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HEAT TRANSFER MCB 3033

4Jun2012













1. Consider a 5-m-high, 8-m-long, and 0.22-m-thick wall whose representative
cross section is as shown below. The thermal conductivities of various materials
used, in W/mC, are k
A
= k
F
= 2, k
B
= 8, k
C
= 20, k
D
= 15, and k
E
= 35. The left
and right surfaces of the wall are maintained at uniform temperatures of 300C
and 100C, respectively. Assuming heat transfer through the wall to be one-
dimensional, determine:
(a) the rate of heat transfer through the wall,
(b) the temperature at the point where the sections B, D, and E meet, and
(c) the temperature drop across the section F. Disregard any contact
resistances at the interfaces.
Problem 3-59



















1. Consider a 5-m-high, 8-m-long, and 0.22-m-thick wall whose representative cross section is as shown
below. The thermal conductivities of various materials used, in W/mC, are k
A
= k
F
= 2, k
B
= 8, k
C
= 20, k
D

= 15, and k
E
= 35. The left and right surfaces of the wall are maintained at uniform temperatures of 300C
and 100C, respectively. Assuming heat transfer through the wall to be one-dimensional, determine:
(a) the rate of heat transfer through the wall,
(b) the temperature at the point where the sections B, D, and E meet, and
(c) the temperature drop across the section F. Disregard any contact resistances at the interfaces.
Problem 3-59






2
m 12 . 0 1 12 . 0 = = A
C/W 16 . 0
) m 04 . 0 ( C) W/m 8 (
m 05 . 0
C/W 06 . 0
) m 04 . 0 ( C) W/m 20 (
m 05 . 0
C/W 04 . 0
) m 12 . 0 ( C) W/m 2 (
m 01 . 0
2
3
2
4 2
2
1
=

= |
.
|

\
|
= =
=

= |
.
|

\
|
= = =
=

= |
.
|

\
|
= =
B
B
C
C
A
A
kA
L
R R
kA
L
R R R
kA
L
R R
C/W 25 . 0
) m 12 . 0 ( C) W/m 2 (
m 06 . 0
C/W 05 . 0
) m 06 . 0 ( C) W/m 35 (
m 1 . 0
C/W 11 . 0
) m 06 . 0 ( C) W/m 15 (
m 1 . 0
2
7
o
2
6
2 o
5
=

= |
.
|

\
|
= =
=

= |
.
|

\
|
= =
=

= |
.
|

\
|
= =
F
F
E
E
D
D
kA
L
R R
kA
L
R R
kA
L
R R
section) m 1 m 0.12 a (for W 572
C/W 349 . 0
C ) 100 300 (
C/W 349 . 0 25 . 0 034 . 0 025 . 0 04 . 0
C/W 034 . 0
05 . 0
1
11 . 0
1 1 1 1
C/W 025 . 0
06 . 0
1
16 . 0
1
06 . 0
1 1 1 1 1
2 1
7 2 , 1 , 1
2 ,
6 5 2 ,
1 ,
4 3 2 1 ,
=

=
= + + + = + + + =
= + = + =
= + + = + + =
total
mid mid total
mid
mid
mid
mid
R
T T
Q
R R R R R
R
R R R
R
R R R R

W 10 1.91
5
= =
2
m 12 . 0
m) 8 ( m) 5 (
W) 572 (
total
Q

R
1

R
2

R
3

R
4

R
5

R
6

R
7

T
2
T
1















1. Consider a 5-m-high, 8-m-long, and 0.22-m-thick wall whose representative cross section is as shown
below. The thermal conductivities of various materials used, in W/mC, are k
A
= k
F
= 2, k
B
= 8, k
C
= 20, k
D

= 15, and k
E
= 35. The left and right surfaces of the wall are maintained at uniform temperatures of 300C
and 100C, respectively. Assuming heat transfer through the wall to be one-dimensional, determine:
(a) the rate of heat transfer through the wall,
(b) the temperature at the point where the sections B, D, and E meet, and
(c) the temperature drop across the section F. Disregard any contact resistances at the interfaces.
Problem 3-59






2
m 12 . 0 1 12 . 0 = = A
section) m 1 m 0.12 a (for W
C/W
C
C/W
=

=
= + + + = + + + =

572
349 . 0
) 100 300 (
349 . 0 25 . 0 034 . 0 025 . 0 04 . 0
2 1
7 2 , 1 , 1
total
mid mid total
R
T T
Q
R R R R R

W 10 1.91
5
= =
2
m 12 . 0
m) 8 ( m) 5 (
W) 572 (
total
Q

R
1

R
2

R
3

R
4

R
5

R
6

R
7

T
2
T
1


C/W 065 . 0 025 . 0 04 . 0
1 , 1
= + = + =
mid total
R R R
C 263 = = =

= C/W) W)(0.065 572 ( C 300


1
1
total
total
R Q T T
R
T T
Q














1. Consider a 5-m-high, 8-m-long, and 0.22-m-thick wall whose representative cross section is as shown
below. The thermal conductivities of various materials used, in W/mC, are k
A
= k
F
= 2, k
B
= 8, k
C
= 20, k
D

= 15, and k
E
= 35. The left and right surfaces of the wall are maintained at uniform temperatures of 300C
and 100C, respectively. Assuming heat transfer through the wall to be one-dimensional, determine:
(a) the rate of heat transfer through the wall,
(b) the temperature at the point where the sections B, D, and E meet, and
(c) the temperature drop across the section F. Disregard any contact resistances at the interfaces.
Problem 3-59






2
m 12 . 0 1 12 . 0 = = A
section) m 1 m 0.12 a (for W
C/W
C
C/W
=

=
= + + + = + + + =

572
349 . 0
) 100 300 (
349 . 0 25 . 0 034 . 0 025 . 0 04 . 0
2 1
7 2 , 1 , 1
total
mid mid total
R
T T
Q
R R R R R

W 10 1.91
5
= =
2
m 12 . 0
m) 8 ( m) 5 (
W) 572 (
total
Q

R
1

R
2

R
3

R
4

R
5

R
6

R
7

T
2
T
1


C 143 = = = A
A
= C/W) W)(0.25 572 (
F
F
R Q T
R
T
Q

Problem 3-54
A 4-m-high and 6-m-wide wall consists of a long 15-cm X 25-cm cross
section of horizontal bricks (k = 0.72 W/mC) separated by 3-cm-thick plaster
layers (k = 0.22 W/mC). There are also 2-cm-thick plaster layers on each
side of the wall, a 2-cm-thick rigid foam (k = 0.026 W/mC) on the inner side
of the wall. The indoor and the outdoor temperatures are 22C and 4C,
and the convection heat transfer coefficients on the inner and the outer sides
are h
1
= 10 W/m
2
C and h
2
= 20 W/m
2
C, respectively. Assuming 1-D heat
transfer and disregarding radiation, determine the rate of heat transfer
through the wall.










Learning Outcome

To solve heat transfer problems
using thermal resistance
network for cylinders and
spheres.
HEAT CONDUCTION IN CYLINDERS AND SPHERES
Heat transfer through a pipe
can be modeled as steady
and one-dimensional.
T = T(r).
This can be used for long
cylindrical pipes and spherical
containers.
is the conduction resistance of the cylinder layer.
is the conduction resistance of the spherical layer.
A spherical shell
with specified
inner and outer
surface
temperatures T
1

and T
2
.
2
4 r A t =
for a cylindrical layer, and
for a spherical layer
where
Multilayered Cylinders and Spheres
The thermal resistance
network for heat transfer
through a three-layered
composite cylinder
subjected to convection
on both sides.













Steam at 250C is flowing through a steel pipe (k = 15.5 W/mC) whose inner
and outer diameters are 10 cm and 12 cm, respectively, in an environment at
15C. The pipe is insulated with 7-cm-thick fiberglass insulation (k = 0.033
W/mC). If the heat transfer coefficients on the inside and the outside of the
pipe are 180 and 40 W/m
2
C, respectively, determine the rate of heat loss from
the steam per meter length of the pipe. What is the error involved in neglecting
the thermal resistance of the steel pipe in calculations?
250C
Problem 3-77






R
i

T
1

R
insulation
R
o

T
2

R
pipe

2
2
m 8168 . 0 m) 1 ( m) 26 . 0 (
m 314 . 0 m) 1 ( m) 1 . 0 (
= = =
= = =
t t
t t
L D A
L D A
o o
i i
C/W 78 . 3 0306 . 0 73 . 3 00187 . 0 0177 . 0
C/W 0306 . 0
) m 8168 . 0 ( C) . W/m 40 (
1 1
C/W 73 . 3
) m 1 ( C) W/m. 033 . 0 ( 2
) 6 / 13 ln(
2
) / ln(
C/W 00187 . 0
) m 1 ( C) W/m. 5 . 15 ( 2
) 5 / 6 ln(
2
) / ln(
C/W 0177 . 0
) m 314 . 0 ( C) . W/m 180 (
1 1
2 1
2 o 2
2 3
2
1 2
1
2 2
= + + + = + + + =
= = =
=

= = =
=

= = =
=

= =
o i total
o o
o
ins
insulation
pipe
pipe
i i
i
R R R R R
A h
R
L k
r r
R R
L k
r r
R R
A h
R
t t
t t
W 62.2 =

=

C/W 3.78
C ) 15 250 (
2 1
total
R
T T
Q

If the thermal resistance of the steel pipe is neglected, the


new value of total thermal resistance will be
C/W 778 . 3 0306 . 0 73 . 3 0177 . 0
2
= + + = + + =
o i total
R R R R
0.053% =


= 100
C/W 78 . 3
C/W ) 778 . 3 78 . 3 (
% error
250C
Steam at 250C is flowing through a steel pipe (k = 15.5 W/mC) whose inner and outer diameters are 10
cm and 12 cm, respectively, in an environment at 15C. The pipe is insulated with 7-cm-thick fiberglass
insulation (k = 0.033 W/mC). If the heat transfer coefficients on the inside and the outside of the pipe are
180 and 40 W/m
2
C, respectively, determine the rate of heat loss from the steam per meter length of the
pipe. What is the error involved in neglecting the thermal resistance of the steel pipe in calculations?
Problem 3-77






Problem
Consider a 2-m-high electric hot water heater that has a
diameter of 40 cm and maintains the hot water at 55C. The
tank is located in a small room whose average temperature
is 27C, and the heat transfer coefficients on the inner and
outer surfaces of the heater are 50 and 12 W/m
2
C,
respectively. The tank is placed in another 46-cm-diameter
sheet metal tank of negligible thickness, and the space
between the two tanks is filled with foam insulation (k = 0.03
W/mC). The thermal resistances of the water tank and the
outer thin sheet metal shell are very small and can be
neglected. The price of electricity is $0.08/kWh, and the
home owner pays $280 a year for water heating. Determine
the fraction of the hot water energy cost of this household
that is due to the heat loss from the tank.
Exercise






Study Examples 3-1, 3-2, 3-6 and
solve Problems 3-35 and 3-58.
Test 1
Date: Thursday, 3
rd
July 2014
Venue: Multi-Purpose Hall
Time: 4 5 PM

Thank You!