OF CON$,I,1,IONAL
.RO2I$ION ON RIG-, ,O FORM A$$OCIA,ION. 9 It is 7iffic:lt to reconcile the 7ecision reache7 insofar as the
aforesai7 &an on %olitical %arties an7 civic, %rofessional an7 other or<aniHations is concerne7 =ith the eC%licit %rovision
that the free7om to form associations or societies for %:r%oses not contrar; to la= shall not &e a&ri7<e7. ,he ri<ht of
an in7ivi7:al to Boin others of a liDe %ers:asion to %:rs:e common o&Bectives an7 to en<a<e in activities is em&race7
=ithin if not act:all; enco:ra<e7 &; the re<ime of li&ert; or7aine7 &; the Constit:tion.
". I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 AMEN/MEN, .RO.ER. 9 I fin7 merit in the %lea of %etitioners to ann:l $ec. JKa? R.A.
3'!" re<ar7in< the &an on %olitical %arties an7 civic, %rofessional an7 other or<aniHations. ,he constit:tional
%rovisions, more s%ecificall; the ri<ht to form associations. is %rohi&ite7 &; sai7 $ec. JKa? R.A. No 3'!". ,he infirmit;
of this &an is th:s a%%arent on its face.
!. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 IN2ALI/. 9 ,he final %roviso in $ec. JKa? R.A. No. 3'!" for&i7s an; constr:ction that
=o:l7 in an; =ise Iim%air or a&ri7<e the free7om of civic, %olitical, reli<io:s, %rofessional, tra7e or<aniHation or
or<aniHe7 <ro:%s of =hatever nat:re to 7isseminate information a&o:t, or aro:se %:&lic interest in, the forthcomin<
Constit:tional Convention, or to a7vocate constit:tional reforms, %ro<rams, %olicies or %ro%osals for amen7ment of the
%resent Constit:tion, an7 no %rohi&ition containe7 herein shall limit or c:rtail the ri<ht of their mem&ers, as lon< as the;
act in7ivi7:all;, to s:%%ort or o%%ose an; can7i7ate for 7ele<ate to the Constit:tional Convention.I It is re<retta&le that
s:ch an eC%licit reco<nition of =hat cannot &e for&i77en consistentl; =ith the constit:tional <:arantees of free7om of
eC%ression an7 free7om of association falls short of accor7in< f:ll res%ect to =hat is th:s comman7e7 &; the
f:n7amental la=, as the; are %recl:7e7 &; the ver; same Act from <ivin< ai7 or s:%%ort %recisel; to the ver;
in7ivi7:als =ho can carr; o:t =hatever constit:tional reforms, %ro<rams, %olicies or %ro%osals for amen7ment the;
mi<ht a7vocate. As th:s vie=e7, the conviction I entertain as to its lacD of vali7it; is f:rther stren<thene7 an7 fortifie7.
#. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 NO CLEAR AN/ .RE$EN, /ANGER OF E2IL .AR,I$AN$-I.. 9 ,he ass:m%tion
=o:l7 a%%ear to &e that there is a clear an7 %resent 7an<er of <rave s:&stantive evil of %artisanshi% r:nnin< not :nless
%olitical %arties are th:s restraine7. It =o:l7 a%%ear tho:<h that =hat %rom%te7 s:ch a &an is to ass:re that the
%resent maBorit; %art; =o:l7 not contin:e to %la; its 7ominant r:le in the %olitical life of the nation. ,his is to lose si<ht
of the fact that in the national elections of '(#3, '(G!, '(3' an7 l(3G, the %resi7enc; =as =on &; the o%%osition
can7i7ates. ,he national election for senators alone of '(G' =as a com%lete s=ee% of the fiel7 &; the minorit; %art;.
,he res:lt of the %le&iscite in the t=o %ro%ose7 amen7ments in '(3) in7icate :nmistaDa&l; that the %eo%le can maDe
their =ishes %revail. ,here is th:s no ass:rance that the mere i7entification =ith %art; la&els =o:l7 a:tomaticall;
ins:re the s:ccess of a can7i7ac;.
G. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 .OLI,ICAL AC,I2I,0. 9 It is not eas; to ;iel7 assent to the %ro%osition that on a matter
so essentiall; %olitical as the amen7ment or revision of an eCistin< Constit:tion, %olitical %arties or %olitical <ro:%s are
to &e 7enie7 the o%%ort:nit; of la:nchin< the can7i7ac; of their choice. It is to carr; the essential %rocess of maDin<
the <overnment res%onsive to the =ill of the %eo%le an7 that chan<es, if 7esire7, ma; &e attaine7 &; %eacef:l means,
one ste% farther to reco<niHe an7 to im%lement the ri<ht of ever; %olitical <ro:% to select the can7i7ates =ho, &; their
election, co:l7 translate into act:alit; their ho%es for the f:n7amental la= that the times 7eman7.
3. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 .OLI,ICAL AC,I2I,0 OF A$$OCIA,ION$ E$$EN,IAL. 9 It co:l7 ver; =ell ha%%en
then, in not a fe= cases, ass:min< the stren<th of %olitical %arties, that a can7i7ate th:s favore7 is s:re of emer<in<
the victor. 4hat is th:s so:<ht to &e accom%lishe7 to <:ar7 a<ainst the evil of %art; s%irit %revailin< co:l7 ver; =ell &e
7oome7 to f:tilit;. ,he hi<h ho%es entertaine7 &; the artic:late an7 vocal <ro:%s of ;o:n< %eo%le, intellect:als an7
=orDers, ma; not &e realiHe7. ,he res:lt =o:l7 &e that this :northo7oC an7 novel %rovision co:l7 ass:me the
character of a tease, an ill:sion liDe a ma<nificent &eE:est in the %a:%erLs =ill.
). I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 CA$E OF GON6ALE$ 2$. COMELEC /I$,ING1I$-E/ FROM IN$,AN, CA$E. 9
4hat s:rvive7 the test of constit:tional vali7it; in the case of GonHales vs. Comelec is the %rohi&ition for an; %olitical
%art;, %olitical committee or %olitical <ro:% to nominate can7i7ates for an; elective %:&lic office vote7 for at lar<e
earlier than 'G* 7a;s imme7iatel; %rece7in< elections an7 for an; other %:&lic office earlier than (* 7a;s imme7iatel;
%rece7in< s:ch election. ,he challen<e7 %rovision in the t=o instant %etitions ho=ever, <oes m:ch farther. .olitical
%arties or an; other or<aniHation or or<aniHe7 <ro:% are %recl:7e7 from selectin< an7 s:%%ortin< can7i7ates for
7ele<ates to the Constit:tional Convention. ,his is to enter a for&i77en 7omain, Con<ress tres%assin< on a fiel7
ri<htf:ll; ass:me7 to &e =ithin the s%here of li&ert;. ,h:s, I am :na&le to concl:7e that o:r %revio:s 7ecision in
GonHales vs. Comelec =hich alrea7; =as in7icative of the ca:tio:s an7 hesitant a%%roach to len7in< its a%%roval to
=hat other=ise are invasions of vital constit:tional safe<:ar7s to free7oms or &elief, of eC%ression, an7 of association
len7s s:%%ort to the 7ecision reache7 &; the minorit; insofar as this challen<e7 %rovision is concerne7.
BARRE/O, J., conc:rrin< an7 7issentin<>
'. CON$,I,1,IONAL LA48 CON$,I,1,IONAL CO2EN,ION8 CAN/I/A,E$ FOR /ELEGA,E$ ,-ERE,O8
BAN AGAIN$, .OLI,ICAL .AR,IE$ AN/ O,-ER ORGANI6A,ION$. 9 4hile the reasons a77:ce7 in the &an on
%olitical %arties to nominate an7 s:%%ort their o=n can7i7ates ma; &e reasona&le the same 7o not o&tain =ith res%ect
to non%olitical or<aniHations =hich is a 7ece%tive 7evice to %reserve the &:iltin a7vanta<es of %olitical %arties =hile
cri%%lin< com%letel; the other Din7s of associations. ,o eE:aliHe the cam%ai<nin< forces the &an sho:l7 &e im%ose7
onl; a<ainst %olitical %arties consi7erin< that the activities an7 manners of o%eration of sai7 %art; ma7e necessar; the
im%osition thereof. Not=ithstan7in< R.A. 3'!" re<ar7in< the metho7s of cam%ai<n nor its %rovisions inten7e7 to
minimiHe %artici%ation of %olitical %arties in the %rocess of votin<, co:ntin< of votes an7 canvassin< of the res:lts, a
can7i7ate =itho:t or little %olitical %art; connections cannot overcome the a7vanta<es of can7i7ates more or less
connecte7 =ith %olitical %arties as lon< as the ri<ht to form other associations an7 the ri<ht of these associations to
cam%ai<n for their can7i7ates are 7enie7.
". I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 A/2ER$E EFFEC, ON RIG-, OF $1FFRAGE. 9 ,he ri<ht of s:ffra<e =hich is the corner
stone of an; 7emocrac; liDe o:rs is meanin<less =hen the ri<ht to cam%ai<n in an; election therein is :nreasona&l;
an7 :nnecessaril; c:rtaile7, restraine7 or ham%ere7, as is &ein< 7one :n7er the stat:te in 7is%:te.
!. I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 I/.8 BAN AGAIN$, .OLI,ICAL .AR,IE$ $E.ARA,E FROM ,-A, AGAIN$, O,-ER
A$$OCIA,ION$. 9 Contrar; to that of the maBorit;, that as $ection JKa? stan7s an7 taDin< into acco:nt its <enesis,
the &an a<ainst %olitical %arties is se%ara&le from that a<ainst other associations =ithin the contem%lation of $ection
"' of the Act =hich eC%ressl; refers to the se%ara&ilit; of the a%%lication thereof to an; I%ersons, <ro:%s or
circ:mstances.I
,hese t=o se%arate &:t relate7 %etitions for 7eclarator; relief =ere file7 %:rs:ant to $ec. '( of R.A. No. 3'!" &;
%etitioners Man:el B. Im&on< an7 Ra:l M. GonHales, &oth mem&ers of the Bar, taC%a;ers an7 intereste7 in r:nnin< as
can7i7ates for 7ele<ates to the Constit:tional Convention. Both im%:<n the constit:tionalit; of R.A. No. 3'!", claimin<
7:rin< the oral ar<:ment that it %reB:7ices their ri<hts as s:ch can7i7ates. After the $olicitor General ha7 file7 ans=ers
in &ehalf the res%on7ents, hearin<s =ere hel7 at =hich the %etitioners an7 the amici c:riae, namel; $enator LorenHo
,aMa7a, $enator Art:ro ,olentino, $enator Jovito $alon<a, an7 $enator Emman:el .elaeH ar<:e7 orall;.
FAC,$> In '(3), Con<ress, actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l; %:rs:ant to Art. @2 of the Constit:tion %asse7
Resol:tion No. " =hich amon< others calle7 for a Constit:tional Convention to %ro%ose constit:tional amen7ments to
&e com%ose7 of t=o 7ele<ates from each re%resentative 7istrict =ho shall have the same E:alifications as those of
Con<ressmen, to &e electe7 in accor7ance =ith the Revise7 Election Co7e.
After the a7o%tion of sai7 Res. No. " in '(3) &:t &efore the elections of that ;ear, Con<ress, actin< as a le<islative
&o7;, enacte7 an RA im%lementin< the aforesai7 Resol:tion No. " an7 %racticall; restatin< in toto the %rovisions of
sai7 Resol:tion No. ".
On J:ne '), '(3(, Con<ress, also actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l;, %asse7 Resol:tion No. # amen7in< the aforesai7
Resol:tion No. " of March '3, '(3) &; %rovi7in< that the convention Ishall &e com%ose7 of !"* 7ele<ates a%%ortione7
amon< the eCistin< re%resentative 7istricts accor7in< to the n:m&er of their res%ective inha&itants> .rovi7e7, that a
re%resentative 7istrict shall &e entitle7 to at least t=o 7ele<ates, =ho shall have the same E:alifications as those
reE:ire7 of mem&ers of the -o:se of Re%resentatives, I Ian7 that an; other 7etails relatin< to the s%ecific
a%%ortionment of 7ele<ates, election of 7ele<ates to, an7 the hol7in< of, the Constit:tional Convention shall &e
em&o7ie7 in an im%lementin< le<islation> .rovi7e7, that it shall not &e inconsistent =ith the %rovisions of this
Resol:tion. I "
On A:<:st "#, '()*, Con<ress, actin< as a le<islative &o7;, enacte7 Re%:&lic Act No. 3'!", im%lementin<
Resol:tions Nos. " an7 #, an7 eC%ressl; re%ealin< R.A. No. #('#.
.etitioner Ra:l M. GonHales assails the vali7it; of the entire la= as =ell as the %artic:lar %rovisions em&o7ie7 in
$ections ", #, G, an7 %ar. ' of JKa?. .etitioner Man:el B. Im&on< im%:<ns the constit:tionalit; of onl; %ar. ' of $ec. J
Ka? of sai7 R.A. No. 3'!" %racticall; on the same <ro:n7s a7vance7 &; %etitioner GonHales.
I
,he vali7it; of $ec. # of R.A. No. 3'!", =hich consi7ers all %:&lic officers an7 em%lo;ees, =hether elective or
a%%ointive, incl:7in< mem&ers of the Arme7 Forces of the .hili%%ines, as =ell as officers an7 em%lo;ees of
cor%orations or enter%rises of the <overnment, as resi<ne7 from the 7ate of the filin< of their certificates of can7i7ac;,
=as recentl; s:staine7 &; this Co:rt, on the <ro:n7s, inter alia, that the same is merel; an a%%lication of an7 in
consonance =ith the %rohi&ition in $ec. " of Art. @II of the Constit:tion an7 that it 7oes not constit:te a 7enial of 7:e
%rocess or of the eE:al %rotection of the la=. LiDe=ise, the constit:tionalit; of %ara<ra%h " of $ec. JKa? of R.A. No.
3'!" =as :%hel7. #
II
4itho:t first consi7erin< the vali7it; of its s%ecific %rovisions, =e s:stain the constit:tionalit; of the enactment of R.A.
No. 3'!" &; Con<ress actin< as a le<islative &o7; in the eCercise of its &roa7 la=maDin< a:thorit;, an7 not as a
Constit:ent Assem&l;, &eca:se 9
'. Con<ress, =hen actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l; %:rs:ant to Art. @2 of the Constit:tion, has f:ll an7 %lenar;
a:thorit; to %ro%ose Constit:tional amen7ments or to call a convention for the %:r%ose, &; a threefo:rths vote of each
-o:se in Boint session assem&le7 &:t votin< se%aratel;. Resol:tions Nos. " an7 # callin< for a constit:tional
convention =ere %asse7 &; the reE:ire7 threefo:rths vote.
". ,he <rant to Con<ress as a Constit:ent Assem&l; of s:ch %lenar; a:thorit; to call a constit:tional convention
incl:7es, &; virt:e of the 7octrine of necessar; im%lication, all other %o=ers essential to the effective eCercise of the
%rinci%al %o=er <rante7, s:ch as the %o=er to fiC the E:alifications, n:m&er, a%%ortionment, an7 com%ensation of the
7ele<ates as =ell as a%%ro%riation of f:n7s to meet the eC%enses for the election of 7ele<ates an7 for the o%eration of
the Constit:tional Convention itself, as =ell as all other im%lementin< 7etails in7is%ensa&le to a fr:itf:l convention.
Resol:tions Nos. " an7 # alrea7; em&o7; the a&ovementione7 7etails, eCce%t the a%%ro%riation of f:n7s.
!. 4hile the a:thorit; to call a constit:tional convention is veste7 &; the %resent Constit:tion solel; an7
eCcl:sivel; in Con<ress actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l;, the %o=er to enact the im%lementin< 7etails, =hich are no=
containe7 in Resol:tions Nos. " an7 # as =ell as in R.A. No. 3'!", 7oes not eCcl:sivel; %ertain to Con<ress actin< as
a Constit:ent Assem&l;. $:ch im%lementin< 7etails are matters =ithin the com%etence of Con<ress in the eCercise of
its com%rehensive le<islative %o=er, =hich %o=er encom%asses all matters not eC%ressl; or &; necessar; im%lication
=ith7ra=n or remove7 &; the Constit:tion from the am&it of le<islative action. An7 as lon< as s:ch stat:tor; 7etails 7o
not clash =ith an; s%ecific %rovision of the Constit:tion, the; are vali7.
#. ConseE:entl;, =hen Con<ress, actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l;, omits to %rovi7e for s:ch im%lementin<
7etails after callin< a constit:tional convention, Con<ress, actin< as a le<islative &o7;, can enact the necessar;
im%lementin< le<islation to fill in the <a%s, =hich a:thorit; is eC%ressl; reco<niHe7 in $ec. J of Res. No. " as amen7e7
&; Res. No. #.
G. ,he fact that a &ill %rovi7in< for s:ch im%lementin< 7etails ma; &e vetoe7 &; the .resi7ent is no ar<:ment
a<ainst conce7in< s:ch %o=er in Con<ress as a le<islative &o7; nor %resent an; 7iffic:lt;8 for it is not irreme7ia&le as
Con<ress can overri7e the .resi7ential veto or Con<ress can reconvene as a Constit:ent Assem&l; an7 a7o%t a
resol:tion %rescri&in< the reE:ire7 im%lementin< 7etails.
III
.etitioner Ra:l M. GonHales asserts that $ec. " on the a%%ortionment of 7ele<ates is not in accor7ance =ith
%ro%ortional re%resentation an7 therefore violates the Constit:tion an7 the intent of the la= itself, =itho:t %in%ointin<
an; s%ecific %rovision of the Constit:tion =ith =hich it colli7es.
1nliDe in the a%%ortionment of re%resentative 7istricts, the Constit:tion 7oes not eC%ressl; or im%lie7l; reE:ire s:ch
a%%ortionment of 7ele<ates to the convention on the &asis of %o%:lation in each con<ressional 7istrict. Con<ress,
sittin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l;, ma; constit:tionall; allocate one 7ele<ate for each con<ressional 7istrict or for each
%rovince, for reasons of econom; an7 to avoi7 havin< an :n=iel7; convention. If the framers of the %resent
Constit:tion =ante7 the a%%ortionment of 7ele<ates to the convention to &e &ase7 on the n:m&er of inha&itants in
each re%resentative 7istrict, the; =o:l7 have 7one so in so man; =or7s as the; 7i7 in relation to the a%%ortionment of
the re%resentative 7istricts. G
,he a%%ortionment %rovi7e7 for in $ec. " of R.A. No. 3'!" cannot %ossi&l; conflict =ith its o=n intent eC%resse7
therein8 for it merel; o&e;e7 an7 im%lemente7 the intent of Con<ress actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l; eC%resse7 in
$ec. ' of Res. No. #, =hich %rovi7es that the !"* 7ele<ates sho:l7 &e a%%ortione7 amon< the eCistin< re%resentative
7istricts accor7in< to the n:m&er of their res%ective inha&itants, &:t fiCin< a minim:m of at least t=o 7ele<ates for a
re%resentative 7istrict. ,he %res:m%tion is that the fact:al %re7icate, the latest availa&le official %o%:lation cens:s, for
s:ch a%%ortionment =as %resente7 to Con<ress, =hich, accor7in<l; em%lo;e7 a form:la for the necessar;
com%:tation to effect the 7esire7 %ro%ortional re%resentation.
,he recor7s of the %rocee7in<s on $enate Bill No. )) s%onsore7 &; $enator .elaeH =hich is no= R.A. No. 3'!",
s:&mitte7 to this ,ri&:nal &; the amici c:riae, sho= that it &ase7 its a%%ortionment of the 7ele<ates on the '()* official
%reliminar; %o%:lation cens:s taDen &; the B:rea: of Cens:s an7 $tatistics from Ma; 3 to J:ne !*, '()*8 an7 that
Con<ress a7o%te7 the form:la to effect a reasona&le a%%ortionment of 7ele<ates. ,he /irector of the B:rea: of
Cens:s an7 $tatistics himself, in a letter to $enator .elaeH 7ate7 J:l; !*, '()*, state7 that Ion the &asis of the
%reliminar; co:nt of the %o%:lation, =e have com%:te7 the 7istri&:tion of 7ele<ates to the Constit:tional Convention
&ase7 on $enate Bill )) K%. " lines G to !" an7 %. ! line '"?, =hich is a fair an7 an eE:ita&le metho7 of 7istri&:tin< the
7ele<ates %:rs:ant to the %rovisions of the Boint Resol:tion of &oth -o:ses No. ", as amen7e7. 1%on ;o:r reE:est at
the session of the $enate-o:se Conference Committee meetin< last ni<ht, =e are s:&mittin< here=ith the res:lts of
the com%:tation on the &asis of the a&ovestate7 metho7.I
Even if s:ch latest cens:s =ere a %reliminar; cens:s, the same co:l7 still &e a vali7 &asis for s:ch a%%ortionment. 3
,he fact that the lone an7 small con<ressional 7istrict of Batanes, ma; &e overre%resente7, &eca:se it is allotte7 t=o
7ele<ates &; R.A. No. 3'!" 7es%ite the fact that it has a %o%:lation ver; m:ch less than several other con<ressional
7istricts, each of =hich is also allotte7 onl; t=o 7ele<ates, an7 therefore :n7erre%resente7 visavis Batanes alone,
7oes not vitiate the a%%ortionment as not effectin< %ro%ortional re%resentation. A&sol:te %ro%ortional a%%ortionment is
not reE:ire7 an7 is not %ossi&le =hen &ase7 on the n:m&er of inha&itants, for the %o%:lation cens:s cannot &e
acc:rate nor com%lete, 7e%en7ent as it is on the 7ili<ence of the cens:s taDers, a<<ravate7 &; the constant movement
of %o%:lation, as =ell as 7ail; 7eath an7 &irth. It is eno:<h that the &asis em%lo;e7 is reasona&le an7 the res:ltin<
a%%ortionment is s:&stantiall; %ro%ortional. Resol:tion No. # fiCe7 a minim:m of t=o 7ele<ates for a con<ressional
7istrict.
4hile there ma; &e other form:las for a reasona&le a%%ortionment, consi7erin< the evi7ence s:&mitte7 to Con<ress
&; the B:rea: of Cens:s an7 $tatistics, =e are not %re%are7 to r:le that the com%:tation form:la a7o%te7 &; Con<ress
for %ro%ortional re%resentation as 7irecte7 in Res. No. # is :nreasona&le an7 that the a%%ortionment %rovi7e7 in R.A.
No. 3'!" 7oes not constit:te a s:&stantiall; %ro%ortional re%resentation.
In the Macias case, relie7 on &; %etitioner GonHales, the a%%ortionment la=, =hich =as n:llifie7 as :nconstit:tional,
<rante7 more re%resentatives to a %rovince =ith less %o%:lation than the %rovinces =ith more inha&itants. $:ch is not
the case here, =here :n7er $ec. " of R.A. No. 3'!" Batanes is allotte7 onl; t=o 7ele<ates, =hich n:m&er is eE:al to
the n:m&er of 7ele<ates accor7e7 other %rovinces =ith more %o%:lation. ,he %resent %etitions therefore 7o not
%resent facts =hich fit the mo:l7 of the 7octrine in the case of Macias, et al. vs. Comelec, s:%ra.
,he im%ossi&ilit; of a&sol:te %ro%ortional re%resentation is reco<niHe7 &; the Constit:tion itself =hen it 7irects that the
a%%ortionment of con<ressional 7istricts amon< the vario:s %rovinces shall &e Ias nearl; as ma; &e accor7in< to their
res%ective inha&itants, &:t each %rovince shall have at least one mem&erI K$ec. G, Art. 2I, .hil. Const., italics
s:%%lie7?. ,he em%lo;ment of the %hrase Ias nearl; as ma; &e accor7in< to their res%ective inha&itantsI em%hasiHes
the fact that the h:man min7 can onl; a%%roCimate a reasona&le a%%ortionment &:t cannot effect an a&sol:tel;
%ro%ortional re%resentation =ith mathematical %recision or eCactit:7e.
I2
$ec. G of R.A. 3'!" is attacDe7 on the <ro:n7 that it is an :n7:e 7e%rivation of li&ert; =itho:t 7:e %rocess of la= an7
7enies the eE:al %rotection of the la=s. $ai7 $ec. G 7isE:alifies an; electe7 7ele<ate from r:nnin< Ifor an; %:&lic
office in an; electionI or from ass:min< Ian; a%%ointive office or %osition in an; &ranch of the <overnment :ntil after
the final a7Bo:rnment of the Constit:tional Convention.I
,hat the citiHen 7oes not have an; inherent nor nat:ral ri<ht to a %:&lic office, is aCiomatic :n7er o:r constit:tional
s;stem. ,he $tate thro:<h its Constit:tion or le<islative &o7;, can create an office an7 7efine the E:alifications an7
7isE:alifications therefor as =ell as im%ose inhi&itions on a %:&lic officer. ConseE:entl;, onl; those =ith E:alifications
an7 =ho 7o not fall :n7er an; constit:tional or stat:tor; inhi&ition can &e vali7l; electe7 or a%%ointe7 to a %:&lic office.
,he o&vio:s reason for the E:estione7 inhi&ition, is to imm:niHe the 7ele<ates from the %ervertin< infl:ence of self
interest, %art; interest or veste7 interest an7 to ins:re that he 7e7icates all his time to %erformin< solel; in the interest
of the nation his hi<h an7 =ellni<h sacre7 f:nction of form:latin< the s:%reme la= of the lan7, =hich ma; en7:re for
<enerations an7 =hich cannot easil; &e chan<e7 liDe an or7inar; stat:te. 4ith the 7isE:alification em&o7ie7 in $ec. G,
the 7ele<ate =ill not :tiliHe his %osition as a &ar<ainin< levera<e for concessions in the form of an elective or
a%%ointive office as lon< as the convention has not finall; a7Bo:rne7. ,he a%%ointin< a:thorit; ma;, &; his a%%ointin<
%o=er, entice votes for his o=n %ro%osals. Not love for self, &:t love for co:ntr; m:st al=a;s motivate his act:ations as
7ele<ate8 other=ise the several %rovisions of the ne= Constit:tion ma; onl; satisf; in7ivi7:al or s%ecial interests,
s:&versive of the =elfare of the <eneral citiHenr;. It sho:l7 &e stresse7 that the 7isE:alification is not %ermanent &:t
onl; tem%orar; 9 onl; to contin:e :ntil the final a7Bo:rnment of the convention =hich ma; not eCten7 &e;on7 one
;ear. ,he convention that frame7 the %resent Constit:tion finishe7 its tasD in a%%roCimatel; seven months 9 from J:l;
!*, '(!# to Fe&r:ar; J, '(!G.
As a7mitte7 &; %etitioner GonHales, this inhi&ition fin7s analo<; in the constit:tional %rovision %rohi&itin< a mem&er of
Con<ress, 7:rin< the time for =hich he =as electe7, from &ein< a%%ointe7 to an; civil office =hich ma; have &een
create7 or the emol:ment =hereof shall have &een increase7 =hile he =as a mem&er of the Con<ress. K$ec. '3, Art
2I, .hil. Constit:tion.?
As o&serve7 &; the $olicitor General in his Ans=er, the overri7in< o&Bective of the challen<e7 7isE:alification,
tem%orar; in nat:re, is to com%el the electe7 7ele<ates to serve in f:ll their term as s:ch an7 to 7evote all their time to
the convention, %:rs:ant to their re%resentation an7 commitment to the %eo%le8 other=ise, his seat in the convention
=ill &e vacant an7 his constit:ents =ill &e 7e%rive7 of a voice in the convention. ,he inhi&ition is liDe=ise I7esi<ne7 to
%revent %o%:lar %olitical fi<:res from controllin< elections or %ositions. Also it is a &raDe on the a%%ointin< %o=er, to
c:rtail the latterLs 7esire to Lrai7L the convention of LtalentsL or attem%t to control the convention.I K%. '*, Ans=er in L
!"##!.?
,h:s the challen<e7 7isE:alification %rescri&e7 in $ec. G of R.A. No. 3'!" is a vali7 limitation on the ri<ht to %:&lic
office %:rs:ant to state %olice %o=er as it is reasona&le an7 not ar&itrar;.
,he 7iscrimination :n7er $ec. G a<ainst 7ele<ates to the Constit:tional Convention is liDe=ise constit:tional8 for it is
&ase7 on a s:&stantial 7istinction =hich maDes for real 7ifferences, is <ermane to the %:r%oses of the la=, an7 a%%lies
to all mem&ers of the same class. ) ,he f:nction of a 7ele<ate is more farreachin< an7 its effect more en7:rin< than
that of an; or7inar; le<islator or an; other %:&lic officer. A 7ele<ate sha%es the f:n7amental la= of the lan7 =hich
7elineates the essential nat:re of the <overnment, its &asic or<aniHation an7 %o=ers, 7efines the li&erties of the
%eo%le, an7 controls all other la=s. 1nliDe or7inar; stat:tes, constit:tional amen7ments cannot &e chan<e7 in one or
t=o ;ears. No other %:&lic officer %ossesses s:ch a %o=er, not even the mem&ers of Con<ress :nless the;
themselves %ro%ose constit:tional amen7ments =hen actin< as a Constit:ent Assem&l; %:rs:ant to Art. @2 of the
Constit:tion. ,he classification, therefore, is neither =himsical nor re%:<nant to the sense of B:stice of the comm:nit;.
As heretofore intimate7, the inhi&ition is relevant to the o&Bect of the la=, =hich is to ins:re that the %ro%ose7
amen7ments are meanin<f:l to the masses of o:r %eo%le an7 not 7esi<ne7 for the enhancement of selfishness, <ree7,
corr:%tion, or inB:stice.
Lastl;, the 7isE:alification a%%lies to all the 7ele<ates to the convention =ho =ill &e electe7 on the secon7 ,:es7a; of
Novem&er, '()*.
2
.ara<ra%h ', $ec. JKa? of R.A. No. 3'!" is im%:<ne7 &; &oth %etitioners as violative of the constit:tional <:arantees of
7:e %rocess, eE:al %rotection of the la=s, free7om of eC%ression, free7om of assem&l; an7 free7om of association.
,his Co:rt r:le7 last ;ear that the <:arantees of 7:e %rocess, eE:al %rotection of the la=s, %eacef:l assem&l;, free
eC%ression, an7 the ri<ht of association are neither a&sol:te nor illimita&le ri<hts8 the; are al=a;s s:&Bect to the
%ervasive an7 7ominant %olice %o=er of the $tate an7 ma; &e la=f:ll; a&ri7<e7 to serve a%%ro%riate an7 im%ortant
%:&lic interests. J
In sai7 GonHales vs. Comelec case, the Co:rt a%%lie7 the clear an7 %resent 7an<er test to 7etermine =hether a stat:te
=hich trenches :%on the aforesai7 constit:tional <:arantees, is a le<itimate eCercise of %olice %o=er. (
.ara<ra%h ' of $ec. JKa?, R.A. No. 3'!" %rohi&its>
'. an; can7i7ate for 7ele<ate to the convention.
Ka? from re%resentin<, or
K&? allo=in< himself to &e re%resente7 as &ein< a can7i7ate of an; %olitical %art; or an; other or<aniHation8 an7
". an; %olitical %art;, %olitical <ro:%, %olitical committee, civic, reli<io:s, %rofessional or other or<aniHations or
or<aniHe7 <ro:% of =hatever nat:re from.
Ka? intervenin< in the nomination of an; s:ch can7i7ate or in the filin< of his certificate, or
K&? from <ivin< ai7 or s:%%ort 7irectl; or in7irectl;, material or other=ise, favora&le to or a<ainst his cam%ai<n for
election.
,he &an a<ainst all %olitical %arties or or<aniHe7 <ro:%s of =hatever nat:re containe7 in %ar. ' of $ec. JKa?, is confine7
to %art; or or<aniHation s:%%ort or assistance, =hether material, moral, emotional or other=ise. ,he ver; $ec. JKa? in
its %rovisos %ermits the can7i7ate to :tiliHe in his cam%ai<n the hel% of the mem&ers of his famil; =ithin the fo:rth civil
7e<ree of consan<:init; or affinit;, an7 a cam%ai<n staff com%ose7 of not more than one for ever; ten %recincts in his
7istrict. It allo=s the f:ll eCercise of his free7om of eC%ression an7 his ri<ht to %eacef:l assem&l;, &eca:se he cannot
&e 7enie7 an; %ermit to hol7 a %:&lic meetin< on the %reteCt that the %rovision of sai7 section ma; or =ill &e violate7.
,he ri<ht of a mem&er of an; %olitical %art; or association to s:%%ort him or o%%ose his o%%onent is %reserve7 as lon<
as s:ch mem&er acts in7ivi7:all;. ,he ver; %art; or or<aniHation to =hich he ma; &elon< or =hich ma; &e in s;m%ath;
=ith his ca:se or %ro<ram of reforms, is <:arantee7 the ri<ht to 7isseminate information a&o:t, or to aro:se %:&lic
interest in, or to a7vocate for constit:tional reforms, %ro<rams, %olicies or constit:tional %ro%osals for amen7ments.
It is therefore %atent that the restriction containe7 in $ec. J Ka? is so narro= that the &asic constit:tional ri<hts
themselves remain s:&stantiall; intact an7 inviolate. An7 it is therefore a vali7 infrin<ement of the aforesai7
constit:tional <:arantees invoDe7 &; %etitioners.
In the aforesai7 case of GonHales vs. Comelec, s:%ra, this Co:rt :nanimo:sl; s:staine7 the vali7it; of the limitation on
the %erio7 for nomination of can7i7ates in $ec. G*A of R.A. No. #JJ*, th:s>
I,he %rohi&ition of too earl; nomination of can7i7ates %resents a E:estion that is not too formi7a&le in character.
Accor7in< to the act> LIt shall &e :nla=f:l for an; %olitical %art;, %olitical committee, or %olitical <ro:% to nominate
can7i7ates for an; elective %:&lic office vote7 for at lar<e earlier than one h:n7re7 an7 fift; 7a;s imme7iatel;
%rece7in< an election, an7 for an; other elective %:&lic office earlier than ninet; 7a;s imme7iatel; %rece7in< an
election.
I,he ri<ht of association is affecte7. .olitical %arties have less free7om as to the time 7:rin< =hich the; ma; nominate
can7i7ates8 the c:rtailment is not s:ch, ho=ever, as to ren7er meanin<less s:ch a &asic ri<ht. ,heir sco%e of
le<itimate activities, save this one, is not :n7:l; narro=e7. Neither is there infrin<ement of their free7om to assem&le.
,he; can 7o so, &:t not for s:ch a %:r%ose. 4e s:stain its vali7it;. 4e 7o so :nanimo:sl;.I '*
In sai7 GonHales vs. Comelec case, this Co:rt liDe=ise hel7 that the %erio7 for the con7:ct of an election cam%ai<n or
%artisan %olitical activit; ma; &e limite7 =itho:t offen7in< the aforementione7 constit:tional <:arantees as the same is
7esi<ne7 also to %revent a Iclear an7 %resent 7an<er of a s:&stantive evil, the 7e&asement of the electoral %rocess.I
''
Even if the %artisan activit; consists of Ka? formin< or<aniHations, associations, cl:&s, committees or other <ro:%s of
%ersons for the %:r%ose of solicitin< votes an7Aor :n7ertaDin< an; cam%ai<n or %ro%a<an7a for or a<ainst a %art; or
can7i7ate8 K&? hol7in< %olitical conventions, ca:c:ses, conferences, meetin<s, rallies, %ara7es or other similar
assem&lies for the %:r%ose of solicitin< votes an7Aor :n7ertaDin< an; cam%ai<n or %ro%a<an7a for or a<ainst an;
can7i7ate or %art;8 an7 Kc? <ivin<, solicitin<, or receivin< contri&:tions for election cam%ai<n either 7irectl; or in7irectl;,
K$ec. G*B, %ars. Ka?, K&?, an7 Kc?, R.A. #JJ*?, the a&ri7<ment =as still affirme7 as constit:tional &; siC mem&ers of this
Co:rt, =hich co:l7 not Ii<nore . . . the le<islative 7eclaration that its enactment =as in res%onse to a serio:s
s:&stantive evil affectin< the electoral %rocess, not merel; in 7an<er of ha%%enin<, &:t act:all; in eCistence, an7 liDel;
to contin:e :nless c:r&e7 or reme7ie7. ,o assert other=ise =o:l7 &e to close oneLs e;es to the realit; of the sit:ation.I
'" 8
LiDe=ise, &eca:se fo:r mem&ers 7issente7, this Co:rt in sai7 case of GonHales vs. Comelec, s:%ra, faile7 to m:ster
the reE:ire7 ei<ht votes to 7eclare as :nconstit:tional the limitation on the %erio7 for Ka? maDin< s%eeches,
anno:ncements or commentaries or hol7in< intervie=s for or a<ainst the election of an; %art; or can7i7ate for %:&lic
office8 K&? %:&lishin< or 7istri&:tin< cam%ai<n literat:re or materials8 an7 Kc? 7irectl; or in7irectl; solicitin< votes an7Aor
:n7ertaDin< an; cam%ai<n or %ro%a<an7a for or a<ainst an; can7i7ate or %art; s%ecifie7 in $ec. G*B, %ars. Kc?, K7? N
Ke? of R.A. #JJ*. '!
,he 7e&asement of the electoral %rocess as a s:&stantive evil eCists to7a; an7 is one of the maBor com%ellin< interests
that move7 Con<ress into %rescri&in< the total &an containe7 in %ar. ' of $ec. JKa? of R.A. No. 3'!", to B:stif; s:ch
&an. In the sai7 GonHales vs. Comelec case, this Co:rt <ave I7:e reco<nition to the le<islative concern to cleanse,
an7 if %ossi&le, ren7er s%otless, the electoral %rocess,I '# im%resse7 as it =as &; the eC%lanation ma7e &; the a:thor
of R.A. No. #JJ*, $en. LorenHo ,aMa7a, =ho a%%eare7 as amic:s c:riae, Ithat s:ch %rovisions =ere 7eeme7 &; the
le<islative &o7; to &e %art an7 %arcel of the necessar; an7 a%%ro%riate res%onse not merel; to a clear an7 %resent
7an<er &:t to the act:al eCistence of a <rave an7 s:&stantive evil of eCcessive %artisanshi%, 7ishonest; an7 corr:%tion
as =ell as violence that of late has marre7 election cam%ai<ns an7 %artisan %olitical activities in this co:ntr;. -e 7i7
invite o:r attention liDe=ise to the =ellsettle7 7octrine that in the choice of reme7ies for an a7mitte7 mala7; reE:irin<
<overnmental action, on the le<islat:re %rimaril; rests the res%onsi&ilit;. Nor sho:l7 the c:re %rescri&e7 &; it, :nless
clearl; re%:<nant to f:n7amental ri<hts, &e i<nore7 or 7isre<ar7e7.I 'G
B:t asi7e from the clear an7 imminent 7an<er of the 7e&asement of the electoral %rocess, as conce7e7 &; $enator
.elaeH, the &asic motivation, accor7in< to $enate MaBorit; Floor Lea7er $enator Art:ro ,olentino, the s%onsor of the
.:;at,olentino amen7ment em&o7ie7 in %ar. ' of $ec. JKa? of R.A. No. 3'!", is to ass:re the can7i7ates eE:al
%rotection of the la=s &; accor7in< them eE:alit; of chances. '3 ,he %rimar; %:r%ose of the %rohi&ition then is also to
avert the clear an7 %resent 7an<er of another s:&stantive evil, the 7enial of the eE:al %rotection of the la=s. ,he
can7i7ates m:st 7e%en7 on their in7ivi7:al merits an7 not on the s:%%ort of %olitical %arties or or<aniHations. $enator
,olentino an7 $enator $alon<a em%hasiHe7 that :n7er this %rovision, the %oor can7i7ate has an even chance as
a<ainst the rich can7i7ate. 4e are not %re%are7 to 7isa<ree =ith them, &eca:se s:ch a concl:sion, %re7icate7 as it is
on em%irical lo<ic, fin7s s:%%ort in o:r recent %olitical histor; an7 eC%erience. Both $enators stresse7 that the
in7e%en7ent can7i7ate =ho =ins in the election a<ainst a can7i7ate of the maBor %olitical %arties, is a rare
%henomenon in this co:ntr; an7 the victor; of an in7e%en7ent can7i7ate mainl; rests on his a&ilit; to match the
reso:rces, financial an7 other=ise, of the %olitical %arties or or<aniHations s:%%ortin< his o%%onent. ,his %osition is
f:rther stren<thene7 &; the %rinci%le that the <:arantee of social B:stice :n7er $ec. 2, Art. II of the Constit:tion,
incl:7es the <:arantee of eE:al o%%ort:nit;, eE:alit; of %olitical ri<hts, an7 eE:alit; &efore the la= en:nciate7 &; Mr.
J:stice ,:aHon in the case G:i7o vs. R:ral .ro<ress A7ministration. ')
4hile it ma; &e tr:e that a %art;Ls s:%%ort of a can7i7ate is not =ron< %er se, it is eE:all; tr:e that Con<ress in the
eCercise of its &roa7 la=maDin< a:thorit; can 7eclare certain acts as mala %rohi&ita =hen B:stifie7 &; the eCi<encies
of the times. One s:ch act is the %art; or or<aniHation s:%%ort %roscri&e7 in $ec. JKa?, =hich &an is a vali7 limitation on
the free7om of association as =ell as eC%ression, for the reasons aforestate7.
$enator ,olentino em%hasiHe7 that IeE:alit; of chances ma; &e &etter attaine7 &; &annin< all or<aniHation s:%%ort.I
'J
,he E:estione7 %ar. ' of $ec. JKa? liDe=ise can easil; %ass the &alancin<ofinterest test. '(
In the a%t =or7s of the $olicitor General>
IIt is to &e note7 that ri<ht no= the nation is on the threshol7 of re=ritin< its Constit:tion in a ho%ef:l en7eavor to fin7 a
sol:tion to the <rave economic, social an7 %olitical %ro&lems &esettin< the co:ntr;. Instea7 of 7irectl; %ro%osin< the
amen7ments, Con<ress has chosen to call a Constit:tional Convention =hich shall have the tasD of fashionin< a
7oc:ment that shall em&o7; the as%irations an7 i7eals of the %eo%le. Beca:se =hat is to &e amen7e7 is the
f:n7amental la= of the lan7, it is in7is%ensa&le that the Constit:tional Convention &e com%ose7 of 7ele<ates tr:l;
re%resentative of the %eo%leLs =ill. .:&lic =elfare 7eman7s that the 7ele<ates sho:l7 s%eaD for the entire nation, an7
their voices &e not those of a %artic:lar se<ment of the citiHenr;, or of a %artic:lar class or <ro:% of %eo%le, &e the;
reli<io:s, %olitical, civic or %rofessional in character. $enator .elaeH, Chairman of the $enate Committee on Co7es
an7 Constit:tional Amen7ments, eloE:entl; state7 that Lthe f:nction of a constit:tion is not to re%resent an; one
interest or set of interests, not to favor one <ro:% at the eC%ense or 7isa7vanta<e of the can7i7ates 9 &:t to
encom%ass all the interests that eCist =ithin o:r societ; an7 to &len7 them into one harmonio:s an7 &alance7 =hole.
For the constit:tional s;stem means, not the %re7ominance of interests, &:t the harmonio:s &alancin< thereof.L
I$o that the %:r%ose for callin< the Constit:tional Convention =ill not &e 7efeate7 or fr:strate7, it is necessar; that the
7ele<ates thereto &e in7e%en7ent, &ehol7en to no one &:t to Go7, co:ntr; an7 conscience.I
CCC CCC CCC
I,he evil, therefore, =hich the la= seeDs to %revent lies in the election of 7ele<ates =ho, &eca:se the; have &een
chosen =ith the ai7 an7 reso:rces of or<aniHations, cannot &e eC%ecte7 to &e s:fficientl; re%resentative of the %eo%le.
$:ch 7ele<ates co:l7 ver; =ell &e the s%oDesmen of narro= %olitical, reli<io:s or economic interest an7 not of the
<reat maBorit; of the %eo%le.I "*
4e liDe=ise conc:r =ith the $olicitor General that the eE:al %rotection of the la=s is not :n7:l; s:&verte7 in %ar. ' of
$ec. JKa?8 &eca:se it 7oes not create an; hostile 7iscrimination a<ainst an; %art; or <ro:% nor 7oes it confer :n7:e
favor or %rivile<e on an in7ivi7:al as heretofore state7. ,he 7iscrimination a%%lies to all or<aniHations, =hether %olitical
%arties or social, civic, reli<io:s, or %rofessional associations. ,he &an is <ermane to the o&Bectives of the la=, =hich
are to avert the 7e&asement of the electoral %rocess an7 to attain real eE:alit; of chances amon< in7ivi7:al
can7i7ates an7 there&; maDe real the <:arantee of eE:al %rotection of the la=s.
,he %olitical %arties an7 the other or<aniHe7 <ro:%s have &:iltin a7vanta<es &eca:se of their machiner; an7 other
facilities, =hich, the in7ivi7:al can7i7ate =ho is =itho:t an; or<aniHation s:%%ort, 7oes not have. ,he fact that the
other civic or reli<io:s or<aniHations cannot have a cam%ai<n machiner; as efficient as that of a %olitical %art;, 7oes
not var; the sit:ation8 &eca:se it still has that m:ch &:iltin a7vanta<e as a<ainst the in7ivi7:al can7i7ate =itho:t
similar s:%%ort. Moreover, these civic, reli<io:s an7 %rofessional or<aniHation ma; &an7 to<ether to s:%%ort common
can7i7ates, =ho a7vocate the reforms that these or<aniHations cham%ion an7 &elieve are im%erative. ,his is a7mitte7
&; %etitioner GonHales thr: the letter of $enator GanHon 7ate7 A:<:st '), '()* attache7 to his %etition as AnneC I/,I
=herein the $enator state7 that his o=n I,ima=aI <ro:% ha7 a<ree7 =ith the Li&eral .art; in Iloilo to s:%%ort %etitioner
GonHales an7 t=o others as their can7i7ates for the convention, =hich or<aniHe7 s:%%ort is n:llifie7 &; the E:estione7
&an. $enator GanHon stresse7 that I=itho:t the <ro:% movin< an7 =orDin< in Boint collective effortI the; cannot
IeCercise effective control an7 s:%ervision over o:r lea7ers 9 the 4omenLs Lea<:e, the area comman7ers, etc.I8 &:t
=ith their Boinin< =ith the L.Ls the; Ico:l7 have %resente7 a soli7 front =ith ver; &ri<ht chances of ca%t:rin< all seats.I
,he civic associations other than %olitical %arties cannot =ith reason insist that the; sho:l7 &e eCem%te7 from the &an8
&eca:se then &; s:ch eCem%tion the; =o:l7 &e free to :tiliHe the facilities of the cam%ai<n machineries =hich the; are
7en;in< to the %olitical %arties. 4henever an or<aniHation en<a<es is a %olitical activit;, as in this cam%ai<n for
election of 7ele<ates to the Constit:tional Convention, to that eCtent it %artaDes of the nat:re of a %olitical or<aniHation.
,his, 7es%ite the fact that the Constit:tion an7 &;la=s of s:ch civic, reli<io:s or %rofessional associations :s:all;
%rohi&it the association from en<a<in< in %artisan %olitical activit; or s:%%ortin< an; can7i7ate for an elective office.
-ence, the; m:st liDe=ise res%ect the &an.
,he free7om of association also im%lies the li&ert; not to associate or Boin =ith others or Boin an; eCistin< or<aniHation.
A %erson ma; r:n in7e%en7entl; on his o=n merits =itho:t nee7 of caterin< to a %olitical %art; or an; other association
for s:%%ort. An7 he, as m:ch as the can7i7ate =hose can7i7ac; 7oes not evoDe s;m%ath; from an; %olitical %art; or
or<aniHe7 <ro:%, m:st &e affor7e7 eE:al chances. As em%hasiHe7 &; $enators ,olentino an7 $alon<a, this &an is to
ass:re eE:al chances to a can7i7ate =ith talent an7 im&:e7 =ith %atriotism as =ell as no&ilit; of %:r%ose, so that the
co:ntr; can :tiliHe their services if electe7.
Im%resse7 as 4e are &; the eloE:ent an7 masterl; eC%osition of $enator ,aMa7a for the invali7ation of %ar. ' of $ec.
JKa? of R.A. No. 3'!", 7emonstratin< once a<ain his 7ee% concern for the %reservation of o:r civil li&erties enshrine7 in
the Bill of Ri<hts, 4e are not %ers:a7e7 to entertain the &elief that the challen<e7 &an transcen7s the limits of
constit:tional invasion of s:ch cherishe7 imm:nities.
4-EREFORE, the %ra;ers in &oth %etitions are here&; 7enie7 an7 R.A. No. 3'!" incl:7in< $ecs. ", #, G, an7 JKa?,
%ara<ra%h ', thereof, cannot &e 7eclare7 :nconstit:tional. 4itho:t costs.
Re;es, J.B.L., an7 Castro, JJ., conc:r.
Conce%cion, C.J., conc:rre7 =ith Mr. J:stice Fernan7o as certifie7 &; Mr. J:stice J.B.L. Re;es.
/iHon, J., vote7 in favor of the o%inion of Mr. J:stice MaDasiar as certifie7 &; Mr. J:stice J.B.L. Re;es.
MaDalintal, J., conc:rs in the res:lt.
6al7ivar, J., conc:rs =ith the se%arate o%inion of Mr. J:stice Fernan7o in so far as it relates to $ec. JKa?, %ar. ' of
Re%:&lic Act 3'!" an7 reserves his vote in so far as other E:estions raise7 in the t=o cases are concerne7.
Fernan7o, J., conc:rs an7 7issents in a se%arate o%inion.
Barre7o, J., 7issents in a se%arate o%inion.
2illamor, J., conc:rs =ith the se%arate o%inion of Mr. J:stice Fernan7o.
,eehanDee, J., is on official leave.
$e%arate O%inions
FERNAN/O, J., conc:rrin< an7 7issentin<>
,he o%inion of J:stice MaDasiar s%eaDin< for the Co:rt, com%rehensive in sco%e, %ers:asive in character an7 l:ci7 in
eC%ression, has m:ch to recommen7 it. On the =hole, I conc:r. I fin7 7iffic:lt;, ho=ever, in acce%tin< the concl:sion
that there is no &asis for the challen<e h:rle7 a<ainst the vali7it; of this %rovision> INo can7i7ate for 7ele<ate to the
Convention shall re%resent or allo= himself to &e re%resente7 as &ein< a can7i7ate of an; %olitical %art; or an; other
or<aniHation, an7 no %olitical %art;, %olitical <ro:%, %olitical committee, civic, reli<io:s, %rofessional, or other
or<aniHation or or<aniHe7 <ro:% of =hatever nat:re shall intervene in the nomination of an; s:ch can7i7ate or in the
filin< of his certificate of can7i7ac; or <ive ai7 or s:%%ort 7irectl; or in7irectl;, material or other=ise, favora&le to or
a<ainst his cam%ai<n for election> . . .I ' It is =ith re<ret then that I 7issent from that %ortion of the 7ecision.
'. I fin7 it 7iffic:lt to reconcile the 7ecision reache7 insofar as the aforesai7 &an on %olitical %arties an7 civic,
%rofessional an7 other or<aniHations is concerne7 =ith the eC%licit %rovision that the free7om to form associations or
societies for %:r%oses not contrar; to la= shall not &e a&ri7<e7. " ,he ri<ht of an in7ivi7:al to Boin others of a liDe
%ers:asion to %:rs:e common o&Bectives an7 to en<a<e in activities is em&race7 =ithin if not act:all; enco:ra<e7 &;
the re<ime of li&ert; or7aine7 &; the Constit:tion. ,his %artic:lar free7om has an in7i<eno:s cast, its ori<in &ein<
tracea&le to the Malolos Constit:tion.
In the 1nite7 $tates, in the a&sence of an eC%licit %rovision of s:ch character, it is the vie= of J:stice /o:<las, in a
'(3! article, that it is %rimaril; the First Amen7ment of her Constit:tion, =hich safe<:ar7s free7om of s%eech an7 of
the %ress, of assem&l; an7 of %etition Ithat %rovi7es [associations+ =ith the %rotection the; nee7 if the; are to remain
via&le an7 contin:e to contri&:te to o:r Free $ociet;.I ! $:ch is in7ee7 the case, for five ;ears earlier the American
$:%reme Co:rt ha7 alrea7; 7eclare7> IIt is &e;on7 7e&ate that free7om to en<a<e in association for the a7vancement
of &eliefs an7 i7eas is an inse%ara&le as%ect of the Lli&ert;L [em&race7 in+ free7om of s%eech.I #
Not lon< after, in '(3G, J:stice /o:<las as s%oDesman for the American $:%reme Co:rt co:l7 ela&orate f:rther on the
sco%e of the ri<ht of association as incl:7in< Ithe ri<ht to eC%ress oneLs attit:7es or %hiloso%hies &; mem&ershi% in a
<ro:% or &; affiliation =ith it or &; other la=f:l means. Association in that conteCt is a form of eC%ression of o%inion8
an7 =hile it is not eC%ressl; incl:7e7 in the First Amen7ment its eCistence is necessar; in maDin< the eC%ress
<:arantees f:ll; meanin<f:l.I G ,h:s is f:rther vitaliHe7 free7om of eC%ression =hich, for J:stice La:rel, is at once the
instr:ment Ian7 the <:arantee an7 the &ri<ht cons:mmate flo=er of all li&ert;I 3 an7, for J:stice Car7oHo, Ithe matriC,
the in7is%ensa&le con7ition of nearl; ever; other form of free7om.I )
". It is in the li<ht of the a&ove f:n7amental %ost:lates that I fin7 merit in the %lea of %etitioners to ann:l the
challen<e7 %rovision. ,here is m:ch to &e sai7 for the %oint em%haticall; stresse7 &; $enator LorenHo M. ,aMa7a, as
amic:s c:riae, to the effect that there is nothin< :nla=f:l in a can7i7ate for 7ele<ate to the Convention re%resentin< or
allo=in< himself to &e re%resente7 as s:ch of an; %olitical %art; or an; other or<aniHation as =ell as of s:ch %olitical
%art;, %olitical <ro:%, %olitical committee, civic, reli<io:s, %rofessional or other or<aniHation or or<aniHe7 <ro:%
intervenin< in his nomination, in the filin< of his certificate of can7i7ac;, or <ivin< ai7 or s:%%ort, 7irectl; or in7irectl;,
material or other=ise, favora&le to or a<ainst his cam%ai<n for election as s:ch 7ele<ate. I fin7 the concl:sion
inesca%a&le, therefore, that =hat the constit:tional %rovisions in E:estion allo= more s%ecificall; the ri<ht to form
associations, is %rohi&ite7. ,he infirmit; of this &an is th:s a%%arent on its face.
,here is, to m; min7, another aven:e of a%%roach that lea7s to the same concl:sion. ,he final %roviso in the same
section of the Act for&i7s an; constr:ction that =o:l7 in an; =ise Iim%air or a&ri7<e the free7om of civic, %olitical,
reli<io:s, %rofessional, tra7e or<aniHations or or<aniHe7 <ro:%s of =hatever nat:re to 7isseminate information a&o:t,
or aro:se %:&lic interest in, the forthcomin< Constit:tional Convention, or to a7vocate constit:tional reforms,
%ro<rams, %olicies or %ro%osals for amen7ment of the %resent Constit:tion, an7 no %rohi&ition containe7 herein shall
limit or c:rtail the ri<ht of their mem&ers, as lon< as the; act in7ivi7:all;, to s:%%ort or o%%ose an; can7i7ate for
7ele<ate to the Constit:tional Convention.I J It is re<retta&le that s:ch an eC%licit reco<nition of =hat cannot &e
for&i77en consistentl; =ith the constit:tional <:arantees of free7om of eC%ression an7 free7om of association falls
short of accor7in< f:ll res%ect to =hat is th:s comman7e7 &; the f:n7amental la=, as the; are %recl:7e7 &; the ver;
same Act from <ivin< ai7 or s:%%ort %recisel; to the ver; in7ivi7:als =ho can carr; o:t =hatever constit:tional reforms,
%ro<rams, %olicies or %ro%osals for amen7ment the; mi<ht a7vocate. As th:s vie=e7, the conviction I entertain as to its
lacD of vali7it; is f:rther stren<thene7 an7 fortifie7.
!. It =o:l7 &e a 7ifferent matter, of co:rse, if there is a clear an7 %resent 7an<er of a s:&stantive evil that =o:l7
B:stif; a limitation on s:ch cherishe7 free7oms. Reference has &een ma7e to GonHales v. Commission on Elections. (
As re%ression is %ermissi&le onl; =hen the 7an<er of s:&stantive evil is %resent is eC%laine7 &; J:stice Bran7eis
th:s> . . . the evil a%%rehen7e7 is to imminent that it ma; &efall &efore there is o%%ort:nit; for f:ll 7isc:ssion. If there &e
time to eC%ose thro:<h 7isc:ssion the falsehoo7 an7 fallacies, to avert the evil &; the %rocesses of e7:cation, the
reme7; to &e a%%lie7 is more s%eech, not enforce7 silence.L For him the a%%rehen7e7 evil m:st &e Lrelativel; serio:s.L
For L[%rohi&ition+ of free s%eech an7 assem&l; is a meas:re so strin<ent that it =o:l7 &e ina%%ro%riate as the means for
avertin< a relativel; trivial harm to societ;.L J:stice BlacD =o:l7 <o f:rther. -e =o:l7 reE:ire that the s:&stantive evil &e
LeCtremel; serio:s.L Onl; th:s ma; there &e a realiHation of the i7eal envisione7 &; Car7oHo> L,here shall &e no
com%romise of the free7om to thinD oneLs tho:<hts an7 s%eaD them, eCce%t at those eCtreme &or7ers =here tho:<ht
mer<es into action.L It receive7 its ori<inal form:lation from -olmes. ,h:s> L,he E:estion in ever; case is =hether the
=or7s :se7 in s:ch circ:mstances are of s:ch a nat:re as to create a clear an7 %resent 7an<er that the; =ill &rin<
a&o:t the s:&stantive evils that Con<ress has a ri<ht to %revent. It is a E:estion of %roCimit; an7 7e<ree.LI '* ,he
maBorit; of the Co:rt =o:l7 fin7 the eCistence of a clear an7 %resent 7an<er of 7e&asin< the electoral %rocess. 4ith
7:e res%ect, I fin7 m;self :na&le to share s:ch a vie=.
,he ass:m%tion =o:l7 a%%ear to &e that there is a clear an7 %resent 7an<er of a <rave s:&stantive evil of %artisanshi%
r:nnin< riot :nless %olitical %arties are th:s restraine7. ,here =o:l7 &e a sacrifice then of the national interest involve7.
,he Convention mi<ht not &e a&le to live :% to the hi<h ho%es entertaine7 for an im%rovement of the f:n7amental la=.
It =o:l7 a%%ear tho:<h that =hat %rom%te7 s:ch a &an is to ass:re that the %resent maBorit; %art; =o:l7 not contin:e
to %la; its 7ominant role in the %olitical life of the nation. ,he tho:<ht is entertaine7 that other=ise, =e =ill not have a
Convention tr:l; res%onsive to the nee7s of the ho:r an7 of the f:t:re insofar as the; ma; &e antici%ate7.
,o m; min7, this is to lose si<ht of the fact that in the national elections of '(#3, '(G!, '(3' an7 '(3G, the %resi7enc;
=as =on &; the o%%osition can7i7ate. Moreover, in national elections for senators alone, that of '(G', to mention onl;
one instance, sa= a com%lete s=ee% of the fiel7 &; the then minorit; %art;. It =o:l7 &e :nB:stifia&le, so I am le7 to
&elieve, to ass:me that inevita&l; the %revailin< 7ominant %olitical %art; =o:l7 contin:e its ascen7anc; in the comin<
Convention.
,hen, too, the res:lt of the %le&iscite in the t=o %ro%ose7 amen7ments in '(3) in7icate :nmistaDa&l; that the %eo%le
can, if so min7e7, maDe their =ishes %revail. ,here is th:s no ass:rance that the mere i7entification =ith %art; la&els
=o:l7 a:tomaticall; ins:re the s:ccess of a can7i7ac;. Even if it &e ass:me7 that to <:ar7 a<ainst the evils of %art;
s%irit carrie7 to eCcess, s:ch a &an is calle7 for, still no s:ch 7an<er is %resente7 &; allo=in< civil, %rofessional or an;
other or<aniHation or or<aniHe7 <ro:% of =hatever nat:re to fiel7 its o=n can7i7ates or <ive ai7 or s:%%ort, 7irectl; or
in7irectl; material or other=ise, to an;one r:nnin< for the Convention. From s:ch a so:rce, no s:ch mis<ivin<s or
a%%rehension nee7 arise. Nor is the fear that or<aniHations co:l7 hastil; &e assem&le7 or %:t :% to camo:fla<e their
tr:e colors as satellites of the %olitical %arties &e vali7. ,he electorate can see thro:<h s:ch schemes an7 can
em%haticall; re<ister its reaction. ,here is, moreover, the f:rther safe<:ar7 that =hatever =orD the Convention ma;
%ro%ose is :ltimatel; s:&Bect to %o%:lar ratification.
For me then the 7an<er of a s:&stantive evil is neither clear nor %resent. 4hat ca:ses me <rave concern is that to
<:ar7 a<ainst s:ch :n7esira&le event:alit;, =hich ma; not even come to %ass, a fla<rant 7isre<ar7 of =hat the
Constit:tion or7ains is minimiHe7. A 7esira&le en7 cannot &e coerce7 &; :nconstit:tional means.
#. It is not eas; to ;iel7 assent to the %ro%osition that on a matter so essentiall; %olitical as the amen7ment or
revision of an eCistin< Constit:tion, %olitical %arties or %olitical <ro:%s are to &e 7enie7 the o%%ort:nit; of la:nchin< the
can7i7ac; of their choice. 4ell has it &een sai7 &; Chief J:stice -:<hes> I,he <reater the im%ortance of safe<:ar7in<
the comm:nit; from incitements to the overthro= of o:r instit:tions &; force an7 violence, the more im%erative is the
nee7 to %reserve inviolate the constit:tional ri<hts of free s%eech, free %ress an7 free assem&l; in or7er to maintain the
o%%ort:nit; for free %olitical 7isc:ssion, to the en7 that <overnment ma; &e res%onsive to the =ill of the %eo%le an7 that
chan<es, if 7esire7, ma; &e o&taine7 &; %eacef:l means. ,herein lies the sec:rit; of the Re%:&lic, the ver; fo:n7ation
of constit:tional <overnment.I '' It is to carr; this essential %rocess one ste% farther to reco<niHe an7 to im%lement
the ri<ht of ever; %olitical %art; or <ro:% to select the can7i7ates =ho, &; their election, co:l7 translate into act:alit;
their ho%es for the f:n7amental la= that the times 7eman7. Moreover, is it not in Dee%in< =ith the ri<hts to intellect:al
free7om so se7:lo:sl; safe<:ar7e7 &; the Constit:tion to remove all o&stacles to or<aniHe7 civic <ro:%s maDin< their
infl:ence felt in the tasD of constit:tion framin<, the res:lt of =hich has moment:o:s im%lications for the nationO 4hat
is 7ecisive of this as%ect of the matter is not the character of the association or or<aniHe7 <ro:% as s:ch &:t the
essentiall; %olitical activit; th:s carrie7 o:t.
,his is not to 7en; the =i7e latit:7e as to the choice of means veste7 in Con<ress to attain a 7esira&le <oal. Nor can it
&e s:ccessf:ll; ar<:e7 that the B:7iciar; sho:l7 7is%la; rel:ctance in eCten7in< s;m%ath; an7 :n7erstan7in< to s:ch
le<islative 7etermination. ,his is merel; to stress that ho=ever =orth=hile the o&Bective, the Constit:tion m:st still &e
%ai7 7eference. Moreover, it ma; not &e alto<ether :nrealistic to consi7er the %ractical effects of the &an as th:s
=or7e7 as not lacDin< in effectivit; insofar as civic, reli<io:s, %rofessional or other or<aniHation or or<aniHe7 <ro:% is
concerne7, &:t not necessaril; so in the case of %olitical %art;, %olitical <ro:% or %olitical committee. ,here is the
commen7a&le a7mission &; $enator ,olentino, a%%earin< as amic:s c:riae, that the %olitical lea7ers of stat:re, in their
in7ivi7:al ca%acit;, co:l7 contin:e to assert their infl:ence. It co:l7 ver; =ell ha%%en, then, in not a fe= cases,
ass:min< the stren<th of %olitical %arties, that a can7i7ate th:s favore7 is s:re of emer<in< the victor. 4hat is th:s
so:<ht to &e accom%lishe7 to <:ar7 a<ainst the evil of %art; s%irit %revailin< co:l7 ver; =ell &e 7oome7 to f:tilit;. ,he
hi<h ho%es entertaine7 &; the artic:late an7 vocal <ro:%s of ;o:n< %eo%le, intellect:als an7 =orDers, ma; not &e
realiHe7. ,he res:lt =o:l7 &e that this :northo7oC an7 novel %rovision co:l7 ass:me the character of a tease, an
ill:sion liDe a m:nificent &eE:est in a %a:%erLs =ill.
If s:ch an a%%raisal is not :nB:stifia&l; tin<e7 =ith %essimism, then, to m; min7, a ra7ical a%%roach to a %ro&lem
%ossi&l; tainte7 =ith constit:tional infirmit; cannot h:r7le the B:7icial test as to its vali7it;. It is one thin< to enco:ra<e a
fresh an7 :ntrie7 sol:tion to a %ro&lem of <ravit; =hen the %ro&a&ilit; of its s:ccess ma; &e ass:me7. It is an entirel;
7ifferent matter to c:t 7o=n the eCercise of =hat other=ise are :n7enia&le constit:tional ri<hts =hen, as in this case,
the o:tcome mi<ht &elie eC%ectations. Consi7erin< the =ellsettle7 %rinci%le that even tho:<h the <overnmental
%rocess &e le<itimate an7 s:&stantial, the; cannot &e %:rs:e7 &; means that &roa7l; stifle f:n7amental %ersonal
li&erties, if the en7 can &e narro=+; achieve7, I am far from &ein< %ers:a7e7 that to %recl:7e %olitical %arties or other
<ro:%s or associations from len7in< ai7 an7 s:%%ort to the can7i7ates of men in =hom the; can re%ose their tr:st is
consistent =ith the constit:tional ri<hts of free7om of association an7 free7om of eC%ression. -ere, the 7an<er of
over&rea7th, so clear an7 manifest as to &e offensive to constit:tional stan7ar7s, ma<nifie7 &; the %ro&a&ilit; that the
res:lt =o:l7 &e the fail:re an7 not s:ccess of the stat:tor; scheme, ca:tions a<ainst the affiCin< of the im%rimat:r of
B:7icial a%%roval to the challen<e7 %rovision.
G. Necessaril; then, from this mo7e of vie=in< the matter, it =o:l7 follo= that the hol7in< of this Co:rt in
GonHales v. Comelec '" 7oes not com%el the concl:sion reache7 &; the maBorit; s:stainin< the vali7it; of this
challen<e7 %rovision. 4hat s:rvive7 the test of constit:tional vali7it; in that case, =ith the Co:rt :nanimo:s in its
o%inion, is the %rohi&ition for an; %olitical %art;, %olitical committee or %olitical <ro:% to nominate can7i7ates for an;
elective %:&lic office vote7 for at lar<e earlier than 'G* 7a;s imme7iatel; %rece7in< election an7 for an; other %:&lic
office earlier than (* 7a;s imme7iatel; %rece7in< s:ch election. '! A corollar; to the a&ove limitation, the %rovision
maDin< it :nla=f:l for an; %erson, =hether or not a voter or can7i7ate, or for an; <ro:% or association of %ersons,
=hether or not a %olitical %art; or %olitical committee, to en<a<e in an election cam%ai<n or %artisan %olitical activit;
eCce%t 7:rin< the a&ove %erio7s s:ccessf:ll; h:r7le7 the constit:tional test, altho:<h the restrictions as to the maDin<
of s%eeches, anno:ncements or commentaries or hol7in< intervie=s for or a<ainst the election of an; %art; or
can7i7ate for %:&lic office or the %:&lishin< or 7istri&:tin< of cam%ai<n literat:re or materials or the solicitation or
:n7ertaDin< an; cam%ai<n or %ro%a<an7a for or a<ainst an; can7i7ate or %art;, 7irectl; or in7irectl;, s:rvive7 &; the
narro= mar<in of one vote, fo:r mem&ers of this Co:rt :na&le to 7iscern an; constit:tional infirmit; as a<ainst the free
s%eech <:arantee, th:s res:ltin< in failin< to m:ster the necessar; t=othir7s maBorit; for a 7eclaration of invali7it;.
Insofar as election cam%ai<n or %artisan %olitical activit; =o:l7 limit or restrict the formation of or<aniHations,
associations, cl:&s, committees or other <ro:%s of %ersons for the %:r%ose of solicitin< votes or :n7ertaDin< an;
cam%ai<n or %ro%a<an7a for or a<ainst a %art; or can7i7ate or the <ivin<, solicitin<, or receivin< a contri&:tion for
election cam%ai<n %:r%oses, either 7irectl; or in7irectl; as =ell as the hol7in< of %olitical conventions, ca:c:ses,
conferences, meetin<s, rallies, %ara7es or other similar assem&lies, =ith a similar en7 in vie=, onl; five mem&ers of
this Co:rt, a minorit; thereof vote7 for their :nconstit:tionalit;. 4hat emer<es clearl;, then, is that 7efinite acts short of
%reventin< the %olitical %arties from the choice of their can7i7ates an7 thereafter =orDin< for them in effect =ere
consi7ere7 &; this Co:rt as not violative of the constit:tional free7oms of s%eech, of %ress, of assem&l; an7 of
association.
,he challen<e7 %rovision in these t=o %etitions, ho=ever, <oes m:ch farther. .olitical %arties or an; other or<aniHation
or or<aniHe7 <ro:% are %recl:7e7 from selectin< an7 s:%%ortin< can7i7ates for 7ele<ates to the Constit:tional
Convention. ,o m; min7, this is to enter a for&i77en 7omain, Con<ress tres%assin< on a fiel7 hitherto ri<htf:ll;
ass:me7 to &e =ithin the s%here of li&ert;. ,h:s, I am :na&le to concl:7e that o:r %revio:s 7ecision in GonHales v.
Commission on Elections =hich alrea7; =as in7icative of the ca:tio:s an7 hesitant B:7icial a%%roach to len7in< its
a%%roval to =hat other=ise are invasions of vital constit:tional safe<:ar7s to free7oms of &elief, of eC%ression, an7 of
association len7s s:%%ort to the 7ecision reache7 &; the maBorit; insofar as this challen<e7 %rovision is concerne7.
-ence m; ina&ilit; to s:&scri&e in its entiret; to the o%inion of the Co:rt. I am a:thoriHe7 to state that the Chief J:stice
is in a<reement =ith the vie=s herein eC%resse7.
BARRE/O, J.> conc:rrin< an7 7issentin<>
4itho:t %reB:7ice to a more eCten7e7 o%inion, I vote, in conc:rrence =ith the maBorit;, to s:stain the vali7it; of the
%rovisions of Re%:&lic Act 3'!" im%:<ne7 &; %etitioners in these cases, eCce%t $ection # an7 the %ortion of $ection
JKa? referrin< to %olitical %arties. As re<ar7s $ection #, I reiterate m; se%arate o%inion in the cases of $:&i7o an7
others. KG.R. Nos. L!"#!3 an7 L!"#!(? 4ith res%ect to $ection JKa?, I hol7 that the consi7erations =hich maDe the
restraint on the free7oms of association, assem&l; an7 s%eech involve7 in the &an on %olitical %arties to nominate an7
s:%%ort their o=n can7i7ates, reasona&le an7 =ithin the limits of the Constit:tion 7o not o&tain =hen it comes to civic
or non%olitical or<aniHations. As I see it, the sai7 &an, insofar as civic or non%olitical or<aniHations are concerne7, is
a 7ece%tive 7evice to %reserve the &:iltin a7vanta<es of %olitical %arties =hile at the same time cri%%lin< com%letel;
the other Din7s of associations. ,he onl; =a; to accom%lish the %:r%orte7 o&Bective of the la= of eE:aliHin< the forces
that =ill cam%ai<n on &ehalf of the can7i7ates to the constit:tional convention is to maintain sai7 &an onl; as a<ainst
%olitical %arties, for after all, onl; the activities an7 manners of o%eration of these %arties an7Aor some of their mem&ers
have ma7e necessar; the im%osition thereof. 1n7er the res:ltin< set :% em&o7ie7 in the %rovision in E:estion, the
in7ivi7:al can7i7ates =ho have never ha7 an; %olitical %art; connections or ver; little of it =o:l7 &e at an o&vio:s
7isa7vanta<e :nless the; are allo=e7 to seeD an7 :se the ai7 of civic or<aniHations. Neither the ela&orate %rovisions
of Re%:&lic Act 3'!" re<ar7in< metho7s of cam%ai<n nor its other %rovisions inten7e7 to minimiHe the %artici%ation of
%olitical %arties in the electoral %rocesses of votin<, co:ntin< of the votes an7 canvassin< of the res:lts can overcome
the a7vanta<es of can7i7ates more or less connecte7 =ith %olitical %arties, %artic:larl; the maBor an7 esta&lishe7 ones,
as lon< as the ri<ht to form other associations an7 the ri<ht of these associations to cam%ai<n for their can7i7ates are
7enie7, consi7erin< %artic:larl; the shortness of the time that is left &et=een no= an7 election 7a;.
,he iss:es involve7 in the comin< elections are <rave an7 f:n7amental ones that are &o:n7 to affect the lives, ri<hts
an7 li&erties of all the %eo%le of this co:ntr; most effectivel;, %ervasivel; an7 %ermanentl;. ,he onl; ins:rance of the
%eo%le a<ainst %olitical %arties =hich ma; &e incline7 to=ar7s the Esta&lishment an7 the stat:s E:o is to or<aniHe
themselves to <ain m:ch nee7e7 stren<th an7 effectivit;. ,o 7en; them this ri<ht is to stifle the %eo%leLs onl;
o%%ort:nit; for chan<e.
It is aCiomatic that iss:es, no matter ho= vali7, if not relate7 to %artic:lar can7i7ates in an or<aniHe7 =a;, similarl; as
in the :se of %latforms &; %olitical %arties, cannot have an; chance of s:%%ort an7 final a7o%tion. Both men an7 iss:es
are im%ortant, &:t :nrelate7 to each other, each of them alone is insi<nificant, an7 the onl; =a; to relate them is &;
or<aniHation. .recisel; &eca:se the iss:es in this election of can7i7ates are of %aramo:nt im%ortance secon7 to none,
it is im%erative that all of the free7oms enshrine7 in the constit:tion sho:l7 have the am%liest reco<nition for those =ho
are min7e7 to activel; &attle for them an7 an; attem%t to c:rtail them =o:l7 en7an<er the ver; %:r%oses for =hich a
ne= constit:tional convention has &een conceive7.
Consistentl; =ith m; se%arate o%inion in the case of GonHales an7 Ca&i<ao vs. Comelec, G.R. No. L")J!!, A%ril 'J,
'(3( an7 for the reasons therein state7, I maintain that the ri<ht of s:ffra<e =hich is the cornerstone of an; 7emocrac;
liDe o:rs is meanin<less =hen the ri<ht to cam%ai<n in an; election therein is :nreasona&l; an7 :nnecessaril;
c:rtaile7, restraine7 or ham%ere7, as is &ein< 7one :n7er the stat:te in 7is%:te.
It is, of co:rse, :n7erstoo7 that this o%inion is &ase7 on m; consi7ere7 vie=, contrar; to that of the maBorit;, that as
$ection JKa? stan7s an7 taDin< into acco:nt its <enesis, the &an a<ainst %olitical %arties is se%ara&le from that a<ainst
other associations =ithin the contem%lation of $ection "' of the Act =hich eC%ressl; refers to the se%ara&ilit; of the
a%%lication thereof to an; I%ersons, <ro:%s or circ:mstances.I
I reserve m; ri<ht to eC%an7 this eC%lanation of m; vote in the neCt fe= 7a;s.
Footnotes
'. $ec. ' of Res. No. #.
". $ec. !, Res. No. #.
!. $ec. "", R.A. No. 3'!".
#. A&elar7o $:&i7o vs. Comelec, in re vali7it; of $ec. # an7 $ec. JKa? %ar. ", R.A. 3'!", G.R. No. L!"#!3, an7
In the matter of the %etition for 7eclarator; relief re vali7it; an7 constit:tionalit; of $ec. #, R.A. 3'!", -on. G:ar7son
Loo7, J:7<e, CFI, .asi<, RiHal et al., %etitioners, G.R. No. L!"#!(, $e%t. (, '()*.
G. $ec. G, Art. 2I, Constit:tion.
3. Macias, et al. vs. Comelec, G.R. No. L'J3J#, $e%t. '#, '(3'.
). .eo%le vs. 2era, 3G .hil. G38 .eo%le vs. $olon, G.R. No. L'#J3#, Nov. "!, '(3*.
J. $ee GonHales vs. Comelec, L")J!!, A%ril 'J, '(3(8 2ol. "), $CRA, %. J!G, JGJ et seE.8 J:stice /o:<las in
Elf&ran7t v. R:ssel, !J# 1.$. '', 'J'(, '(33.
(. ") $CRA, %%. J3*J3'.
'*. ") $CRA, %. J3G.
''. ") $CRA, %. J3(.
'". ") $CRA, %%. J3#J3G, J3J.
'!. ") $CRA, %%. J3(J)*.
'#. ") $CRA, %. J)!.
'G. ") $CRA, %. J)".
'3. $ee his s%onsorshi% s%eech of J:l; "*, '()*.
'). J# .hil. J#), JG".
'J. $ee his s%onsorshi% s%eech on J:l; "*, '()*.
'(. $ee J:stice CastroLs se%arate o%inion in GonHales vs. Comelec, s:%ra, ") $CRA, %%. J(JJ(( citin< American
Comm:nications Association vs. /o:7s, !!( 1.$. !J!, (# L. E7., ("G, (#!).
"*. .%. #G, '", Ans=er in L!"#!".
'. $ec. JKa?, Re%:&lic Act No. 3'!" K'()*?.
". ,he Constit:tion %rovi7es> I,he ri<ht to form associations or societies for %:r%oses not contrar; to la= shall
not &e a&ri7<e7.I Art. III, $ec. ', %ar. 3.
!. /o:<las, ,he Ri<ht of Association, 3! Col. La= Rev. '!3! K'(3!?.
#. NAAC. v. Ala&ama eC rel. .atterson, !G) 1$ ##(, #3* K'(GJ? %er -arlan, J. Cf. Bates v. Little RocD, !3' 1$
G'3 K'(3*?8 $helton v. ,:cDer, !3# 1$ #)( K'(3*?8 Lo:isiana eC rel. Gremillon v. NAAC., !33 1$ "(! K'(3'?8
Comm:nist .art; v. $:&versive Activities Control Boar7, !3) 1$ ' K'(3'?8 $cales v. 1nite7 $tates, !3) 1$ "*!
K'(3'?8 NAAC. v. B:tton, !)' 1$ #'G K'(3!?8 Gi&son v. Flori7a Le<islative Investi<ation Comm., !)" 1$ G!( K'(3!?8
Brotherhoo7 v. 2ir<inia eC rel. $tate Bar, !)) 1$ ' K'(3#?8 NAAC. v. Ala&ama, !)) 1$ "JJ K'(3#?.
G. Gris=ol7 v. Connectic:t, !J' 1$ #)(, #J! K'(3G?. In Elf&ran7t v. R:ssel, !J# 1$ '', 'J K'(33? he s%oDe of
this ri<ht as a Icherishe7 free7om.I Cf. 5e;ishan v. Boar7 of Re<ents, !JG 1$ GJ( K'(3)?.
3. .lanas v. Gil, 3) .hil. 3" K'(!(?, J:stice La:rel E:otin< 4en7ell .hili%%s.
). .alDo v. Connectic:t. !*" 1$ !'(, !"! K'(!)?.
J. $ection JKa?, Re%:&lic Act No. 3'!" K'()*?.
(. L")J!!, A%ril 'J, '(3(, ") $CRA J!G.
'*. I&i7., %%. JG(J3*.
''. /e Jon<e v. Ore<on, "(( 1$ !G!, !3G K'(!)?.
'". L")J!!, A%ril '!, '(3(, ") $CRA J!G.
'!. $ec. G*Ka? of Re%:&lic Act #JJ* K'(3)?.

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