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2-Designs

Andreas Klappenecker Martin Rötteler

Department of Computer Science NEC Labs America, Inc.

Texas A&M University 4 Independence Way

College Station, TX, 77843–3112, USA Princeton, NJ 08540 U.S.A.

Email: klappi@cs.tamu.edu Email: mroetteler@nec-labs.com

Abstract— Mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) are a primitive that we want to determine the density matrix ρ of an ensemble

used in quantum information processing to capture the principle of quantum systems using as few non-degenerate observables

of complementarity. While constructions of maximal sets of d + 1 as possible. We assume that it is possible toPmake a com-

such bases are known for system of prime power dimension d, it is

unknown whether this bound can be achieved for any non-prime plete measurement of each observable O = b∈B xb |bihb |,

power dimension. In this paper we demonstrate that maximal sets meaning that the statistics tr(ρ |bihb |) = hb| ρ |bi is known for

of MUBs come with a rich combinatorial structure by showing each eigenvalue xb in the spectral decomposition. Ivanović

that they actually are the same objects as the complex projective showed in [12] that complete measurements of at least d + 1

2-designs with angle set {0, 1/d}. We also give a new and observables are needed to reconstruct the density matrix. He

simple proof that symmetric informationally complete POVMs

are complex projective 2-designs with angle set {1/(d+1)}. also showed that this lower bound is attained when d + 1 non-

degenerate pairwise complementary observables are used.

I. I NTRODUCTION A simple example is provided by the Pauli spin matrices σx ,

Two quantum mechanical observables are called comple- σy , σz . A complete measurement of these three observables

mentary if and only if precise knowledge of one of them allows to reconstruct a 2 × 2 density matrix, a fact appar-

implies that all possible outcomes are equally probable when ently known to Schwinger [18]. Nowadays, we know how to

measuring the other, see for example [19, p. 561]. The do this state tomography process—at least in principle—in

principle of complementarity was introduced by Bohr [6] in dimensions d = 3, 4, and 5. It is an open problem whether

1928, and it had a profound impact on the further development it is possible to perform this kind of state tomography in

of quantum mechanics. A recent application is the quantum dimension 6, because the construction of a set of 7 mutually

key exchange protocol by Bennett and Brassard [3] that unbiased bases in dimension d = 6 is elusive.

exploits complementarity to secure the key exchange against

eavesdropping. II. M UTUALLY U NBIASED BASES

We mention a simple mathematical consequence of this

complementarity principle, which motivates some key notion. Definition 1: Two orthonormal bases B and C of Cd are

Suppose that O and O0 are two hermitian d × d matrices called mutually unbiased iff |hb|ci|2 = 1/d holds for all b ∈ B

representing a pair of complementary observables. We assume and c ∈ C.

that the eigenvalues of both matrices are multiplicity free. The goal is to construct d + 1 mutually unbiased bases

It follows that the observables O and O0 respectively have (MUBs) in any dimension d ≥ 2. There are several con-

orthonormal eigenbases B and B 0 with basis vectors uniquely structions known to obtain MUBs. At least for prime power

determined up to a scalar factor. dimension the problem is completely solved. This follows

The complementarity of O and O0 implies that if a quantum from Constructions I-III below. However, in any dimension

system is prepared in an eigenstate b0 of the observable O0 , other than a prime power it is unknown if a maximal set

and O is subsequently measured, then the probability to find of d + 1 MUBs can be found. The best known result is

the system after the measurement in the state b ∈ B is given Construction IV below which only works in dimensions d

by |hb|b0 i|2 = 1/d. Recall that two orthonormal bases B and which are squares and never gives a maximal set of MUBs.

B 0 of Cd are said to be mutually unbiased precisely when Construction I (Wootters and Fields [24]) Let q be an odd

|hb|b0 i|2 = 1/d holds for all b ∈ B and b0 ∈ B 0 . Thus prime power. Define

the eigenbases of non-degenerate complementary observables

2

are mutually unbiased. Conversely, we can associate to a |va,b i = q −1/2 (ωptr(ax +bx)

)x∈Fq ∈ Cq ,

pair of mutually unbiased bases a pair of non-degenerate

complementary observables. with ωp = exp(2πi/p). Then the standard basis together with

There is a fundamental property of mutually unbiased bases the bases Ba = {|va,b i |b ∈ Fq }, a ∈ Fq , form a set of q + 1

that is invaluable in quantum information processing. Suppose mutually unbiased bases of Cq .

Construction II (Galois Rings [13]) Let GR(4, n) be a finite Then we have that:

Galois ring with Teichmüller set Tn . Define r r

• M (p ) = p + 1 for p prime, r ∈ N,

• M (n) ≤ n + 1 for all n ∈ N,

−n/2 2πi

|va,b i = 2 exp tr(a + 2b)x . • M (mn) ≥ min{M (m), M (n)} for all m, n ∈ N.

4 x∈Tn 2

• M (d ) ≥ N (d), where N (d) is the number of mutually

Then the standard basis together with the bases Ma = orthogonal Latin squares of size d × d.

{|va,b i |b ∈ Tn }, a ∈ Tn , form a set of 2n + 1 mutually An open problem is to show that lim inf n→∞ M (n) = ∞.

n

unbiased bases of C2 .

Construction III (Bandyopadhyay et al. [1]) Suppose there III. W ELCH ’ S L OWER B OUNDS

exist subsets C1 , . . . , Cm of a unitary error basis B such that Suppose that X is a finite nonempty set of vectors of unit

|Ci | = d, Ci ∩ Cj = {1d } for i 6= j, and the elements of Ci norm in the complex vector space Cd . The vectors in X satisfy

pairwise commute. Let Mi be a matrix which diagonalizes Ci . the inequalities

Then M1 , . . . , Mm are MUBs. 1 X 1

|hx|yi|2k ≥ d+k−1 , (1)

Construction IV (Wocjan and Beth [23]) Suppose there are |X|2

x,y∈X k

w mutually orthogonal Latin squares [4], each of size d × d

over the symbol set S = {1, . . . , d}. Then w + 2 MUBs for all integers k ≥ 0. Welch derived these bounds in [22]

in dimension d2 can be constructed as follows. With each to obtain a lower bound on the maximal cross-correlation of

Latin square L (and additionally the square (1, 2, . . . , n)t ⊗ spreading sequences of synchronous code-division multiple-

(1, . . . , 1)) we can associate vectors of length d over the access systems. Blichfeld [5] and Sidelnikov [20] derived

alphabet {1, . . . , d2 }: for each symbol α ∈ S define a vector similar bounds for real vectors of unit norm.

sL,α ∈ Cd as follows: start with the empty list sL,α = ∅. A set X attaining the Welch bound (1) for k = 1 is

Then traverse the elements of L column-wise starting at the called a WBE-sequence set, a notion popularized by Massey

upper left corner. Whenever α occurs in position (i, j) in L, and Mittelholzer [15] and others. Using equation (1), it is

then append the number i + jd to the list sL,α . The other straightforward to check that the union of d + 1 mutually

ingredient to construct these MUBs is an arbitrary complex unbiased bases of Cd form a WBE-sequence set. These

Hadamard matrix H = (hi,j ) of size d × d. For each Latin extremal sets of mutually unbiased bases are even better, since

square L and each α, ∈ {1, . . . , d} define a normalized they also attain the Welch bound for k = 2. In fact, we

√j P d

vector |vL,α,j i := 1/ d i=1 esL,α [i] hi,j , where ei are the show that a sequence set attains the Welch bounds (1) for all

2

elementary basis vectors in Cd . Then the bases given by k ≤ t if and only if it is a t-design in the complex projective

BL := {|vL,α,j i : α, j = 1, . . . , d} together with the identity space CP d−1 .

matrix 1d2 form a set of w + 2 MUBs. Let us introduce some notation. Let S d−1 denote the sphere

of unit vectors in the complex vector space Cd . We say that

Example 1: In dimension d = 3 Construction I yields the

two vectors u and v of S d−1 are equivalent, in signs u ≡

bases

v, if and only if u = eiθ v for some θ ∈ R. It is easy to

3−1/2 { (1, 1, 1), (1, ω3 , ω32 ), (1, ω32 , ω3 )}, see that ≡ is an equivalence relation. We denote the quotient

3−1/2 {(1, ω3 , ω3 ), (1, ω32 , 1), (1, 1, ω32 )}, manifold S d−1/ ≡ by CS d−1 . Notice that the manifold CS d−1

is isomorphic to the complex projective space CP d−1 , but we

3−1/2 {(1, ω32 , ω32 ), (1, ω3 , 1), (1, 1, ω3 )}, prefer the former notation because normalizing vectors to unit

which together with the standard basis 13 form a maximal length is common practice in quantum computing.

system of four MUBs in C3 . Lemma 1: Let µ be the unique normalized U (d)-invariant

Example 2: In dimension d = 4 Construction II yields the Haar measure on the complex sphere CS d−1 . For any x ∈

bases (where√we have abbreviated “ + ” for 1 and “ − ” for S d−1 , we have

−1 and i = −1): Z

1

1 |hx|yi|2k dµ(y) = d+k−1 .

2 {(+, +, +, +), (+, +, −, −), (+, −, −, +), (+, −, +, −)}, CS d−1 k

1 Proof: The unitary group U (d) acts transitively on the

2 {(+, −, −i, −i), (+, −, i, i), (+, +, i, −i), (+, +, −i, i)},

1 manifold CS d−1 . This means that for any y ∈ CS d−1 there

2 {(+, −i, −i, −), (+, −i, i, +), (+, i, i, −), (+, i, −i, +)}, exists a unitary matrix U mapping y to the first basis vector,

1

2 {(+, −i, −, −i), (+, −i, +, i), (+, i, +, −i), (+, i, −, i)}. U y = e1 . Therefore,

Z Z

These four bases and the standard basis 14 form an extremal

|hx|yi|2k dµ(x) = |hU x|e1 i|2k dµ(x)

set of five MUBs in C4 . CS d−1 CS d−1

Z

general dimension. To this end, we define the function M : = |hx|e1 i|2k dµ(x),

CS d−1

N → N as follows:

where the last equality holds because of the U (d)-invariance

M (n) := max{|B| : B is a set of MUBs in Cn } of the measure µ. Using Proposition 1.4.9 from Rudin [17],

we obtain We show next that 2) implies 3). We observe that (2) holds

Z Z

1 for all k ≤ t, hence summing over x ∈ X yields (3).

|hx|e1 i|2k dµ(x) = |xk1 |2 dµ(x) = d+k−1

,

CS d−1 CS d−1 d−1

Finally, we show that 3) implies 1). Suppose that equation

(3) holds. For a vector x ∈ Cd , we denote by x⊗k the k-

which proves the claim. k

fold tensor product x⊗k = x ⊗ · · · ⊗ x ∈ Cd . Note that

IV. C OMPLEX P ROJECTIVE t-D ESIGNS hx⊗k |y ⊗k i = hx|yik . Consider the d2k -dimensional vector

Z

We now present some background material on complex 1 X ⊗k

ξ= x ⊗ x⊗k − x⊗k ⊗ x⊗k dµ(x).

projective designs. We will relate those later on to the systems |X| CS d−1

x∈X

of vectors formed by a maximal set of MUBs.

Let us first introduce some notation. We denote Evaluating the inner product of ξ with itself yields

by Hom(k, `) the subset of the polynomial ring 1 X

Z Z

2k

C[x1 , . . . , xd , y1 , . . . , yd ] that consists of all polynomials that |hx|yi| − |hx|yi|2k dµ(y)dµ(x), (4)

|X|2 CS d−1

are homogeneous of degree k in the variables x1 , . . . , xd x,y∈X

and homogeneous of degree ` in the variables y1 , . . . , yd . which is equal to hξ|ξi ≥ 0. The inner integral evaluates to

We associate to each polynomial p in Hom(k, `) a function d+k−1 −1

by Lemma 1, and the double integral has the same

p◦ on the sphere S d−1 by defining p◦ (ξ) = p(ξ, ξ) for k

value, because the measure µ is normalized. It follows from

ξ ∈ S d−1 . The function p◦ is called the “restriction” of p

our assumption that the right hand side vanishes. By con-

onto the complex sphere. It follows from the homogeneity

struction of ξ, we can conclude that averaging over X yields

conditions of the polynomial p that p◦ (eiϑ ξ) = eiϑ(k−`) p◦ (ξ)

an exact cubature formula for all monomials in Hom(k, k)◦ ,

holds for all ϑ ∈ R. Therefore, we obtain a well-defined

hence, by linearity, for all polynomials in Hom(k, k)◦ . This

polynomial function on CS d−1 only if k = `. We define

means that X is a t-design.

Hom(k, k)◦ = {p◦ : p ∈ Hom(k, k)}.

Remark 1: Equation (4) provides a short proof of the Welch

Definition 2: A finite nonempty subset X of CS d−1 is a

inequalities (1). The analogue for real spherical t-designs

t-design in CS d−1 iff the cubature formula

Z of the above result is sketched in [7]. A connection to the

1 X 1 existence of certain isometric Banach space embeddings is

f (x) = f (x)dµ(x)

|X| µ(CS d−1 ) CS d−1 given in [14].

x∈X

We now show a characterization of t-designs in terms of A finite subset F of nonzero vectors of Cd is called a frame

the inequalities by Welch given in equation (1). if there exist nonzero real constants A and B such that

Theorem 1: Suppose that X is a finite nonempty subset of X

CS d−1 . Then the following statements are equivalent: Akvk2 ≤ |hf |vi|2 ≤ Bkvk2

f ∈F

1) The set X is a t-design in CS d−1 ;

2) for all x ∈ Cd and all k in the range 0 ≤ k ≤ t, we have holds for all v ∈ Cd . The notion of a frame generalizes the

the equality concept of an orthonormal basis. The linear span of the vectors

hx|xik 1 X in F the space Cd , but the vectors in a frame are in general

d+k−1

= |hx|yi|2k ; (2) not linearly independent. A frame is called tight if and only if

k

|X|

y∈X the frame bounds A and B are equal. A tight frame is called

3) the set X satisfies the Welch bounds (1) with equality for isometric (or uniform) if and only if each vector in F has unit

all k in the range 0 ≤ k ≤ t, that is norm.

Theorem 2: Let F be a finite nonempty subset of vectors

1 X 1

|hx|yi|2k = d+k−1 , 0 ≤ k ≤ t. (3) in Cd . The following statements about F are equivalent:

|X| 2

x,y∈X k 1) F is a uniform tight frame;

Proof: We show that 1) implies 2). Fix a vector x ∈ Cd . 2) F is a WBE-sequence set;

Note that p(y) = |hx|yi|2k = hy|xik hx|yik is a polynomial 3) F is a 1-design in CS d−1 .

function in Hom(k, k)◦ . Since X is a t-design, the exact Proof: The frame constants of a uniform tight frame F

cubature formula in Cd are given by A = B = |F |/d, see for example Property

Z

1 X 2k 2.3 in [8]. Therefore, F satisfies equation (2) of Theorem 1

|hx|yi| = |hx|yi|2k dµ(y)

|X| CS d−1 for k = 1. The equivalence of the three statements follow now

y∈X

from Theorem 1.

holds for all k in the range 0 ≤ k ≤ t. By Lemma 1, the latter Corollary 1: Any 1-design in CP d−1 is obtained by pro-

−1

integral evaluates to d+k−1k , which proves that equation jecting an orthogonal basis from a higher-dimensional space

(2) holds for all k ≤ t. (where all basis vectors have the same norm).

VI. E QUIVALENCE OF MUB S AND 2-D ESIGNS We can now evaluate the intersection polynomials gij (0) using

We need a few more notations before we state our main [11, Theorem 5.3] and obtain that |I(x, y)| = d − 2.

results. If B is a subset of CS d−1 , then the set A = Hence we can conclude that each set Bx forms an ortho-

{|hx|yi|2 : x, y ∈ B, x 6= y} is called the “angle” set of B. normal basis of Cd . The sets Bx partition B. If Bx 6= Bz ,

For an element x in B and an “angle” α ∈ A, we define the then the bases are by construction mutually unbiased.

subdegree dα (x) as dα (x) = |{y ∈ B : |hx|yi|2 = α}|. If the Zauner conjectures that if the dimension d is not a prime

subdegree dα of an α ∈ A is independent of x, then B is called power, then a 2-design with angle set {0, 1/d} cannot have

a regular scheme. Note that the union of mutually orthogonal d(d+1) elements [25]. His conjecture can now be reformulated

bases of Cd is a regular scheme with angle set {0, 1/d}. in terms of mutually unbiased bases, which then states that

N (d) < d + 1 for non-prime power d. If Zauner’s conjecture

Theorem 3: The union X of d + 1 mutually unbiased bases

is true, then this would explain the particular role of the finite

in Cd forms a 2-design in CS d−1 with angle set {0, 1/d} and

field construction by Wootters and Fields [24].

d(d + 1) elements.

Remark 2: Theorem 3 was obtained earlier by Zauner as

Proof: We verify that X attains the Welch bound in part of a more general result on combinatorial quantum designs

equation (1) with equality for 0 ≤ k ≤ 2. The statement then using a different terminology, see [25, Theorem 2.19]. The

follows from Theorem 1. Indeed, this is obvious for k = 0. converse direction, our Theorem 4, appears to be new.

We note that |X| = d(d + 1).

If we evaluate the left hand side of the Welch bound for X, VII. SIC-POVM S AND 2-D ESIGNS

then we obtain Finally, to demonstrate the versatility of Theorem 1 we also

1 d(d+1)

show that another system of vectors used in quantum informa-

21

X

2

|hx|yi| = 1+(d−1)0+d tion theory corresponds to complex projective 2-designs. So-

d2 (d+1)2 d2 (d+1)2 d

x,y∈X called symmetric informationally complete positive operator-

1 valued measures (SIC-POVMs) are systems of d2 vectors

=

d in Cd which have constant inner product, i. e., |hv, wi|2 =

−1 1/(d + 1) for all v, w in the set. Like in case of MUBs it

and this coincides with d+1−1

1 = 1/d; so, X is a 1-design.

Similarly, for k = 2, is a challenging task to construct SIC-POVMs—indeed here

solutions are known only for a finite number of dimensions

1 X

4 d(d+1) 2 1 [9], [16]. In [16] it was shown that SIC-POVMs actually form

|hx|yi| = 1+(d−1)0+d

d2 (d+1)2 d2 (d+1)2 d2 complex projective 2-designs. The following theorem gives a

x,y∈X

2 new and simple proof of this result.

= , Theorem 5 (SIC-POVMs are 2-designs [16]): Let X be a

d(d + 1)

−1 SIC-POVM X in dimension d. Then X forms a 2-design in

and this coincides with d+2−12 = 2/(d(d + 1)). CS d−1 with angle set {1/(d + 1)} and d2 elements.

Theorem 4: A 2-design B in complex projective space Proof: Again, we only have to verify that the set X of

CS d−1 with angle set {0, 1/d} and |B| = d(d + 1) elements vectors attains the Welch bound with equality for 0 ≤ k ≤ 2.

is the union of d + 1 mutually unbiased bases. The statement then follows from Theorem 1. Indeed, this is

Proof: A complex projective 2-design with s = obvious for k = 0. We note that here |X| = d2 . Evaluating

|{0, 1/d}| = 2 satisfies 2 ≥ s − 1, hence is a regular scheme the left hand side of the Welch bound for X, then we obtain

[10]. For α = 1/d, any x ∈ B has subdegree dα (x) = d2 by 1 X 1

1

2 2 4 2

Theorem 2.5 of [10]. It follows that x is orthogonal to d − 1 |hx|yi| = d · 1+(d − d )

d4 d4 d+1

elements. x,y∈X

= (1 + (d − 1)) =

an orthonormal basis of Cd . We may assume that the vectors d2 d

in B are normalized to unit norm. Thus, it suffices to show that −1

and this coincides with d+1−1

1 = 1/d; so, X is a 1-design.

Bx = By for each y ∈ Bx . For x = y this is trivial. We know Similarly, for k = 2,

that x and y are contained in both Bx and By . Therefore, it

suffices to show that the intersection set 1 X 4 1 2 4 2 1

|hx|yi| = 4 d · 1 + (d − d )

d4 d (d + 1)2

x,y∈X

I(x, y) = {z ∈ B : hx|zi = 0, hy|zi = 0} = Bx ∩ By − {x, y}

1 d−1 2

contains d − 2 elements. = 2

1+ =

d d+1 d(d + 1)

The number of elements in I(x, y) does not depend on

d+2−1 −1

x, y for a t-design with t ≥ 2s − 2, see [11]. Specializing and this coincides with 2 = 2/(d(d + 1)).

Theorem 5.2 in [11] to the case at hand shows that Remark 3: Zauner pointed out to us that the previous the-

1

X orem can also be obtained in the language of combinatorial

|I(x, y)| = d2 0 0

d(d + 1)gij (0) − 0i − 0j . quantum designs by combining Theorems 2.29 and 2.30 in his

σ1−i σ1−j

i,j=0 dissertation [25].

VIII. C ONCLUSION [4] Th. Beth, D. Jungnickel, and H. Lenz. Design Theory, volume I.

Cambridge University Press, 2. edition, 1999.

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[6] N. Bohr. Das Quantenpostulat und die neueren Entwicklungen der

the other are actually the same objects. This was anticipated Atomistik. Naturwissenschaften, 16:245–257, 1928.

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